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Digital Modulation – Lecture 02

Digital Modulation Techniques

© Richard Harris

Objectives

• To be able to compute the bit rate and symbol rate for

a given system.

• To be able to determine the bandwidth requirements

• To be able to describe the various popular forms of

digital modulation and implement them on simple data

inputs

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 2

References

• Digital and Analog Communication Systems – 6 th

Edition, Leon W. Couch II (Prentice Hall)

• Digital Modulation in Communication Systems – An

Introduction (Hewlett Packard Application Note 1298)

• Principles of Digital Modulation, by Dr Mike Fitton,

mike.fitton@toshiba-trel.com Telecommunications

Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 3

Presentation Outline

• Bit and Symbol Rates

• Bandwidth requirements

• Symbol clock

• Overview of Binary Keying

• Description of the popular forms of digital modulation

– BASK (OOK)

– BPSK, QPSK

– FSK, MSK

– DPSK

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 4

Bit Rate and Symbol Rate - 1

To understand and compare different modulation format efficiencies, it is

important to first understand the difference between bit rate and symbol

rate. The signal bandwidth for the communications channel needed

depends on the symbol rate, not on the bit rate. (Ignore sync and error…)

Bit Rate

Symbol rate = Number of bits transmitted per symbol

• Bit Rate

• Symbol Rate:

– Bit rate is the frequency of a system

bit stream.

– Take, for example, a radio with an 8

bit sampler, sampling at 10 kHz for

voice.

– If symbols are generated at a rate of r

per second to create a baseband

signal with a bandwidth of W Hz, then

Nyquist has shown that r ≤ 2W.

– The bit rate, the basic bit stream

rate in the radio, would be eight bits

multiplied by 10K samples per

second, or 80 Kbits per second.

– For a double-sideband modulated

wave whose transmission bandwidth

is B T Hz, B T = 2W so that r ≤ B T .

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 5

Bit Rate and Symbol Rate - 2

01

00

• The state diagram opposite represents QPSK (more

details later).

• Notice that for each constellation point two bits are

transmitted.

11

10

• If only one bit was being transmitted per symbol, then

in the previous example the symbol and bit rates would

be identical at 80Kbits per second.

QPSK State Diagram

• For the QPSK example, the symbol rate will be 40Kbits

per second.

• Symbol rate is sometimes called the baud rate. Note

that the baud rate is not the same as bit rate. (These

terms are often confused.)

• If more bits can be sent with each symbol, then the

same amount of data can be sent in a narrower

spectrum.

• This is why modulation formats that are more complex

and use a higher number of states can send the same

information over a narrower piece of the RF spectrum.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 6

Bandwidth Requirements

• Consider the two modulation schemes depicted in the

figures below:

BPSK

One bit per symbol

Bit rate = Symbol rate

8PSK

3 bits per symbol

Symbol rate = 1/3 Bit rate

• An example of how symbol rate influences spectrum requirements can be seen in

eight-state Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) as shown on the right. It is a variation of

PSK. There are eight possible states that the signal can transition to at any time.

• The phase of the signal can take any of eight values at any symbol time. Since 2 3 =

8, there are three bits per symbol. This means the symbol rate is one third of the

bit rate.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 7

Digital Modulation Basics

• The bit rate defines the rate at which information is

passed.

• The baud (or signalling) rate defines the number of

symbols per second.

• Each symbol represents n bits, and has M signal

states, where M = 2 n .

– This is called M-ary signalling.

• The maximum rate of information transfer through a

baseband channel is given by:

– Capacity f b = 2 W log 2 M bits per second

• where W = bandwidth of modulating baseband signal

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 8

The Symbol Clock

• The symbol clock represents the frequency and exact

timing of the transmission of the individual symbols.

• At the symbol clock transitions, the transmitted carrier

is at the correct I/Q (or magnitude/phase) value to

represent a specific symbol (a specific point in the

constellation).

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 9

Additional Binary Bandpass

Signalling Examples

• The diagram to the right shows a

number of additional Binary

Bandpass signalling examples that

will be considered further in the

coming lectures.

• Unipolar and bipolar modulation are

shown for reference.

• OOK

– On-off keying or Amplitude Shift

Keying (ASK)

• PSK and BPSK

– Binary Phase Shift Keying

• DSB-SC

– Double Side Band – Suppressed

carrier

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 10

Binary Keying

• Binary Keying definition:

– The bits in a message stream switch the modulation

parameters (amplitude, frequency and phase) from one state

to another. This process is called binary keying.

– Binary keying is a process that makes the values of amplitude,

phase or frequency of the carrier signal change in sympathy

with the values of the bits in the binary signal stream.

• Basic actions can be classified as:

– ASK – Amplitude Shift Keying

– PSK – Phase Shift Keying

– FSK – Frequency Shift Keying

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 11

Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

• As shown in the diagram in the following slides, the transmitted

signal for BASK is a sinusoid whose amplitude is changed by on-

off keying (OOK) so that a 1 is represented by the presence of a

signal and a 0 is represented by the absence of a signal.

• The modulated pulse can be described mathematically when signal

‘1’ is present as:

⎧ A

cos 2

π

ft

, when 0

<

t

≤

T

c

b

p t

( )

= ⎨

1

0 otherwise

⎩

• where T b is the bit duration (in sec). When signal ‘0’ is present we

have

p

( )

t =

0

0

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 12

Double Side Band - Suppressed

Carrier

• The Double Side Band - Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)

signal is essentially an AM signal that has a

suppressed discrete carrier.

• This signal is given by the following equation:

s t = Amt

( )

( )cos

ω t

c

c

• where m(t) is assumed to have a zero dc level for the

suppressed carrier case.

• The complex envelope for this is given by:

g t = Amt

()

()

c

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 13

On-off Keying - OOK

p 1 (t)

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

•

OOK

– On-off keying is also known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

– The above graph shows a time domain representation of Binary

Amplitude Shift Keying

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 14

Binary or Bi-Phase Shift Keying

• One of the simplest forms of digital

modulation is Binary or Bi-Phase Shift

Keying (BPSK).

• One application where this is used is for

deep space telemetry.

• The phase of a constant amplitude carrier

signal moves between zero and 180

degrees.

• On an I and Q diagram, the I state has two

different values.

• There are two possible locations in the state

diagram, so a binary one or zero can be

sent.

BPSK

One bit per symbol

Bit rate = Symbol rate

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 15

Binary Phase-Shift Keying – 2

p

1 (t)

1

0

1

1

0.5

0

p1(t)

-0.5

-1

•

This is illustrated in the chart above. Notice the 180 o phase shifts

indicated by the arrow.

⎧

A

cos 2

π

f t

when 0 <

t

≤

T

c

b

p

(

t

) =

⎨

1

⎩

0

otherwise

⎧ −

A

cos 2

π

f t

when 0

<

t

≤

T

c

b

p

(

t

) =

⎨

0

⎩

0

otherwise

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 16

Binary Phase-Shift Keying – 3

• The above equations describe the waveforms for

BPSK. Note that it can also be referred to as phase-

reversal keying or PRK.

• Let

s (t )

=

A cos[

ω

t

+

D m (t )]

c

c

p

• Where m(t) is given in the figure below:

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 17

Binary Phase-Shift Keying - 4

• Typically, m(t) has peak values of ±1 and D p = π/2 radians, thus

s t

( ) = −

A m t

( ) sin ω

t

c

c

• BPSK is equivalent to DSB-SC with polar data waveform.

• The complex envelope is given by

g (t )

=

jA m (t )

c

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 18

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying –

QPSK - 1

• A more common type of phase modulation is

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK).

01

00

• QPSK is used extensively in applications

including:

11

10

– CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) cellular

service,

QPSK State Diagram

– Wireless local loop,

– Iridium (a voice/data satellite system) and

– DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite).

• QPSK is effectively two independent BPSK

systems (I and Q), and therefore exhibits the

same performance but twice the bandwidth

efficiency.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 19

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying –

QPSK - 2

• Quadrature Phase Shift Keying can be filtered using

raised cosine filters (see later for details) to achieve

excellent out of band suppression.

• Large envelope variations occur during phase

transitions, thus requiring linear amplification.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 20

Nyquist & Root-Raised Cosine

Filters

• The Nyquist bandwidth is the

minimum bandwidth that can be

used to represent a signal.

• It is important to limit the spectral

occupancy of a signal, to improve

bandwidth efficiency and remove

adjacent channel interference.

• Root raised cosine filters allow an

approximation to this minimum

bandwidth.

– More discussion on the details of

these filters later.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 21

Types of Quadrature Phase Shift

Keying

Q

Q

(-1,1)

(1,1)

Q

(1,1)

(-1,1)

(1,1)

(-1,1)

I

I

I

(1,-1)

(-1,-1)

(1,-1)

(-1,-1)

(-1,-1)

(1,-1)

Conventional QPSK

Offset QPSK

π/4 QPSK

• Conventional QPSK has transitions through zero (ie. 180 o phase

transitions). A highly linear amplifier is required.

• In Offset QPSK, the transitions on the I and Q channels are

staggered. Phase transitions are therefore limited to 90 o .

• In π/4-QPSK the set of constellation points are toggled for each

symbol, so transitions through zero cannot occur. This scheme

produces the lowest envelope variations.

• All QPSK schemes require linear power amplifiers.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 22

QPSK – Summary comments

• Quadrature means that the signal shifts between

phase states that are separated by 90 degrees (π/2

radians). The signal shifts in increments of 90 degrees

from 45 to 135, –45, or –135 degrees.

• These points are chosen as they can be easily

implemented using an I/Q modulator.

• Only two I values and two Q values are needed and

this gives two bits per symbol.

• There are four states because 2 2 = 4. It is therefore a

more bandwidth-efficient type of modulation than

BPSK - potentially twice as efficient.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 23

Frequency Shift Keying

• Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation are

closely related.

• A static frequency shift of +1 Hz means that the phase

is constantly advancing at the rate of 360 degrees per

second (2π rad/sec), relative to the phase of the

unshifted signal.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 24

Frequency Shift Keying – 1

•

Frequency Shift Keying

– Discontinuous phase FSK

– Where f 1 = mark frequency; f 2 = space frequency

⎧ A

cos(

ω

t +

θ

) for sending a 1

c

1

1

s t

( )

= ⎨

A

cos(

ω

t +

θ

) for sending a 0

⎩

c

2

2

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 25

Frequency Shift Keying – 2

Electronic

Switch

Oscillator

Freq = f 1

Oscillator

Freq = f 2

Binary data input

Control

m(t)

line

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 26

Frequency Shift Keying – 3

•

Continuous phase FSK

Binary data input

m(t)

Frequency

Modulator

(Carrier freq = f c )

FSK Output

t

⎡

⎤

st

( )

=

A

cos

ω

t + D

∫

m

(

λ

)

d

λ

c

cf

⎢ ⎣

−∞

⎥ ⎦

j

ω

t

= Re{

gte

( )

c

}

Where

j

θ

(

t

)

g t

( ) =

Ae

c

t

θ

()

tD

=

∫

md

(

λ

)

λ

f

−∞

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 27

Frequency Shift Keying - 4

• In FSK, the frequency of the carrier is changed as a function of the

modulating signal (data) being transmitted. The amplitude is unchanged.

• In Binary FSK (BFSK or 2FSK), a “1” is represented by one frequency

and a “0” is represented by another frequency.

• The bandwidth occupancy of FSK depends on the spacing of the two

symbols. A frequency spacing of 0.5 times the symbol period is typically

used.

• FSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme, employing multiple

frequencies as different states.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 28

Applications for FSK

• FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is used

in many applications including

cordless and paging systems.

• Some of the cordless systems include

– DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless

Telephone)

and

– CT-2: Cordless Telephone 2

DECT Phone

• CT-2 is a second generation cordless

telephone system that allows users to

roam away from their home base

stations and receive service in public

places. Away from the home base

station, the service is one way outbound

from the phone to a telepoint that is

within range.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 29

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying - 1

• Here the modulated wave is a sinusoid of constant amplitude

whose presence at one frequency means a 1 is present and if

another frequency is present then this means a 0 is present.

• When signal 1 is present, the pulse can be described as:

⎧ A

cos 2

π

f t

, when 0

<

tT

≤

m

b

p t

( )

= ⎨

1

0, otherwise

⎩

• When signal 0 is present, the pulse can be described as:

⎧ A

cos 2

π

f t

, when 0

<

tT

≤

n

b

p t

( )

= ⎨

0

0, otherwise

⎩

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 30

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying - 2

p 1 (t)

1

0.5

0

p1(t)

-0.5

-1

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 31

Minimum Shift Keying - 1

• Since a frequency shift produces an advancing or

retarding phase, frequency shifts can be detected by

sampling the phase at each symbol period.

• Phase shifts of (2N + 1) π/2 radians are easily detected

with an I/Q demodulator.

– At even numbered symbols, the polarity of the I channel

conveys the transmitted data,

– At odd numbered symbols the polarity of the Q channel

conveys the data.

• This orthogonality between I and Q simplifies

detection algorithms and hence reduces power

consumption in a mobile receiver.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 32

Minimum Shift Keying - 2

• The minimum frequency shift which yields

orthogonality of I and Q is that which results in a

phase shift of ± π/2 radians per symbol (90 degrees

per symbol).

• FSK with this deviation is called MSK (Minimum

Shift Keying). The deviation must be accurate in

order to generate repeatable 90 degree phase

shifts.

• MSK is used in the GSM (Global System for Mobile

Communications) cellular standard.

• A phase shift of +90 degrees represents a data bit

equal to “1”, while –90 degrees represents a “0”.

• The peak-to-peak frequency shift of an MSK signal

is equal to half of the bit rate.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 33

Comments on FSK and MSK - 1

• FSK and MSK produce constant envelope carrier

signals, which have no amplitude variations.

– This is a desirable characteristic for improving the power

efficiency of transmitters.

• Amplitude variations can exercise nonlinearities in an amplifier’s

amplitude-transfer function, generating spectral re-growth, a

component of adjacent channel power.

– Therefore, more efficient amplifiers (which tend to be less

linear) can be used with constant-envelope signals, reducing

power consumption.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 34

Comments on FSK and MSK - 2

• MSK has a narrower spectrum than wider deviation forms of FSK.

• The width of the spectrum is also influenced by the waveforms

causing the frequency shift.

– If those waveforms have fast transitions or a high slew rate, then the

spectrum of the transmitter will be broad.

• In practice, the waveforms are filtered with a Gaussian filter,

resulting in a narrow spectrum.

– In addition, the Gaussian filter has no time-domain overshoot, which

would broaden the spectrum by increasing the peak deviation.

• MSK with a Gaussian filter is termed GMSK (Gaussian MSK).

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 35

DPSK – 1

•

Recovery of the data stream from a PSK modulated

wave requires synchronous demodulation

– The receiver must reconstruct the carrier exactly so that it

can detect changes in the phase of the received signal.

•

Differential PSK eliminates the need for the

synchronous carrier in the demodulation process and

this has the effect of simplifying the receiver.

•

At the transmitter, we process the data stream to give

a modulated wave where the phase changes by π

radians whenever a 1 appears in the stream.

•

It remains constant whenever a 0 appears in the

stream.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 36

DPSK - 2

• Differential Phase-Shift Keying

– Binary data are first differentially encoded and then passed to

the BPSK modulator.

• Example 1:

Note: if

d

=

1,

ee

≠

n

nn − 1

if

d

=

0,

ee

=

n

nn − 1

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 37

DPSK - 3

•

Thus we see that the receiver only needs to detect

phase changes. It does not need to search for specific

phase values.

180° phase shifts

p

1 (t)

1

01

1

0.5

0

p1(t)

-0.5

-1

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 38

DPSK - 4

Original datastream

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

Relative Phase Angle

0

+π

+π

+π

+2π

+3π

+3π

+3π

+3π +4π +5π +6π +6π +6π +6π

Processed datastream

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

Demodulated Datastream

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

• A further example showing how the phase changes

and is processed and finally demodulated.

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 39

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