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8th lecture Leadership Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@unifr.ch Leadership Learning Objectives • Characterize the nature

8th lecture

Leadership

Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@unifr.ch

8th lecture Leadership Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@unifr.ch Leadership Learning Objectives • Characterize the nature

Leadership

Learning Objectives

Characterize the nature of leadership

Trace the early approaches to leadership

Discuss the emergence of situational theories and

models of leadership Discuss the path-goal theory of leadership

Describe Vroom’s decision tree approach to leadership

Identify and describe contemporary situational theories

of leadership Discuss leadership through the eyes of followers

Identify and describe alternatives to leadership

Describe the changing nature of leadership

Identify and discuss emerging issues in leadership

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The Nature of Leadership • A process which involves the use of noncoercive influence. •

Leadership

The Nature of Leadership

A process which involves the use of noncoercive influence.

A property which is the set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully.

Influence, which is the ability to affect the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, motivation, and/or behavior of others.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The Nature of Leadership • A process which involves the use of noncoercive influence. •

Leadership

Table 12.1 Distinctions Between Management and Leadership

Leadership The Nature of Leadership • A process which involves the use of noncoercive influence. •

Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, from A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management, by John P. Kotter, 1990. Copyright 1990 by John P. Kotter, Inc.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Management versus Leadership Management Skills Administration Control Focus on Short-Term Results Ask How, Who and

Leadership

Management versus Leadership

Management Skills

Administration Control Focus on Short-Term Results Ask How, Who and When Imitate / Optimize Optimize Status Quo Analytical Thinking Reactive Extrinsic motivation Shareholder oriented Task/Work-oriented

Leaderships Skills

Challenge/Inspiration Trust Long-Term View Ask What and Why Innovate Seek opportunities Visioning & Creative Thinking Proactive Intrinsic motivation Stakeholder oriented Person/Relationship- and Task-oriented

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Management versus Leadership Management Skills Administration Control Focus on Short-Term Results Ask How, Who and

Leadership

Early Approaches to Leadership

Attempts to identify stable and enduring character traits that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders focusing on:

identifying leadership traits

developing methods for measuring them

using the methods to select leaders

Current limited set of leadership traits

Emotional intelligence, drive, motivation; honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of the business, charisma

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective

Leadership

Early Approaches to Leadership

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders The Michigan Studies The Ohio State Studies The Leadership Grid

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective

Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective

Leadership

Figure 12.1 Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Early Studies: The Michigan Studies • Results

Leadership

Early Approaches to Leadership

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership

Early Studies: The Michigan Studies

Results indicated existence of two fundamental leader behaviors: Job-centered and Employee- centered.

Job-centered behavior involves paying close attention to the work of subordinates, explaining work procedures, and demonstrating a strong interest in performance.

Employee-centered behavior involves attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Early Studies: The Michigan Studies • Results

Leadership

Early Approaches to Leadership

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership

Early Studies: The Ohio State Studies

Defined leader consideration and initiating-structure behaviors as independent dimensions of leadership

Consideration behavior involves being concerned with subordinates’ feelings and respecting subordinates’ ideas

Initiating-structure behavior involves clearly defining the leader-subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership The Leadership Grid (forme rly the Managerial

Leadership

Early Approaches to Leadership

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership

The Leadership Grid (formerly the Managerial Grid)

Provides a means for evaluating leadership styles and then training managers to move toward an ideal style of behavior

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership The Leadership Grid (forme rly the Managerial

Leadership

Figure 12.2 The Leadership Grid

Leadership Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership The Leadership Grid (forme rly the Managerial

The Leadership Grid Figure from Leadership Dilemmas: Grid Solutions by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. (Formerly the Managerial Grid by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton) Houston: Gull Publishing Company, p. 29. Copyright 1997 by Grid International, Inc. Reproduced by permission of the owners.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models Situational Models Assumptions – Appropriate leader behavior va ries

Leadership

The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models

Situational Models Assumptions

Appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another

The goal is to identify key situational factors and to specify how they interact to determine appropriate leader behavior

The leadership continuum model by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt underlies research in this field

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models Situational Models Assumptions – Appropriate leader behavior va ries

Leadership

Figure 12.3 Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum

Leadership The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models Situational Models Assumptions – Appropriate leader behavior va ries

An exhibit from “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern” by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, Harvard Business Review (May-June 1973). Reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business Review. Copyright 1973 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The LPC Theory of Leadership • Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation

Leadership

The LPC Theory of Leadership

Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation

Task versus Relationship motivation

High LPC (Least Preferred Coworkers) leaders are more concerned with interpersonal relationships

Low LPC leaders are more concerned with task relevant problems

Situational Favorableness

• Leader-member relations Task structure

Leader position power

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership The LPC Theory of Leadership • Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation

Leadership

Table 12.2 The LPC Theory of Leadership

Organizational Behavior 16 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Organizational Behavior
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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Leadership Contemporary Situational Theories From the LPC theor y, the Path-Goal Theory, and Vroom’s Decision Tree

Leadership

Contemporary Situational Theories

From the LPC theory, the Path-Goal Theory, and Vroom’s Decision Tree Model evolved new situational theories:

The Leader-Member Exchange Model

The Hersey and Blanchard Model

Updated versions of the original models

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Contemporary Situational Theories From the LPC theor y, the Path-Goal Theory, and Vroom’s Decision Tree

Leadership

Contemporary Situational Theories

The Leader-Member Exchange Model

George Graen and Fred Dansereau suggest that leaders form unique independent relationships with each of their subordinates.

A key factor in the nature of this relationship is whether the individual subordinate is in the leader’s out-group or in-group.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Figure 13.1 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model Organizational Behavior 19 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership

Figure 13.1 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model

Organizational Behavior 19 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Organizational Behavior
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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Leadership Figure 13.1 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model Organizational Behavior 19 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership

Contemporary Situational Theories

The Hersey and Blanchard Model

Suggest that leader behaviors should vary in response to the readiness of followers

As follower readiness improves, the leader’s basic style also should change

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Figure 13.2 The Hersey and Blanchard Theory of Leadership The Situational Leadership Model is the

Leadership

Figure 13.2 The Hersey and Blanchard Theory of Leadership

Leadership Figure 13.2 The Hersey and Blanchard Theory of Leadership The Situational Leadership Model is the

The Situational Leadership Model is the registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, Escondido, CA. Excerpt from P. Hersey, Management Organizational Behavior Utilizing Human Resources, 3rd ed., 1977, p. 165.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Figure 13.2 The Hersey and Blanchard Theory of Leadership The Situational Leadership Model is the

Leadership

Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers

Primary Approaches to Leadership Through the Eyes of the Follower – – – Transformational Leadership Charismatic
Primary Approaches to
Leadership Through the Eyes
of the Follower
Transformational
Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Attributions of Leadership
Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis
Organizational Behavior
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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Leadership Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones Harvard Business

Leadership

Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?

by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones Harvard Business Review, September-October 2000.

Characteristics of successful leaders:

They selectively show their weaknesses. By exposing some vulnerability, they reveal their approachability and humanity.

They rely heavily on intuition to gauge the appropriate timing and course of their actions. Their ability to collect and interpret soft data helps them know just when and how to act.

They manage employees with something we call tough empathy. Inspirational leaders empathize passionately—and realistically—with people, and they care intensely about the work employees do.

They reveal their differences. They capitalize on what's unique about themselves.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones Harvard Business

Leadership

Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers

Transformational Leadership

– The set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Charismatic Leadership – Charisma is an individual charac teristic

Leadership

Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers

Charismatic Leadership

– Charisma is an individual characteristic of the leader which inspires support and acceptance

– Leadership is based on the leader’s personal charisma

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Charismatic Leadership – Charisma is an individual charac teristic

Leadership

Figure 13.3 The Charismatic Leader

Leadership Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Charismatic Leadership – Charisma is an individual charac teristic

David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, “Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change,” California Management Review, Winter 1990, pp. 70-97.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Attributions of Leadership – Holds that when behaviors are

Leadership

Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers

Attributions of Leadership

Holds that when behaviors are observed in a context associated with leadership, others may attribute varying levels of leadership ability or power to the person displaying those behaviors

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Attributions of Leadership – Holds that when behaviors are

Leadership

Alternatives to Leadership

Leadership Substitutes: Individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinates’ satisfaction and performance

Leadership Neutralizers: Factors that render ineffective a leader’s attempts to engage in various leadership behaviors

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Table 13.1 Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership Organizational Behavior 29 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership

Table 13.1 Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership

Organizational Behavior 29 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Organizational Behavior
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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
Leadership Table 13.1 Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership Organizational Behavior 29 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership

The Changing Nature of Leadership

Leaders as Coaches

New Roles: Leader as Mentor

– Help select team members/other new employees – Provide general direction – Help train/develop the team and member skills – Help acquire information/resources – Help resolve conflict and mediate disputes

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Emerging Issues in Leadership Strategic Leadership The capability to: – understand the complexities of both

Leadership

Emerging Issues in Leadership

Strategic Leadership

The capability to:

– understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment.

– lead change in the organization so as to achieve and maintain a superior alignment between the organization and its environment.

Managerial requirements – Thorough/complete understanding of the organization. – Firm grasp of the organization’s environment. – Awareness of the firm’s alignment with the environment. – Ability to improve the alignment.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Emerging Issues in Leadership Strategic Leadership The capability to: – understand the complexities of both

Leadership

Emerging Issues in Leadership

Ethical Leadership

– Increasing environmental pressure for stronger corporate governance models.

– Increasing pressure for high ethical standards for leadership positions.

– Increasing pressure to hold leaders accountable for their actions.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Leadership Emerging Issues in Leadership Virtual Leadership – Leadership and mentoring ch ange as personal contact

Leadership

Emerging Issues in Leadership

Virtual Leadership

Leadership and mentoring change as personal contact moves virtual.

Nonverbal communication becomes difficult.

Written communication through email takes on a more important role for conveying appreciation, reinforcement, constructive feedback.

Face-to-face leadership skills become critical as the opportunities decrease for direct contact.

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg