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# Derive the Rankine – Hugnoit curve – verify the chapman touguent point…....

*solution*
*Deflagration wave: it’s the combustion wave that travels subsonically.
*Detonation wave: it’s the combustion wave that travels supersonically.
For continuity:
ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 1
momentum eqn:
∂ ( pu 2 ) ∂p ∂ 4 ∂u
= + ( µ )
∂x ∂x ∂x 3 ∂x
4 ∂u 4 ∂u
pu 2 + p − µ = const → τ xx = µ
3 ∂x 3 ∂x
p1u1 + p1 = p 2 u 2 + p 2 → 2
2 2

Energy eqn:
∂ u2  ∂ ∂T ∂ 4 ∂u
pu  (h + ) = − ( −k ) + ( µu )
 ∂x 2  ∂x ∂x ∂x 3 ∂x
 u2  ∂T 4 ∂u
pu = CPT + h0 +  − k − u ( µ ) = const
 2 ∂x 3 ∂x
2 2
u u
CPT1 + + q = CPT2 + →3
2 2
from eqn (2) → p 2 − p1 = p1u12 − p 2 u 22 → fromeqn(1)

1 1
p 121u12 = p22 u 22 = m .2 → p2 − p1 = ( − )m.2 → (4)
p1 p2
p 2 − p1
m .2 = = p 121u12 ⇒ Rayleigh − line( ) Re lation → (5)
1 / p1 − 1 / p2
p2 − p1
δm12 = → from( ) energy( ) eqn →
p1 p1 (1 / p1 − 1 / p2 )
δR
Cp (T2 − T1 ) + 1 / 2(u 22 − u12 ) = q → whereCp =
δ −1
δR p 2 p 1
( − 1 ) + (u 22 − u12 ) = q → (6) → from( ) mom( ) eqn
δ − 1 p2 R p1 R 2
p − p1 p 2 2
p1 + p1u 2 = p 2 + p2 u 22 → u12 = 2 + u2
p1 p1
δ p2 p1 1
( − ) − ( p 2 − p1 )((1 / p1 − 1 / p2 )) = q → (7)
δ − 1 p2 p1 2
Rankin – Hugoniot relation
(I) Strong detonation
(II) Weak detonation
(III) Weak deflagration
1 1
(IV) Strong deflagration show >
p 2 p1
(V) U1is imagrononry is impossiple L&U are the chapman – Jouguet Points.
Consider a laminar premixed flam ……………. Constant are tube ……………while out the
conservation of mass flame speed and thickness? Use B.C.
∂ ( ρU )
Solution:- mass conservation:- = o → m ° = ρU = C
∂x
Species conservation:-
[
∂ m •\ \Yi − ρD∂Yi / ∂x
= m•\ \
]
∂x
→ (1+V) products m f
•\ \
For our simple reaction the overall stoichiometry:- 1Kg fuel + V Kg oxidizer
•\ \ •\ \ •\ \ •\\
mox = vm f → m pr = (V + 1)m f

For fuel:- •\ \
mox ∂ (YF ) / ∂x −
[
∂ ρD ∂YF / ∂x ]
= m•f \ \
∂x
For oxidizer:- m • \ \ ∂ (Yox ) / ∂x −
[
∂ ρD ∂Yo / ∂x
= Vm•f \ \
]
∂x
For products:- m • \ \ ∂ (Y pr ) / ∂x −
[
∂ ρD ∂Y / ∂x ]
= (1 + V )m •f \ \
∂x
Energy conservation:-
 ∂T 
∂  ρD Cp
∂T ∂x 
m • \ \ Cp −  = − ∑ hFi° mi• \ \ − ∑ hFi mi• \ \
∂x ∂x
[
= − mF• \ \ hFF
°
+ VmF• \ \ hFox
°
+ (1 + V )mF hF . Pr ]

## ∆hc = hF° .F + VhF° .ox + (1 + V )hF° .Pr

Le = 1 → and ρD.C p = λ
 ∂T 
∂  ρD
∂T 1  ∂x 
m•\ \ − = −mi•\ \ .∆h / C p
∂x C p ∂x
m • \ \ = ρU = ρU S L
B.C at x = −∞ = TU
dT
( x → −∞) = 0
dX
B.C at x = ∞ = Tb
dT
( x → ∞) = 0
dX
∆h ∞ • \ \
m • \ \ (Tb − Tu ) = − ∫ −∞ mF dx
CP
∆h δ
m • \ \ (Tb − Tu ) = ∫ mF• \ \ dT
CP Tb − Tu
1 ∆h • \ \
mF• \ \ = ∫ mF• \ \ dT ⇒ m• \ \ (Tb − Tu ) = δmF
Tb − Tu CP
Tb − Tu
mF• \ \ = o → −∞o → −∞ ≤ x ≤ δ / 2 → at x = δ / 2 → T =
2
1/ 2
δ λ
•\ \  λ − ∆h 
m − = o → m• \ \ = 2 m•\ \ 
2 CP  CP (Tb − Tu ) 
∆hc = (V + 1)C P (Tb − Tu )
The final from of the flame speed and thickness
1/ 2 1/ 2
 − •   
 m F   − 2 ρVD 
S L = − 2 D(V + 1) →δ =
 ρU   − • 
   (V + 1) m F 
δ = 2 D / S L → D = λ / ρV Cp
Yox
mF• \ \ = A * MWF * (YF / MWF ) n * ( ) ρ −m+ n * e − E / T
MWox

## Factor influencing flame velocity and thickness

DαTu T 0.75 P −1
−n
mF• \ \ / ρu α Tu Tb p n −1e x p (− E A = / RU Tb)

S L α Tu
0.375
T p n −2 e x p (− E A = / 2 Ru Tb)

## δ α T 0.375 p n −2Tb exp(− E A = / 2 Ru Tb)

At const pressure:
H p = Hυ = ∑ N i hi
hi = h of + ∫ cp∆T
Tref
at const volume:

U Pr od = U Re act → H p − Pv = H R − Pv
*Reactant and Production:
mi
mass Fraction Yi =
∑ mi
; ∑Y i =1

Mote fraction X i = ni / ∑ ni ; ∑X i =1
Mix molecular weight MW / mix = ∑ X i .MWi
Mix enthalpy:
hmix = ∑ Yi hi (kj / kg )
`
hmix = ∑ Yi hi (kj / kmol )
Mix entropy:
S mix = ∑ Yi Si (kj / kg.k )
S `
mix = ∑ Yi Si (kj / kmol.k )
Stoichiometry – equvlence ratio (Φ):
Its ideal value to have complet combustion.
A m A/ F
) stoic = a ∫ stoic → φ = → Φ < 1 lean
F mf A / F ) act
Φ > 1 rich
Φ = 1 n stoic
Standerd heat of formation (hF): is defind as the heat evolude when one mole of the substance is formed
from its element at 298 , 1 atm.
Flam: is a self – sustaining propagation of a localized combustion zone.
Premixed flam: the fuel and the oxidizer are mixed perfectly before chemical reaction.
Diffusion Flam: The reaction are initially separated and reaction occurs only at the interface between
the fuel and the oxidizer.
Chain if Reaction: it involues the production of a readical reactivespecies that subsecquantly reacts to
produce another redical. This readical in tums reacts to produce another redical. This sequence its
called (chain reaction) & containes unit a reaction involving the formation of staple spacies from two

*Chemical equilibrium: is achieved for const temp and pressure system when the rate of change of
consideration goes to zero for all species.
*internal molecular energies: are the ways that molecules store energy:
1- translational 2- vibrational 3- rotational
4-electronic level exitation 5- nuclear spin.
*Glopal rate of reaction:
- The rate of reaction of any reaction is the rate of decreases of the concentration of that reaction or the
rate of fuel compution.
- It’s the rate of increase of the product concentration
d (Yf )
= ΩGα [ X F ] [ X ox ]
n m
F + OX → Pr od ⇒
dT

Where (YF) Fuel vapour , (Yox) oxidizer vapour (Ω) rate of reaction , (n) fuel order.
*Rate of reaction: An chemical reaction take place at definite rate depending on the conditions:
1- Concentration of chemical compounds.
2- Temperature 3- Pressure 4- Presence of a catalyst
*Lower and higher heating values:
H.H.V: is the heat of combustion assuming that all of water in the products has condenced to liquid.
L.H.V: is that of combustion assuming that all of water in the products is vapour H2o-----
vapour.
*absolute enthalpy h(T):
hi`( t ) = hFo + ∆hs.i ( t )
hoF = sensible enthalpy chang at tref
∆ hoS.i(t) = standard enthalpy at tref = 298 & P = 1 atm
TF
h(`t ) = hFo + ∫ cpdt
Tin
*Equilbrium constant: for the following reaction
aA + bB = cC + dD → d ( NA) == adΣ
d ( NB ) = −bdΣ → d ( NC ) = CdΣ → d ( ND) = ddΣ
J ^
sin ce d (∑ Nj g j ) = 0 → 1
J =1
^ ^ ^ ^
(a g A + b g B − C g c − d g D)dΣ = 0
^ ^ ^ ^
ag A+bgB −C gc−d gD Pc Pd
= Ln( C D ) + Ln( P ) a + b − c − d
RT
PAa PBb

PCc PDd X Cc X Dd
KP = = .P c + d − a − b
PAa PBb X Aa X Bb
Chemical equilibrium criterion (Gibbs free energy)
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o
G = ΣNj g j → g j = h − T S j → S j = S j − RLn( Pj / p0 )
T
^ CP ^ ^ ^
Sj= ∫
T. T
dt ⇒ g j = h j − TSj + R Ln( Pj / p0 )

^ ^ ^
g j = h j − T S j → Pj / P = Xj
^ ^ ^ ^ j ^
g j = g j 0 + R TLn ( Xj ) + R TLn ( P / P0 ) → d (∑ Nj g j ) = 0
j =1

Methane supplied at 1 at m, 19 burne adiabatically ………… CH4 + 2O2 + 2O2 + 7.54 N2 → aCo2 +
(1+a) Co + b H2O + (2 – b) H2 + ………… Del (TF)
Solution:-
CH4 + 2O2 + 7.54 N2 → a Co2 + bH2O + 7.54 n2
C: 1 = a → H: 2b = 4 → b = 2
[
∆Hr = ∑ν \ \ (∆H F ) ρ − ∑ν (∆H F ) R ]
∆Hr = 0 because the process is adiabatic
[
= 7.54∆H F ) N 2 + ∆H F ) Co2 + 2∆H F ) H 2O ]
= [ 0 − 94.654 + 2 * (− 57.798] − [ 0 + 0 − 17.895] ]
∆Hr = −191.737 + ( H − H o ) Co2 + 2( H − H o ) H 2O + 7.54( H − H o ) N 2
Assume T1 = 1000
∆Hr1 = −191.737 + 7.987 + 2(6.209) + 7.54(5.129)
∆Hr1 = 132.66 → T2 = 4000k
TF − 1000 4000 − 1000
∆Hr2 = 181.82 → =
0 − (−132.66) 181.8 + 132.6
* Det the heat of reaction at standard condition
CH4 + 2O2)g Co2+2Ho2)L
Solution:
∆H L = ∆Hg − ∆Hv = 2(−57.8 − 10.5) = −136.6
∆H F ) Co2 = −49.054 → ∆H F ) CH 4 = −17.895
o
∆H r = ∑ υ \ \ ∆H F − ∑ υ \ ∆H F . I α
= [ − 94.054 − 136.6[ (−17.89 + 0] ] = −212.8kcal
*(H.O.R) CH4g + 2O2g Co2g +2H2og
∆H = [ 2(−57.798) − 94.05] − [ − 17.895] = −191.55kcal
*Det the adiabatic Flame Temp of water vapor after the reaction of gaseous H2 and O2
Solution: H 2 + O2 → H 2 o
2 H 2 + O2 → 2 H 2 o + ∆Hr
∆Hr = [ 2 * −57.8 − [ 2 * 0 + 0] ] = −115.6
T T0

\\
H 2o .dT
T0 298

## 57.8 = H F − H 298 → from Table → TF = 5000k

*(H.O.R) CH4 + 2(O2 + 3.76N2) Co2 + 2H2o + 7.52N2
Solution:
∆Hr = ∑ −94.054 + (2 * −57.798) + (7.52 * 0) − [ (−17.9) + 2 * 0 + 0] = −191.76kcal
at product temp = 2300 k

## ∆Hr = −191.76 +  ∫ CPdTN 2 

2300 2300 2300
CPdTCo2 + 2∫ CPdTH 2o + 7.52 ∫
 298 
----
∆Hr = −191.76 + [ 26.2 + 2 * 36.41 + 7.52 *16.015]
∆Hr = 27.69kcal
Using eqn:
PH 2o
H2 + 0.5 O2 ↔ H2o → KpH2o =
PH 2 PO12/ 2

PH
0.5 H2 ↔ H → KpH =
PH1/22
P OH
0.5 H2 +0.5 O2 ↔ OH → 1/ 2 1/ 2
P P H 2 O2

## If we conceder the reaction H2o ↔ H +OH

Kp H * KpOH PH POH PH 2 PO12/ 2
Kp = = 1/ 2 . 1/ 2 1/ 2 .
Kp H 2o PH 2 PH 2 PO2 PH 2o
for H2o → at 2500k → log10Kp = 2.224
Kp = 102.224

## Non-reacting constant Density Laminar (Is)JeJ

*mass conservation:
d (Vx ) 1 ∂ (rVr )
→ − =0
dx r ∂r
∂V ∂V 1 ∂ ∂Vx
Vx x + Vr x = V (r )
∂x ∂r r ∂r ∂r
*Species conservation:
∂YF ∂Y 1 ∂ ∂YF
→ Vx + Vr F = D (r )
∂x ∂r r ∂r r∂r
Yox = 1 − YF ⇒ ( B.C ) along jet (r = 0)
∂V dy
Vr (o, x ) = 0 → x (o, x) = 0 → F (o, x) = 0
∂r ∂r
and Vx (∞, x) = 0 , YF (∞, x ) = 0
and X=0 at the jet exit
Vx (r≤R , 0) = Ve , Vx (r>R , 0) = 0
YF (r≤R , 0) = YF,e = 1 , YF (r>R , 0) = 0
ℑje 1 / 2 1 ζ − ζ 3 / 4
Vx (r , x) = ( )
16πρ e x (1 + ζ 2 / 4 ) 2
je is the jet initial momntum flow
3ρ e je 1/ 2 1 r
je = ρ e ve2πR 2 , ζ = ( )
16π µ x
Vx ρv R
= 0.375( e e ( X / R ) −1 (1 + ζ 2 / 4 ) −2
Ve µ
at r = 0
Vx , o ρ e ve R X −1 X
= 0.375( ( ) = 0.375Rej ( ) −1
Ve µ R R
*Potential Cor region: its aregion close to the nozzle exit, in which the effects of viscous shear and
diffusion have yet to be felt (V = Ve)