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Renal Transplant When an individual's kidneys fail, three treatment options are available: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and

kidney transplantation. Many patients feel that a successful kidney transplant is an alternative to dialysis and provides a better quality of life because it allows greater freedom and often is associated with increased energy levels and a less restricted diet. A kidney transplant is an operation in which a person whose own kidneys have failed receives a new kidney from a blood relative, another tissue-compatible donor, or from a cadaver whose kidney tissue is compatible, to take over the work of cleaning the blood. Extensive psychological assessment and counseling is required for both the live donor and the recipient. Transplant candidates must be free from medical problems as they may compromise the success of the procedure. An important factor in transplant therapy is the shortage of organs. Stable transplant candidates are required to live close to a transplant center and be ready as soon as an organ becomes available. Medical problems such as hypertension, any infection are brought under the best possible control or treated. The patient is dialyzed immediately before transplantation. After the surgery, the renal transplant patient is transferred to critical care, where closed monitoring is provided for signs of rejection: fever, increase blood pressure, and pain over the iliac fossa where the new kidney was placed. The most important complication that may occur after transplant is rejection of the kidney. The body's immune system guards against attack by all foreign matter, such as bacteria, and may recognize tissue transplanted from someone else as "foreign" and act to combat this "foreign invader." Ongoing assessment includes watching for signs of renal failure: oliguria, anuria, and rising BUN levels and serum creatinine. Protection from sources of infection is a top priority. You will need to take medications every day to prevent rejection of your new kidney. Most patients need to take three types. Long term complication for transplant patients are risk for infection and a higher risk of malignancy. From a legal and ethical consideration, state law mandates that families must be approached about organ donation following the death of a loved one.