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An Introduction to Academic Writing:
Publishable Research Paper
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments • Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Author’s name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;
Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis • Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse • Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper • Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline • Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice
sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. students’ assignments will be evaluated. . Abbreviation 2. C V and resume. Topic assignments: 1. and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers. Write one proposal report 2.Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing. Sample analysis of one research paper • Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis. Practice CV and resume 3. Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization. the presentation and the logic of long sentences. Final grades will include the attendance. format of a research paper. practice the use of Punctuations. Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments. Identify the format errors in Punctuations. in-class assignments and final test. structures and sample analysis of application letters. pre-reading assignments and after-class readings.
Content Table .
Results and Findings. Introduction ( literature review). Research Paper Format Although different languages and their cultures have different “rules” for presenting. 1. it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. and organizing ideas in writing. References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any). in terms of international communications or publications. Discussion and Conclusion. attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English. particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format. the course tries to present typical writing styles. While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students’ errors in vocabulary or grammar. Research Methodologies and Procedures. explaining. meet the requirements of the Western academic community. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms.Chapter 1 Introduction Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students. The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper: . preferences.
tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers’ findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ). 2. 2) MLA (Modern Language Association • Research Methodologies and Procedures • To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results • Results and Findings • • • Discussion and Conclusion • To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications • • • • • • • • References ( or Bibliography) • . In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion. Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. conclusion and implications or suggestions Introduction ( Literature Review) To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation • To review previous research • To present arguments and hypothesis Terms to generalize research concerns • The purpose and background of present study • The scope and focus to develop the study • Problems. argumentation and hypothesis • • • • • • Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs. paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a .Items • • Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms • • Functions To frame the writer’s idea To identify the writer’s contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues • • • Fundamentals Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings.
More recently. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales. Sample 2 ( Presenting by direct indication expressions) Initially naive “link design” merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. who were able to .Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. which severely limited the applications of such links. the RF performance of such links was often modest at best. The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers. RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links. Sample 1 ( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. device design. evidence. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al. Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. However. To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design. antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets.paragraph. of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. or data. but distinct from. typically one would obtain from such a “design” a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB. which is closely related to. It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts. Technique one--. . and terrible at worst.
achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design.Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review. reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain. Such limits have proven useful in providing a “calibration” on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable. preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions. operating voltage. material and shape of electrodes. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance. For example. results or ideas. Sample 3 ( Presenting by detailings) During the last decades. . nature and pressure of working gases. circuit inductance. Technique Two--. attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact. whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. proper election of anode length and insulator. while contrast deals with the differences existing between them. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects. or support writer’s preference for one over the other. Results and Findings or Discussion. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writer’s attitude and suggestion.
Sample 2 ( For developing a conclusion) Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as “RF” or “analog” optical links. By contrast. we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices.Sample 1 ( For organizing the literature review) By comparing the first two topologies. one in front of and one behind the switch. This is in contrast to “digital” optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%. Thus. but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components. 2) by reducing V and increasing P. Sample 3 ( For developing a summary) To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design. although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter. the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters. . . this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier. We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature).
ect. 1994. cost-of-living . relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. cause-effect. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques. family visits to the new area. (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification. In addition to being a costly investment for organizations.. To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving. spouse employment assistance. These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving. etc. On the other hand. while definition explains limits and specifies. In classification. results. 1990). we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order. and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept.000 per home-owning employee. comparison-contrast. set the boundary. real estate assistance. according to their similarities and differences. 1994). most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett. Luo & Cooper. by definition. with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC. This can include. concepts.Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas. among other services. Stroh. upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons.) Sample 1 ( Classification by grouping and examplication) According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC).Technique Three--. such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse’ loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw. including exemplification. we may capture the essence. 1990). we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. & Reilly. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45. By classifying.
1994). this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. ERC. because the spouse’s perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research. . Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. single-income and dual-income couples. Specifically. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses. and interaction adjustment. Sample 3 ( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation. 1990. these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement. three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment. and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al. From this research. relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified. Although there are other comparisons that could be made. The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables. we explore two main issues. 1993. international relocation. and work-role transitions was reviewed. as well as couples with children living at home. general adjustment.adjustments. First. we systematically compare employees’ and spouses’ perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. the research on domestic relocation. Finally.. This focus includes comparing male and female employees. Sample 2 ( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind.
Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under . it may start from the effect first and then the causes. If wavelength converters are used. there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. Sample 2 ( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates. is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. Therefore. very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. Sample 3 ( Focus on causes) In Fig. however. The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters). some of the power is leaking through the gate. the requirements for the filters are less strict. This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format. Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers. During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state. N signals are combined coming from different input fibers.Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and –effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. 4. As for the arrangement of such a paragraph. That effect also results in crosstalk. the reverse order. Comparing the following samples: Sample 1 ( Focus on the cause) In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch).Technique Four--.
compare … with. be similar to. in comparison with. almost the same as. resemble. unlike. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect). just as. otherwise. differ from. in general. have …in common. especially. the differences lie in…. stands opposition . however. generally. in contrast to/ with. similarly. Tips for using the techniques Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: • Exemplification such (…) as. the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel. for example. in particular. nevertheless. Due to this effect. particularly. instead. as an example. take ( consider) … as an example.study and M-1 suppressed channels. be different from. as follows. for instance. likewise. on the whole. each with a different wavelength. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. on the contrary. in many cases • Comparison and Contrast by comparing …. At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel.
as a result. accordingly. problems may develop when these students’ concepts of “effective” writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. since. be defined / named / known as. as. the definition of …is . Their writings are frequently judged as “illogical”. so that. … is widely accepted as the definition of • Cause and Effect therefore. thus.• Classification and Definition be categorized as. hence. be divided into. so. or “inadequately developed” because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community. “for writing touches the heart of a student’s identity. Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English. due to. the effect on …is 3. be classified as. “poorly organized”. affect the way the non-native students write. now that. drawing its . as a result of. so as to. result in. According to Matthews (2002). because (of ). fall into. on account of. given. there are …kinds / groups /categories/ types of. learned from early childhood. “lacking focus”.. Helen Fox (1994) in her book “Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing” has noted that cultural differences. have an effect on. consequently.
direct communication patterns. and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns. Information is expected to be specific. preferences. emotional)value of writing. clichés. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information. Focus on informational value of writing. Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1. analogies. Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who “subscribe to Aristotle’s dictum” (p. creative metaphors. and always rely on idioms. imagery. factual accuracy is stressed 4. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles. 1985). Preference for clear. to accomplish a purpose Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon .voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world” (p vi). including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the 2. Matalene. it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic. messages are expected to be specific and detailed. attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews. 790). Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. Precise. simplicity. therefore. Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism. artistic. Taoism and Buddhism). and relevant 5. and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past. Focus on clarity. accurate. therefore. and set-phrases. and getting to . 2002. avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6.
which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic. with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section. explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report. Stress on linear development—points are organized sequentially. which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary. explicit background information and extensive 10. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations . essay. in the final section. homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared. but may not state the point or relate the examples to each 13. and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse. experiences. examples. with readers expected to infer the writer’s point Writers supply facts. with a beginning and an end 12. and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper. writers shows respect for the reader’s intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The “burden of meaning” falls on the reader—referred to as “reader responsible” Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point. writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. and values of people in traditional. etc. Explicit signals—such as transitions—are often necessary to show logical links between ideas. experiences. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11. the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s). language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the reader’s attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds.the point 7. One theme is favored 9. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. they introduce yet another opinion or topic. Direct. Because the backgrounds. The “burden of meaning” falls on the writer—referred to as “writer responsible” 15. explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed. research paper. in the next section they introduce a new topic. writers in introduce and discuss a topic.
statistics. 19.’ the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements— showing respect for the reader’s knowledge.16. analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts. knowledgeable and ideas. 20. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated. even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical. writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas other. Focus on building arguments in a logical. questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas. students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers. respect for authority is encouraged . step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue. etc. which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information. Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoning—a single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issue—without taking a strong. scholarship. 17. examples. 18. personal issue—without taking a strong. personal stand.
based on the relevance materials. Authority and Plagiarism Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired. the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers. and present the researcher’s contribution to a research paper. Technique One --.Chapter 2 Voice. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper. 2) basic methods to cite reference materials.Consistent use of formal tone . Meanwhile. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words. Voice Yourself Some techniques to show the writer’s identity To show the author’s attitude towards previous research or present argument. to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. 3) how to avoid plagiarism. Section 1. the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writer’s voice. over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. In this chapter.
So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. shown) that… Basically ( Actually. and unit mass chips off from mass with rate ω. I think (believe. In the SCA model. However. proves) that … As a conclusion (ending of the paper). due to…) …. the present study suggests (shows. Particularly). we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k− r. we know ( the fact is) that…. Instead. Sample 1 Study the following abstract. and try to make the underlined parts better In our study. the study shows that … Based on … (on the basis of …/ according to …). masses diffuse with unit rate. we can (may) conclude that… Besides (furthermore. For the existence of the condensed phase for r ≤ . So …. Apparently. in addition). the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density. The dynamics conserves total mass density ρ. analyzed) above. Practically. we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices.Influenced by the first language. • • • • • • • In this (such a) case ( way). many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. Then. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. my study has confirmed (demonstrated. on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for ω ≠ ∞. On SFNs with r ≤3. I would argue (suggest ) that… Because of ( Owing to. argue) that … As discussed (mentioned. the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. in the steady state. the critical line ρc (ω ) depends on network structures. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community.
3–3. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant. we have investigated 2. enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. at ω = ∞. and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r ≤ 3. the present. Besides. Sample 2 Study the following conclusion. and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an . the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate. the system with 3. apparently by the impact of electrons’ bombardment. besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility. we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any ρ > 0 on RNs. we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r ≤ 3.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by β source and without preionization. degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV. most frequently used tenses are: the present future. the present perfect and the past tenses.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1.Proper use of tenses Generally speaking.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r ≤ 3.3 at the zero density limit. Together with the recent study on SFNs. the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. We also found that at optimum condition.4%. Technique Two --. at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible. In addition. In particular. Further. The preionization.
accepted paper may strengthen writer’s academic attitude and objective tones. Pattern 1 The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss several approaches to improving… + a new method for analyzing … a theory that attempts to explain… new equations for expressing… Or This paper will argue In this paper. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns. we will attempt to show + that / how … Pattern 2 The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract. Introduction and Discussion of a research report . we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report.
Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to + Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on + Topic Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic Pattern 3 The past tense may be used in any part of a research report The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or examined / explored / showed + reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated + Topic Pattern 4 .
including the most frequently used modal verbs “ will / would” . A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper. Normally. will / would . A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example. Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability. It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements. non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs.The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic + Technique Three --. one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). “may / might”. In practical academic writing. “could / should”. a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks. The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper.Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers’ attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues.
• Given the respiration cycle length (3–6 s). a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan. • Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. • Otherwise. t) in time. . • However. and will represent several full respiratory cycles. the time dependence of P(mo±1. the calculated differences will not be significant. most likely. • The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min. in the imaging of moving lung tumors. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor.t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo . for example. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. • Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. On a PET image. equal to the slice thickness. a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position. • The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV.The use of “will” is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of “would” spells a conditional high probable degree.
• For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit. which will finally disappear. If not. the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive. • For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state. • Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ). unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval.15].14. • According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12. the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval. may / might . unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation. • Conversely.could / should The use of “could” presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of “should” tells a high degree of certainty. aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally.
• No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form.The use of “might” presents uncertainty of a statement while “may” is frequently used to show certain degree of probability. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise. • The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. • Therefore. • But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. which will be . Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. • we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media. without the prior written permission of the publisher. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA. Section 2.
… Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted . pp. In this section. (the name of the author) writes / says.discussed in the later chapter. the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. and output in productive ways" ( Long. … …. 1. we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. Sample 2 . 451–452). As for a short quotation. internal learner capacities. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: • • • • According to ( the name of the author). 1996. particularly selective attention. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. Quoting When citing reference materials. the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original. the writer may directly quote from the original sources. accurate in every aspect including the punctuations. In such case. … ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that … Sample 1 Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input.
their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve. Farrell suggested “the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion . Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others’ words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writer’s thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. learned from early childhood. Warren-Boulton argued “copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low” . Sample 3 Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: “These differences. from short critiques of articles they’ve read to dissertation defenses.Shurmer mentioned “the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements” . affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates. these affect the way they write. how they study. But most of all. In other words.” 2. the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words.when the innovation is subject to network effects” . it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth” . They affect how students understand assignments. Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection “if society truly believes it needs the technology. They affect how students give oral presentations. and how they comment on their classmates’ paper. Paraphrasing is frequently .
the writer should not use too many direct quotations. the time) When citing other researchers’ work.used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writer’s understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input . Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3) Sample 1 While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. For example. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers’ work. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers’ work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): • • Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that… Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers. In effect. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. However. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers.
e. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers.e. Sample 3 . and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. 7–12 years). production (Gass and Swain).. Sample 2 Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). 2000).. for review see Gass et al. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. 1998). arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. However. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. 1999). The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.from their peers.
evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review. the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. Similarly. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others’ authoritative thoughts. Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing. Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. Forty-eight dyads. 3. he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. Sample 1 A recent study by Mackey et al. and learner-native speaker . and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. To make such a summary. and linguistically. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads.An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work. the nature of the feedback. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. 379). (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. socially.
of course. but none – at least as far as we can tell – communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century.and learner-learner pairings. pp. Wallman. 2001. Among children. learner vs. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. 1992). but that does not. so far as we know. Demers & Harnish. 1996. Suzette Haden Elgin observes that: . 3-30. 1994. In her book The Language Imperative. the distinctive qualities of mind that are. to be sure. Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways. perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. 2003. pp. 583620. Sample 2 Noam Chomsky. “When we study human language. mean that human beings – even otherwise well-educated human beings – are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill. we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’. once commented that. engaged in task-based interactions. Pinker. pp. Fromkin. although not for the amount of feedback provided. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. 1992. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. native speaker) and learner age.e. O’Grady & Dobrovolsky. 1998. Wardhaugh. 1999). 3). 1993. 31-76. Animals communicate. p. Sample 3 Language may indeed be central to being human. McWhorter. Rodman & Hyams. although only among learner-learner dyads.
p. Plagiarism Whether quoting. grounds. The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. • • Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. • Using the transitional expressions such as “according to …” . We forget. . paraphrasing or summarizing. Consciously or unconsciously. the power that language has over our minds and our lives. “ based on the work of …” . . or are unaware of. (2000. with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages. . 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B Section 3. Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writer’s text. we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes. a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. Separate the quotation. .It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . we have let that miracle be trivialized .
a L2 writer may use imitation strategies • to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper . • Citing. paraphrasing or summarizing other authors’ work with the detailed source information omitted. On the basis of the genre knowledge. • Confusing the original author’s ideas with the writer’s own without indicating the source.Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: • Coping some words or phrases without mention of the author’s name or quotation marks. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy. the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format. The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing. Genre Knowledge Generally speaking. 1. genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter).
if non-specific. The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: • • whether they are verifiable. or support in an argument. whether they are specific or. Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues’ academic papers on an international basis. whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim. In specific. 2. a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. • • to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft. As such. no one. or advocatory claims. the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always. • whether they serve as conclusions. edit and format the whole paper Argumentation Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking.• to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns. all. premises. everyone. To make an effective argument. the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of . none. never. evaluative.
So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: • To identify the author’s name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical. • To separate the summary of other author’s opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another author’s words • To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another author’s work. . the page number before you document the material. • To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author. avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source.plagiarism. • To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats. In particular. the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others’ academic work. it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience. whether a word or phrase. However.
Summary and Abstract A summary is a shorter version. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original. At the end of each section.Chapter 3 Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper Generally. a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract. the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. References or Appendixes (if any). Results and Findings. On the other hand. in your own words. concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them. Introduction. tips for practical writing will be introduced. a research paper abstract. Research Methodologies and Procedures. but expresses them in a much shorter space. Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review. Section 1. Discussion and Conclusion. we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding . the function. but also a valuable learning process. also called executive summary. In this chapter. of what you have read.
or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. often behind the referee's back. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example. [9 words] Sample 2 An abstract of a published paper The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off.whether or not read your paper. Sample 1 Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract. damage stadiums. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative. Paulus Indiana University . thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves.
tables. or literature references in a summary or abstract. • • Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper. Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. evaluating the first and final drafts of students’ essays. such as the research theories. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures. and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this paper’s contribution. identify the author’s (or your own) contributions in the research paper. results and conclusions of a study. Objectiveness: to state objectively other’s or your own ideas and main points in the paper. 1. • Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions. the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own.Although teacher and peer feedback. together with required revision. Concise: to define terminally the scope. and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper. and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. and recording students’ verbal report during revision. is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: • • • • Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper). . The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Witte’s (1981) taxonomy of revisions. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement. to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper. investigations and results and conclusions. research methods.
In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. .who has done the study What--. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input.in what kind of context or scope of the study When--.the time order of similar studies What --. Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) • • • • • Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. noting that classroom organization. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners.Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) • • • • Who --. Sample 1 A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. for example. implication or recommendation if necessary. For example. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion.what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study.
. Approaches to summary and abstract writing How to Summarize • The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original. During a 3-day treatment period. while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects. The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers. revised 14 June 2002. the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms. In the current study. we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. Western Australia 6050. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. Australia Received 2 May 2002. Washington. However. Edith Cowan University. Abstract The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research. Interestingly.b Department of Linguistics. but did not receive feedback. Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original.a and Rhonda Oliver .Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey a .in your own words. accepted 17 June 2002. ICC 460. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur. It should be expressed . Perth. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes. Georgetown University. the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly. DC 20057. . 2. while the control group (n=11) interacted. USA b School of Education.as far as possible . This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to. most of the existing research has focused on adults.
[A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful. Remember that it must be in your own words. the past and the present perfect. By writing in this way. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues. an abstract should be written in formal and academic language. aim for something like one tenth of the original. [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary. Use a highlighter if this helps. If not. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. The most frequently used tenses are the present. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you. helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic.• The question will usually set a maximum number of words. How to write abstract effectively • As a short.] • • • • • • • • • • • Read the original quickly. • Serving as a useful tool in searching for information. the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments.] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. an effective abstract . Leave out any illustrative examples. Draw up a list of the topics . Focus your attention on the main point. Besides. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. Look up any words or concepts you don't know. These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages.or make a diagram. so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other. concise and highly generalized text. and try to understand its main subject or purpose.
3. • An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself.should be as concise as possible. the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --. direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. ( the related problem) …is as yet undetermined.to outline the main participants. the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study. the argument. without any detailed information or comment on the research. so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones. . thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. Step Three: Results. • Step One Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns To define the context and argument of the present study: • • This paper describes / presents …( the argument) within…( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject)….to present the most important results and related findings. • An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal. the methods and the procedures of the study. Also. and give suggestions of further study. • In terms of its form. findings and conclusion --. In particular. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: • • Step One: Introduction---to define the context. an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper.
we inquired / examined / evaluated … ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved…( participants / materials). yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned. despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…. ( the related problem) is that…. ( the related problem)…remains unsolved. (the present agreement) is still problematic. we aim at… The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on … Step Two Contents of the study: the frequently used formats To introduce the main participants or materials • • • • The present study has investigated …by using / analyzing…( participants / materials) In this study. the study has focused on … ( participants / materials) To present research methods and procedures • The method / approach used in the present study is… . ( Previous studies) have examined ….• • • • (The research subject)…. however. because… While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to…. To present the purpose of the present study: • • • • • The purpose / intention of this paper is… The primary goal / aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper / study. In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions)….
thus we may conclude that … As a result of the current experiments. we conducted the present study. Step Three Results. and evaluated. a review of previous studies. And the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… The data / results obtained appear to …. we concluded that… Section 2.. a transition . categorized …. the results also imply the further study into… The investigation / experiment varied by. findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns • • • • • • The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that….• • • • • The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting … The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…. it is also found that… It is concluded that…... Introduction Writing The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background).
• Step Six: Organization of the paper --.it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies. • Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --.1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : • Step One: Research background --. • Step Four: Present study --.to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study.it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject. • Step Two: Literature review --.it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study. and a definition of research problems in a specific area. a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline. In some cases. the main procedures of the present study.it introduces the focus. solutions or findings. a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations). the purpose. Or • Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --. most frequently followed by the present researcher’s hypothesis and assumptions.it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper. or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. 2. . the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction.it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study.
then identify each step used in the two Introductions. 1997. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learner’s ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. . 1995. 2001). Spack. 1999.To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples. Fox. Ramanathan and Atkinson. 1991. 1994. Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines. 1994. 1991. Fox. assessment criteria and in written feedback on student’s assignments (Woodward-Kron. Pally. many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy. 1997. The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson.1997. there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students’ critical thinking ability. Pally. Stapleton. however. 2002). and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process. Spack. 1997. Zamel. However. 2002. 1994. With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing. Hereafter. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. Pally. disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom. Matthews. Atkinson. Fox. 2001. 1997). 2001. Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students’ Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing. 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students’ difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy. some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh. To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing. 2002). Atkinson & Ramanathan.Woodward-Kron. 1999). while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson. 2001. Ramanathan & Atkinson. these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions. academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing. 1997). 2001. 1997. and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing.
. Finally. particularly grammar. research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition. the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences. The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. The interaction hypothesis Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. 1998).a and Rhonda Oliver 1. in press). Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback.2. more quickly ( Ervin. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. Age differences and SLA As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al. I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students’ struggles to meet Western academic writing standards. Introduction 1. Snow and Snow). production ( Gass and Swain). as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey . . younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages . However. 1.. 1999). it is suggested that further studies on ESL students’ development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing. on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom. However. and output in productive ways" ( Long. The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students’ development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking. 2000)..Then. Long. for review see Gass et al. internal learner capacities. particularly selective attention. Krashen. Harley. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). 451–452). 1996.1. pp.
3. for example. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. Patkowski and Singleton). influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. noting that classroom organization. Oyama.e. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved.( Johnson. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. Bialystok. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. Oyama. For example.e. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson). . A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. Birdsong and Birdsong). In the current study.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. However. Children's interactional processes While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok. we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 8–12 year-old range. 1. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. For example. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Johnson. 7–12 years). Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i.
and use a variety of negotiation strategies. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. the children were ESL learners. as . A recent study by Mackey et al. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed. showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). learner vs. native speaker) and learner age. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges.e. concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students. and linguistically. (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation. Lyster and Lyster. aged 6 to 12. and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings. Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. 379). Van den Branden suggests. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. and dyads have all been studied. adopting a different operationalization of uptake. small groups. however. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. the nature of the feedback. Finally. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. engaged in task-based interactions.and 5th-grade learners of French. socially. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn. Ellis et al. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output. Forty-eight dyads. especially in relation to children's L2 development. although not for the amount of feedback provided. The children in their classrooms were 4th. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. Ellis et al. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. Intact classes. although only among learnerlearner dyads. mainly their teachers.Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster. paired with native age peers. In a later study. Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred. that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition. In Oliver's study. Among children.
Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA. Specifically. arguments and the organization of the paper. Although generally supportive. research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999). to provide the main purpose. however. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners.4. in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback. Thus. Research question In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA. 2. facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes.well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children. 626). The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. In summary. as it has been shown to do with adults. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. Note that the following sentence . 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. 1. including negotiation and recasts. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. Interestingly. in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL.2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above.
generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present . Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached . rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form . Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope. The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer. such as boric acid. to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field. they are processed in the presence of toxic. are typically solution processed at low solids content (7–30 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents . Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors. Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies.2. 2.1. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however). particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 85–90 mol% AN .2. Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied… . at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place. commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC).However. 2.patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings. especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN. organic solvents. S3[ research focus] Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers.2.
The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. a process was developed combining acetonitrile. and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5. Coxe  showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures. approximately 25–45 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing. have not yet been used for the routing . and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. To permit removal of the water from the fibers.B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested… Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5. which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures. Example 2 Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth. However. methanol. 16]. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult. however.11]. the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 ￡ 106 lb per year) were reached.8–16]. All-optical cross connects (OXC). but Porosoff  showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion. their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks –. As a result. and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile.
usually with a small number of input–output fibers and/or wavelength channels –. –. . the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning. . but their use has so far been limited to field trials. . lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction.of the signals in any of these commercial systems. the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. Therefore. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature. 3. . the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or … Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases. The fact. [ the problematic point] + So / therefore. . Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section “Interactional feedback and children's L2 development” ) B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however. most likely. has probably prevented the use of OXC’s in commercial systems –.
However. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). In Sec. we discuss the SCA model at ω = ∞ and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees. we investigate / examine / explore… The paper start from ….ω plane with the exponent т =5/2. Finally.4. Then. sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. To understand the condensation on SFNs with r ≤ 3. the focus is on … In this paper. VIII. we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec. respectively. the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. As we shall see. …(the organization) The outline the paper is as follows…. so-called hub nodes. Example In this paper. II. The outline of this paper is as follows. VI and VII. on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3. The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study. Typical Sentence Patterns: • • • • • The aim of the present / current study is to …[ See the above example] In this paper. V. . the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line ρc (ω) in the ρ . we introduce the SCA model on complex networks. on SFNs with r ≤3 where one or several nodes. have a finite fraction of links. we summarize our results in Sec. In Secs. III and IV.
It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials. apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis . The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1): • • Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for … (for example.Section 3. Method and Materials This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines. networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials • • • • • This part should mention: • • • • • • • The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials.
viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. For example. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements. • The camera is mounted in the radial position. • While fixing the β source. • A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. • In addition to the measures described above. Sometimes. • Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. Sample 1 .The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. including patterns of use. • A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. For example. • The SILL is a self-scoring. 1990). and by elementary and advanced level students. • SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. • .
Overall design of the study The study had three phases. the population of the school averaged around 100. see below). Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere. Hong Kong. from 21 different countries: Japan.3. Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students. Tahiti. Thailand . which takes about 10 min.1995 ). China. 5. Malaysia. In the 100-item grammar test.Argentina. while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). Italy. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework. There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23. Arriving students were given the widely used. aged 14–64. The listening test. Czechoslovakia. The study 5. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). mid-elementary. commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan. Over the period of the study (one year).1. as explained in Section 5. Taiwan. Brazil.consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a “minimal user”. In part A. New Zealand. Some were new arrivals at the school. Indonesia.Switzer land. including patterns of use. Korea. 5. students must select one of three options (for instance: “In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun”). consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers. one of which is reported here. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary. France. for instance. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers’ perspectives on language learning strategy use.5. selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals’ patterns of strategy use. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. Portugal . midintermediate. Russia. Poland. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland. and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. upper elementary. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. Denmark. The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140–150 on the Oxford Placement Test. upper intermediate and advanced. Participants’ levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels.2. so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details. There were 114 male students and 234 females. pre-intermediate. which takes about 50 min to complete. is deemed an “independent user”. Spain. a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. In part B. The school did not accept total beginners. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level. The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and .2). Germany.
and the effects of cultural background on response patterns. motivation.1990 ). lack of self-awareness by students.1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock.1998. varying interpretations of terms.. The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. therefore. Ellis. Turner. Dorrnyei. The level at which a student was working at any particular time. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement.1995. 2003. have been debated in the research literature (for instance.4. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. the oral interview assessment. but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. The SILL is a self-scoring. Cohen.grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: “Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?”). paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as ‘‘I review English lessons often’’ to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). However. Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0. learning styles. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. Dornyei. according to which they might be promoted. and other factors (for details. 1998. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class.19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately.1994. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a . including self-report strategy questionnaires.5. Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency. 5. Ellis. their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen. 1994. see Oxford. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school.89 to 0. 1990). and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. p. Oxford. possibly an assessment of written competence.539) and has been widely used. 5. a written task might be added. Guetal.2003. 1994. The SILL was chosen for this study because it is “perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date” (Ellis. Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options.1995 ). Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se. depended on a combination of the OPT score.98 in various studies.
1990).5 or above (Oxford. Sample 2 II. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system. powered the device. giving a peak discharge current of about 190– 245 kA. a mean of 3. charged at 19–25 kV. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. that is. a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level. While fixing the β source. 1. Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected.6. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 μm active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters. Preionization A mesh-type radioactive β source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0. a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb. The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter. B. as indicated in Fig. The β source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. which is slightly tapered towards the open end. is used . The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation).5 μF single capacitor. 5. 1. A 12. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. In one experiment. In addition.special Study Skills class held during the students’ first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the school’s facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied). and significant differences (Student’s t). and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization. C. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig.
3. tables and diagrams) and written texts. Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. E.05 keV. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. Ag (50 μm). the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used. except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges. D.to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8. 2. During the experiment with Pb insert. During the experiment with Pb insert. Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K α line radiation.μm diameter multipinhole apertures is used. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy.1 cm from the anode tip. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals. The figures show the complete .μm-thick Co and 17.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K αline of 8. and Pb (55 μm) covers three p-i-n diode detectors.μm-thick Ni foils.1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis. a set of Mo (10 μm).71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 4–7.71 keV window. It is always followed by researchers’ comments or interpretations of these findings. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum. The camera is mounted in the radial position. For the study of Cu K α line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200. The pinholes are masked separately with 10. Section 4. Results The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs.μm-thick Co and Ni filters. The transmission curves and the detectors’ response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig.5±0. and elevated at 1. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 19±0.5.
2) Sample 1 3. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of … on … As Fig. This difference was significant according to Fisher's . The effect of … on…has… ( Fig. a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage. The results of sustained stage increase for each group. whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development. 2 shows. are summarized in Table 5. the influences of … As shown in Table 2.and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development. 2. An effective introduction of results should present: • • • An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1). A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2). Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3) The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: • • • • • • Fig. the effect of … Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of … The effect of … on … is shown / summarized in Fig. As can be seen. Results 3. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage.1.
exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: • • • As can be seen / found, the first group of … while the second…. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater … than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in … These results suggested that the effect of … was either close to or slightly lower than that of …
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without β source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with β source as compared to without β source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the β source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.
The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • These findings accord with / are consistent with those of … These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is … There is …( a general statement) …, the possible reason is that … It is considered / found that…, these may suggest the reason why….
It is evident from Figs. 5–8 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without β source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K α and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K α and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that β source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.
Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion
As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers’ explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:
Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?
According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?
Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?
Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researcher’s
contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).
This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.
They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation. the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced. non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data. The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study. 4. In clinical practice.4% on average for the respective modalities. and little actual attenuation occurred. This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion. regardless of their attenuation correction methods. emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data .9 cm amplitude experiment. such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume. the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III).15. However. internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air. The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. up to 46% deviation from the true volume. Moreover. Pevsner et al. where some part of the sphere was present in every phase.21 This large range.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT. In Fig. however. Moreover. It must be kept in mind. as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2.9% and 1. with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. In the 3. in the imaging of moving lung tumors. In the current study. When the motion amplitude is smaller than the sphere’s diameter. Nehmeh et al. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol. both underestimating and overestimating the volume. while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT. 1.5 cm amplitude. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients. an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation.With information of tumor motion. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning.
followed by a review of the most important findings. The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. then show the differences or the matching degree between them. the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. For both systems. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans.was 75% lower than found with RCPET. indicate that a slight phase shift was still present. which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices. the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3. V. In future studies. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing. respectively) show good correlation. . are not correlated with respiration. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. either CT or PET. and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift. equal to the slice thickness. but perhaps even more important. the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone.8 cm.9 and 4. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. however. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important. less motion artifacts. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1. 5. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2. the calculated differences will not be significant.1 Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the original hypothesis or assumption in this section.
The results. it was found that …. A further explanation. show that….2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section.. Therefore… • • • • • In this paper (study). In the present study. The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that…. However. It is considered that …. The differences between … are …. we have reported the significant effect of…. The results. It could . it is found that ( the fact ) results in… This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of …. The results demonstrate that… We originally assumed that …. the findings show that…. The data in the present study show that …. the differences between ( the significant effect of)… were investigated (has been reported). This evidence led us to (infer that) …. Thus. The results presented above show that…This suggests that… This study has presented a specific method for measuring…. The results in this study show that ….sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences. The possible reason is… The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which…. This suggests that… Existing theories suggested that …. We originally hypothesized that the effect of …. show that … In this paper. The results (or data) show that ….. is an important support for the conclusions. however. because… This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in…. however. The reason why… is that… It was originally assumed that …. The following are the typical sentence patterns: • • • • • • This research investigated the differences between ……. however. The possible reason may … 5.
the present tense is preferred. For the present study: • • • • It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of … It is possible ( likely. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is “may” as shown in the following sentence patterns. unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this could be that inadequate use of …increased … These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in … resulted in … For the general • • • • • This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are … This rapid increase ( decrease ) in …is attributed to … The enhancement in … may be caused by… It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of … increases … 5. when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies. Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper. Compare the following two examples: .be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study. the past tense is frequently used.3 Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study itself. In contrast.
• • A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children. To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing. • B: In the current study. as it has been shown to do with adults. For example. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies. or the limitation of the samples. They could be the research methodology. the results of the study. imply ) that… The data reported here imply (suggest.4 Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • • • • These results indicate (suggest. the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring. confirm ) that… Our conclusion is that… Therefore we may infer that… These findings support the hypothesis that … Our data provide the evidence that … It appears ( seems. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children. suggests ) that… 5. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies. the present tense is to show the limitations of the research . indicate. • A: In the current study. the theoretical models. the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring. as it has been shown to do with adults. show.
Sometimes. Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. For example. When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results. model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments. For example. . the present tense and modal verbs “may” or “might” are frequently used. • • • The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small.methodology. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate. but cannot implemented in real time applications. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. • • • The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. writers may start with “we” and use “admit” or “ recognize” to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. • • • Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results. • We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study.
Another interesting topic would be to examine how …[ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study …[ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. the following sentence patterns are frequently used. it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. The generality of …[ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of …[research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for …[ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in …[ a practical area] such as … Further studies should focus on the practical use of …[ the results] into …[ a practical area] . 5. • • • • • • • • • A further experiment should be conducted with …[ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of …[ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply …[ a new aspect of the theory] to … In the future.• We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor. Thus. the effect of …[ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined.3 Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies to the further research or practical applications of the results. In practice.
• • • • We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with …[ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of …[ different materials or procedures] In the future. a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic. or use “ we suggest that …” and we recommend that…”. For example. we will investigate the effect of …[ the results in present study] in a series of studies.To present a direct suggestion or recommendation. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with …[ other research method] .
APA (American Psychological Association) style. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts. the typical citation system is the same. see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). APA-Style References APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation. in which references are listed alphabetically. 2003) noted. As Nature (424. thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere. the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected. MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list. Section 1. The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers.Chapter 4 Reference Styles Different journals may use quite different reference styles.127. Besides. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details. the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies. . which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list. Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year. Generally. two reference styles.
the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr. cite both names each time the reference appears. separated by a comma.1. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System Quoting directly or indirectly within the text. cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. in parentheses. that is. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter. even if the reference includes month and year. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&). 1999). Otherwise. • Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. but within you text spell out the word and. APA journals use the author-date method of citation. • • • Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. the writer must provide the source of documented information. 1. place both the name and the year. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. include only the year. . When you refer to a work by two authors. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers. For example.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors’(’s) work If you summarize the author’s work in your text.
Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).
When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author’ the page number follows the end of he quotation. • As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, “English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, …with values, and these values … with dilemmas and conflict” ( p. ix). • This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are “preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved” (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). • Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are “almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities” ( p. 422). • Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, “When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors’ work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of
the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, • • However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are “group rights” (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). • It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). • This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).
1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. For example,
• Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martínez-Roldán, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. …, For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that…
There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,
for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Várady, 1999).
Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, “The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice” (1995 , p. 16). …, According to Phillipson et al. (1995), …
When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al” (not underlined and with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, • As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. • Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by “et al.” For example,
• • • Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Várady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)
The In-text quotation should be:
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)
whether in parentheses or not. To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author. report. Scollon and S. 2003. W. All words are capitalized. B. short prepositions. there is “much added value” in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin. Scollon (1994). To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone. For example. except conjunctions. If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example. and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list. 1. Scollon (1994). you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. and articles.3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. For example.When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name. • The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in “College English” (1998) and “ College Core English” (1996). or periodical is underlined. a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text. R. you may use . the title of a book. • Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. p. Within the text. brochure. • According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States.3). use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ.
in large measure. 2002.1989)… The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa. for “no date.” When a date of publication is inapplicable. followed by version. • The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are. ii) • The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada. To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source. your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use. 1931)..(Aristotle. The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested …. C. include this in the citation. When you know the original date of publication. refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list. • • Darwin’s metaphors (as quoted by Gould. cite in text the author’s name. the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community.d. 2005) stressed that…. For example. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication. P. cite the year of the translation you used. 2000)… E. ( TESOL News Letters. James(1890/1983) D.NSF for National Science Foundation). preceded by trans. or the year of the version you used. such as for some very old works. trans. Specific Parts of a Source . followed by a comma and n.
” (1999. figure. “Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . or equation at the appropriate point in text. conversely. 24-25) 2. . . each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. For example: Cummins.To cite a specific part of a source. title. J. References cited in text must appear in the reference list. Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. . Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. Language. the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition. “Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of ‘negotiation’ over meaning at every turn” (1977.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: • Elements of Each entry: author. (2000). as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s. Reference List In APA style. chapter. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: • In short. and publishing data. 58). the list of sources is entitled “References”. or to do almost anything in between. p. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. table. pp. indicate the page. Always give page numbers for quotations. year of publication. to oppress people. • As David Corson argued. 2. power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire.
N. Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Input. Entries should start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). Janks. & Goutsos. the earliest first. H. Interaction and the Second Language Learner.• The list must be double-spaced. For example. A critical approach to the teaching of language. (1993). . An introduction to language (5th ed. V. Worth. Mahwah. Gass.). H. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations. Fettes. (2003). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Discourse analysis: An introduction. and arranged in alphabetical order. Educational Review 43: 191199. (1992). Fromkin. Janks. NJ (1997).. N. London: Longman. R. Rodman. (1997).. For example. (1991).. V. (1997). Boston: Heinle. • One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication.M. Ft. TX: Harcourt Brace. • On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. For example. Fromkin. Georgakopoulou. For example. D. . (1995). (1997).). R. M. A. Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. An introduction to language (7th ed. & Hyams. & Rodman. A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities. • Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. S. Fairclough.
Worth. S. TX: Harcourt Brace. The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. Johnston. Ed.M. (1998). 299–307. and second language production. Johnston. A. pp. S.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style. language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students. (1993). interaction. V. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. Input.Gass. Mackey. Fromkin. N. E. Mahwah. (1993). different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. & Rodman. (Eds..M. Fromkin. An introduction to language (7th ed. R. and Pica T. V. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial.) Trans. Values in English language teaching. Rodman. 2 nd ed. Language choice. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994).).. Burtonsville. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and . Ed. B. and so on. & Hyams. (2003). pp. Modern Language Journal 82 (1998).M. For example. (1994). 2. MD: Linstok Press. Gass S. 283–302. (2003). R. Ft.). An introduction to language (5th ed. Boston: Heinle. • References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author.. & Varonis.
Author. the italicized title of the periodical. page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement In general.. Nonperiodical: Author. certain monographs.P. the volume number. Location: Publisher.) Vol.B. give the month and day. and the end of the entry.﹠Author. the date. brochures. the title of the article. Title of work. the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals. the volume number. the first word of the subtitle. magazines. A period follows the author. followed by the initials (not the entire first names).. A. and so on. XXX-XXX. Suppl. not enclosed in quotation marks. manuals. The year of publication follows in parentheses. C. Title of Periodicals.(1994). Next comes the title of the article. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books. tech. they can be presented as follows: Periodical Author. All words . The name of the periodicals. Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals. XX. For a basic entry. For magazine and newspaper articles. A. and proper names within both are capitalized.C. pt. No. B. (PP. For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s). of all authors. vols. scholarly newsletters. Only the first work of the article title.(1994). and audiovisual media. and the page numbers are separated by commas.A. reports.Rep. Title of Article. A.
1829-1840. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. (2005). J. (2005. (2006.. For example. South African Medical Journal 86 (1). A. The title of the article.. 2. (2006). followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first names. edited books and work cited in another work. Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. or pp. is used to indicate page(s). B12. S. Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any). June. followed by a period. Journal paginated by Issue Reagan. followed by periods. and the pages. Article by Two Authors Makoni. the volume. 20th ). New York Times. 38(2). Article by One Author Smith. as well as the year. Science of Psychology. P. The date of publication appears in parentheses. G. 797-799. Douglasa. & Pennycook.except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical. is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines. Sussan. For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author. 101-105. For example. The language rights of the deaf. For example. except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p. T. 137-156. S. (1996). Only the first word of the . The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author.or pp.14th ). 1. Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. Nov. Gas crisis in the world. The abbreviation p. The title of Journal.
G. Spring. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.4th. Use parentheses to the page numbers. Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah.Sussan. Globalization and educational rights. abbreviated (Rev. if it is a word.) or. For example. Postal Service abbreviations for states. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ed. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. & Tsui. . Mahwah. eds). For example.(2002). Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author. (1964). On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod. the first word of the subtitle. list he names of all the authors. c. Ernst Mayer). (Original work published 1859) . Darwin. 3rd. the name of the state.) New York: Harp& Row Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. Use U. (2001).book title. and proper names within both are capitalized. Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized “In” and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd. The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. A.S. etc. The names of university presses are spelled out. Facts of publication include the city of publication and. The entry ends with a period. Second language acquisition (3rd ed. (Eds..). (2004). if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location. J. Place an ampersand(﹠)before the name of the last author. For example. Tollefson. The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. For example.
For example. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears. if any. If it is presented at a conference or symposium.). (Ed. indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary . series. Tollefson. In J. D. MD: National Agriculture Library. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. Stanton.The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. even if it is well known. (1987). (1999).). should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. Eggington (eds. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. 7-21). The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym. Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process. Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book. For example. D. Hall & W. For example. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted.) or editors (Eds.) within parentheses in the author position. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Policy and ideology in the spread of English. Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U.C.Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed. The identifying title. The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. Woods. present by “in press” within parentheses. (2000). Beltsville. place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position. J. Department of Agriculture).S. or number of the report.
Available: www. (1997). The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks.. should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material. J. diskette. (1998). Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning. B. 21 (10). Language Learning (in press). otherwise. including E-journals and CD-ROM. Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased. For example. a statement about availability of the product.chubu. the name of the state may be omitted.html .toefl. CD-ROM. J. a description of the medium—On-line Journals.hyper. Woods. Oliver. (in press). the title of the section you used. Washington. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL. (2003.html Taylor. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author. Available: http//langue..ac.. the date. DC. and Kirsch. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address. Mackey. Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies. an the method or path used to retrieve the material. Eignor. it requires more information than you normally need for print sources. Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source. If the name of the city is well known. A study on Adult learners’ incorporation of feedback. etc. S. Georgetown University. Toronto. D. K. October).jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods. R. ---placed within brackets. include both city and state. Leeman. Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads. The Language Teachers Online [On-line]. Leeman. RR-61[On-line]. McDonough. For example. A. ONT. the title of the entire source underlined.after the title. (2001). if any. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. J.org/rrpts.
• Woods’ series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190). to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries. as the following examples indicate: • Recently. there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189). Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s). Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. whether in the form of direct quotation. The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. or summary. MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section. you need not repeat the name within parentheses. According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 1. paraphrase.1 To quote from authors less than four . 1. a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries.Section 2. In-text Documentation Unlike APA format. When the author’s name appears in the introduction the material. MLA-style References Similar to the APA style.
include the designation Jr. Jansen 43) and ( S. 67). For example. include the first initial in subsequent references. Graff). • • Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e. with the son designated as Jr. preceded by a comma. the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. When the two authors are father and son. a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the author’s name in your list of works cited... you do not need a parenthetical reference. Jr. in the reference. • Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their “encounters” in her book Listening to the World (2). For example. you should put the page number at the end of the cited section. When you have more than one author with the same last name. use the subsequent references ( H.g. 1. • That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian.When citing the resources with the author named in the text. • Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook. Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35). When you cite from the author not named in text. For example. Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen. When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title. For example.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author .
You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to “Pharaoh. use the title in parentheses. compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: • Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell).…. Clinchy. you may list all four authors or give only the last name of the first author followed by “er al”. . and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author.. • The authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing make a distinction between “separate knowing “and “connected knowing” (Belenky et al.” for example. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list. • Due to air pollution. 1.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited. Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited. For example. • The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12. 1. hereafter AMNH) . (AMNH 15). 100-30) or (Belenky. shortening it to two or three words. use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy. Goldberger.3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors. because the entry should be alphabetized by “ancient”. after the first citation) in place of the name of the author. Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (“Ancient Pharaoh Statue”). When a work has four or more authors.
use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). When you have two works or more by the same author. The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. • Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation.When you quote material from a source other than the original. • Goethe wrote that “it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd. separate entries with a semicolon. • This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman.”. For example. to use (Errors 79. To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work. use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. 2). For example. For example. vol. “Diving in”68. Brooks and Warren 5) . For example. use the author’s name and the abbreviation “vol. introduce the name of the source with “ qtd. • Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozart’s The Magic Flute (2:104-05).5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work. In Newman 2:104) 1. In”. For example.
1 Construct of the reference list In general. D. Ed Nunan. Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list. Adelaide. Pienemann M.2. New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center. “University Press” . M. The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author. you must list each article by author in the works cited section. For example. you should continue into the second line. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as “ the first (surname) + comma + the last name” . For example. 2. 1987: 45–141. “The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions”. the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: • All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97–111. Sussan. the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation. “A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261–285. “Factors influencing the development of language proficiency”. Oliver. AMEP. For example. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. If you cannot finish within one line. along with the editor of the volume. Oyama. • When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it. Richard. and Johnston. • Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space. • MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible.
citing a book published Harper and Row’s Colophon series as Colophon-Harper. etc. Harmondsworth. Eng. B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely. or division. the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. etc. 2. • The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. Hakelly. (the key words only). 1996. Dell. For example.can be abbreviated as UP or U. New York : Academic P. “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition”. 311-19. Ed. Martin Dodsworth. Such as 17-18. compilers. vol. : Penguin. 413–68. it can only be noted down as: Harper. Second Language Acquisition. Long.P. 2. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) “the title of the article” 3) the name of the magazine . Intod. of a publisher before the name of the publisher. Fox. 80-88. Ed. 28-59. T. Dorothy Collin. MLA also puts the name of the imprint. M. Revisting the Washback.K.H. and Bhatia. For the famous publishing house. For example. EG: 127-51.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author. 1996. Ritchie C. Handbook of Language Acquisition.
1995. and Barbara Katz Rothman. If several cities are listed.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s). Wendy. but not the final period. Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. compiler(s). Invert the first author’s name. cite only the first. Philadelphia: Temple UP.4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2. For example. Richard Dien. the title of the book with any subtitle. Italicize the complete title and subtitle.1. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. the names of any additional authors are not inverted. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space. Book by a single author Winfield. Abbreviate the publisher’s name. Book by four or more authors . Postal Service Abbreviations. Law in Civil Society. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. and the facts of publication. which include the city of publication. 1992. which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials.S. If the state is needed for clarification. And if the country or province is needed. Book by two or three authors Simons. placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s). available in most dictionaries. include a standard abbreviation. use U.
(2) the full title of the article within quotation marks. et al. 1993-1994. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen. Chicago: ALA. for editor. or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the author’s position. eds. American Museum of Natural History. for translator(s) ] . for editors. Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears. the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books. Reconditioning the Bicycle. ed. 2. meaning “and others. comp. Article in a scholarly journal Fox. 1995. When the corporate author is also the publisher.” or “trans.” [ed.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general. compiled.” is preferred. comps. 1992. the date of publication followed by a colon. English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. For example.Instead of presenting the names of all authors. McPherson. the volume number (for a scholarly journal only). Annual Report. New York: Rutledge. 1987. the series name and number if any. An edited. and trans. not the Los Angeles Times). 1989. New York. Janna. which usually includes the name periodical (italicized).” “comp. Baum.” Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16. the abbreviation “et al. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times.1. for compiler.”. . the name is not repeated. and (3) the information of publication. New York: Rodale. Robert. William. “Technical Writing Skills. followed by an abbreviation for “ed. for compilers.
C.4(1979): 22.Venture Bets Colombian Coal. Peter. Milton M. “The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History. 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. Nwezeh.” New York Times 27 July 1995.:1A+. for national. intl.” Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22. “An Interview with Josie Graham. Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd.E. excluding any introductory article. such as the. include its designation. Article in a magazine . Klein. “U. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified. Mercer.” Kenyon Review ns 12. late city ed. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume. Erickson.) Donnelly. “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature. Thomas.S.” Denver Quarterly 26. ed. 52(July 1995):483-87. after the date (natl.” Miami Herald 22 July 1995. treat the issue number like a volume number. intl.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. and do on. “Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich. for international.1(1995): 103-19.: D7. Pamela. use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper. John.Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner. abbreviated. “Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage.
1995:171. give day. “How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar. Richard. 1995:26-31. Abbreviate all months except May.” New York Times Magazine 18 Oct. New York: Oxford UP. Rhetorics of Self-making. Walter T. 2. and July. give the month and year only.J.” Cooper and Odell. and year. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s).3 Reference List for Electronic Sources: . “If you have the advertisement you don’t need the product. George E. Gary Tate and Edward P. “On Eccentricity. 1995. Lloyd-Jones. 6268. 1992: 44+. Debbora. Roy. Corbett. Ed. Evaluating Petty. your entry begins with the author of the article.” The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook. Anonymous magazine article “Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. Mina P.” Battaglia 59-76. Research 73-84. ed.1. one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation. June. U of California P. Marcus. use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. Entry for article in the edited volume. Brody. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia.” Science News 18 Mar.For a weekly magazine. “Primary Trait Scoring. Howard. “Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. Shaughnessy. June. Kinoshita.” Battaglia 43-58. month. “The Writing of Young Children.” Cooper and Odell. Wagner . “The Mapping of the Mind. for a monthly. 1981.
The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author. On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England. WA: Microsoft. et al. 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed. diskette. etc. P. an assess preceded by the word Available from. the title of the entire source. if it is not well known.1 rev. Vic.4. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism. [Computer software]. Hawthone East. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]. E. [ disk].31. the date you accessed the source. italicized. For example. . Georing.2003. Version. Paul. year or date of publication (in parentheses). Release 2. if any . Windows 4. volume or issue number. The equipment required to run it.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003.). 6MB.The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources.: Space-time Research 1998.niss. if necessary for your purpose. Gardern. the title of the section you used. the name of the computer network or vendor and.0. number of pages (if applicable).ac. and. the date of electronic publication. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry. in the case of on-line or E-mail materials.DOS 3. a description of the medium(CD-ROM. in quotation marks. Redmond. CD-ROM.
Generally. you need identify i) coverage and organization. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles. you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required. to do the proofreading of a research paper.Chapter 5 Proofreading and Editing --.to Finalize the Draft A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning. proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft. drafting. Section 1. and ii) presentation. Focus on Argumentation: • Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? • Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? • • Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument? . Proofreading 1. When editing the final draft.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms.
Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?
Focus on Forms: • • • • • Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?
1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).
Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be
Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is
Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of …. in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of
Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In …, for…. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for
with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that II. by. Spelling It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in China’s EFL (English as Foreign language) context. result to date round is mall after consider this fish.Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape. Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British . oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that Concise use for academic writing form. because because about source oval because. due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far. these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by.
especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu. 1996). As a basic requirement. American （1） e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit “-e” acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction British ae. oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion (3) (4) .English in spoken and written languages. to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones. in the paper.
connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im. enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) . inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-.
undergraduate ill (12) (13) .humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae. C.V.
when. Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if . lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. as. If a spark occurs. the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article.sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode. To express Reason: because . for. Logic of long sentences Any publishable research paper has limits of words. and (iii) completeness of structures. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. where. since To present Attributive: that. The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions. as ( see the examples below from a published paper) When the battery is charged. In the charged state. post code III. (ii) agreement of contexts. as. As such. the ions migrate back to provide the energy. which (see the examples below from published papers) . For example. the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees. As the battery is used.
To express Transition: however. Although generally supportive. the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state. the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi ∞ [Fig. Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. To indicate Results: therefore.0 and ρ=1. however. To see this more explicitly. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. Interestingly. The inset of Fig. Hence by taking the average. although (see the examples above and below from published papers) In summary. such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. the proper use of articles and single or .0. so that. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4х105 on SFN with γ=2. As shown. the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. we derive the relation. as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate. thus. mk ~k. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. but.4 for ρ=3. 6(b)]. so. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. While paragraphing. unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub. as it has been shown to do with adults. there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. the peak soaks into the average mass mk. while. hence.In the steady state. However. (5). most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners.
To study the following materials from a published paper. may help build up clearness and conciseness. However. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" . The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide.plural forms of pronouns. a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable. oxygen and a flammable fluid. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. socially. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon. and linguistically. such as parallel structures and absolute structures. which serves as the cathode. the anode. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition. Completeness of structures Proper use of structures. and a strip of graphite. Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing. you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph.
was made apparent Monday with Dell’s recall of 4.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. to meet the requirements of Abbreviation. capitals and punctuations in research paper writing. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops. as discussed in Chapter 4. In this section. 1. made by Sony. could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process. Dell said the batteries. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. Generally.1 million laptop batteries. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation. Section 2. and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills.Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al. Editing: Final Draft Apart from following the documentation formats. the term should . they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. If the abbreviation is needed. including the styles of in-text citation and reference list. Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes.
. The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): • • • • IEEE --. Memory (MEM). D.. The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD). ( the chemical elements) --. and Write-Back (WB). . For example. Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands. Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM). For example.in the journals of computer sciences The abbreviations in the reference list • The first name of authors. I. The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory. Execute (EX).in the journals of Chemistry CPU. PC --. For example. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized. and using an automatic tool flow. RAM. P.in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --. Most abbreviation omits the prepositions. Smith.S. which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address.be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis. The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File. Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction. such as Kim. Li. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas. articles and the conjunction word “and” .in the journals of Applied Linguistics O. …. The EX stage had the ALU. Fox. ROM. J. L.
(liter). This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?" . kl (kiloliter) 2. kg ( kilogram). ( page or pages). km (kilometer). 2 nd ed.• • • • The names omitted by et al. t ( ton) Capacity: l. h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter). g (gram). cd( candela) • • • • • Time: s (second). ( volume). min (hour). (square meter) sq. Or Eds. For example. cl ( centiliter). Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above: • Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized. mol (molal). ( Editor or editors). ( Second edition). K(kelvin). A (ampere). m. Ed. ml (milliliter). ( chapter). Vol. μ (micron) Area: sq. Weight and mass: mg (milligram). dm (decimeter). No. kg (kilogram). km (square kilometer). s (second). including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses. Rev. ( Revised edition) P. ( number) The names of the states of America The abbreviations of units of measures and weights • 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter). or pp. ( means “and others”) Ed. mm (millimeter). Chap.
• The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. such as the person’s name. . For example. For example. The title of an article The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude The title of a book cited Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies • The first letter of any specialized nouns. Klemperer’s thesis. and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents. diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal. the language. was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool. but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. the widely accepted names. the country. the nationality. etc. for example. • The capitalization in formula. in essence.
“The distinctive qualities of mind that are. On the other hand. p. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang. we know. 2004). Period ( “ ” ) To compare the two sentences Noam Chomsky once commented that. 1993. 3). ( √ ) . 2005.3. there are still a lot of differences between them. Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. Yu. so far as .
( Χ ) (2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors. ( √ ) The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. 1993. so far as we know. and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. unique to man. to take place. as discussed above. which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests. p 3) ( Χ ) Comma (“. research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than . ( Χ ) However. such as clarifications of meaning.”) To study the two sentences.Noam Chomsky once commented that.” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. ( √ ) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur. such as timing and developmental readiness. This is of course an empirical question. ( Χ ) To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place. and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments. rather than on immediate responses. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are.
3. but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok." In the formula The subscripts 1. ….. n. ….. 2.other factors. where j = 1. . such as timing and developmental readiness. 2.. of course. ( √ ) Ellipsis (“ …”) To study the following example ending with “….” The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension. an empirical question . refer to the respective nuclei. N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 …+ S0 K(n-1) Dj. This is. I've got a dad and a son.
Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer .
Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol .
Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech .
Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut .
S. Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc) .Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U.
Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool .
Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers Publishers A.Publishers.Appendix II Abbrs. Inc. Les Editions INSERM Little.Inc Merck& Co. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers.. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster . Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.. Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications.Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R...Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill .Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. David R. Futura Publishing Co. Inc. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Inc. Cornell University Press CRC Press，Inc. Publishers Abbrs AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR. Inc.. Inc. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone..A. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Inc.Godine.
Inc Merriam-Webster Inc.. Inc. Inc. Futura Publishing Co. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge.Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications. Inc. Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV Abbrs Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone.. Les Editions INSERM Little. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Inc.Publishers.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers. Inc.. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Chapman &Hall Sage Publication.Inc Merck& Co. Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication..Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Inc..Godine.. Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge. Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing . David R. Cornell University Press CRC Press，Inc.
B.Publishers Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Reader’s Digest Association. Inc. Martin’s Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press. Martin’s State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Reader’s Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins . Inc. Inc The Shoe String Press. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins Abbrs Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St. The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W. Saunders Company W.H.
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