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An Introduction to Academic Writing:

Publishable Research Paper
Xu Xiwen

2006, 08

Course Outline
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments • Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Author’s name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;

Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis • Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse • Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper • Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline • Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice

C V and resume. . Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments. the presentation and the logic of long sentences. structures and sample analysis of application letters. Write one proposal report 2.Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing. and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers. Sample analysis of one research paper • Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis. Practice CV and resume 3. in-class assignments and final test. Identify the format errors in Punctuations. Abbreviation 2. sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. format of a research paper. practice the use of Punctuations. Final grades will include the attendance. Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization. students’ assignments will be evaluated. pre-reading assignments and after-class readings. Topic assignments: 1.

Content Table .

attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English. preferences. References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any). it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. Introduction ( literature review). and organizing ideas in writing. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms. particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format.Chapter 1 Introduction Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students. meet the requirements of the Western academic community. the course tries to present typical writing styles. explaining. The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper: . Research Methodologies and Procedures. in terms of international communications or publications. Research Paper Format Although different languages and their cultures have different “rules” for presenting. 1. Results and Findings. While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students’ errors in vocabulary or grammar. Discussion and Conclusion.

paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a . argumentation and hypothesis • • • • • • Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs. tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers’ findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ). Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. 2) MLA (Modern Language Association • Research Methodologies and Procedures • To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results • Results and Findings • • • Discussion and Conclusion • To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications • • • • • • • • References ( or Bibliography) • .Items • • Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms • • Functions To frame the writer’s idea To identify the writer’s contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues • • • Fundamentals Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings. 2. conclusion and implications or suggestions Introduction ( Literature Review) To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation • To review previous research • To present arguments and hypothesis Terms to generalize research concerns • The purpose and background of present study • The scope and focus to develop the study • Problems. In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion.

Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al. of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. evidence. or data. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales. but distinct from. and terrible at worst. The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers. device design. Sample 1 ( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. More recently. who were able to . However.Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. Sample 2 ( Presenting by direct indication expressions) Initially naive “link design” merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets. To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design. which severely limited the applications of such links. typically one would obtain from such a “design” a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB. Technique one--. the RF performance of such links was often modest at best.paragraph. . It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts. which is closely related to. RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links.

Sample 3 ( Presenting by detailings) During the last decades. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writer’s attitude and suggestion. while contrast deals with the differences existing between them. circuit inductance. Such limits have proven useful in providing a “calibration” on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable. results or ideas.Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review. or support writer’s preference for one over the other. preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions. nature and pressure of working gases. material and shape of electrodes. whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. operating voltage. attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact. Technique Two--. proper election of anode length and insulator. reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance. For example. Results and Findings or Discussion.achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design. .

Sample 1 ( For organizing the literature review) By comparing the first two topologies. we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. Thus. 2) by reducing V and increasing P. we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play. By contrast. . But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters. Sample 3 ( For developing a summary) To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design. one in front of and one behind the switch. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter. but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components. it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices. this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier. . This is in contrast to “digital” optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%. the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. Sample 2 ( For developing a conclusion) Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as “RF” or “analog” optical links. We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature).

according to their similarities and differences. set the boundary. Stroh. (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification. results.Technique Three--. On the other hand. comparison-contrast. upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons. In addition to being a costly investment for organizations. cause-effect. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45.000 per home-owning employee. such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse’ loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw. with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC. 1994.) Sample 1 ( Classification by grouping and examplication) According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC). 1990). we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. 1994).. etc. ect. real estate assistance. spouse employment assistance.Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas. This can include. and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept. by definition. while definition explains limits and specifies. we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order. Luo & Cooper. 1990). most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett. among other services. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques. family visits to the new area. relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving. cost-of-living . concepts. we may capture the essence. including exemplification. By classifying. These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving. In classification. & Reilly.

as well as couples with children living at home. . The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables. and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses. 1990. 1994). Finally. international relocation. we systematically compare employees’ and spouses’ perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. Specifically.. From this research.adjustments. the research on domestic relocation. this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. single-income and dual-income couples. Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. Sample 3 ( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation. Although there are other comparisons that could be made. ERC. we explore two main issues. general adjustment. and work-role transitions was reviewed. This focus includes comparing male and female employees. Sample 2 ( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind. relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified. because the spouse’s perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research. and interaction adjustment. three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment. 1993. these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement. First.

the reverse order. Sample 2 ( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates. there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. Comparing the following samples: Sample 1 ( Focus on the cause) In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch). the requirements for the filters are less strict. very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. If wavelength converters are used. The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters). some of the power is leaking through the gate. That effect also results in crosstalk. is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers. it may start from the effect first and then the causes. Sample 3 ( Focus on causes) In Fig. During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state. however. As for the arrangement of such a paragraph. Therefore. This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format.Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and –effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under . N signals are combined coming from different input fibers. Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state.Technique Four--. 4.

At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel. unlike.study and M-1 suppressed channels. in comparison with. particularly. almost the same as. have …in common. in contrast to/ with. stands opposition . be different from. similarly. in particular. nevertheless. in general. for example. especially. differ from. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: • Exemplification such (…) as. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. each with a different wavelength. in many cases • Comparison and Contrast by comparing …. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect). the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel. as an example. on the whole. instead. likewise. as follows. otherwise. resemble. Tips for using the techniques Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. generally. Due to this effect. compare … with. the differences lie in…. however. take ( consider) … as an example. for instance. just as. be similar to. on the contrary.

. “for writing touches the heart of a student’s identity. According to Matthews (2002). the effect on …is 3. Helen Fox (1994) in her book “Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing” has noted that cultural differences. or “inadequately developed” because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community. due to. “lacking focus”. as a result of. affect the way the non-native students write. have an effect on. as a result. learned from early childhood. … is widely accepted as the definition of • Cause and Effect therefore.• Classification and Definition be categorized as. be defined / named / known as. hence. consequently. be divided into. drawing its . Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English. result in. problems may develop when these students’ concepts of “effective” writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. Their writings are frequently judged as “illogical”. accordingly. so. as. given. now that. be classified as. thus. fall into. the definition of …is . so that. since. on account of. there are …kinds / groups /categories/ types of. because (of ). so as to. “poorly organized”.

it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic. to accomplish a purpose Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon . clichés. Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. Focus on clarity. and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns. 2002. Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who “subscribe to Aristotle’s dictum” (p. Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1. and relevant 5. including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the 2. messages are expected to be specific and detailed. Precise. avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6. artistic. direct communication patterns. accurate. Taoism and Buddhism). attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information. simplicity. and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past. preferences. 790).voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world” (p vi). therefore. imagery. Information is expected to be specific. 1985). and set-phrases. factual accuracy is stressed 4. and always rely on idioms. emotional)value of writing. Preference for clear. analogies. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles. and getting to . creative metaphors. Matalene. Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism. Focus on informational value of writing. therefore.

experiences. with a beginning and an end 12. but may not state the point or relate the examples to each 13. homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared. explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed. examples. and values of people in traditional. writers shows respect for the reader’s intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The “burden of meaning” falls on the reader—referred to as “reader responsible” Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point. writers in introduce and discuss a topic. Explicit signals—such as transitions—are often necessary to show logical links between ideas. they introduce yet another opinion or topic. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section. which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic. experiences. etc. One theme is favored 9. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations . which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary. with readers expected to infer the writer’s point Writers supply facts. essay. and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper. writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. Because the backgrounds. explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report. the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s). Direct.the point 7. in the final section. language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the reader’s attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds. research paper. in the next section they introduce a new topic. Stress on linear development—points are organized sequentially. explicit background information and extensive 10. The “burden of meaning” falls on the writer—referred to as “writer responsible” 15. and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse.

’ the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements— showing respect for the reader’s knowledge. Focus on building arguments in a logical. personal stand. questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas. statistics. analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts. Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. examples. etc. writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas other. step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue. which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information. personal issue—without taking a strong. 19.16. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated. respect for authority is encouraged . students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers. even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical. 20. scholarship. and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoning—a single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issue—without taking a strong. knowledgeable and ideas. 17. 18.

2) basic methods to cite reference materials. based on the relevance materials. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. and present the researcher’s contribution to a research paper. In this chapter.Chapter 2 Voice. the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers. Authority and Plagiarism Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired. Meanwhile.Consistent use of formal tone . over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words. 3) how to avoid plagiarism. the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writer’s voice. Voice Yourself Some techniques to show the writer’s identity To show the author’s attitude towards previous research or present argument. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper. Section 1. Technique One --.

the present study suggests (shows. masses diffuse with unit rate. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community. analyzed) above. Particularly). the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. On SFNs with r ≤3. • • • • • • • In this (such a) case ( way). Instead. Apparently. Practically. However. we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k− r. shown) that… Basically ( Actually. we know ( the fact is) that…. and unit mass chips off from mass with rate ω. I would argue (suggest ) that… Because of ( Owing to. the critical line ρc (ω ) depends on network structures. the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density. many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. proves) that … As a conclusion (ending of the paper). we can (may) conclude that… Besides (furthermore. due to…) …. my study has confirmed (demonstrated. in the steady state. Sample 1 Study the following abstract. So …. In the SCA model. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. and try to make the underlined parts better In our study. on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for ω ≠ ∞. we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices.Influenced by the first language. For the existence of the condensed phase for r ≤ . the study shows that … Based on … (on the basis of …/ according to …). argue) that … As discussed (mentioned. in addition). Then. The dynamics conserves total mass density ρ. I think (believe.

at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible. Besides. the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate. besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility.4%. most frequently used tenses are: the present future. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an . the present. Further. the system with 3. We also found that at optimum condition.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46. enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. the present perfect and the past tenses. Sample 2 Study the following conclusion. the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. The preionization. Together with the recent study on SFNs. and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r ≤ 3. apparently by the impact of electrons’ bombardment.3–3.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by β source and without preionization.Proper use of tenses Generally speaking. In particular. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant. at ω = ∞. degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV. we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion. we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any ρ > 0 on RNs. In addition. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r ≤ 3. we have investigated 2.3 at the zero density limit. we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r ≤ 3.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. Technique Two --.

accepted paper may strengthen writer’s academic attitude and objective tones. Introduction and Discussion of a research report . we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns. Pattern 1 The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss several approaches to improving… + a new method for analyzing … a theory that attempts to explain… new equations for expressing… Or This paper will argue In this paper. we will attempt to show + that / how … Pattern 2 The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract.

Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to + Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on + Topic Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic Pattern 3 The past tense may be used in any part of a research report The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or examined / explored / showed + reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated + Topic Pattern 4 .

It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements. The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper. will / would .Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers’ attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues. Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability. “could / should”. a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks. Normally. In practical academic writing. one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). including the most frequently used modal verbs “ will / would” . non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs. A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper.The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic + Technique Three --. “may / might”. A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example.

. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. • Otherwise. for example. the calculated differences will not be significant. a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position.t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo . and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. • Given the respiration cycle length (3–6 s). A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. • Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. equal to the slice thickness. a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan. • However. most likely.The use of “will” is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of “would” spells a conditional high probable degree. • The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. the time dependence of P(mo±1. • Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. On a PET image. • The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min. in the imaging of moving lung tumors. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. t) in time. and will represent several full respiratory cycles.

aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally. • According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12. which will finally disappear.could / should The use of “could” presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of “should” tells a high degree of certainty. the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval. may / might .15]. • Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ). unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval. • For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state. If not. unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation. • For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit.14. the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive. • Conversely.

The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. which will be . we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media. • No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. • The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. • But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. without the prior written permission of the publisher.The use of “might” presents uncertainty of a statement while “may” is frequently used to show certain degree of probability. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA. • we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. • Therefore. Section 2. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise.

… …. the writer may directly quote from the original sources.discussed in the later chapter. As for a short quotation. the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. … Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted . internal learner capacities. pp. and output in productive ways" ( Long. (the name of the author) writes / says. In such case. 1996. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: • • • • According to ( the name of the author). 451–452). accurate in every aspect including the punctuations. we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. 1. Sample 2 . Quoting When citing reference materials. particularly selective attention. the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original. In this section. … ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that … Sample 1 Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback.

Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection “if society truly believes it needs the technology. They affect how students understand assignments. Farrell suggested “the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion .” 2. from short critiques of articles they’ve read to dissertation defenses. these affect the way they write. Warren-Boulton argued “copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low” [4]. the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words.when the innovation is subject to network effects” [5]. their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve. it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth” [1]. But most of all. how they study. They affect how students give oral presentations.Shurmer mentioned “the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements” [3]. Paraphrasing is frequently . Sample 3 Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: “These differences. In other words. learned from early childhood. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others’ words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writer’s thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates. and how they comment on their classmates’ paper.

several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input . For example. the writer should not use too many direct quotations. However.used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writer’s understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers’ work. the time) When citing other researchers’ work. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. In effect. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers’ work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): • • Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that… Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers. the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts. the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3) Sample 1 While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes.

. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. production (Gass and Swain). Sample 3 . The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.e. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. Sample 2 Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). for review see Gass et al. 1998). 1999). Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. However. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.. 7–12 years). making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. 2000). There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners.from their peers.e.

Similarly. he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. and learner-native speaker . Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing. To make such a summary. Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review. 379).An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others’ authoritative thoughts. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. 3. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. Forty-eight dyads. socially. the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. the nature of the feedback. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). and linguistically. Sample 1 A recent study by Mackey et al. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work.

and learner-learner pairings. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. Animals communicate. Demers & Harnish. perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. p. 583620. pp. 31-76. although not for the amount of feedback provided. Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways. 1993. Suzette Haden Elgin observes that: . 3-30. of course. Wallman. learner vs. Wardhaugh. mean that human beings – even otherwise well-educated human beings – are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill. so far as we know. 2003. although only among learner-learner dyads. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. Sample 3 Language may indeed be central to being human. pp. Rodman & Hyams. native speaker) and learner age. 1998. but none – at least as far as we can tell – communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian. O’Grady & Dobrovolsky. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. the distinctive qualities of mind that are. Fromkin. McWhorter. we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’. once commented that. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. engaged in task-based interactions. 3). but that does not. pp. Among children. In her book The Language Imperative. Sample 2 Noam Chomsky. to be sure.e. Pinker. 1992. 1992). 2001. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. 1999). “When we study human language. 1994. arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century. 1996.

It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . or are unaware of. Consciously or unconsciously. • • Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. grounds. 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B Section 3. with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. . • Using the transitional expressions such as “according to …” . the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. We forget. paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writer’s text. “ based on the work of …” . The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. we have let that miracle be trivialized . (2000. paraphrasing or summarizing. p. . the power that language has over our minds and our lives. we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes. . because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages. . Separate the quotation. Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. Plagiarism Whether quoting.

On the basis of the genre knowledge. genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter). • Citing. paraphrasing or summarizing other authors’ work with the detailed source information omitted. The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing. the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format.Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: • Coping some words or phrases without mention of the author’s name or quotation marks. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy. 1. Genre Knowledge Generally speaking. • Confusing the original author’s ideas with the writer’s own without indicating the source. a L2 writer may use imitation strategies • to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper .

As such. a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. To make an effective argument. or support in an argument.• to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns. 2. evaluative. all. premises. • • to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft. if non-specific. The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: • • whether they are verifiable. never. everyone. the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always. none. whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim. In specific. the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of . edit and format the whole paper Argumentation Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking. whether they are specific or. Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues’ academic papers on an international basis. no one. • whether they serve as conclusions. or advocatory claims.

• To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats. In particular. the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others’ academic work. However. avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source. • To separate the summary of other author’s opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another author’s words • To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another author’s work. . So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: • To identify the author’s name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical. the page number before you document the material. • To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author. it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience.plagiarism. whether a word or phrase.

Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review. a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract. Results and Findings. At the end of each section. concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original. we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. tips for practical writing will be introduced. References or Appendixes (if any). but also a valuable learning process. Introduction. Research Methodologies and Procedures. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification. Section 1. On the other hand.Chapter 3 Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper Generally. the function. of what you have read. In this chapter. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding . a research paper abstract. the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. but expresses them in a much shorter space. Discussion and Conclusion. Summary and Abstract A summary is a shorter version. also called executive summary. in your own words.

it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative. damage stadiums. thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. often behind the referee's back. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. Paulus Indiana University . or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract. meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. Sample 1 Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example. [9 words] Sample 2 An abstract of a published paper The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game.whether or not read your paper.

to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper. identify the author’s (or your own) contributions in the research paper. 1. Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: • • • • Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper). Concise: to define terminally the scope. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement. results and conclusions of a study. Objectiveness: to state objectively other’s or your own ideas and main points in the paper. the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own. • • Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper. or literature references in a summary or abstract. and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this paper’s contribution. investigations and results and conclusions. tables. and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. .Although teacher and peer feedback. evaluating the first and final drafts of students’ essays. together with required revision. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures. research methods. the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Witte’s (1981) taxonomy of revisions. • Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic. such as the research theories. and recording students’ verbal report during revision. is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions. and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper.

noting that classroom organization. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study. .what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied. implication or recommendation if necessary. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency.the time order of similar studies What --. Sample 1 A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. For example. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) • • • • • Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities.in what kind of context or scope of the study When--.who has done the study What--. for example.Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) • • • • Who --. open versus teacher-centered classrooms.

as far as possible . However. During a 3-day treatment period. accepted 17 June 2002. USA b School of Education. It should be expressed . while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects. while the control group (n=11) interacted. DC 20057. Perth. The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers.in your own words.Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey a . . revised 14 June 2002. This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to. Western Australia 6050. Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. most of the existing research has focused on adults. we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. but did not receive feedback. Edith Cowan University. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur. Australia Received 2 May 2002.a and Rhonda Oliver . the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly. In the current study. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes. Georgetown University. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. ICC 460. Interestingly. Washington.b Department of Linguistics. . Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original. 2. Abstract The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research. the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms. Approaches to summary and abstract writing How to Summarize • The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original.

[A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful. concise and highly generalized text. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic. so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other. Leave out any illustrative examples. an abstract should be written in formal and academic language.• The question will usually set a maximum number of words.] • • • • • • • • • • • Read the original quickly. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. an effective abstract .] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. The most frequently used tenses are the present. aim for something like one tenth of the original. Draw up a list of the topics . the past and the present perfect. and try to understand its main subject or purpose. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you. How to write abstract effectively • As a short. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues. Use a highlighter if this helps. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. By writing in this way. helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently. If not. Besides. These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages. • Serving as a useful tool in searching for information. Look up any words or concepts you don't know. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments. Remember that it must be in your own words. [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary. the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. Focus your attention on the main point.or make a diagram.

Step Three: Results. Also. • An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal. and give suggestions of further study. . the methods and the procedures of the study. ( the related problem) …is as yet undetermined. the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study. the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --. without any detailed information or comment on the research. findings and conclusion --. • In terms of its form. the argument. direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. 3.to outline the main participants. In particular.should be as concise as possible.to present the most important results and related findings. • An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: • • Step One: Introduction---to define the context. so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones. thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. • Step One Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns To define the context and argument of the present study: • • This paper describes / presents …( the argument) within…( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject)…. an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper.

the study has focused on … ( participants / materials) To present research methods and procedures • The method / approach used in the present study is… . we aim at… The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on … Step Two Contents of the study: the frequently used formats To introduce the main participants or materials • • • • The present study has investigated …by using / analyzing…( participants / materials) In this study. yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned. however. ( Previous studies) have examined …. we inquired / examined / evaluated … ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved…( participants / materials). ( the related problem)…remains unsolved. ( the related problem) is that…. because… While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to….• • • • (The research subject)…. (the present agreement) is still problematic. To present the purpose of the present study: • • • • • The purpose / intention of this paper is… The primary goal / aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper / study. despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…. In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions)….

• • • • • The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting … The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…. and evaluated. a transition . we conducted the present study. And the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… The data / results obtained appear to ….. the results also imply the further study into… The investigation / experiment varied by.. it is also found that… It is concluded that…. a review of previous studies. Step Three Results. findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns • • • • • • The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that…. we concluded that… Section 2. categorized ….. thus we may conclude that … As a result of the current experiments. Introduction Writing The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background).

the main procedures of the present study.it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper.it introduces the focus. a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline. or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction. • Step Four: Present study --. most frequently followed by the present researcher’s hypothesis and assumptions.it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study. • Step Six: Organization of the paper --. solutions or findings.1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : • Step One: Research background --. a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations). the purpose. • Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --. and a definition of research problems in a specific area. In some cases. 2. .to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study.it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies.it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject. • Step Two: Literature review --.it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study. Or • Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --.

With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing. 1997. 1999. Fox. 2002). 1997. Pally. 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students’ difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy. Pally. Ramanathan and Atkinson. 1994. Spack. Stapleton. there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students’ critical thinking ability.1997. disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom. 1997). many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy. Zamel. 1997. 1991. To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing. 2001. while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson. The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson. Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students’ Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing. 1991. assessment criteria and in written feedback on student’s assignments (Woodward-Kron. however. some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh. and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing. and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process.Woodward-Kron. then identify each step used in the two Introductions. Fox. 2001. Hereafter. Spack. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learner’s ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. 1995. 2001). 2001. Fox. Atkinson. Ramanathan & Atkinson. However. 1994. academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing. 2002). 2001. Atkinson & Ramanathan. Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines. 1997). .To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples. 2002. these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions. 1997. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. 1994. Pally. 1999). Matthews.

Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey . production ( Gass and Swain). The interaction hypothesis Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. in press).2... internal learner capacities. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. 1996. 1. 451–452). research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition. . Snow and Snow). Krashen.a and Rhonda Oliver 1. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. particularly grammar. The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students’ development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking.. more quickly ( Ervin. Harley.Then. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. particularly selective attention. Age differences and SLA As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al. I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students’ struggles to meet Western academic writing standards. 2000). However. The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language. 1998). However. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. Finally. and output in productive ways" ( Long. Introduction 1. Long. the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences. for review see Gass et al. 1999). younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages . There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language.1. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom. it is suggested that further studies on ESL students’ development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing. pp. Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica).

3. Children's interactional processes While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers.e. researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson).( Johnson. 7–12 years). Oyama. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. For example. Patkowski and Singleton). Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. However. Bialystok. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Oyama. While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood. noting that classroom organization. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. 1. A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Birdsong and Birdsong). She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. . In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. Johnson. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. For example. for example. In the current study. we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 8–12 year-old range. beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok.e. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period.

The children in their classrooms were 4th. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. A recent study by Mackey et al. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. socially. Finally. as . (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. native speaker) and learner age. showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.and 5th-grade learners of French. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). the children were ESL learners. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old.Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster. and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings. Ellis et al. Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred. however. Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output.e. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. aged 6 to 12. 379). The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults. provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed. mainly their teachers. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. learner vs. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. although not for the amount of feedback provided. that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations. adopting a different operationalization of uptake. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. although only among learnerlearner dyads. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. Van den Branden suggests. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. Among children. paired with native age peers. In Oliver's study. concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges. engaged in task-based interactions. especially in relation to children's L2 development. small groups. the nature of the feedback. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. In a later study.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. Forty-eight dyads. Ellis et al. Lyster and Lyster. Intact classes. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. and dyads have all been studied. Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. and linguistically.

in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. Interestingly.4. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999). Note that the following sentence . have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults.2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above. the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. 1. Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA. research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures. in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children. Specifically. Thus. 2. facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback. however. 626). It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. Research question In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA. including negotiation and recasts. in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback. as it has been shown to do with adults. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. to provide the main purpose. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. Although generally supportive.well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. In summary. arguments and the organization of the paper.

The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer. Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors.2. such as boric acid.patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings.However. Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies. S3[ research focus] Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers.2. at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place. organic solvents. Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached [1]. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however). are typically solution processed at low solids content (7–30 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents [4]. Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope. Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied… .2. rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form [2]. generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present [1]. to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field. particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 85–90 mol% AN [3].1. they are processed in the presence of toxic. 2. commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN. 2.

but Porosoff [13] showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. All-optical cross connects (OXC).8–16]. however. The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. To permit removal of the water from the fibers. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks [1]–[8].B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested… Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5. 16]. and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10. and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile. Example 2 Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth. have not yet been used for the routing . the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 £ 106 lb per year) were reached. approximately 25–45 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing. methanol. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult. As a result. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion. which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures. Coxe [8] showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures. However.11]. a process was developed combining acetonitrile. and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5.

. most likely. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients. Therefore. Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section “Interactional feedback and children's L2 development” ) B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however. [41]. 3. has probably prevented the use of OXC’s in commercial systems [21]–[23]. Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning. usually with a small number of input–output fibers and/or wavelength channels [9]–[20]. [26]. The fact. the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or … Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases. but their use has so far been limited to field trials. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature. the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. [31].of the signals in any of these commercial systems. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. [27]–[36]. [42]. that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. [ the problematic point] + So / therefore. an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction.

V. Example In this paper. we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec. II. The outline of this paper is as follows. we introduce the SCA model on complex networks. VI and VII.4. However. the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. VIII. so-called hub nodes. we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line ρc (ω) in the ρ . To understand the condensation on SFNs with r ≤ 3. In Secs.ω plane with the exponent т =5/2. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. III and IV. have a finite fraction of links. . Finally. The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study. …(the organization) The outline the paper is as follows…. respectively. on SFNs with r ≤3 where one or several nodes. on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3. In Sec. we investigate / examine / explore… The paper start from …. sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. the focus is on … In this paper. we discuss the SCA model at ω = ∞ and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees. Typical Sentence Patterns: • • • • • The aim of the present / current study is to …[ See the above example] In this paper. we summarize our results in Sec. As we shall see. Then.

It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials. apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis .Section 3. The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1): • • Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for … (for example. networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials • • • • • This part should mention: • • • • • • • The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials. Method and Materials This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines.

viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. • The camera is mounted in the radial position. the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. • . • A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. • The SILL is a self-scoring. the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. • A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. • SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels.The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. and by elementary and advanced level students. • In addition to the measures described above. 1990). Sometimes. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements. including patterns of use. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. • Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. Sample 1 . it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. For example. For example. • While fixing the β source.

from 21 different countries: Japan.3. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). see below).5. Taiwan. mid-elementary. 5. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. for instance. New Zealand. which takes about 10 min. In part A. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level. commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan.consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework.1995 ). There were 114 male students and 234 females. so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details. consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers.2. There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23. China. while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). 5. The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140–150 on the Oxford Placement Test. Germany. upper intermediate and advanced. selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals’ patterns of strategy use. Spain. Italy. is deemed an “independent user”. upper elementary. the population of the school averaged around 100. one of which is reported here. Participants’ levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels. Poland. Malaysia.2).Switzer land. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland. pre-intermediate. Arriving students were given the widely used. as explained in Section 5. Over the period of the study (one year). The listening test.1. Russia. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers’ perspectives on language learning strategy use. midintermediate. In part B. and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary. Indonesia. aged 14–64. Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere.Argentina. Hong Kong. Czechoslovakia. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. France. The school did not accept total beginners. Denmark. including patterns of use. Brazil. In the 100-item grammar test. Overall design of the study The study had three phases. The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and . Thailand . students must select one of three options (for instance: “In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun”). a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. Some were new arrivals at the school. which takes about 50 min to complete. Korea. Portugal . The study 5. Tahiti. whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a “minimal user”.

therefore. lack of self-awareness by students. 1994. varying interpretations of terms. 5. depended on a combination of the OPT score. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as ‘‘I review English lessons often’’ to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). Turner.1990 ). Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency. and other factors (for details. possibly an assessment of written competence. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. However. their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen. 5. p. Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se. see Oxford.89 to 0. The level at which a student was working at any particular time. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. Dornyei. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a . Guetal.5.1998. including self-report strategy questionnaires. and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class. motivation.98 in various studies.1995 ). but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. Oxford.19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately.1994. the oral interview assessment. Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options..4. 1998. Ellis. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. 2003. 1990). Cohen. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts.2003. The SILL was chosen for this study because it is “perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date” (Ellis. learning styles. according to which they might be promoted. a written task might be added.1995. The SILL is a self-scoring. Ellis. have been debated in the research literature (for instance. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement. The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire. and the effects of cultural background on response patterns. Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0. Dorrnyei. 1994. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school.539) and has been widely used.grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: “Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?”).1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock.

A 12. The β source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. 1. B. as indicated in Fig. that is. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level. This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels.5 or above (Oxford. giving a peak discharge current of about 190– 245 kA. In one experiment. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 μm active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters. C. a mean of 3.6. which is slightly tapered towards the open end.special Study Skills class held during the students’ first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the school’s facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied). In addition.5 μF single capacitor. Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb. 1. and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation). powered the device. is used . The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter. charged at 19–25 kV. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system. it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. While fixing the β source. 1990). 5. Preionization A mesh-type radioactive β source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0. Sample 2 II. and significant differences (Student’s t).

and elevated at 1. 2. except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. E.71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 4–7.71 keV window.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K αline of 8.μm-thick Co and Ni filters.μm-thick Ni foils.μm-thick Co and 17. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200. tables and diagrams) and written texts. The figures show the complete . Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals.μm diameter multipinhole apertures is used. D.5±0. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 19±0. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film. Results The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig.1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8.1 cm from the anode tip. The transmission curves and the detectors’ response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig. For the study of Cu K α line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20. During the experiment with Pb insert. a set of Mo (10 μm). 3. Section 4.05 keV.to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum. During the experiment with Pb insert. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K α line radiation. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy. It is always followed by researchers’ comments or interpretations of these findings.5. The camera is mounted in the radial position. and Pb (55 μm) covers three p-i-n diode detectors. the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used. The pinholes are masked separately with 10. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range. Ag (50 μm).

An effective introduction of results should present: • • • An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1). The results of sustained stage increase for each group. in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage. 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development. 2) Sample 1 3. 2. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage.and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. This difference was significant according to Fisher's . are summarized in Table 5. The effect of … on…has… ( Fig. the effect of … Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of … The effect of … on … is shown / summarized in Fig. 2 shows. the influences of … As shown in Table 2. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage. Results 3. whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development. A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2). As can be seen. a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3) The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: • • • • • • Fig.1. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of … on … As Fig.

exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: • • • As can be seen / found, the first group of … while the second…. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater … than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in … These results suggested that the effect of … was either close to or slightly lower than that of …

Sample 2
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without β source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with β source as compared to without β source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the β source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.

The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • These findings accord with / are consistent with those of … These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is … There is …( a general statement) …, the possible reason is that … It is considered / found that…, these may suggest the reason why….

Sample 3
It is evident from Figs. 5–8 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without β source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K α and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K α and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that β source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.

Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion

As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers’ explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:

Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?

• •

According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?

Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?

• •

Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researcher’s

contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).

Sample
IV. DISCUSSION

This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.

1.5 cm amplitude. They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%.9 cm amplitude experiment. non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data. an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation. Moreover. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation. in the imaging of moving lung tumors.21 This large range. This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion. Moreover. while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%.9% and 1. It must be kept in mind. In the 3. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients. In clinical practice. with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol. with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction.4% on average for the respective modalities. the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced.15. the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2. the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data . The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study. Pevsner et al. that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air. both underestimating and overestimating the volume. However.With information of tumor motion. an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. regardless of their attenuation correction methods. In Fig. In the current study. however. emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT. Nehmeh et al. up to 46% deviation from the true volume. When the motion amplitude is smaller than the sphere’s diameter. the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III). The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. 4. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. where some part of the sphere was present in every phase. and little actual attenuation occurred.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume.

which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1.8 cm. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift.1 Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the original hypothesis or assumption in this section. the calculated differences will not be significant. In future studies. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2. . the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans. indicate that a slight phase shift was still present. are not correlated with respiration. it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone. however. The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing. then show the differences or the matching degree between them. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3. respectively) show good correlation.9 and 4. less motion artifacts. the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. either CT or PET. but perhaps even more important. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices. 5. the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point.was 75% lower than found with RCPET. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important. the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined. and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. followed by a review of the most important findings. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. equal to the slice thickness. V. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. For both systems.

It could . Therefore… • • • • • In this paper (study). The results demonstrate that… We originally assumed that …. The reason why… is that… It was originally assumed that …. show that…. A further explanation. The results. it was found that ….. The differences between … are …. The data in the present study show that …. The possible reason may … 5. The results presented above show that…This suggests that… This study has presented a specific method for measuring…. however. This evidence led us to (infer that) …. because… This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in…. This suggests that… Existing theories suggested that …. show that … In this paper. we have reported the significant effect of…. however. However. It is considered that ….sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences.. The results (or data) show that …. We originally hypothesized that the effect of …. the findings show that…. The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that…. The results in this study show that …. the differences between ( the significant effect of)… were investigated (has been reported). is an important support for the conclusions. The following are the typical sentence patterns: • • • • • • This research investigated the differences between ……. Thus. The results. it is found that ( the fact ) results in… This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of …. In the present study. however.2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section. The possible reason is… The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which….

Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper. unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this could be that inadequate use of …increased … These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in … resulted in … For the general • • • • • This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are … This rapid increase ( decrease ) in …is attributed to … The enhancement in … may be caused by… It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of … increases … 5. when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies. the past tense is frequently used. When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study. the present tense is preferred. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is “may” as shown in the following sentence patterns.3 Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study itself.be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. For the present study: • • • • It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of … It is possible ( likely. In contrast. Compare the following two examples: .

confirm ) that… Our conclusion is that… Therefore we may infer that… These findings support the hypothesis that … Our data provide the evidence that … It appears ( seems. imply ) that… The data reported here imply (suggest. To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing. For example.4 Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design. • A: In the current study. the results of the study. the theoretical models. as it has been shown to do with adults. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • • • • These results indicate (suggest. as it has been shown to do with adults. the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring. or the limitation of the samples. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children. the present tense is to show the limitations of the research . They could be the research methodology. indicate. suggests ) that… 5. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies. show.• • A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies. • B: In the current study. the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring.

Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate. • • • The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. . For example. • • • The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small. the present tense and modal verbs “may” or “might” are frequently used. but cannot implemented in real time applications. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study. For example. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. Sometimes. • We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall.methodology. When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results. model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments. writers may start with “we” and use “admit” or “ recognize” to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. • • • Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results.

In practice. Another interesting topic would be to examine how …[ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study …[ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. 5. Thus.• We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor.3 Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies to the further research or practical applications of the results. it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. The generality of …[ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of …[research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for …[ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in …[ a practical area] such as … Further studies should focus on the practical use of …[ the results] into …[ a practical area] . the effect of …[ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined. the following sentence patterns are frequently used. • • • • • • • • • A further experiment should be conducted with …[ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of …[ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply …[ a new aspect of the theory] to … In the future.

To present a direct suggestion or recommendation. • • • • We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with …[ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of …[ different materials or procedures] In the future. a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic. we will investigate the effect of …[ the results in present study] in a series of studies. For example. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with …[ other research method] . or use “ we suggest that …” and we recommend that…”.

the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies. Generally. MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list. 2003) noted. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details.127.Chapter 4 Reference Styles Different journals may use quite different reference styles. As Nature (424. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts. thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere. in which references are listed alphabetically. the typical citation system is the same. APA (American Psychological Association) style. the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected. Section 1. Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year. which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list. APA-Style References APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation. The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers. see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). two reference styles. . Besides.

. the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors’(’s) work If you summarize the author’s work in your text. APA journals use the author-date method of citation. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&). place both the name and the year. For example. include only the year. separated by a comma. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. but within you text spell out the word and. The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter. 1. • • • Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. • Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. that is. Otherwise. When you refer to a work by two authors.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point. cite both names each time the reference appears. cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System Quoting directly or indirectly within the text. in parentheses. the writer must provide the source of documented information.1. 1999). even if the reference includes month and year.

Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).

When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author’ the page number follows the end of he quotation. • As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, “English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, …with values, and these values … with dilemmas and conflict” ( p. ix). • This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are “preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved” (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). • Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are “almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities” ( p. 422). • Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, “When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors’ work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of

the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, • • However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are “group rights” (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). • It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). • This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).

1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. For example,
• Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martínez-Roldán, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. …, For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that…

There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,

for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Várady, 1999).

Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, “The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice” (1995 , p. 16). …, According to Phillipson et al. (1995), …

When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al” (not underlined and with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, • As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. • Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by “et al.” For example,
• • • Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Várady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)

The In-text quotation should be:
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)

Within the text. For example. Scollon (1994). titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list. • Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. R. For example. there is “much added value” in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin. To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone. use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ. or periodical is underlined. brochure. you may use . Scollon and S. • According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States. and articles. report. whether in parentheses or not.When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name. • The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in “College English” (1998) and “ College Core English” (1996). Scollon (1994). 1. except conjunctions.3). To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author. short prepositions. If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example. and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. All words are capitalized. 2003.3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. p. B. a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text. W. the title of a book.

1989)… The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa. refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list. 1931). When you know the original date of publication. ii) • The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada. trans. followed by version. 2000)… E.d. 2002. such as for some very old works. in large measure. the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community. cite in text the author’s name. for “no date. P.(Aristotle.” When a date of publication is inapplicable. • • Darwin’s metaphors (as quoted by Gould. preceded by trans. ( TESOL News Letters. C.. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication. cite the year of the translation you used. James(1890/1983) D. For example. your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use. or the year of the version you used. • The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are. include this in the citation. followed by a comma and n. Specific Parts of a Source . To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source. 2005) stressed that…. The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested ….NSF for National Science Foundation).

(2000). the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition. J.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: • Elements of Each entry: author. the list of sources is entitled “References”. p. figure.” (1999. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. Language. year of publication. . 2. . 58). “Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.To cite a specific part of a source. and publishing data. conversely. or equation at the appropriate point in text. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: • In short. . For example: Cummins. power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. indicate the page. Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. Reference List In APA style. to oppress people. 24-25) 2. as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s. References cited in text must appear in the reference list. • As David Corson argued. title. or to do almost anything in between. chapter. table. “Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of ‘negotiation’ over meaning at every turn” (1977. Always give page numbers for quotations. pp.

Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342.• The list must be double-spaced. Educational Review 43: 191199. H.M. (1991). Discourse analysis: An introduction. A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities. (1997). N. Gass. Janks. Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. A. For example. For example. Ft. Janks. Rodman. & Rodman.).. An introduction to language (7th ed. Interaction and the Second Language Learner. R. . Fromkin. Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Mahwah. M. S. .. NJ (1997). Worth. Fettes. • One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication.. • Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (2003). the earliest first. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations. & Hyams. (1997). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Fairclough. For example. TX: Harcourt Brace. London: Longman. Georgakopoulou. N. Fromkin. (1995). (1993). D. R. Entries should start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). Input. and arranged in alphabetical order. & Goutsos. For example. A critical approach to the teaching of language. An introduction to language (5th ed.). V. (1992). • On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. Boston: Heinle. H. V. (1997).

Mahwah. Values in English language teaching. Gass S.M.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style. The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. V. • References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author. & Hyams. (1993). interaction. TX: Harcourt Brace. R. (2003).M. 2. • Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. and so on. A. 299–307. MD: Linstok Press.). Burtonsville. pp. & Varonis. Mackey. B. Boston: Heinle.) Trans. different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. E. (2003). Fromkin. N. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 283–302. and Pica T. (Eds.Gass. Johnston.. & Rodman.M. Rodman. 2 nd ed. S. pp. (1998). language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students. Ed. (1993). V. S. Ed. Input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994). Johnston. An introduction to language (5th ed. Ft.. and second language production. Language choice. Worth. R.). An introduction to language (7th ed. Modern Language Journal 82 (1998).. (1994). For example. Fromkin. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and .

B. All words . give the month and day. pt. manuals.(1994). the volume number.(1994). Nonperiodical: Author. Location: Publisher. the volume number. A. and proper names within both are capitalized. A period follows the author.A. Author.) Vol. For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s). and the page numbers are separated by commas. followed by the initials (not the entire first names). B. Title of work. magazines. and audiovisual media. (PP.P. For magazine and newspaper articles. they can be presented as follows: Periodical Author. Suppl. the first word of the subtitle. Title of Article. the italicized title of the periodical. vols. The year of publication follows in parentheses. tech.﹠Author. the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals.C. XXX-XXX. page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement In general. No. A. XX. Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals. A.. not enclosed in quotation marks. certain monographs. the title of the article. and the end of the entry. scholarly newsletters. reports..Rep. Only the first work of the article title. For a basic entry. and so on. of all authors. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books. brochures. C. Next comes the title of the article. The name of the periodicals. the date. Title of Periodicals.

followed by a period. New York Times. 38(2). or pp. For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author. P. Nov.. (2006. June. G. The date of publication appears in parentheses. (1996). as well as the year. Article by Two Authors Makoni. is used to indicate page(s). is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. For example. 797-799. B12. 101-105.14th ). A. (2005. For example. Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. 2. Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines. edited books and work cited in another work. The title of the article. The title of Journal. Science of Psychology. 20th ). 1. Douglasa. followed by periods. (2005). T. Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. the volume. except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p. S. The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author. Sussan. S. 1829-1840. & Pennycook. and the pages. For example. followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first names. South African Medical Journal 86 (1). Article by One Author Smith.or pp.except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical. Journal paginated by Issue Reagan. Gas crisis in the world. The language rights of the deaf. J. The abbreviation p. Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any). (2006). Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. Only the first word of the . 137-156..

The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized “In” and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd. (Original work published 1859) .. The names of university presses are spelled out. the first word of the subtitle. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.G.) or.Sussan. Globalization and educational rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location.(2002). For example. 3rd. A. Use parentheses to the page numbers. (Eds. Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah. J. Mahwah.) New York: Harp& Row Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. The entry ends with a period. and proper names within both are capitalized. Place an ampersand(﹠)before the name of the last author. Ed. For example. & Tsui. Ernst Mayer). The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. eds).book title. Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author. abbreviated (Rev. J. Postal Service abbreviations for states. Second language acquisition (3rd ed.4th. list he names of all the authors. Spring.S. Tollefson. Facts of publication include the city of publication and. For example. c. (2001). On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etc. Darwin.). For example. Use U. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. . (2004). the name of the state. (1964). if it is a word.

For example.C. (1999). Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process. Eggington (eds. The identifying title.) or editors (Eds. Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U. place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position.). if any. present by “in press” within parentheses. Stanton. D.S.) within parentheses in the author position. Policy and ideology in the spread of English. 7-21). Beltsville.The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. series. The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. (2000). Woods. Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book. (1987). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted. Tollefson. J. even if it is well known. Department of Agriculture). In J. D. Hall & W. (Ed. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears.). The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym. or number of the report.Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. For example. indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary . If it is presented at a conference or symposium. should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. MD: National Agriculture Library. For example.

D.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods. DC. The Language Teachers Online [On-line]. For example. The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks. For example. McDonough. Oliver. S.hyper. Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies. the name of the state may be omitted. B. Washington. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Georgetown University..org/rrpts. (2003. A. Leeman. an the method or path used to retrieve the material. and Kirsch.chubu. it requires more information than you normally need for print sources. the title of the section you used. Leeman.. October). RR-61[On-line]. J. K. If the name of the city is well known. 21 (10). ---placed within brackets. a statement about availability of the product. Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source. including E-journals and CD-ROM. (1997). should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material. J. (2001). Woods.html .ac. include both city and state. if any.after the title. J. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address.. diskette. A study on Adult learners’ incorporation of feedback. etc. Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads. a description of the medium—On-line Journals. the title of the entire source underlined. R. Available: www. ONT. CD-ROM. Mackey.html Taylor.toefl. Language Learning (in press). Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning. Available: http//langue. otherwise. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author. (1998). Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased. the date. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL. (in press). Eignor. Toronto.

1. • Woods’ series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190). Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. paraphrase. as the following examples indicate: • Recently. a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries. MLA-style References Similar to the APA style. The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. or summary. there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189). According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. In-text Documentation Unlike APA format. to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries. whether in the form of direct quotation. you need not repeat the name within parentheses. 1. MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section.Section 2.1 To quote from authors less than four . When the author’s name appears in the introduction the material. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s).

Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen. • • Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e. preceded by a comma.g. For example. in the reference. Jr. For example. • Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their “encounters” in her book Listening to the World (2). • That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian. the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35).. include the first initial in subsequent references. For example. Jansen 43) and ( S. When you have more than one author with the same last name. For example.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author . • Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook. include the designation Jr.When citing the resources with the author named in the text. a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the author’s name in your list of works cited. you should put the page number at the end of the cited section. When the two authors are father and son. 1. When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title. 67). use the subsequent references ( H. you do not need a parenthetical reference. When you cite from the author not named in text. Graff).. with the son designated as Jr.

use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy. When a work has four or more authors. Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (“Ancient Pharaoh Statue”). Clinchy. shortening it to two or three words. 100-30) or (Belenky. and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author. (AMNH 15). because the entry should be alphabetized by “ancient”. 1.3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors. hereafter AMNH) . For example. 1. • The authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing make a distinction between “separate knowing “and “connected knowing” (Belenky et al. after the first citation) in place of the name of the author. • The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12. You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to “Pharaoh. Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited. compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: • Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell).” for example. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list. • Due to air pollution. you may list all four authors or give only the last name of the first author followed by “er al”. use the title in parentheses.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited.…. .. Goldberger.

use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. • Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation. to use (Errors 79. use the author’s name and the abbreviation “vol. separate entries with a semicolon.When you quote material from a source other than the original. use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). • Goethe wrote that “it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd. To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work.”. The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. introduce the name of the source with “ qtd.5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work. For example. • This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman. For example. When you have two works or more by the same author. For example. • Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozart’s The Magic Flute (2:104-05). In Newman 2:104) 1. vol. “Diving in”68. Brooks and Warren 5) . For example. For example. In”. 2).

Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. and Johnston. D. New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261–285. M. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list.2. For example. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97–111. along with the editor of the volume. AMEP.1 Construct of the reference list In general. Oliver. Adelaide. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. 2. you should continue into the second line. you must list each article by author in the works cited section. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as “ the first (surname) + comma + the last name” . The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author. Pienemann M. • MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible. 1987: 45–141. Sussan. If you cannot finish within one line. For example. “A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system”. “University Press” . “The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions”. Richard. • Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space. For example. Oyama. “Factors influencing the development of language proficiency”. • When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it. the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation. Ed Nunan. the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: • All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity.

Fox. B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely. Ed. 413–68. 1996. For the famous publishing house. of a publisher before the name of the publisher. T. Second Language Acquisition.P. Hakelly. Dorothy Collin. 1996.H.can be abbreviated as UP or U. 80-88.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author. M. compilers. Ed. Martin Dodsworth. EG: 127-51. Revisting the Washback. “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition”. and Bhatia. For example. Ritchie C. New York : Academic P. vol. Handbook of Language Acquisition. Such as 17-18. MLA also puts the name of the imprint. or division. 28-59. 311-19. etc. Long. Intod. citing a book published Harper and Row’s Colophon series as Colophon-Harper. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) “the title of the article” 3) the name of the magazine . Harmondsworth. etc. Eng.K. • The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. 2. For example. (the key words only). Dell. 2. the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. : Penguin. it can only be noted down as: Harper.

cite only the first.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s).1. and the facts of publication. and Barbara Katz Rothman. placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s). For example. Book by four or more authors . Wendy. the title of the book with any subtitle. If the state is needed for clarification. Postal Service Abbreviations. the names of any additional authors are not inverted. Invert the first author’s name. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space. Philadelphia: Temple UP. Italicize the complete title and subtitle. Richard Dien.4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2. Book by a single author Winfield. use U. but not the final period. Book by two or three authors Simons. Law in Civil Society. Abbreviate the publisher’s name. And if the country or province is needed. 1995.S. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. available in most dictionaries. which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials. which include the city of publication. include a standard abbreviation. If several cities are listed. Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. 1992. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. compiler(s).

For example.” [ed. McPherson.” is preferred. 1995. Chicago: ALA. for translator(s) ] . When the corporate author is also the publisher. the date of publication followed by a colon. 1992. or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the author’s position. for editor. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times.” or “trans.” “comp. the name is not repeated. eds.Instead of presenting the names of all authors. meaning “and others. Robert. New York: Rodale. Article in a scholarly journal Fox. New York: Rutledge. the volume number (for a scholarly journal only). American Museum of Natural History.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen. Reconditioning the Bicycle. . “Technical Writing Skills. An edited. for editors. the abbreviation “et al. and (3) the information of publication. for compilers. which usually includes the name periodical (italicized). not the Los Angeles Times). English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. the series name and number if any.” Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16. William. ed. the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books. (2) the full title of the article within quotation marks. Janna. 2. comps. and trans. Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. et al. for compiler. Baum. 1989. 1987. Annual Report. New York. followed by an abbreviation for “ed. comp. 1993-1994.1. compiled.”. and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears.

” Kenyon Review ns 12. Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd.” Miami Herald 22 July 1995.4(1979): 22. “An Interview with Josie Graham. “Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage. for international. “Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich. include its designation. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume.Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified. Thomas.” Denver Quarterly 26.) Donnelly. “The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History. Mercer.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. Pamela. 52(July 1995):483-87. “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature. “U.” New York Times 27 July 1995. after the date (natl.: D7. and do on. for national. Nwezeh.:1A+. 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. Klein. Peter. excluding any introductory article. Article in a magazine .E. such as the. Milton M.” Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22.S. intl. treat the issue number like a volume number. intl. late city ed. C.1(1995): 103-19. ed. John.Venture Bets Colombian Coal. abbreviated. Erickson. use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead.

J. Brody. “If you have the advertisement you don’t need the product. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia.For a weekly magazine.” Science News 18 Mar. “Primary Trait Scoring. Evaluating Petty. Kinoshita.” Cooper and Odell.” Battaglia 59-76. June. “On Eccentricity. Gary Tate and Edward P. one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation. Shaughnessy. Corbett. “How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar. Anonymous magazine article “Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. for a monthly. ed. and July. Abbreviate all months except May. Roy.” The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook. Howard. 1995. 1995:171. 1995:26-31. Walter T. your entry begins with the author of the article. Research 73-84. Entry for article in the edited volume. New York: Oxford UP. Ed. U of California P. give day. 2. 1981. month.1. June.” Cooper and Odell. Debbora. “The Writing of Young Children. Marcus. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s).” Battaglia 43-58. Wagner . “The Mapping of the Mind. use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. give the month and year only.3 Reference List for Electronic Sources: .” New York Times Magazine 18 Oct. Richard. and year. Rhetorics of Self-making. 6268. Lloyd-Jones. “Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. Mina P. George E. 1992: 44+.

Georing.4. in quotation marks. and. For example. an assess preceded by the word Available from.The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources. the name of the computer network or vendor and. if necessary for your purpose. E.0. number of pages (if applicable). 6MB. etc. WA: Microsoft. if any . [Computer software]. a description of the medium(CD-ROM. the date of electronic publication.31. Windows 4. Release 2. in the case of on-line or E-mail materials. volume or issue number. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry.: Space-time Research 1998. year or date of publication (in parentheses). diskette. Redmond.niss. Hawthone East. the date you accessed the source. The equipment required to run it. The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author. Gardern. CD-ROM.2003. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism. . Vic. if it is not well known.DOS 3. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]. Version. P.). 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed. the title of the section you used.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003.1 rev. the title of the entire source. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England.ac. italicized. On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery. Paul. [ disk]. et al.

you need identify i) coverage and organization. Generally.Chapter 5 Proofreading and Editing --. Proofreading 1. proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft. and ii) presentation.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles.to Finalize the Draft A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning. to do the proofreading of a research paper. Focus on Argumentation: • Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? • Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? • • Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument? . drafting. you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required. Section 1. When editing the final draft.

Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?

Focus on Forms: • • • • • Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?

1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.

I. Wording
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).

Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be

Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is

Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of …. in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of

Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In …, for…. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for

by. result to date round is mall after consider this fish. oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that Concise use for academic writing form.Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape. Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British . with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that II. these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by. Spelling It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in China’s EFL (English as Foreign language) context. due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far. because because about source oval because.

in the paper. to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones. 1996). American (1) e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit “-e” acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction British ae. especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu.English in spoken and written languages. oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion (3) (4) . As a basic requirement.

enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) .connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im. inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-.

humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae. C. undergraduate ill (12) (13) .V.

To express Reason: because . which (see the examples below from published papers) . as ( see the examples below from a published paper) When the battery is charged. In the charged state. (ii) agreement of contexts. skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article. Logic of long sentences Any publishable research paper has limits of words. post code III. when. the ions migrate back to provide the energy. the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. where. and (iii) completeness of structures. as. The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions. since To present Attributive: that. Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if . If a spark occurs. for. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. as. lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. As such. As the battery is used.sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode. the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees. For example.

the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi ∞ [Fig. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. Hence by taking the average. based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state. To see this more explicitly. such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun. (5). To indicate Results: therefore.0 and ρ=1. hence. unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub. as it has been shown to do with adults. while. although (see the examples above and below from published papers) In summary. While paragraphing. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate.0. The inset of Fig. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4х105 on SFN with γ=2. there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP. mk ~k. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. so that. Although generally supportive. However. we derive the relation. the proper use of articles and single or . studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. the peak soaks into the average mass mk. Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. but. 6(b)]. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children.4 for ρ=3.In the steady state. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. however. Interestingly. As shown. thus. the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts. To express Transition: however. so.

To study the following materials from a published paper. socially. the anode. and linguistically. may help build up clearness and conciseness. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid. The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" . and a strip of graphite. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. which serves as the cathode. such as parallel structures and absolute structures. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing. Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. However. Completeness of structures Proper use of structures. oxygen and a flammable fluid. you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph.plural forms of pronouns. The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition.

and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills. Generally. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. the term should . (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. Dell said the batteries.Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al. to meet the requirements of Abbreviation. Section 2. If the abbreviation is needed. as discussed in Chapter 4. Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing. could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. Editing: Final Draft Apart from following the documentation formats. In this section.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation. capitals and punctuations in research paper writing. was made apparent Monday with Dell’s recall of 4.1 million laptop batteries. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops. 1. made by Sony. including the styles of in-text citation and reference list.

I. Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands.be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM). PC --. . The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File.in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --.in the journals of Chemistry CPU. Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction. ROM. The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): • • • • IEEE --. Smith. Memory (MEM). Execute (EX). P. Li.. articles and the conjunction word “and” . ( the chemical elements) --. RAM. …. such as Kim.in the journals of Applied Linguistics O. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized. L. .in the journals of computer sciences The abbreviations in the reference list • The first name of authors. The EX stage had the ALU. Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided. and using an automatic tool flow. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas. and Write-Back (WB). Fox. For example. D. J.S. For example. The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory. Most abbreviation omits the prepositions. The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD). which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address. For example.

( means “and others”) Ed. ( Second edition). g (gram). Vol. h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter). ( Editor or editors). For example. (liter). K(kelvin). μ (micron) Area: sq. cl ( centiliter).• • • • The names omitted by et al. Chap. (square meter) sq. or pp. ( number) The names of the states of America The abbreviations of units of measures and weights • 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter). ( volume). kl (kiloliter) 2. kg ( kilogram). Weight and mass: mg (milligram). Rev. s (second). m. km (kilometer). km (square kilometer). Or Eds. A (ampere). cd( candela) • • • • • Time: s (second). including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses. ( Revised edition) P. This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?" . mol (molal). No. ( chapter). 2 nd ed. kg (kilogram). t ( ton) Capacity: l. mm (millimeter). ( page or pages). min (hour). ml (milliliter). dm (decimeter). Ed. Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above: • Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized.

but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents. Klemperer’s thesis. the nationality. . For example. the widely accepted names. For example.• The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. in essence. etc. the country. the language. diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal. • The capitalization in formula. The title of an article The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude The title of a book cited Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies • The first letter of any specialized nouns. such as the person’s name. was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool. for example.

2005. 2004). there are still a lot of differences between them. so far as . “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang. Yu. p. On the other hand. 3). Period ( “ ” ) To compare the two sentences Noam Chomsky once commented that. 1993. Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. we know.3. ( √ ) .

( √ ) The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. unique to man.”) To study the two sentences. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. to take place. and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. such as clarifications of meaning. and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments. p 3) ( Χ ) Comma (“. as discussed above. ( Χ ) However. such as timing and developmental readiness. which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests.Noam Chomsky once commented that. This is of course an empirical question. ( √ ) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur.” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. so far as we know. 1993. ( Χ ) (2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors. rather than on immediate responses. research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than . ( Χ ) To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place.

but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok. n.” The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension. ( √ ) Ellipsis (“ …”) To study the following example ending with “…. an empirical question . such as timing and developmental readiness. …. …. 2..other factors. 3. . N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 …+ S0 K(n-1) Dj. refer to the respective nuclei. I've got a dad and a son.. where j = 1. This is." In the formula The subscripts 1.. of course. 2.

Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer .

Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol .

Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech .

Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut .

Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U. Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc) .S.

Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool .

Inc. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers.Godine. Inc. Publishers Abbrs AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster ..Appendix II Abbrs. Inc. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Inc. Inc. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers Publishers A. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co.A.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . David R.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little.. Inc.. Futura Publishing Co.Publishers.. Inc. Les Editions INSERM Little. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc.. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone.Inc Merck& Co. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row.Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication.

. Les Editions INSERM Little. Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge. Inc. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone. Inc.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc.. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing . Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Inc.Godine. Inc.. Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV Abbrs Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR. Futura Publishing Co.Inc Merck& Co.. Inc. Inc.Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Inc. Chapman &Hall Sage Publication.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers. David R. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.Publishers. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc.. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge..

Publishers Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins Abbrs Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St.H. B. Inc The Shoe String Press. Inc. Inc. Saunders Company W. The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Reader’s Digest Association. Martin’s Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press. Martin’s State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Reader’s Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins . The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W.

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