An Introduction to Academic Writing:
Publishable Research Paper
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments • Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Author’s name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;
Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis • Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse • Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper • Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline • Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice
Final grades will include the attendance.Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing. Topic assignments: 1. Write one proposal report 2. practice the use of Punctuations. structures and sample analysis of application letters. in-class assignments and final test. Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments. pre-reading assignments and after-class readings. format of a research paper. Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization.
. Identify the format errors in Punctuations. the presentation and the logic of long sentences. sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. students’ assignments will be evaluated. and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers. Abbreviation 2. Sample analysis of one research paper • Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis. C V and resume. Practice CV and resume 3.
1. Research Methodologies and Procedures. and organizing ideas in writing. Discussion and Conclusion.Chapter 1
Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students. Research Paper Format
Although different languages and their cultures have different “rules” for presenting. the course tries to present typical writing styles. explaining. References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any). While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students’ errors in vocabulary or grammar. it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. Results and Findings. meet the requirements of the Western academic community. Introduction ( literature review). The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper:
. attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English. particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format. in terms of international communications or publications. preferences. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms.
argumentation and hypothesis • • • • • • Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs. In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion. conclusion and implications or suggestions
Introduction ( Literature Review)
To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation • To review previous research • To present arguments and hypothesis
Terms to generalize research concerns • The purpose and background of present study • The scope and focus to develop the study • Problems. 2) MLA (Modern Language Association
• Research Methodologies and Procedures •
To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results
• Results and Findings •
• • Discussion and Conclusion •
To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications
• • • • • • •
• References ( or Bibliography) •
. paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a
. Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. 2. tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers’ findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ).Items
• • Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms • •
To frame the writer’s idea To identify the writer’s contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues • • •
Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings.
who were able to
. The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers. or data. RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links. Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. but distinct from. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales. device design. However.paragraph. which severely limited the applications of such links. the RF performance of such links was often modest at best.Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. typically one would obtain from such a “design” a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB.
( Presenting by direct indication expressions)
Initially naive “link design” merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. More recently. It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts. of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. which is closely related to. . To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design. and terrible at worst. Technique one--. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al. evidence.
( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets.
operating voltage. attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy.
( Presenting by detailings)
During the last decades. whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. results or ideas. For example. or support writer’s preference for one over the other.
Technique Two--. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects. while contrast deals with the differences existing between them.achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design.Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review. Results and Findings or Discussion. material and shape of electrodes. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writer’s attitude and suggestion. Such limits have proven useful in providing a “calibration” on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable. reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact.
. preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions. proper election of anode length and insulator. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance. nature and pressure of working gases. circuit inductance.
By contrast. 2) by reducing V and increasing P. We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature).
( For developing a conclusion)
Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as “RF” or “analog” optical links. but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components. Thus.
( For developing a summary)
To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design. we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. This is in contrast to “digital” optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%.Sample 1
( For organizing the literature review)
By comparing the first two topologies. we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter.
. it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices. although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play. this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier. one in front of and one behind the switch. the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters.
we may capture the essence. we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45. Luo & Cooper. cause-effect. with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC. (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification.000 per home-owning employee.Technique Three--. Stroh. 1990). by definition.Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas. we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. comparison-contrast.)
( Classification by grouping and examplication)
According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC). cost-of-living
. 1990). upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons. results. These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving. real estate assistance. 1994. set the boundary. By classifying. In classification. concepts. including exemplification. according to their similarities and differences. 1994). spouse employment assistance. while definition explains limits and specifies. In addition to being a costly investment for organizations. such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse’ loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw. relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. etc.. among other services. To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving. ect. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques. On the other hand. most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett. family visits to the new area. This can include. and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept. & Reilly.
1993. Finally. First. From this research. this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment.
( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind. Specifically. these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement. we explore two main issues. and work-role transitions was reviewed.. as well as couples with children living at home. Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. 1994). single-income and dual-income couples. The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables. and interaction adjustment.
. the research on domestic relocation. Although there are other comparisons that could be made. general adjustment. we systematically compare employees’ and spouses’ perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses.
( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation. international relocation. 1990. ERC. This focus includes comparing male and female employees. and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al. because the spouse’s perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research.adjustments. relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified.
During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under
. Comparing the following samples:
( Focus on the cause)
In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch).Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and –effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. If wavelength converters are used. Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers. the reverse order. it may start from the effect first and then the causes. there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. N signals are combined coming from different input fibers.
( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates. This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format.Technique Four--. Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state. however. some of the power is leaking through the gate. Therefore. 4. the requirements for the filters are less strict. The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters).
( Focus on causes) In Fig. As for the arrangement of such a paragraph. very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. That effect also results in crosstalk.
in many cases • Comparison and Contrast by comparing …. the differences lie in…. especially. be different from. At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel. in particular. however. in comparison with. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. generally. similarly.
Tips for using the techniques
Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. stands opposition
. unlike. have …in common. take ( consider) … as an example. as follows. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect). on the whole. differ from. compare … with. Due to this effect. the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel. each with a different wavelength. in general. nevertheless. almost the same as. resemble. for instance. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: • Exemplification such (…) as. instead. otherwise. on the contrary. likewise. just as. as an example. for example.study and M-1 suppressed channels. be similar to. particularly. in contrast to/ with.
since. there are …kinds / groups /categories/ types of.. be defined / named / known as. as a result. the effect on …is
3. affect the way the non-native students write. now that. given. or “inadequately developed” because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community. the definition of …is . be divided into. According to Matthews (2002). “for writing touches the heart of a student’s identity. as a result of. drawing its
Classification and Definition be categorized as. so that. Their writings are frequently judged as “illogical”. on account of. “lacking focus”. hence. have an effect on. “poorly organized”. result in. as. Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English. thus. problems may develop when these students’ concepts of “effective” writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. because (of ). … is widely accepted as the definition of
Cause and Effect therefore. so as to. be classified as. learned from early childhood. so. consequently. fall into. Helen Fox (1994) in her book “Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing” has noted that cultural differences. due to. accordingly.
Taoism and Buddhism). Preference for clear. direct communication patterns. and set-phrases. attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews. imagery. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information. and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past. emotional)value of writing. avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6. it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic. to accomplish a purpose
Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon .
Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1. messages are expected to be specific and detailed. creative metaphors. Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who “subscribe to Aristotle’s dictum” (p.voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world” (p vi). therefore. artistic. analogies. Focus on clarity. and relevant 5. 790). 1985). and getting to
. Matalene. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles. Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns. 2002. Focus on informational value of writing. simplicity. preferences. Precise. accurate. including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the
2. factual accuracy is stressed
4. therefore. Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism. Information is expected to be specific. and always rely on idioms. clichés.
and values of people in traditional.
language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the reader’s attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds. explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report. they introduce yet another opinion or topic. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11. homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared. and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper. The “burden of meaning” falls on the writer—referred to as “writer responsible” 15. which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary. with a beginning and an end 12. explicit background information and extensive 10. Stress on linear development—points are organized sequentially. but may not state the point or relate the examples to each
13. in the next section they introduce a new topic. essay. with readers expected to infer the writer’s point Writers supply facts. writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. experiences. with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section. Because the backgrounds. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations
. writers in introduce and discuss a topic. examples. Explicit signals—such as transitions—are often necessary to show logical links between ideas. which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic. One theme is favored 9. writers shows respect for the reader’s intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The “burden of meaning” falls on the reader—referred to as “reader responsible” Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point. experiences. Direct. and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse.the point
7. explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed. research paper. etc. the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s). in the final section.
writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas
other.’ the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements— showing respect for the reader’s knowledge.
Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information. step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue. 17.
20. students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers. 19. personal stand. scholarship. examples.
18. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated. Focus on building arguments in a logical.16. and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoning—a single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issue—without taking a strong. even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source
Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical. personal issue—without taking a strong. etc. knowledgeable and ideas. analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts. statistics. questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas. respect for authority is encouraged
In this chapter. 2) basic methods to cite reference materials. the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers.Consistent use of formal tone
. based on the relevance materials. to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. Technique One --. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper. over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writer’s voice. Authority and Plagiarism
Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired.Chapter 2
Voice. and present the researcher’s contribution to a research paper. 3) how to avoid plagiarism. Voice Yourself
Some techniques to show the writer’s identity To show the author’s attitude towards previous research or present argument. the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words. Meanwhile.
Influenced by the first language. the study shows that … Based on … (on the basis of …/ according to …). • • • • • • • In this (such a) case ( way). the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density. Then. we can (may) conclude that… Besides (furthermore. In the SCA model. So …. the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. argue) that … As discussed (mentioned. On SFNs with r ≤3. the present study suggests (shows. shown) that… Basically ( Actually. we know ( the fact is) that…. Apparently. we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices. I would argue (suggest ) that… Because of ( Owing to. masses diffuse with unit rate. Instead. in the steady state. For the existence of the condensed phase for r ≤
. analyzed) above. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community. the critical line ρc (ω ) depends on network structures. due to…) …. and unit mass chips off from mass with rate ω. proves) that … As a conclusion (ending of the paper). So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for ω ≠ ∞. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. and try to make the underlined parts better In our study. Particularly). I think (believe. However. many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. in addition). Practically.
Study the following abstract. we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k− r. The dynamics conserves total mass density ρ. my study has confirmed (demonstrated.
the system with 3.
Study the following conclusion. the present perfect and the past tenses.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1. In addition.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. Besides.4%. at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible. we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r ≤ 3. In particular. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an
. we have investigated 2. we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any ρ > 0 on RNs. degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV.3 at the zero density limit. the present. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46. most frequently used tenses are: the present future. we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. Together with the recent study on SFNs. and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion. the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. We also found that at optimum condition. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r ≤ 3. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant. the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate.3–3. enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. apparently by the impact of electrons’ bombardment. and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r ≤ 3. Further.Proper use of tenses Generally speaking. besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility. at ω = ∞.
Technique Two --. The preionization.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by β source and without preionization.
we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns.
The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report
This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss
several approaches to improving…
a new method for analyzing … a theory that attempts to explain… new equations for expressing…
Or This paper will argue In this paper. we will attempt to show + that / how …
The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract.accepted paper may strengthen writer’s academic attitude and objective tones. Introduction and Discussion of a research report
Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or
has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to
Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on
Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic
The past tense may be used in any part of a research report
The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or
examined / explored / showed
reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated
including the most frequently used modal verbs “ will / would” . Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability.Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers’ attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues.
will / would
. In practical academic writing.The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic
Technique Three --. The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper. “could / should”. A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper. non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs.
Normally. A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example. “may / might”. one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements. a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks.
in the imaging of moving lung tumors. t) in time. • Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV.
. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. • The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min. a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position. most likely.
The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. the time dependence of P(mo±1. the calculated differences will not be significant. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor.
• Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. for example.
However. and will represent several full respiratory cycles. equal to the slice thickness.t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo .The use of “will” is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of “would” spells a conditional high probable degree. • Otherwise. On a PET image. • Given the respiration cycle length (3–6 s).
the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive. the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval.14.
may / might
For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit. • For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state.
Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ).could / should
The use of “could” presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of “should” tells a high degree of certainty. unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation. unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval. aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally.15]. If not.
• According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12. which will finally disappear.
• No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials
To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. • The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage. we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media. • But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. • we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise.The use of “might” presents uncertainty of a statement while “may” is frequently used to show certain degree of probability.
Section 2. which will be
. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. without the prior written permission of the publisher.
In this section. 451–452). internal learner capacities. the writer may directly quote from the original sources. As for a short quotation. 1996. … ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that …
Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. … …. the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: • • • • According to ( the name of the author). and output in productive ways" ( Long. particularly selective attention. … Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted . Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback.discussed in the later chapter. we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. pp. the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. (the name of the author) writes / says. Quoting When citing reference materials. 1. In such case.
. accurate in every aspect including the punctuations.
But most of all.
Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: “These differences. In other words. learned from early childhood. it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth” . Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others’ words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writer’s thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve.Shurmer mentioned “the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements” .when the innovation is subject to network effects” . Paraphrasing is frequently
. and how they comment on their classmates’ paper. They affect how students give oral presentations. how they study. the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words. Warren-Boulton argued “copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low” . They affect how students understand assignments. Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection “if society truly believes it needs the technology. Farrell suggested “the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion . from short critiques of articles they’ve read to dissertation defenses. affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates. these affect the way they write.”
the writer should not use too many direct quotations. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. In effect. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input
.used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writer’s understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers’ work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): • • Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that… Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts. the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3)
While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. the time) When citing other researchers’ work. However. In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers’ work. For example. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes.
production (Gass and Swain). Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand.e. 7–12 years). However.e. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved.from their peers. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong.
Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. 1998). for review see Gass et al.
. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning.. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. 1999). and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. 2000). Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom.
socially. The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work. Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. Similarly. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively.An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. and learner-native speaker
A recent study by Mackey et al. and linguistically. to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others’ authoritative thoughts. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review. Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. To make such a summary. the nature of the feedback. 3. 379). he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. Forty-eight dyads.
the distinctive qualities of mind that are. McWhorter. arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century. Demers & Harnish. so far as we know. 1992). 1994. pp. O’Grady & Dobrovolsky. but none – at least as far as we can tell – communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian. Pinker. 3-30.and learner-learner pairings. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. 1992. but that does not. Wallman. perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. 2001. pp. of course. 3). In her book The Language Imperative. Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways. to be sure. Animals communicate. engaged in task-based interactions. 31-76. learner vs. once commented that.
Language may indeed be central to being human. Wardhaugh. 1993. 583620. 1996. mean that human beings – even otherwise well-educated human beings – are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill.e.
Noam Chomsky. Among children. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. p. Suzette Haden Elgin observes that:
. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’. 1999). pp. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. “When we study human language. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. 2003. Rodman & Hyams. although not for the amount of feedback provided. native speaker) and learner age. although only among learner-learner dyads. Fromkin. 1998.
It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . grounds. Plagiarism
Whether quoting. or are unaware of. paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writer’s text. We forget. we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes. a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. Separate the quotation. 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B
Section 3. paraphrasing or summarizing. p. the power that language has over our minds and our lives. “ based on the work of …”
. with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages. • • Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. . . . • Using the transitional expressions such as “according to …” . Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. Consciously or unconsciously. The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. we have let that miracle be trivialized . (2000. .
• Citing. On the basis of the genre knowledge. genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter). • Confusing the original author’s ideas with the writer’s own without indicating the source.
Generally speaking. paraphrasing or summarizing other authors’ work with the detailed source information omitted. a L2 writer may use imitation strategies • to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper
. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy. the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format. 1.Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: • Coping some words or phrases without mention of the author’s name or quotation marks. The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing.
Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues’ academic papers on an international basis. the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always. a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. premises. the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of
. none. or support in an argument. whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim. The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: • • whether they are verifiable.•
to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns. As such. • whether they serve as conclusions. evaluative. or advocatory claims.
2. To make an effective argument. In specific. all. everyone. edit and format the whole paper
Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking. whether they are specific or. never. no one. if non-specific.
to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft.
it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience. avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source. the page number before you document the material. In particular. • To separate the summary of other author’s opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another author’s words • To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another author’s work. whether a word or phrase.
. • To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats. • To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author.plagiarism. the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others’ academic work. However. So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: • To identify the author’s name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical.
In this chapter. we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. Discussion and Conclusion. On the other hand. a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding
. tips for practical writing will be introduced. Summary and Abstract
A summary is a shorter version. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification. Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review. also called executive summary.Chapter 3
Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper
Generally. At the end of each section. concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them. References or Appendixes (if any). a research paper abstract.
Section 1. in your own words. the function. but also a valuable learning process. the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. Research Methodologies and Procedures. Introduction. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original. but expresses them in a much shorter space. of what you have read. Results and Findings.
often behind the referee's back. meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract.
Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. [9 words]
An abstract of a published paper
The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M.whether or not read your paper. Paulus Indiana University
. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example. it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. damage stadiums. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper.
Objectiveness: to state objectively other’s or your own ideas and main points in the paper. the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions. identify the author’s (or your own) contributions in the research paper.Although teacher and peer feedback.
. to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper. research methods. The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Witte’s (1981) taxonomy of revisions. and recording students’ verbal report during revision. is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom. tables. results and conclusions of a study. the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own. such as the research theories. Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper. and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this paper’s contribution. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: • • • • Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper).
1. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures. together with required revision. Concise: to define terminally the scope. • Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic. • • Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement. evaluating the first and final drafts of students’ essays. investigations and results and conclusions. or literature references in a summary or abstract.
what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied.Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) • • • • Who --. open versus teacher-centered classrooms.
.the time order of similar studies What --. for example. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. implication or recommendation if necessary. noting that classroom organization.
A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion.
Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) • • • • • Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study.in what kind of context or scope of the study When--. For example.who has done the study What--.
while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects. During a 3-day treatment period. revised 14 June 2002. . Perth. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur. ICC 460. Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original. while the control group (n=11) interacted. accepted 17 June 2002. Western Australia 6050.b
Department of Linguistics. It should be expressed . Interestingly.
Interactional feedback and children's L2 development
a . DC 20057. Approaches to summary and abstract writing
How to Summarize
• The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original.a
and Rhonda Oliver
. This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to. However.
. the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes. Washington. Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms. Australia Received 2 May 2002.as far as possible . we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. Edith Cowan University. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. most of the existing research has focused on adults. Abstract
The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research. USA b School of Education.in your own words. Georgetown University. The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers. In the current study. but did not receive feedback.
These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages. an effective abstract
. concise and highly generalized text. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. the past and the present perfect.or make a diagram. [A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful. [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary. By writing in this way. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. Leave out any illustrative examples. and try to understand its main subject or purpose. If not. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments. you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you. • Serving as a useful tool in searching for information. Draw up a list of the topics .
How to write abstract effectively
• As a short.•
The question will usually set a maximum number of words.] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently. Use a highlighter if this helps. The most frequently used tenses are the present. Focus your attention on the main point. Besides. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. aim for something like one tenth of the original. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic. Remember that it must be in your own words.]
• • • • • • • • • • •
Read the original quickly. Look up any words or concepts you don't know. an abstract should be written in formal and academic language. so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues.
without any detailed information or comment on the research. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper.to outline the main participants. • An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal. thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. • In terms of its form. the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study.to present the most important results and related findings. an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones.
. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: • • Step One: Introduction---to define the context. Also.
Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns
To define the context and argument of the present study: • • This paper describes / presents …( the argument) within…( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject)…. the argument. direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. and give suggestions of further study. Step Three: Results. • An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself. findings and conclusion --. the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --.should be as concise as possible. ( the related problem) …is as yet undetermined. the methods and the procedures of the study.
3. In particular.
In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions)…. ( the related problem)…remains unsolved. yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned. ( the related problem) is that…. (the present agreement) is still problematic. we inquired / examined / evaluated … ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved…( participants / materials). ( Previous studies) have examined …. we aim at… The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on …
Contents of the study: the frequently used formats
To introduce the main participants or materials • • • • The present study has investigated …by using / analyzing…( participants / materials) In this study.• • • •
(The research subject)….
To present the purpose of the present study: • • • • • The purpose / intention of this paper is… The primary goal / aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper / study. because… While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to…. the study has focused on … ( participants / materials)
To present research methods and procedures • The method / approach used in the present study is…
. despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…. however.
. the results also imply the further study into… The investigation / experiment varied by. findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns • • • • • • The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that…. thus we may conclude that … As a result of the current experiments. and evaluated. we conducted the present study. Introduction Writing
The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background).
Results. it is also found that… It is concluded that….. we concluded that…
Section 2.. categorized …. a review of previous studies. a transition
.• • • • •
The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting … The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…. And the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… The data / results obtained appear to ….
a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations).it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies. most frequently followed by the present researcher’s hypothesis and assumptions.it introduces the focus. 2.to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study.it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject. solutions or findings.1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : • Step One: Research background --. • Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --. In some cases. the main
procedures of the present study. or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. and a definition of research problems in a specific area.
. • Step Six: Organization of the paper --. the purpose. a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline. • Step Four: Present study --. Or • Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --. • Step Two: Literature review --. the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction.it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study.it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study.it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper.
. Matthews. 1991. 2001. However. Spack. Pally. 1991. 1995. 1994. Ramanathan & Atkinson. Pally. Atkinson.
Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students’ Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing
Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing. and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing. however. Fox.To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples. 1999). Fox.1997. The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson. then identify each step used in the two Introductions. 2001). Fox. With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing. 1994. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learner’s ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. 1997. Spack. and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process. 2001. Ramanathan and Atkinson. academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing. Stapleton. while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson. 2002). Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines. 1997). Zamel. there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students’ critical thinking ability. assessment criteria and in written feedback on student’s assignments (Woodward-Kron. Hereafter. some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh. 1997). To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing. 1997. disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom. 1997. 1997. 2001.Woodward-Kron. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. 2002). these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions. Atkinson & Ramanathan. 1994. 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students’ difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy. 2001. many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy. 2002. Pally. 1999.
There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al.Then.2. 451–452). The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students’ development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking. pp. more quickly ( Ervin. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. 2000). and output in productive ways" ( Long. I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students’ struggles to meet Western academic writing standards.
Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development
.. However. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. 1996. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. Introduction
1. The interaction hypothesis
Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. 1998). Harley. The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language.
1. younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages
. Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). in press). on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.1. However. 1999). internal learner capacities. production ( Gass and Swain). particularly selective attention. research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition. as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language.a
and Rhonda Oliver
1. the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences. Finally. Long. .. particularly grammar. it is suggested that further studies on ESL students’ development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing.. Age differences and SLA
As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al. Krashen. Snow and Snow). for review see Gass et al.
e. for example. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 8–12 year-old range. While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period. others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period. While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood. However.
. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. Children's interactional processes
While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. In the current study. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Johnson. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson). 7–12 years). and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok. Bialystok. noting that classroom organization. Patkowski and Singleton). For example. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in.( Johnson. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved.3. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. Oyama. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. Oyama. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning.
1.e. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. Birdsong and Birdsong). For example.
Finally. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. A recent study by Mackey et al. although only among learnerlearner dyads. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. engaged in task-based interactions. paired with native age peers. Intact classes. the children were ESL learners. The children in their classrooms were 4th. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children.e. adopting a different operationalization of uptake. the nature of the feedback. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. socially. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output.Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster. In Oliver's study. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. Ellis et al. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations. In a later study. The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults. however. and dyads have all been studied. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed. mainly their teachers. and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. small groups. Lyster and Lyster. although not for the amount of feedback provided. showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output. Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred.and 5th-grade learners of French. that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition. as
. learner vs. although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. native speaker) and learner age. concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students. Ellis et al. 379). Van den Branden suggests.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. Among children. and linguistically. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. Forty-eight dyads. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). aged 6 to 12. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. especially in relation to children's L2 development. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation.
Specifically.4. in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback. Thus. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. to provide the main purpose.2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above. facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback.
1. in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. 626). in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL. The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. Note that the following sentence
. the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999). It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. Although generally supportive. arguments and the organization of the paper. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures. Research question
In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA. however. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. including negotiation and recasts.well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. as it has been shown to do with adults.
2. Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA. In summary. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. Interestingly.
Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope. such as boric acid. Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors. generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present . The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer.However. Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied…
.1. are typically solution processed at low solids content (7–30 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents .
2. S3[ research focus]
Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers. Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached . Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies. at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place.patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings. they are processed in the presence of toxic. rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form . 2. to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field.2.2. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however). commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN.2. particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 85–90 mol% AN . organic solvents.
8–16]. However. the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 ￡ 106 lb per year) were reached. their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks –.B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested…
Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5. which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures. however. Coxe  showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult. To permit removal of the water from the fibers. and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10. but Porosoff  showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. methanol. The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile. As a result. Example 2
Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion. approximately 25–45 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing.11]. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. 16]. have not yet been used for the routing
. All-optical cross connects (OXC). a process was developed combining acetonitrile. and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5.
the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or …
Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases. the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction. . Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section “Interactional feedback
and children's L2 development” )
B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however. [ the problematic point] + So / therefore. Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients. that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect. but their use has so far been limited to field trials. –. most likely. The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. The fact. .
3. has probably prevented the use of OXC’s in commercial systems –.
. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature. Therefore. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. usually with a small number of input–output fibers and/or wavelength channels –. the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. .of the signals in any of these commercial systems. .
VIII. VI and VII. In Sec. on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3. III and IV. …(the organization) The outline the paper is as follows…. we investigate / examine / explore… The paper start from …. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. the focus is on … In this paper. V. the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line ρc (ω) in the ρ . Typical Sentence Patterns: • • • • • The aim of the present / current study is to …[ See the above example] In this paper. respectively. sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. we discuss the SCA model at ω = ∞ and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees. As we shall see. have a finite fraction of links. Finally. II. on SFNs with r ≤3 where one or several nodes. The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study.
. Then. so-called hub nodes.4. In Secs. However.ω plane with the exponent т =5/2. we introduce the SCA model on complex networks. we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec.
In this paper. the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. The outline of this paper is as follows. we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). To understand the condensation on SFNs with r ≤ 3. we summarize our results in Sec.
It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials. Method and Materials
This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines. apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis
.Section 3. networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials
• • • • •
This part should mention: • • • • • • • The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials. The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1): •
Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for … (for example.
The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. • A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. • While fixing the β source. • A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. • In addition to the measures described above. Sometimes. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. • The camera is mounted in the radial position. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. For example. • SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. • . paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements. 1990). and by elementary and advanced level students. For example. • Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school.
• The SILL is a self-scoring. including patterns of use. the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use.
The listening test. Czechoslovakia. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). China. commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan. Portugal . the population of the school averaged around 100. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland. In the 100-item grammar test. 5. Over the period of the study (one year). There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23. Taiwan. Brazil. whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a “minimal user”.2). The study 5. upper intermediate and advanced. students must select one of three options (for instance: “In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun”). and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere. There were 114 male students and 234 females. Russia. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. pre-intermediate. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140–150 on the Oxford Placement Test. Tahiti. In part A. Overall design of the study The study had three phases. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework. Malaysia. aged 14–64.1995 ). New Zealand. is deemed an “independent user”. Some were new arrivals at the school. France. see below). Arriving students were given the widely used. including patterns of use. Germany. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary.Switzer land. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level. consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers.1. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers’ perspectives on language learning strategy use. Thailand . Poland.2. while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students. midintermediate. 5. Korea. upper elementary. In part B.5. mid-elementary. which takes about 10 min. which takes about 50 min to complete. as explained in Section 5. Denmark. Italy.3. one of which is reported here. Participants’ levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels. Indonesia. Spain.Argentina.consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. for instance. so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details. selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals’ patterns of strategy use. The school did not accept total beginners. from 21 different countries: Japan. The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and
. Hong Kong.
Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options. Guetal. Dornyei. see Oxford. 1998.2003.539) and has been widely used. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class. The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire. 1994. and other factors (for details. 5. therefore. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. a written task might be added. Turner. Dorrnyei. depended on a combination of the OPT score.89 to 0. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement.1990 ). The SILL was chosen for this study because it is “perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date” (Ellis. the oral interview assessment. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts.1994. including self-report strategy questionnaires.4. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. 1994.1995. The level at which a student was working at any particular time. Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se. but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. motivation. learning styles. Ellis. Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency. and the effects of cultural background on response patterns. possibly an assessment of written competence.1995 ). Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0. Cohen. 2003.19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately.. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. However. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a
. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. Oxford.1998. The SILL is a self-scoring. 1990). lack of self-awareness by students. varying interpretations of terms.grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: “Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?”). paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as ‘‘I review English lessons often’’ to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). Ellis.1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock. p. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. according to which they might be promoted. their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen. 5.98 in various studies. and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. have been debated in the research literature (for instance.5.
The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation). C. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 μm active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters. a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level. The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter.6.special Study Skills class held during the students’ first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the school’s facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied). a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb. In one experiment. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. is used
. The β source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. B. In addition. giving a peak discharge current of about 190– 245 kA.
II. Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. as indicated in Fig. charged at 19–25 kV. 5. and significant differences (Student’s t). Preionization A mesh-type radioactive β source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization.5 or above (Oxford. a mean of 3. 1. that is. powered the device. 1.5 μF single capacitor. and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students. A 12. it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. 1990). This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. While fixing the β source. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig. which is slightly tapered towards the open end.
Ag (50 μm). Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K α line radiation.71 keV window. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig. Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. Results
The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs. For the study of Cu K α line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200. a set of Mo (10 μm).1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis. The figures show the complete
. During the experiment with Pb insert.μm-thick Ni foils. D. the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used.to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots.71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 4–7. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8.1 cm from the anode tip.μm-thick Co and Ni filters. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum.05 keV. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy.5. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals. 3. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 19±0. The transmission curves and the detectors’ response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig. 2. During the experiment with Pb insert. The pinholes are masked separately with 10. and elevated at 1. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges.
Section 4. and Pb (55 μm) covers three p-i-n diode detectors.μm-thick Co and 17. The camera is mounted in the radial position.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K αline of 8. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range.5±0. tables and diagrams) and written texts.μm diameter multipinhole apertures is used. It is always followed by researchers’ comments or interpretations of these findings. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. E.
3. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of … on … As Fig. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage. are summarized in Table 5.1. 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development. The results of sustained stage increase for each group. As can be seen. Results 3. 2 shows. in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage. whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development. a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. the influences of … As shown in Table 2. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage. the effect of … Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of … The effect of … on … is shown / summarized in Fig. The effect of … on…has… ( Fig. An effective introduction of results should present: • • • An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1). A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2).and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. 2. This difference was significant according to Fisher's
. Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3)
The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: • • • • • • Fig.
exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: • • • As can be seen / found, the first group of … while the second…. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater … than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in … These results suggested that the effect of … was either close to or slightly lower than that of …
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without β source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with β source as compared to without β source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the β source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.
The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • These findings accord with / are consistent with those of … These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is … There is …( a general statement) …, the possible reason is that … It is considered / found that…, these may suggest the reason why….
It is evident from Figs. 5–8 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without β source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K α and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K α and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that β source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.
Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion
As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers’ explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:
Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?
According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?
Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?
Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researcher’s
contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).
This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.
Pevsner et al. It must be kept in mind. emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients. with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. Moreover. that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning. both underestimating and overestimating the volume. where some part of the sphere was present in every phase. Moreover. In the 3. an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation. in the imaging of moving lung tumors.4% on average for the respective modalities. as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2. internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol. an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. however. When the motion amplitude is smaller than the sphere’s diameter. In the current study.15. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume. regardless of their attenuation correction methods.5 cm amplitude. with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction. In clinical practice.9% and 1. They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%. such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%. However.21 This large range.With information of tumor motion. up to 46% deviation from the true volume.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT.9 cm amplitude experiment. and little actual attenuation occurred. the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data
. 1. 4. Nehmeh et al. non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data. the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%. This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion. the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III). The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study. the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced. In Fig. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation.
For both systems.9 and 4. the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important. In future studies. V. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift. then show the differences or the matching degree between them. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1. the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. but perhaps even more important. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction. and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration.8 cm. respectively) show good correlation. it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2. The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3.
5. the calculated differences will not be significant. either CT or PET.1
Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the
original hypothesis or assumption in this section. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices. are not correlated with respiration. which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. however. equal to the slice thickness. less motion artifacts. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans. followed by a review of the most important findings. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing.was 75% lower than found with RCPET. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. indicate that a slight phase shift was still present.
however. It could
.sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences. In the present study. The results presented above show that…This suggests that… This study has presented a specific method for measuring…. The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that…. The reason why… is that… It was originally assumed that …. because… This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in…. A further explanation. However. We originally hypothesized that the effect of ….2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section. The data in the present study show that …. the differences between ( the significant effect of)… were investigated (has been reported). Therefore… • • • • • In this paper (study). however. The following are the typical sentence patterns: • • • • • • This research investigated the differences between ……. show that … In this paper. The results. The results demonstrate that… We originally assumed that …. it was found that ….. This suggests that… Existing theories suggested that …. we have reported the significant effect of…. This evidence led us to (infer that) …. The results (or data) show that …. The results in this study show that …. show that…. Thus. it is found that ( the fact ) results in… This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of …. It is considered that …. is an important support for the conclusions. the findings show that…. The differences between … are …. The possible reason is… The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which…. however. The possible reason may … 5.. The results.
When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study. Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper.be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. For the present study: • • • • It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of … It is possible ( likely. the past tense is frequently used. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is “may” as shown in the following sentence patterns. when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies.3
Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study
itself. the present tense is preferred. In contrast. Compare the following two examples:
. unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this could be that inadequate use of …increased … These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in … resulted in …
For the general • • • • • This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are … This rapid increase ( decrease ) in …is attributed to … The enhancement in … may be caused by… It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of … increases …
To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing.
They could be the research methodology. or the limitation of the samples.
A: In the current study. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children. imply ) that… The data reported here imply (suggest.
B: In the current study.• •
A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children. show. suggests ) that…
5. the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring. indicate. the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring. the present tense is to show the limitations of the research
. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies. the results of the study. as it has been shown to do with adults. as it has been shown to do with adults. confirm ) that… Our conclusion is that… Therefore we may infer that… These findings support the hypothesis that … Our data provide the evidence that … It appears ( seems. the theoretical models. For example.4
Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design.
The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • • • • These results indicate (suggest. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies.
the present tense and modal verbs “may” or “might” are frequently used. • • • The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate. • We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall.
• • •
The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small.
. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula. Sometimes. model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments.methodology. but cannot implemented in real time applications. For example. • • • Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results.
When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results. writers may start with “we” and use “admit” or “ recognize” to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. For example.
5. Another interesting topic would be to examine how …[ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study …[ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. the effect of …[ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined.•
We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor.3
Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies
to the further research or practical applications of the results. • • • • • • • • • A further experiment should be conducted with …[ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of …[ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply …[ a new aspect of the theory] to … In the future. the following sentence patterns are frequently used. In practice. The generality of …[ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of …[research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for …[ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in …[ a practical area] such as … Further studies should focus on the practical use of …[ the results] into …[ a practical area]
or use “ we suggest that …” and we recommend that…”.To present a direct suggestion or recommendation. we will investigate the effect of …[ the results in present study] in a series of studies. • • • • We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with …[ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of …[ different materials or procedures] In the future. For example. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with …[ other research method]
. a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic.
the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected. see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). Besides.127. The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers. APA-Style References
APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation. the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies. MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list. 2003) noted. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts.
Section 1. Generally. thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere.
. As Nature (424. Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details. APA (American Psychological Association) style. the typical citation system is the same. two reference styles. in which references are listed alphabetically. which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list.Chapter 4
Different journals may use quite different reference styles.
cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning.1. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. the writer must provide the source of documented information.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors’(’s) work If you summarize the author’s work in your text. in parentheses. 1999). The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter.
. but within you text spell out the word and. the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr. even if the reference includes month and year. When you refer to a work by two authors. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point. • • • Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. APA journals use the author-date method of citation. Otherwise. • Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&). place both the name and the year. that is. For example. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System
Quoting directly or indirectly within the text. cite both names each time the reference appears. separated by a comma. include only the year.
Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).
When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author’ the page number follows the end of he quotation. • As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, “English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, …with values, and these values … with dilemmas and conflict” ( p. ix). • This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are “preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved” (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). • Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are “almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities” ( p. 422). • Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, “When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors’ work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of
the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, • • However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are “group rights” (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). • It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). • This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).
1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. For example,
• Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martínez-Roldán, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. …, For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that…
There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,
for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Várady, 1999).
Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, “The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice” (1995 , p. 16). …, According to Phillipson et al. (1995), …
When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al” (not underlined and with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, • As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. • Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by “et al.” For example,
• • • Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Várady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)
The In-text quotation should be:
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)
To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author. short prepositions. titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list. you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. p. brochure. or periodical is underlined. Scollon and S.
1. whether in parentheses or not.When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name. except conjunctions. For example. report. Scollon (1994). W. you may use
. and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. and articles. For example.3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. • According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States. B. • The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in “College English” (1998) and “ College Core English” (1996). If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example. Scollon (1994). use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ. the title of a book. Within the text. All words are capitalized. • Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. 2003.3). there is “much added value” in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin. R. To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone. a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text.
E. for “no date. such as for some very old works. James(1890/1983) D. ( TESOL News Letters. To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source. Specific Parts of a Source
. trans.. cite the year of the translation you used. The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested ….” When a date of publication is inapplicable. ii)
The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada. For example. the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community. preceded by trans. 2005) stressed that…. 1931). • • Darwin’s metaphors (as quoted by Gould. •
The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are.(Aristotle. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication. refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list. or the year of the version you used. your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use. followed by a comma and n. include this in the citation.
C. cite in text the author’s name. in large measure.d.NSF for National Science Foundation). P. 2002. When you know the original date of publication. followed by version.1989)… The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa.
2. • As David Corson argued. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Reference List In APA style. and publishing data. title. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: • In short. figure. the list of sources is entitled “References”. 2.To cite a specific part of a source.
. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. table. the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition. Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. chapter. or to do almost anything in between. For example:
Cummins. or equation at the appropriate point in text. References cited in text must appear in the reference list. “Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of ‘negotiation’ over meaning at every turn” (1977. as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s. (2000). conversely. to oppress people. pp. p. indicate the page. . “Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . Language. Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. Always give page numbers for quotations.” (1999.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: • Elements of Each entry: author. power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. 58). J. . year of publication.
H. H. R. Georgakopoulou. For example. N. Entries should
start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). An introduction to language (7th ed. Boston: Heinle.
On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. (1991). & Hyams. the earliest first. Mahwah.. S.M. V. (1992).
Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. and arranged in alphabetical order. Input. A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities. A critical approach to the teaching of language. TX: Harcourt Brace.
One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication. R. N. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations. (1993). Worth.).•
The list must be double-spaced. Fromkin.
Janks. Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language.
Gass. An introduction to language (5th ed. Discourse analysis: An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ft. (1997). For example. For example. A. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. D. Educational Review 43: 191199.. Fettes. (1995). London: Longman..). NJ (1997).
Fairclough. . M.
. & Goutsos. Interaction and the Second Language Learner. For example. (1997). Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342. Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. (1997). V.
Fromkin. Janks. (2003). Rodman. & Rodman.
and Pica T.
Johnston. Gass S. S..) Trans. Mackey. (1993). 2 nd ed. For example. R.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style. V. An introduction to language (7th ed. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and
. Fromkin. and second language production. Language choice. N. 283–302. Worth.M.
Fromkin. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. & Rodman. (1998). (1994). MD: Linstok Press. and so on. TX: Harcourt Brace. 299–307. language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students. Johnston.. Ed. E. interaction. A. different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. (1993). (2003). Modern Language Journal 82 (1998). R. pp. & Hyams. Ed.Gass. S. pp. & Varonis. Burtonsville..).). B. V. Input. (2003).
Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994).
References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author.M. Boston: Heinle. Rodman. An introduction to language (5th ed. Values in English language teaching. Mahwah. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. Ft.
and so on. XXX-XXX. of all authors. All words
. XX. Author.
page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement
In general. Next comes the title of the article. the italicized title of the periodical.Rep. they can be presented as follows: Periodical
Author. The year of publication follows in parentheses. Title of Periodicals.B.(1994). give the month and day. Suppl. pt.(1994). Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals. The name of the periodicals. Title of Article. certain monographs. Only the first work of the article title.﹠Author. the volume number.
For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s). No. vols.) Vol.. C. magazines. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books. the first word of the subtitle. B. For magazine and newspaper articles. followed by the initials (not the entire first names). the title of the article.. Title of work. the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals. Location: Publisher. and proper names within both are capitalized. and the page numbers are separated by commas. the date. For a basic entry.C. the volume number. reports. A.A. scholarly newsletters.P. A. and the end of the entry. tech. manuals. not enclosed in quotation marks. (PP. brochures. and audiovisual media. A period follows the author. A.
as well as the year. T. G. 137-156. For example. 20th ). Only the first word of the
For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author. The title of Journal. 2.
Article by Two Authors
Makoni. The abbreviation p. B12. S. is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. S.14th ). or pp. (2006. Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. June. The date of publication appears in parentheses. Article by One Author
Smith. 1. (2006). Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. 101-105. except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p.
Douglasa. followed by a period.except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical.. (2005). Nov.or pp. J.. Science of Psychology. followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first names.
Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any).
Sussan. 38(2). is used to indicate page(s). For example. followed by periods. (1996).
Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines. The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author. P. edited books and work cited in another work. 1829-1840. (2005. Gas crisis in the world. The language rights of the deaf. A. and the pages. New York Times. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. For example. the volume. 797-799. & Pennycook. The title of the article.
Journal paginated by Issue
Reagan. South African Medical Journal 86 (1).
Facts of publication include the city of publication and. On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod. The entry ends with a period. Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah. Use U. & Tsui. etc. The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. The names of university presses are spelled out. (2004).).S. (Eds. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location. (2001). Place an ampersand(﹠)before the name of the last author.G. For example. Mahwah. and proper names within both are capitalized. eds). 3rd. For example. The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. (1964).
Darwin.(2002). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.) New York: Harp& Row
Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. if it is a word. Globalization and educational rights. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized “In” and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd. list he names of all the authors. A.
Spring. Postal Service abbreviations for states.4th. Use parentheses to the page numbers..) or. For example. (Original work published 1859)
. J. abbreviated (Rev.Sussan. For example. Ernst Mayer). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author. J. the name of the state. Ed.
Tollefson. Second language acquisition (3rd ed. c. the first word of the subtitle.book title.
if any. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted. or number of the report.). MD: National Agriculture Library.
Woods. should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. For example.
Tollefson. The identifying title. Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U. Department of Agriculture). (Ed. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. series.
Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book.C.
Stanton. For example. In J. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.). D. The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. 7-21). (1987). (1999).
Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process.S.The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. D. Policy and ideology in the spread of English. Beltsville. present by “in press” within parentheses. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. Eggington (eds. place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position.) within parentheses in the author position. even if it is well known. Hall & W. The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym. J. (2000). indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary
. If it is presented at a conference or symposium. For example.) or editors (Eds.Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed.
Mackey. ONT. McDonough. Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads.org/rrpts. the title of the section you used.. and Kirsch. ---placed within brackets.
Woods. if any. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL. 21 (10). Georgetown University. Leeman. including E-journals and CD-ROM. J. October).. the title of the entire source underlined. Washington. S. Language Learning (in press). otherwise. should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material. (2001). (1998).. For example. Eignor. The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks. K. J. Toronto.ac. J. a description of the medium—On-line Journals. etc. Oliver.
Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods.html
. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. an the method or path used to retrieve the material. B. include both city and state. (2003. Available: http//langue.toefl. diskette.chubu. If the name of the city is well known. (1997). Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased. D. the date. The Language Teachers Online [On-line]. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author. Leeman. A study on Adult learners’ incorporation of feedback. For example. Available: www. the name of the state may be omitted. DC. (in press). it requires more information than you normally need for print sources.after the title. Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning. A. CD-ROM. a statement about availability of the product. R. Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies.html Taylor. RR-61[On-line].hyper.
as the following examples indicate: • Recently. you need not repeat the name within parentheses. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s). Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189). MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section. a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries. or summary.
1. to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries.Section 2. When the author’s name appears in the introduction the material. Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. 1. According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. In-text Documentation Unlike APA format. • Woods’ series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190). The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. whether in the form of direct quotation. MLA-style References
Similar to the APA style. paraphrase.1 To quote from authors less than four
• Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook.When citing the resources with the author named in the text. Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35).
When you cite from the author not named in text. with the son designated as Jr.. For example. use the subsequent references ( H. you do not need a parenthetical reference. Jr. you should put the page number at the end of the cited section.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author
.. preceded by a comma.g. in the reference. include the designation Jr. When you have more than one author with the same last name.
When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title. When the two authors are father and son. the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. • • Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e. Graff). For example. 67). include the first initial in subsequent references. • Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their “encounters” in her book Listening to the World (2). • That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian. Jansen 43) and ( S.
1. For example. Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen. a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the author’s name in your list of works cited. For example.
use the title in parentheses. Clinchy. use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy.. (AMNH 15). • The authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing make a distinction between “separate knowing “and “connected knowing” (Belenky et al. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited. shortening it to two or three words. and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author. • Due to air pollution. Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (“Ancient Pharaoh Statue”). because the entry should be alphabetized by “ancient”. 100-30) or (Belenky. 1. You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to “Pharaoh. Goldberger.” for example. you may list all four authors or give only the
last name of the first author followed by “er al”. Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited.
. • The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12. 1.…. For example.
When a work has four or more authors. after the first citation) in place of the name of the author.3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors. compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: • Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell). hereafter AMNH) .
In”. For example. use the author’s name and the abbreviation “vol. • This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman. To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work.”. vol. separate entries with a semicolon.5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work. use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. • Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozart’s The Magic Flute (2:104-05). use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). For example. The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. For example. For example. • Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation. When you have two works or more by the same author. to use (Errors 79.When you quote material from a source other than the original. For example. 2). In Newman 2:104) 1. Brooks and Warren 5)
. “Diving in”68. • Goethe wrote that “it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd. introduce the name of the source with “ qtd.
along with the editor of the volume. For example.
Pienemann M. • Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space.1 Construct of the reference list In general. the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation. and Johnston. For example. “The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions”. New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center. M.
2. AMEP. For example. Sussan. “University Press”
. you should continue into the second line.2. Adelaide. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261–285. “A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system”. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97–111. D. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: • All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list. you must list each article by author in the works cited section. Oliver. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as “ the first (surname) + comma + the last name” . • MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible. Ed Nunan. Oyama. The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author.
When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it. If you cannot finish within one line. 1987: 45–141. Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. Richard. “Factors influencing the development of language proficiency”.
413–68. Harmondsworth. T. compilers. Martin Dodsworth. B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely. 2. : Penguin. the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. Ritchie C. Ed. (the key words only). vol. Revisting the Washback. Handbook of Language Acquisition. or division.H. For example.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author. M. 1996. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) “the title of the article” 3) the name of the magazine
.K. For example. Eng. and Bhatia. • The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. etc.P. Ed. 28-59. Fox. Dell. Such as 17-18. Long. it can only be noted down as: Harper. Hakelly. citing a book published Harper and Row’s Colophon series as Colophon-Harper. 80-88. of a publisher before the name of the publisher.can be abbreviated as UP or U. 1996. “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition”. MLA also puts the name of the imprint. etc. Dorothy Collin. 311-19.
2. For the famous publishing house. Intod. Second Language Acquisition. New York : Academic P. EG: 127-51.
And if the country or province is needed. use U. If several cities are listed. but not the final period. Italicize the complete title and subtitle. which include the city of publication. the names of any additional authors are not inverted. the title of the book with any subtitle.4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2. Book by a single author Winfield. Book by two or three authors Simons. Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. include a standard abbreviation. Invert the first author’s name. 1992. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. and the facts of publication. available in most dictionaries. Law in Civil Society. Postal Service Abbreviations. For example.S. compiler(s).1. 1995. Philadelphia: Temple UP. Book by four or more authors
. placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s). If the state is needed for clarification. Wendy. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. cite only the first. Abbreviate the publisher’s name. which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s). and Barbara Katz Rothman. Richard Dien.
Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. for editors. 1995. Robert. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen. New York: Rodale. William.” or “trans. New York. McPherson.
. and (3) the information of publication. and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears. the name is not repeated. Baum. When the corporate author is also the publisher. Janna. meaning “and others. not the Los Angeles Times). the volume number (for a scholarly journal only). 2. the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books.” “comp.” is preferred. the abbreviation “et al.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general. 1987.Instead of presenting the names of all authors. American Museum of Natural History. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times. Article in a scholarly journal Fox.”. An edited. Chicago: ALA. “Technical Writing Skills. compiled. Reconditioning the Bicycle. Annual Report.” [ed. which usually includes the name periodical (italicized). the date of publication followed by a colon. or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the author’s position. ed. English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. comp. (2) the full title of the article within quotation marks. followed by an abbreviation for “ed.” Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16. for compilers. For example. et al. 1993-1994. for translator(s) ] . eds. and trans. the series name and number if any.1. comps. for editor. 1989. for compiler. New York: Rutledge. 1992.
Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd. “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature. for national.” Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22. late city ed. such as the.1(1995): 103-19. excluding any introductory article.S. John.” New York Times 27 July 1995. “Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich. Milton M. after the date (natl.: D7.E. Nwezeh. “U. 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. and do on.Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume. intl. C. ed. Peter. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper. include its designation. 52(July 1995):483-87.” Denver Quarterly 26. Klein.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. treat the issue number like a volume number. “An Interview with Josie Graham. “The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History.:1A+. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified.” Kenyon Review ns 12. Thomas.) Donnelly. Pamela.4(1979): 22. “Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage. Erickson. Article in a magazine
. Mercer. use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead. abbreviated.Venture Bets Colombian Coal.” Miami Herald 22 July 1995. for international. intl.
one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation. Corbett. your entry begins with the author of the article. “If you have the advertisement you don’t need the product. Evaluating Petty. Mina P. Lloyd-Jones. 1995. and year. U of California P. Entry for article in the edited volume. New York: Oxford UP. “Primary Trait Scoring. Ed. Anonymous magazine article “Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. give the month and year only. 1981.” Science News 18 Mar. Howard.” Cooper and Odell. use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s). and July. George E.3 Reference List for Electronic Sources:
. Walter T.J. 1992: 44+. “Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. Wagner . Kinoshita. Roy.” The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook. Marcus.” New York Times Magazine 18 Oct.1. Shaughnessy. Rhetorics of Self-making. “How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar.” Battaglia 43-58. Gary Tate and Edward P. give day. for a monthly. 2. June. 1995:26-31. month. Research 73-84. Debbora. June. “On Eccentricity. Richard. 1995:171.” Cooper and Odell. “The Mapping of the Mind. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia.” Battaglia 59-76. 6268.For a weekly magazine. Abbreviate all months except May. “The Writing of Young Children. ed. Brody.
. the name of the computer network or vendor and. 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed.).31. a description of the medium(CD-ROM. an assess preceded by the word Available from.4. Georing. [Computer software]. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry. volume or issue number. if any . Vic. The equipment required to run it.niss. italicized. the title of the section you used. Version. the date you accessed the source. Gardern. number of pages (if applicable). in the case of on-line or E-mail materials. and. et al. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism. P. CD-ROM. the title of the entire source. in quotation marks. For example. 6MB.0. [ disk]. if it is not well known.DOS 3. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England.
On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery. Paul.ac. if necessary for your purpose. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]. etc. Windows 4.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003. diskette. year or date of publication (in parentheses). WA: Microsoft. E.2003. Hawthone East. the date of electronic publication.: Space-time Research 1998.The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources. Redmond. Release 2. The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author.1 rev.
Focus on Argumentation: • Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? • Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? • • Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument?
. drafting. When editing the final draft. proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft.Chapter 5
Proofreading and Editing --. Generally.to Finalize the Draft
A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning. Proofreading
Section 1. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles. you need identify i) coverage and organization. and ii) presentation.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms. you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required. to do the proofreading of a research paper.
Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?
Focus on Forms: • • • • • Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?
1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).
Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be
Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is
Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of …. in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of
Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In …, for…. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for
due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far. because because about source oval because. Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British
.Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape. with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that
II. result to date round is mall after consider this fish. these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by. oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that
Concise use for academic writing form. by. Spelling
It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in China’s EFL (English as Foreign language) context.
As a basic requirement. 1996).English in spoken and written languages. especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu. oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion
. to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones. in the paper.
American （1） e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit “-e” acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction
inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor
connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-.connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im. enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour
humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick
humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae.V. C. undergraduate ill
III. where. For example. The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions. In the charged state. for. lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. Logic of long sentences
Any publishable research paper has limits of words. skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article. as. the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. the ions migrate back to provide the energy.sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code
pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode. As the battery is used. (ii) agreement of contexts. since To present Attributive: that. the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees. as ( see the examples below from a published paper)
When the battery is charged. which (see the examples below from published papers)
. If a spark occurs. when. Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if . and (iii) completeness of structures. As such. as.
To express Reason: because .
although (see the examples above and below from published papers)
In summary.4 for ρ=3. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state. However. Interestingly. as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate. To express Transition: however. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. so. 6(b)]. the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4х105 on SFN with γ=2. The inset of Fig. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. mk ~k. such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun. there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP.
Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub. as it has been shown to do with adults. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. the peak soaks into the average mass mk. (5). While paragraphing. so that.In the steady state. As shown. but. To see this more explicitly. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi ∞ [Fig. the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts. hence.0.
To indicate Results: therefore. the proper use of articles and single or
. Hence by taking the average. Although generally supportive. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. thus. however. while. we derive the relation. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question.0 and ρ=1. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes.
The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers.
Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. and linguistically. and a strip of graphite.plural forms of pronouns. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations
Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon. a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable. To study the following materials from a published paper. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. However. may help build up clearness and conciseness. you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing.
The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition. socially. incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding"
. the anode. such as parallel structures and absolute structures.
Completeness of structures Proper use of structures. oxygen and a flammable fluid. which serves as the cathode.
could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process. the term should
. and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation. Dell said the batteries.
Section 2. they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. capitals and punctuations in research paper writing. made by Sony. to meet the requirements of Abbreviation. If the abbreviation is needed. Editing: Final Draft
Apart from following the documentation formats.1 million laptop batteries. was made apparent Monday with Dell’s recall of 4. as discussed in Chapter 4.Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al. Generally. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. In this section. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops. Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing.
1. including the styles of in-text citation and reference list.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible.
P. The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File. J. Li.in the journals of Applied Linguistics O.
Most abbreviation omits the prepositions. RAM. For example. Smith. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM). and using an automatic tool flow. ….in the journals of computer sciences
The abbreviations in the reference list • The first name of authors. The EX stage had the ALU. Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction.
Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided.. and Write-Back (WB).in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --. such as Kim. I. The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory. Memory (MEM). Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands. Fox. . Execute (EX). D. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas.S. ROM. ( the chemical elements) --. which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address. articles and the conjunction word “and” . The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD). For example. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized.in the journals of Chemistry CPU. The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): • • • • IEEE --. PC --. For example.
. L.be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis.
mol (molal). Ed. g (gram). (square meter) sq. ( Revised edition) P. ( page or pages). Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above:
Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized. ( chapter). 2 nd ed. including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses. s (second). K(kelvin).• • • •
The names omitted by et al. (liter). ( Editor or editors). h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter). kg ( kilogram). For example. km (square kilometer). mm (millimeter). Vol. min (hour). ml (milliliter). cl ( centiliter). m.
This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?"
. A (ampere). μ (micron) Area: sq. dm (decimeter). ( volume). ( means “and others”) Ed. kg (kilogram). km (kilometer). or pp. cd( candela) • • • • • Time: s (second). Chap. kl (kiloliter)
2. Or Eds. No. ( number) The names of the states of America
The abbreviations of units of measures and weights • 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter). Rev. ( Second edition). Weight and mass: mg (milligram). t ( ton) Capacity: l.
The capitalization in formula. the country.
. the language.
The title of an article
The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude
The title of a book cited
Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies • The first letter of any specialized nouns. was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool. and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents. such as the person’s name. the nationality.•
The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal. in essence. For example. the widely accepted names. but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. For example.
Klemperer’s thesis. for example. etc.
we know. Period ( “ ” ) To compare the two sentences
Noam Chomsky once commented that. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. Yu. p. 2004). 3).
. so far as
. Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. On the other hand. 1993. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. there are still a lot of differences between them.3. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang.
such as clarifications of meaning.” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. so far as
we know. p 3)
Comma (“. as discussed above. which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests. and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments. ( √ )
The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. This is of course an empirical question. ( √ )
The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur. rather than on immediate responses. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. ( Χ )
However. unique to man. and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. ( Χ )
(2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors. such as timing and developmental readiness.Noam Chomsky once commented that.”) To study the two sentences. to take place. 1993. ( Χ )
To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place. research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than
. but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok. 3. I've got a dad and a son. such as timing and developmental readiness. n.” The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension. refer to the respective nuclei... This is. …. 2. ( √ )
Ellipsis (“ …”) To study the following example ending with “…. N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 …+ S0 K(n-1) Dj. 2.other factors." In the formula The subscripts 1. where j = 1.
. an empirical question . of course. ….
Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles
Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer
Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture
Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult
Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol
Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human
Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum
Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical
Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech
Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl
Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution
Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut
Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc)
.S.Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service
Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv
Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular
Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U.
Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin
Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam
Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology
Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool
Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster
. Inc.. Inc.Godine.Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc. Cornell University Press CRC Press，Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications. David R.Inc Merck& Co. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone.. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co.. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc.Publishers. Futura Publishing Co.Appendix II Abbrs. Les Editions INSERM Little. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers
AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill .. Inc.. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Inc.. Inc.
Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers. Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV
Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Inc.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Les Editions INSERM Little.Publishers.Godine. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone. Futura Publishing Co. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge.. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Cornell University Press CRC Press，Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Inc.. Inc... Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing
Blackwell Scientific Publications.Inc Merck& Co. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Inc. Inc. Chapman &Hall Sage Publication... Inc. David R. Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.
B. Martin’s State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Reader’s Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins
. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins
Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St. The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W. Inc.Publishers
Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. Saunders Company W. Martin’s Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press. The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Reader’s Digest Association.H. Inc The Shoe String Press. Inc.