You are on page 1of 8



MBA-HR (2011-2013)



Amity Business School Amity University Uttar Pradesh Sector-125, Noida

Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT). Some of the modern and emerging fields of Information technology are next generation web technologies, bioinformatics, cloud computing, global information systems, large scale knowledge bases, etc. IT is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include but are not limited to things such as processes, computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages, and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the IT domain. IT provides businesses with four sets of core services to help execute the business strategy: business process automation, providing information, connecting with customers, and productivity tools.


Information Technology is an enabler of business functions. The benefits of a well implemented IT system can include efficiency, capacity, speed, scalability or accuracy etc. These benefits should reside with the business function and should be measurable in terms of business output.

IT as an Enabler - A Competitive Advantage

Business can realize a competitive advantage from IT systems through many avenues. Whether it is increased sales, better customer service, improved customer relationships, faster service, more efficient service, diversity or higher quality products there is little debate that IT systems can be used to improve traditional business functions in order to provide a competitive advantage.

IT as a Facilitator - New Markets

It is not just the wide reaching international tentacles of the Internet that can open new markets to business. Different demographics can also be reached through the use of trendy and popular media. In this instance, IT plays the role of facilitator because it acts as a go-getter between the business itself and the new market.

IT to Provide Agility
The economy, events, trends and circumstance play a part in business survival. Once upon a time computer games were the domain of children and teenagers. Today many adults are consumers of gaming software. This transition in demographics meant that software companies needed agility to cater to their new market. Not just in terms of the type of software that they produce, but also in terms of service, availability and ease of use. Information Technology systems can be used to give business additional agility in many areas that include, but are not limited to, disaster recovery and business continuity, service delivery, scalability, customer service, growing or shrinking product range and access to customers.

IT to Enhance Decision Making

The massive volume of information available today both on the Internet and through corporate networks can be used as reference material to make or justify decisions. The benefits of ample and accurate information have been known and well understood by the military for hundreds of years. Modern businesses are also apt in these skills and Information Technology is at the forefront of this communication.

But most importantly, the role of Information Technology should always be measured through benefit to its masters. Whether the benefit is realized financially, socially, through reduced risk, by better efficiency or an improved product it is important to continue to focus on the benefits that pertain to the core business itself.


The role of IT in the field of Opticals is immense . In todays technical era everything from frame selection to lens cutting for the frame to the making of the final specs has become computerised and automated. Not only in the production part of spectacles , information technology has helped local opticians and big optical companies to market themselves to the customers by enabling them to display their entire stock collection on to the web , in the form of catalogues , so that it becomes easy for customers to select and buy frames of their choice , sitting in the comfort of their home. IT has helped optical businesses to carry out advertisement of their businesses on social networking sites like face book to reach out to the younger market that help them to set latest fashion trends. Lets look at this in detail , when a customer enters an optical showroom to get a new pair of specs , he is taken to the optometrist for an eye test where a computerised , automated machine called the

Autorefractometer is used to check the power in the customers eyes. This device , the autorefractometer consists of a screen and a joy stick. The screen shows the optometrist the customers eye in a zoomed manner to check the pupil , and ability to focus on and discern objects . The joystick helps the optometrist to move about in different areas of the cornea and take pictures of the pupil. At the end of the test the machine produces a slip that contains the number of the eye power so that specs can be made accordingly. Thus here we see the role of IT in computerized eye testing. Further on he is asked to select from a huge collection of metal , plastic or rimless frames . Today even this step has been made automated as in some optical showrooms , customers have the complimentary option of using a computer program that enables them to see exactly how their new spectacles will look on them, once it is completed. Due to IT the Hi-tech Style & Image software renders multiple images showing the effect of different eyewear styles, assisting the customers in selecting the frames most suitable for them. For eg.) the famous sunglasses selling company called Ray Ban provides its customers to download their program called the Virtual Mirror that helps them to select the frames that suit them the best.

In the next step the customer is asked to select a brand of lenses and those lenses are ordered by the optician from a big banner lens making company like Bausch and Lomb , Essilor etc . Once the lens arrive the technicians use a machine called the Automatic Edging Machine . This machine helps to cut the lenses in to the same shape as the frame selected by the customer. Earlier this process was carried out manually but IT replaced the usual manual edging of lens which is not only inaccurate but also time consuming and skill dependent. Once the specs are made , the customers are messaged or called through the cell phone which is again a gift of IT to mankind. Thus we see that IT is present at almost every step in the field of opticals.


CLINICAL REFRACTOR METER Each eye test starts with an Automatic Refractor Keratometer, a computerized eye examination to determine the most accurate prescription and the curvature of the eye. To further refine the prescription, a Phoropter of the conventional trial frame and lens set is used. An in-house ophthalmologist is always around to assist the optometrist in cases where a regular refraction is not enough. DIGITAL LENS ANALYZER Digital Lens Analyzer allows to scientifically check and cross-verify the specifications of the prescribed lens, using a computer. The facility provides accurate reading of the processed lens, thus ensures the customer, a perfect vision AUTOMATIC EDGING MACHINE This fully automatic micro-processor controlled lens edging machine with a combination of precision mechanics and digital electronics is used, so that it ensures perfect results for all lens types. The system calculates the best level position ensuring a "First Fit" assembly. This replaces the usual manual edging of lens which is not only inaccurate but also time consuming and skill dependent.

COMPUTERIZED FRAME SELECTION In some optical showrooms , customers have the complimentary option of using a computer program that enables them to see exactly how their new spectacles will look on them, once it is completed. Due to IT the Hi-tech Style & Image software renders multiple images showing the effect of different eyewear styles, assisting the customers in selecting the frames most suitable for them.

AUTOREFRACTOMETER A computerized vision testing machine used obtain and objective measure the eyes refractive error. This measurement provides the most accurate prescription for corrective lenses. An autorefractometer is absolutely necessary to determine refractive error in children who are unable to be subjectively refracted by choosing the "better" of a series of corrective lens pairs.


As a requirement of this project I visited a famous Optical showroom called Optic Center located in DLF Phase-IV , Gurgaon , Haryana. OPTIC CENTRE deals in retail of optical and optical products (spectacles, contact lenses, eye examinations and contact lens consultations) . OPTIC CENTRE is a authorized retailer of all major optical brands and lenses with four branches in and around Gurgaon.

The owner Mr . Anil Jain provided me with the details of their Database used. They have used the simple yet effective database ,i.e., Microsoft Access. The data base consists of fields such as Customer number , Date (i.e. , on which they got their eye test done, as an eye test should be done every 6 months. So if the customer came after an year and didnt remember their previous eye power , Mr. Anil Jain can look up in the database and know the previous power , check the new power and tell the customer by how much his/her eyes power has increased) , First Name , Last Name , Right Eye Number , Left Eye Number , Telephone No# , Address , Register Page No#. The register page no: is added in the database because Mr. Jains employees also maintain the customers details in registers.


Optometrists are regularly using computers to manage their practices and medical record keeping. The automated perimeter is the clinical assessment technology most used (88.4%), followed by the autorefractor (83.9%) and the autokeratometer (72.2%). The anterior segment camera is the technology most likely to be acquired within the next 5 years (36.9%), followed by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (26.8%). Major benefits of IT for optometrists include being better able to provide patients with images and information to explain results and to inspire greater patient confidence that the practice is state of the art. Perceived barriers include the need for frequent updates, lack of resources for training, and cost. There is support for increased exposure to IT as part of training in optometry.

Use of IT in optometry practices is widespread and likely to continue to increase in the years ahead. IT may be a key element in the future success of optometry practices in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Perceptions of high investment and training costs are barriers to further adoption. Optometrists may benefit from increased exposure to IT as part of their training.