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Finite Automata with Outputs The finite automata, which we considered in the earlier sections, have binary output. i.e they accept the string or do not accept the string. This acceptability was decided on the basis of reach ability of the final state from the initial state. Now we remove this restriction and consider the model where the outputs can be chosen from some other alphabet. The value of the output function in the most general case is a function of the present state* and the present input**. This generalized model is usually called a Mealy machine. If the output function depends only on the present state and is independent of the current input then this becomes a restricted model called Moore machine. It is more convenient to use Moore machine in automata theory. Moore Machine The Moore machine is a six-tuple (Q,,d,q0,D,l) where Q is a set of finite states: is the input alphabet; d is the transition function Q into Q; q0 is the initial state; D is the output alphabet; and l is the output function mapping Q into D. Mealy Machine The Moore machine is a six-tuple (Q,,d,q0,D,l) where Q is a set of finite states: is the input alphabet; d is the transition function Q into Q; q0 is the initial state; D is the output alphabet; and l is the output function mapping Q into D. Both Moore and Mealy m/cs are equivalent. Procedure for transforming a Mealy machine to a Moore machine At the first stage we develop the proceedure so that both machines accept exactly the same set of input sequences. From the transiton table we will be able to determine the number of different outputs assosiated with any state qi. Then qi is split into several different states, the number of such states being equal to the number of different outputs associated with qi. Number of states=(QD). Now the states are of the form (qi ,bj) where bj D. A new transition function d is defined for the Moore machine which is given by a([qi , bj], xk) = [d(qi,xk) , l( qi,xk)] where xk and the new transition table is created which will be of the equivalent Moore machine. Procedure for transforming a Moore machine to a Mealy machine Let the Moore machine be represented by M1= (Q,,d,q0,D,l). Then the following procedure may be adopted to construct an equivalent Mealy machine M2. o We have to define the output function l for Mealy machine as a function of the present state and input symbol. l(q , a) = l( d(q , a)) for all states q and input symbols a. The transition function is the same as that of the Moore machine. *present state : The state in which the machine resides at any instant of time. **present input : The input the machine took to reach the present state.

Difference between Moore and Mealy State Machines Moore and Mealy state machines are the names for two types of architectures when designing a state machine. Moore state machines are controlled in such a way that the outputs are a function of the previous state and the inputs. However, Mealy state machines are controlled in a way such that the Outputs may change with a change of state OR with a change of inputs. A Moore state machine may require more states than a Mealy state machine to accomplish the same task, and therefore use more macrocells for state registers. The output logic of a Mealy state machine may be more complex than the output logic of an equivalent Moore state machine, and therefore use more product terms. In the theory of computation, a Mealy machine is a finite state machine (and more accurately, a finite state transducer) that generates an output based on its current state and an input. This means that the state diagram will include both an input and output signal for each transition edge. In contrast, the output of a Moore finite state machine depends only on the machine's current state; transitions have no input attached. However, for each Mealy machine there is an equivalent Moore machine. Moore state machines are controlled in such a way that the outputs are a function of the previous state and the inputs. However, Mealy state machines are controlled in a way such that the Outputs may change with a change of state OR with a change of inputs. Moore and Mealy state machines are the names for two types of architectures when designing a state machine.

Example 1: NOT Let's start with a simple Moore machine that takes an input bit string b and produces the output NOT(b). The machine should look like this, and is can be downloaded through mooreNOT.jff:

As you can see, this machine has three states, with q0 producing no output, q1 producing the output "1", and q2 producing the output "0". The initial state, q0 produces no output as, in this case, we do not want the machine to produce an output if it is not given any input. (We adopt the output conventionthat the initial state produces output even if there is no input.) As you can see, if we do not want the initial state to produce output, we can use a "dummy state," likeq0. There are two other states, q1 that produces the output "0", and q2 that produces the output "1". Any outgoing transition on the input "0" goes to q2, so the input bit "0" always produces the output bit "1". Similarly, any outgoing transition on the input "1" goes to q1, so the input bit "1" always produces the output bit "0". Let's step the machine through the input "101".

Initial set up The machine is in its initial state, q0. It does not produce any output because the output assigned to that state is , or the empty string. Click Step to process the next bit of the input.

Step 1 Upon processing the first bit of the input, "1", the machine takes the transition to q1. At q1, it produces the output bit "0", which is the negation of the input bit. If we examine q0, we can see that it will always correctly handle the first bit of intput. The state itself produces no output. If the first bit of input is "1", it will take the transition to q1, that will produce the output of "0". On the other hand, if the first bit of input is "0", it will take the transition to q2, producing the output of "1". ClickStep to process the next bit of the input.

Step 2 Upon processing the next bit of the input, "0", the machine takes the transition to q2. At q2, it produces the output bit "1", which is the negation of the input bit. If we examine all the incoming transitions to q2 we will see that, from any state, the input of "0" will cause the machine to enter q2. Thus, from any state, the input bit "0" will create the output of "1". Click Step to process the next bit of the input.

Step 3 On processing the last bit of the input, "1", the machine takes the transition to q1. At q1, it produces the output bit "0", which is the negation of the input bit. Examining all incoming transitions to q1, we will see that, very much like q2, from any state, the input of "1" will cause the machine to enter q1. Therfore, from any state, the input bit of "1" will create the output of "0". Thus, we have seen that the machine will produce the negation of any bit string.

Testing the machine on multiple strings As you can see, it produces NOT(b) in every instance.

Initial set up We chose state 00 as the initial state as it is the only state that accurately represents the binary number before any bits have been processed. In other words, adding two 0's as the most significan bits in a binary number will not change the value of the number. Similarly, the output of state 00, "0", added as the most significant bit of the entire output, will not change its value. The state produces the output of "0". Click Step to process the next bit.

First bit, "1", processed The machine has processed the first bit of input, "1", taking transition 1 from state 00 to state 01. State 01 then produces the output "0". Although this state, state 01, produces the same output as the initial state, state 00, it is different because it remembers that the most recent input bit is "1". Thus, it takes different transitions than the initial state for the same input. Notice that all outgoing transitions from this state, state 01 go to states that produce an output of "1". This is equivalent to the function of shifting the bits right by one, as the machine's output is the second-most recent bit. Click Step to process the next bit.

The machine processes the next bit of input, "0", and takes transition 0 to state 10. State 10 then produces the output "1", which corresponds to the previous input bit, "1". This state now remembers that the most recent input bit was "0", and all outgoing transitions are to states which have the output "0". Click Step to process the next bit.

Last bit, "1", processed The machine processes the last bit of input, "1", and takes transition 1 to state 01. It produces the output "0", completing the output. Although the most recent, and last, input bit was "1", this is ignored, effectively shifting all the bits to the right by one. This concludes the machines process of dividing a binary number by two. Let's try our machine out on different numbers.

As you can see, the machine produces the correct results in each instance. You might notice that in every instance, the output starts with "00", which is unnecessarly, even if it does not change the number. This is because the machine starts in state 00, which produces the output "0" even if there is no input. We could have avoided the this unnecessary "0" by adding a dummy initial state as we did in the previous example. The second "0" is due to the fact that all the outgoing transitions from state 00, lead to states that have the output "0". Regardless of the first bit of the input, the first bit of output is "0" because the number is divided by two, that would shift all bits to the right by one. This "0" is also necessary for single-bit numbers such as 0 and 1.

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