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mathematical modeling using response Surface methodology with more than two varaibles involved, with 3D models for response surfaces---simple examples and optimisation

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**Response Surface Methodology [RSM] is a simple and powerful method for modeling with
**

more than two variables. It results in a surface in a 3D

With RSM, You can also do optimisation with very little additional

Then why RSM has not been popular? Well, RSM has been

mountains of statistical methods very few people read or learn.

There are software modules in math packages to do RSM fast.!

Linear Models

In models , we have used two variables x and y, andand connect

use the

by function:

a function:

Y = f (X)

Now let us extend this to two factors or independent variables:

Z = f (X,Y)

Take a simple example: The yield of a chemical process (z) may depend on both

temperature (x) and time (t):

We write: Yield Z = f (x,y)

**The simplest model we can have is th elinear
**

the linear

model:

model

Z=a+bX+CY [equation 1]

The example could be the process of baking cakes: the baking time would depend on the temperature for a given le

In this model equation, note that the effect of x and of y are "additive."

The two factors x and y do not interact , but act separately.

Take the simple anology: You add milk and sugar sugar

toatocup

a cup

of black

of black

coffee.

coffee.

the coffee, while sugar adds sweetness. We assume that milk does not add sweetness, and sugar does not

any creaminess. [In practice, milk can add vey small amount of

So we have two variables x and y affecting z, the output or response

Response Surfaces

A response surface shows the response or output ,here z.

We can plot z in th e vertical axis and x and y in then tow

the horizonatl

two horizontal

axis.The

axes.3D

will show the model, in this case a flat plane. For a given value of yield or z,

we get a line or point in the plane.

Experimental Design

**We have to find the values of the three constants or
**

You may have to do experiments; or collect data from the field.

For this linear model, we can collect data for two temperatures and two different times an

FORM A SIMPLE TABLE: To illustrate:

T1= 40 DEG T2 = 50 DEG

t1= 10 minsy1 y3

t2= 40 min y2 y4

**Now we can set up algebraic equations with three values of y1,y2 and y3
**

Solve them for a, b and c.

y1= a + b. 40 + 10 c

y2= a + b40 + 40 c

y3 = a + b 50 + 10 c

Solve for a , b and c.

We can use y4 as additional check.

we have six constants or coefficients We determine these by setting up experiments of collecting data from the Specifically we can determine the yield z at three different temperatures two different times at each temperature.--the choice is yours!] Let us put the data ina tabular form: To illustrate: t1=10 min t2= 40 mins T1=40 deg y1 y4 T2= 50 degy2 y5 T3 = 60 degy3 y6 We set up the six equations for y1 .y The third term is interesting: this term models the interaction between the response or yield. we may find that some of the constants are that we can ignore the terms.Now we can plot the falt latplane. helps you to do that in a few seconds.y6. These points give th eoptimal optimalmis mix of x and y to achieve .y z = a + (bx + dx.x) + ( c y + e y. we can have models with three variables: N = a + bx + cy + d z To depict this in 3 D models. Most important.y term. equation 2.y.d. If d is close to zero. a maximum point or min point.y) = a + bx + cy Here.y.y [Equation 2] We have added three terms: x. Quadratic Model This model is mor epowerful and . x squared. Experimental Design In this model equation. [Alternatively you can also do at two temperatures and three different times at each temperature.x + e.f When we do this. y. These are like level surfaces or contour lines in 2D maps.b.and z as a surface. The model equation reduces to: f' =0 --> z= a + bx + cy + d x. we pick a particular value of N and plot x.b.e. most RSM models are of this type. y need not be just the varaible .in fact. y squared and x.d.x. look for the constant 'f'. you can plot the Response Surface.e.x + e y.in this c high yield.but other functions.y and x.y) We can separate out the model into two partsand treat as single vriablee variable model model for a speicifed value of x Response surface With a .You do t that is faster or that is cheaper or less energy consuming.y2…. it means that between temp and time. To th elinear model [equation 1] . axis. which may exhibit maximum or minumum points for yield. Then solve for the six constants: a. Study the curved surface. .c. Advanced Models 1 Beyond quadtratic models.If it is close to zero.y + f x.c. We can plot z in the vertical axis and X andy and Yininthe theehorizontal horizontalaxis.f . it means that x squared term does not operate. we can add "quadratic terms' ---that is. plane. 2 The simple linear model can be used for more complex functions: z = f( x. The model equation beocmes: Z = a + b x + ccyy + d x.

material = 5 material 6 labor 2 20$ 35 labor 3 25$ 50 Use a model which is linear with labor cost .36 Solve for a: 20 = a + 15/11 *25 +10 a= 20 -(15 * 25)/11 + 10 -24. our linear model is quite adequate.x + c y 20 = a +25b + 2c 25= a + 25b +3c Subtract (-5 = -c) c= 5 c= 5 20 = a+ 25b +10 35= a+ 36b + 10 Subtract 15 = 11b b= 15/11 1.but is a square of material cost: z = a + b x.09 .b and c in the model: z = a + bx + cy 10 = a + 50b + 10 C 40 = a + 60 b + 10 c Subtracting: b=3 10 = a + 50b + 10 C 20 = a + 50 b +100 c Subtracting.11 Z = -141. Thus.y) = a + bx + cy z = a + bx + c log t 3 Another example: z= a+ b (exp x) + c (log y) Applications 1 A brewer finds the following data for the alcohol yield in his brewing Time 10 hours Time 100 hours Temp 50 deg C 10 20 temp 60 deg C 40 52 Using the linear model find the constants a. y = log (t) then z = f( x. another free-machining steel] the raw material cost and the labour cost. z=52% So.111+3 x + y/9 Can we predict yield for temp = 60 deg and time= 100 hours z= -141. (-10 = -90 c) c= 1/9 Now we find 'a': 10 = a + 50b + 10 C 10 = a + 150 + 10/9 a= -140-10/9 -141. 2 A manager finds the following data between cost of a steel product grades of steel {one ordinary low carbon steel.11 + 3 x 60 + (1/9) 100 50 50 This value is close to what the brewer found.

36 x.x + 5 y ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .1 + 1. Thus: z = -24.

Milk adds creaminess to add sweetness.ethod for modeling with diagram.b and c. effort. . coefficients a. It a given value of yield or z. buried under It is getting popular. and sugar does not add sweetness. f black coffee.ields.!] separately.because: cess (z) may depend on both nd on the temperature for a given level of baking. very easy to interpret. peratures and two different times and find 4 values of yiels. but let us ignore that.

erms' ---that is. there is no interaction ariable model Math software Do you find for h three variables: N = f (x. . x and y. e complex functions: .You do the scheme zero or very small ared term does not operate. from the field. towards We will get a curved surface. a to f . temperatures [called 'levels' ] and times at each temperature.y.z) s a surface.

t of a steel product with two different . kettle.

-------------------------------------------- .

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