You are on page 1of 4


Fall 2007, 3(3-0-0) Prerequisites: WPS 215, 216

WPS 760 deals with the engineering principles and essential unit operations in biomass processing (including pulp, paper and allied forest products industries). This course discusses issues related to momentum, heat, and mass transfer and their application in pumping, coating, chemical and energy recovery, filtration, drying, humidification, etc.

Contact Information

Dr. Orlando Rojas, Course Instructor Office: NCSU Wood & Paper Science, 2820 Faucette Drive, Biltmore Hall, Office 3205 : NCSU Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005; : (919) 513-7494; : (919) 515-6302 :; : Office Hours: One hour before lectures or by appointment. Course website:

Meeting Times and Place

Tuesdays and Thursdays from 10:15 to 11:30 AM. Note: distance education students will receive the respective lectures (likely to be in DVD format). Communication with instructor via e- mail will be frequent. Location: Biltmore 2006 (see building index University Fall 2007 calendar:


This graduate-level course is designed to give students an understanding of engineering principles as applied to unit operations and complex systems that comprise fiber processing, recycling and pulp and paper mills. Course Objectives:

1. To develop knowledge in transport phenomena and applications in fiber processing.

2. To learn engineering principles to analyze, design and optimize unit operations and equipment.

3. To solve technical problems applying fundamental engineering principles.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, students are expected to:

1. Identify processes involving fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer

2. Become familiar with typical modeling and calculation tasks for pulp and paper processes.

3. Learn the specific characteristics of fiber aqueous suspensions from the fluid dynamics point of view, including issues related to flow, pumping, mixing and agitation.

4. Learn the main characteristics of fiber beds and mats in order to understand the filtration phenomena of pulp washers, thickeners as well as paper machine dewatering systems.

5. Understand the principles involved in paper web drying, coating rheology as well as black liquor operations.

6. Be able to do basic calculations involving transport phenomena.

7. Be able apply critical thinking to troubleshoot pulp and paper manufacturing processes.

8. Demonstrate commitment and responsibility as well as to actively participate in discussion sessions.

9. Participate as an active, collaborative member in (group) projects/problem solving.

Supporting Materials

No specific book is required since handout notes will be provided. You don’t need to buy any book. Notebook and three-ring binders are recommended to collect information and handouts. All material used in class will be accessible via course web page. For complementary reading the following references could be useful:

Transport Processes and Unit Operations, Third Edition. Christie J. Geankoplis, Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs. 1993. ISBN 0-13-930139-8.

Gullichsen, J. & Fogelholm, C.-J. (Eds), Papermaking Science and Technology Series 6A, Chemical Pulping. Jyväskylä 2000, Fapet Oy, pp. 693.

Gullichsen, J. & Fogelholm, C.-J. (Eds), Papermaking Science and Technology Series 6B,. Jyväskylä 2000, Fapet Oy, pp. 497.

Methods of Assessment and Grading

The evaluation will make use of the following approaches:

Individual take-home problems (homework) involving calculations and interpretation.

A mid term test

Oral presentation.


Homework (one every week, at least), 35% Mid term exam (1), 25% Oral Presentations (2), 15% Final Exam, 25%

Students will be graded on a scale from +A to F according to:

A+ >=96.6


<= A < 96.6


<= A- < 93.3


<= B+ < 90


<= B < 86.6


<= B- < 83.3


<= C+ < 70


<= C < 76.6


<= C- < 73.3


<= D+ < 70


<= D < 66.6


<= D- < 63.3


F < 60


Reading Assignments

The lecture material should be read prior to the respective class (handouts & web files).

Course Content and Tentative Lecture Dates (subject to change)


Momentum Transfer

1. Thu 23:

Intro & math operators. Reading assignment: applications of fluid

dynamics/hydrodynamics in P&P.


Thu 30:

Irrotational flows and velocity potential.


4. Continuity, Euler and Bernoulli equations.

5. Momentum balances. Shear and velocity distribution. Navier Stokes. No class (to be confirmed). Reading assigned. No class (to be confirmed). Reading assigned.

6. Averaged N-S, Turbulence and Reynold stresses.

Tue 04:

Thu 06:

Tue 11:

Thu 13:

Tue 18:

7. Applications

Thu 20:

Energy Transfer

8. Mechanical energy balance and fluid transport.

Tue 25:

9. Fluid properties and steam tables. Energy balances open and closed systems.

Thu 27:


10. Energy cycles.

Tue 02:

11. Mechanical energy and Pumping.

Thu 04:

12. Exam Fall break (no class)

13. Student Presentations #1

Tue 09:

Thu 11:

Tue 16:

14. Heat Transfer, Fourier eq. conduction, (natural and forced) convection and radiation.

15. Overall heat-transfer coefficients and heat exchangers.

Thu 18:

Tue 23:

16. Applications in heat and power generation

Thu 25:

Mass Transfer and Unit Operations

17. Tue 30

Mass transfer coefficients and diffusion phenomena, Fick eqn.


18. Psychrometric charts and drying processes.

19. Evaporation and Drying (cont’d).

Thu 01:

Tue 06:

20. Drying.

Thu 08:

21. Mechanical separation and sedimentation.

Tue 13:

22. Flotation.

Thu 15:

23. Sedimentation and sieving. Thanksgiving break (no class)

24. Washing

25. Washing (cont’d).

Tue 20:

Thu 22:

Tue 27:

Thu 29:


26. Membrane separation techniques.

27. Student presentations #2

Tue 04:

Thu 06:


Full participation in classes and examinations is expected of all students. If you are unable to attend, please contact the instructor prior to class. For further explanation on the nature of excused and unexcused absences please refer to the university attendance regulation at

sessions will be arranged if needed.

End-of-semester class evaluations (ClassEval):

Online class evaluations will be available for students to complete during the last two weeks of class (November 26-December 9). All evaluations are confidential; instructors will never know how any one student responded to any question, and students will never know the ratings for any particular instructors. Evaluation website: More information about ClassEval:

Academic Integrity:

All students are expected to follow the University’s “Code of Student Conduct”. The policy on academic integrity can be found in

It is the teacher's understanding and expectation that the student's signature on any test or assignment means that the student neither gave nor received unauthorized aid. Be certain to cite references used for assignments. Plagiarism will not be accepted and may result in a failing grade and/or expulsion from the University.


Reasonable accommodations will be made for students with verifiable disabilities. In order to take advantage of available accommodations, students must register with Disability Services for Students (DSS) at 1900 Student Health Center, Campus Box 7509, 515-7653 ( and should see Dr. Rojas with the appropriate paperwork from DSS