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DRDO's ARDE developed 81 mm and the,[24] 120 mm illuminating bombs [25] and 105 mm illuminating shells [26] for

the Indian Army's infantry and Artillery. A 51 mm Light Weight Infantry Platoon Mortar for the Indian Army. A man portable weapon, the 51 mm mortar achieves double the range of 2-inch (51 mm) mortar without any increase in weight. Its new HE bomb uses pre-fragmentation technology to achieve vastly improved lethality vis a vis a conventional bomb. Besides HE, a family of ammunition consisting of smoke, illuminating and practice bombs has also been developed.[27] The weapon system is under production at Ordnance Factories.[28] Proximity fuses for missiles and artillery shells. Proximity fuses are used with artillery shells for "air bursts" against entrenched troops and in anti-aircraft and anti-missile roles as well.[27] Training devices: These include a mortar training device for the 81 mm mortar used by the infantry, a mortar training device for the 120 mm mortar used by the artillery, and a 0.50-inch (13 mm) subcalibre training device for 105 mm Vijayanta tank gun.[27] The Indian Field Gun, a 105 mm field gun was developed for the Indian Army and is in production.[29] This was a significant challenge for the OFB, and various issues were faced with its manufacture including reliability issues and metallurgical problems. These were rectified over time. Submerged Signal Ejector cartridges (SSE), limpet mines, short range anti-submarine rockets (with HE and practice warheads), the Indian Sea Mine which can be deployed against ships and submarines both. The DRDO also designed short and medium range ECM rockets which deploy chaff to decoy away anti-ship homing missiles. In a similar vein, they also developed a 3 in (76.2 mm) PFHE shell, prefragmented and with a proximity fuse,[30] for use against anti-ship missiles and other targets, by the Navy. All these items are in production.[27][31] For the Indian Air Force, DRDO has developed Retarder Tail Units and fuze systems for the 450 kg bomb used by strike aircraft, 68 mm "Arrow" rockets (HE, Practice and HEAT) for rocket pods used in an air to ground and even air to air (if need be), a 450 kg high speed low drag (HSLD) bomb and practice bombs (which mimic different projectiles with the addition of suitable drag plates) and escape aid cartridges for Air Force aircraft. All these items are in production.[27][31]

[edit] Tank armament DRDO's ARDE also developed other critical systems, such as the Arjun Main Battle Tank's 120 mm rifled main gun and is presently engaged inxx the development of the armament for the Future IFV, the "Abhay". The DRDO is also a member of the trials teams for the T-72 upgrade and its Fire control systems. Earlier on, the DRDO also upgraded the Vijayanta medium tank with new fire control computers

Electronics and computer sciences & Laser Science & Technology Centre

[edit] Electronic warfare


[edit] EW systems for the Army

is India's largest electronic warfare system. It is a land based EW project, consisting of 145 vehicles. The Samyukta consists of ESM and ECM stations for both communication and non-com (radar etc.) systems. The Indian Army has ordered that it's Signal Corps being a prime contributor in the design and development stage, along with the DRDO's DLRL. The scale of this venture is substantial- it comprises COMINT and ELINT stations which monitor different bands for both voice/ data as well as radar transmissions, as well as jam them. In contrast to other systems, many of which perform some of the functions of the Samyukta, the latter is an integrated system, which can perform the most critical battlefield EW tasks in both COM and Non-COM roles. The system will be the first of its type in terms of its magnitude and capability, in the Army. Its individual modules can also be operated independently.[32] A follow on system known as Sauhard is under development.[33] The Safari IED suppression system for the army and paramilitary forces, plus the Sujav ESM system meant for high accuracy direction finding and jamming of communication transceivers.[34]

[edit] EW systems for the Air Force

Radar warning receivers for the Indian Air Force of the Tarang (wave) series. These have been selected for most of the Indian Air Force's aircraft such as for the MiG-21 Upgrade (Bison Upgrade), MiG-29, Su-30 MKI, MiG- 27 Upgrade, Jaguar Upgrade as well as self protection upgrades for the transport fleet. The Tranquil RWR for MiG -23s (superseded by the Tarang project) and the Tempest jamming system for the Air Force's MiG's. The latest variant of the Tempest jamming system is capable of noise, barrage, as well as deception jamming as it makes use of DRFM. The DRDO has also developed a High Accuracy Direction Finding system (HADF) for the Indian Air Force's Su-30 MKIs which are fitted in the modular "Siva" pod capable of supersonic carriage.[35] This HADF pod is meant to cue Kh-31 Anti radiation missiles used by the Su-30 MKI for SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defences). DRDO stated in 2009 that its latest Radar Warning Receiver for the Indian Air Force, the R118, had gone into production. The R118 can also sensor fuse data from different sensors such as the aircraft radar, missile/laser warning systems and present the unified data on the multi-function display. The DRDO also noted that its new Radar Warner Jammer systems (RWJ) were at an advanced stage of development, and would be submitted for trials.The RWJ is capable of detecting all foreseen threats, and jamming multiple targets simultaneously. At the same time, another high accuracy ESM system is being developed by the DRDO for the AEW&C project. Other EW projects revealed by the DRDO include the MAWS project (a joint venture by the DRDO and EADS) which leverages EADS hardware and DRDO software to develop MAWS systems for transport, helicopter and fighter fleets. DRDO also has laser warning systems available.

A DIRCM (Directed Infra Red Countermeasures) project to field a worldclass DIRCM system intended to protect aircraft from infra Red guided weapons. The DRDO is also developing an all new ESM project in cooperation with the Indian Air Force's Signals Intelligence Directorate, under the name of "Divya Drishti" (Divine Sight). Divya Drishti will field a range of static as well as mobile ESM stations that can "fingerprint" and track multiple airborne targets for mission analysis purposes. The system will be able to intercept a range of radio frequency emissions, whether radar, navigational, communication or electronic countermeasure signals. The various components of the project will be networked via SATCOM links. Additional DRDO EW projects delivered to the Indian Air Force have include the COIN A and COIN B SIGINT stations. DRDO and BEL developed ELINT equipment for the Indian Air Force, installed on the service's Boeing 737s and Hawker Siddeley Avro aircraft. DRDO has also developed a Radar Fingerprinting System for the IAF and the Navy. The Indian Air Force's AEW&C systems currently being developed by the DRDO will also include a comprehensive ESM suite, capable of picking up both radars as well as conduct COMINT (Communications Intelligence).

Computing technologies DRDO has worked extensively high speed computing given its ramifications for most of its defence projects. These include supercomputers for computational flow dynamics, to dedicated microprocessor designs manufactured in India for flight controllers and the like, to high speed computing boards built around Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components, similar to the latest trends in the defence industry.

Supercomputing: DRDO's ANURAG developed the PACE+ [48] Supercomputer for strategic purposes for supporting its various programs. The initial version, as detailed in 1995, had the following specifications: The system delivered a sustained performance of more than 960 Mflops (million floating operations per second) for computational fluid dynamics programs. Pace-Plus included 32 advanced computing nodes, each with 64 megabytes(MB) of memory that can be expanded up to 256MB and a powerful front-end processor which is a hyperSPARC with a speed of 66/90/100 megahertz (MHz). Besides fluid dynamics, these high-speed computer systems were used in areas such as vision, medical imaging, signal processing, molecular modeling, neural networks and finite element analysis. The latest variant of the PACE series is the PACE ++, a 128 node parallel processing system. With a front-end processor, it has a distributed memory and message passing system. Under Project Chitra, the DRDO is implementing a system with a computational speed of 2-3 Teraflops utilizing commercial off the shelf components and the Open Source Linux Operating System. Processors and other critical items: DRDO has developed a range of processors and application specific integrated circuits for its critical projects. Many of these systems are modular, in the sense that they can be reused across different projects. These include

"Pythagoras processor" to convert cartesian to polar coordinates, ANUCO, a floating point coprocessor and several others, including the ANUPAMA 32-bit processor, which is being used in several DRDO projects.[49]

Electronic components: one of the endeavours undertaken by the DRDO has been to create a substantial local design and development capability within India, both in the private and public sectors. This policy has led to several hard to obtain or otherwise denied items, being designed and manufactured in India. These include components such as radar subsystems (product specific travelling wave tubes) to components necessary for electronic warfare and other cutting edge projects. Today, there are a range of firms across India, which design and manufacture key components for DRDO, allowing it to source locally for quite a substantial chunk of its procurement. The DRDO has also endeavoured to use COTS (Commercial off the shelf) processors and technology, and follow Open Architecture standards, wherever possible, in order to pre-empt obsolescence issues and follow industry practise. One significant example is the development of an Open Architecture computer for the Light Combat Aircraft, based on the PowerPC architecture and VME64 standard. The earlier Mission computer utilizing Intel 486 DX chips has already seen success, with variants being present on the Su-30 MKI, Jaguar and MiG-27 Upgrades for the Indian Air Force.[50]

Profile of DTRL lab: Historical background:


Initiation of terrain evaluation activities in DRDO began with the creation of Terrain Evaluation Cell (TEC) on 19th February 1964. In recognition of significance of terrain intelligence, TEC was accorded the status of a full fledged laboratory on 10th December 1981 and was renamed as Defence Terrain Research Laboratory. DTRL was notified as self accounting unit on 17th September 1988.

Areas of Work

Development of a reliable systems for assessment of terrain characteristics through modern techniques of terrain evaluation for military potential Trafficability studies and preparation of mobility maps and going routes. Generation of terrain briefs for its military potential. R & D in Landslide Assessment, Management and Mitigation Disaster assessment and prevention studies. Terrain parameter extraction using Soft Computing techniques. Image Processing Geographic Information System (GIS) based development of Decision Support Systems. Extraction of terrain parameters from satellite/aerial images, and maps. Generation of task-specific terrain maps. Artificial Life based models of combat in Complex Terrain. Application of Recommender Systems to land combat

Products

Land use Maps Ground Water Study Off-road mobility Study Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) Maps. Terrain briefs

Achievements

Development of Landslide Information System (LIS) for landslides of Sikkim and North Eastern State. Development of Landslides Hazard Zonation and Landslides Hazard Management Maps for North Eastern States. Publication of Atlases of Landslides of Sikkim and North Eastern States. 'Pattern' and 'Facet' based techniques for terrain classification and characterization for Going Map Programme.. Development of photo/image interpretation skills to delineate the 'Pattern' and 'Facet' for assessment of off road mobility for Vehicles.

Tide Normalization for change detection. Geographical Information System (GIS) & Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based simulation of off-road mobility. Assessment of underground water potential. Development of moisture inversion model using multi angle SAR images. Improvement in mapping accuracy by using better resolution data. Use of satellite data for preparation of different thematic maps and generating terrain information Development of software for thematic mapping and classification tasks using soft computing techniques. Route Computation in a threat scenario using human-level artificial intelligence techniques.

Facilities Available

Multigen Software for 3D visualization and 3D modeling of Terrain. VSAT based Image Reception Terminal to download satellite data.. Mapping instruments for carrying out terrain related studies. GIS and Image processing tools for generating thematic and derivative terrain maps. Photogrammetry System for height estimation of terrain. In-SAR data processing software. Thematic and change detection tools.