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An Introduction to Academic Writing:

Publishable Research Paper
Xu Xiwen

2006, 08

Course Outline
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments • Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Author’s name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;

Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis • Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse • Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper • Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline • Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice

structures and sample analysis of application letters. and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers. Identify the format errors in Punctuations. the presentation and the logic of long sentences. Final grades will include the attendance. Practice CV and resume 3. students’ assignments will be evaluated. Write one proposal report 2. format of a research paper. . C V and resume. Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments. Sample analysis of one research paper • Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis. in-class assignments and final test. Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization. pre-reading assignments and after-class readings.Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing. sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. Abbreviation 2. practice the use of Punctuations. Topic assignments: 1.

Content Table .

it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. the course tries to present typical writing styles. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms. Introduction ( literature review). preferences.Chapter 1 Introduction Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students. 1. attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English. explaining. Discussion and Conclusion. References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any). While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students’ errors in vocabulary or grammar. Research Paper Format Although different languages and their cultures have different “rules” for presenting. Results and Findings. Research Methodologies and Procedures. particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format. meet the requirements of the Western academic community. and organizing ideas in writing. in terms of international communications or publications. The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper: .

paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a .Items • • Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms • • Functions To frame the writer’s idea To identify the writer’s contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues • • • Fundamentals Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings. 2) MLA (Modern Language Association • Research Methodologies and Procedures • To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results • Results and Findings • • • Discussion and Conclusion • To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications • • • • • • • • References ( or Bibliography) • . In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion. argumentation and hypothesis • • • • • • Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs. Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers’ findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ). 2. conclusion and implications or suggestions Introduction ( Literature Review) To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation • To review previous research • To present arguments and hypothesis Terms to generalize research concerns • The purpose and background of present study • The scope and focus to develop the study • Problems.

antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets.paragraph. of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. or data. Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. evidence.Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts. Sample 1 ( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. device design. Technique one--. . who were able to . which severely limited the applications of such links. To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al. which is closely related to. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales. Sample 2 ( Presenting by direct indication expressions) Initially naive “link design” merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers. the RF performance of such links was often modest at best. but distinct from. More recently. RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links. However. and terrible at worst. typically one would obtain from such a “design” a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB.

. material and shape of electrodes. preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writer’s attitude and suggestion. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects. Technique Two--. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance. Sample 3 ( Presenting by detailings) During the last decades. proper election of anode length and insulator. For example.Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review. circuit inductance. nature and pressure of working gases. Such limits have proven useful in providing a “calibration” on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable. or support writer’s preference for one over the other. reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact. whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy. operating voltage. results or ideas. Results and Findings or Discussion.achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design. while contrast deals with the differences existing between them.

This is in contrast to “digital” optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%. it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter. one in front of and one behind the switch. Sample 3 ( For developing a summary) To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design. By contrast. . But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters. Thus. although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play. We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature). we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. 2) by reducing V and increasing P. Sample 2 ( For developing a conclusion) Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as “RF” or “analog” optical links. the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components.Sample 1 ( For organizing the literature review) By comparing the first two topologies. this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier. .

To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving. by definition. results. comparison-contrast. upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons.000 per home-owning employee. set the boundary.Technique Three--. among other services.) Sample 1 ( Classification by grouping and examplication) According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC). we may capture the essence. 1994. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45. real estate assistance. (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification. including exemplification. such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse’ loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw. In classification. These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving. 1990). with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC. etc. and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept. Luo & Cooper. we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order.Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas. most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett. according to their similarities and differences. This can include. 1994). relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. 1990). & Reilly. Stroh. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques. concepts. family visits to the new area. ect. cause-effect. while definition explains limits and specifies. spouse employment assistance. cost-of-living .. By classifying. On the other hand. In addition to being a costly investment for organizations.

From this research. because the spouse’s perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research. 1994). ERC. and work-role transitions was reviewed. three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment. Sample 2 ( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind. general adjustment. Finally. as well as couples with children living at home. First. Sample 3 ( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation. Specifically. Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. This focus includes comparing male and female employees. Although there are other comparisons that could be made. we systematically compare employees’ and spouses’ perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. we explore two main issues.adjustments. and interaction adjustment. . The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables.. this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement. 1993. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses. international relocation. the research on domestic relocation. single-income and dual-income couples. 1990. relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified. and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al.

This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format. it may start from the effect first and then the causes. the reverse order. Comparing the following samples: Sample 1 ( Focus on the cause) In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch). As for the arrangement of such a paragraph. however. If wavelength converters are used.Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and –effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters).Technique Four--. During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state. Therefore. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under . the requirements for the filters are less strict. Sample 2 ( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates. Sample 3 ( Focus on causes) In Fig. there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers. is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state. very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. 4. That effect also results in crosstalk. N signals are combined coming from different input fibers. some of the power is leaking through the gate.

take ( consider) … as an example. as follows. instead. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: • Exemplification such (…) as. Due to this effect. resemble. generally. otherwise. in contrast to/ with. compare … with.study and M-1 suppressed channels. the differences lie in…. unlike. have …in common. on the contrary. particularly. on the whole. almost the same as. each with a different wavelength. for instance. for example. similarly. be different from. in general. in particular. however. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. in comparison with. At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel. in many cases • Comparison and Contrast by comparing …. the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel. stands opposition . especially. as an example. likewise. differ from. just as. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect). Tips for using the techniques Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. nevertheless. be similar to.

fall into. as a result of. so that. Helen Fox (1994) in her book “Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing” has noted that cultural differences. be defined / named / known as. have an effect on. on account of. thus. “for writing touches the heart of a student’s identity. the definition of …is . due to. as a result. be classified as. be divided into. “lacking focus”. result in. the effect on …is 3. learned from early childhood. since. … is widely accepted as the definition of • Cause and Effect therefore. According to Matthews (2002). consequently. hence. given. so as to.• Classification and Definition be categorized as. “poorly organized”. there are …kinds / groups /categories/ types of. as. accordingly. because (of ). Their writings are frequently judged as “illogical”. drawing its . now that. Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English. affect the way the non-native students write. problems may develop when these students’ concepts of “effective” writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. or “inadequately developed” because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community.. so.

including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the 2. artistic. Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who “subscribe to Aristotle’s dictum” (p. and always rely on idioms. Preference for clear. and getting to . preferences. Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information. Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles. Information is expected to be specific. 2002. simplicity. analogies. attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews. Focus on clarity. Precise. and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past. therefore. Focus on informational value of writing. clichés. creative metaphors. Taoism and Buddhism). and relevant 5. and set-phrases. Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism. imagery. avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6. messages are expected to be specific and detailed. and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns. Matalene. 1985). 790). direct communication patterns. factual accuracy is stressed 4. therefore. it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic. to accomplish a purpose Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon . emotional)value of writing. accurate.voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world” (p vi).

research paper. and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper.the point 7. Because the backgrounds. language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the reader’s attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds. examples. writers shows respect for the reader’s intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The “burden of meaning” falls on the reader—referred to as “reader responsible” Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point. in the final section. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations . with readers expected to infer the writer’s point Writers supply facts. writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. and values of people in traditional. with a beginning and an end 12. essay. explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report. the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s). which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary. but may not state the point or relate the examples to each 13. etc. in the next section they introduce a new topic. experiences. writers in introduce and discuss a topic. and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11. experiences. which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic. explicit background information and extensive 10. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed. homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared. One theme is favored 9. they introduce yet another opinion or topic. Stress on linear development—points are organized sequentially. Explicit signals—such as transitions—are often necessary to show logical links between ideas. with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section. The “burden of meaning” falls on the writer—referred to as “writer responsible” 15. Direct.

analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts. 18. even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical. students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers. examples. questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas. etc. scholarship. which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information. Focus on building arguments in a logical. respect for authority is encouraged . personal issue—without taking a strong. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated. writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas other. statistics. personal stand.16. 19. step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue. 20. Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoning—a single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issue—without taking a strong. knowledgeable and ideas.’ the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements— showing respect for the reader’s knowledge. 17.

the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writer’s voice. to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words.Consistent use of formal tone . Section 1.Chapter 2 Voice. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper. Technique One --. based on the relevance materials. Voice Yourself Some techniques to show the writer’s identity To show the author’s attitude towards previous research or present argument. over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. In this chapter. Authority and Plagiarism Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired. and present the researcher’s contribution to a research paper. Meanwhile. 2) basic methods to cite reference materials. the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers. 3) how to avoid plagiarism.

Particularly). shown) that… Basically ( Actually. proves) that … As a conclusion (ending of the paper). my study has confirmed (demonstrated. Sample 1 Study the following abstract. in the steady state. On SFNs with r ≤3. The dynamics conserves total mass density ρ. analyzed) above. the present study suggests (shows.Influenced by the first language. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community. we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k− r. However. Apparently. masses diffuse with unit rate. we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices. In the SCA model. Instead. Then. So …. the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. For the existence of the condensed phase for r ≤ . I think (believe. and try to make the underlined parts better In our study. and unit mass chips off from mass with rate ω. I would argue (suggest ) that… Because of ( Owing to. Practically. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. we can (may) conclude that… Besides (furthermore. argue) that … As discussed (mentioned. in addition). we know ( the fact is) that…. due to…) …. So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for ω ≠ ∞. the study shows that … Based on … (on the basis of …/ according to …). the critical line ρc (ω ) depends on network structures. • • • • • • • In this (such a) case ( way). the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density.

Together with the recent study on SFNs. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant. we have investigated 2.Proper use of tenses Generally speaking. the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46. the system with 3. degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV. apparently by the impact of electrons’ bombardment. and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r ≤ 3. In addition. the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r ≤ 3.3–3.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. Further. the present perfect and the past tenses. and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion. at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible. most frequently used tenses are: the present future. Technique Two --. we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any ρ > 0 on RNs.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by β source and without preionization.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1. we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an . the present.4%. enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. The preionization.3 at the zero density limit. Sample 2 Study the following conclusion. We also found that at optimum condition. we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r ≤ 3. at ω = ∞. besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility. Besides. In particular.

accepted paper may strengthen writer’s academic attitude and objective tones. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns. Introduction and Discussion of a research report . we will attempt to show + that / how … Pattern 2 The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract. we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report. Pattern 1 The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss several approaches to improving… + a new method for analyzing … a theory that attempts to explain… new equations for expressing… Or This paper will argue In this paper.

Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to + Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on + Topic Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic Pattern 3 The past tense may be used in any part of a research report The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or examined / explored / showed + reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated + Topic Pattern 4 .

Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability.Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers’ attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues. one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper. a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks. will / would . “could / should”. “may / might”. A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example. It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements. A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper. non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs.The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic + Technique Three --. Normally. including the most frequently used modal verbs “ will / would” . In practical academic writing.

• Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. in the imaging of moving lung tumors.t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo . and will represent several full respiratory cycles. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. equal to the slice thickness. a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan. • Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. On a PET image. • However. . • The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. for example. most likely. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. t) in time. the time dependence of P(mo±1.The use of “will” is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of “would” spells a conditional high probable degree. • The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min. a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position. • Otherwise. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. • Given the respiration cycle length (3–6 s). lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. the calculated differences will not be significant.

• For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit. • Conversely. unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation. • For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state. may / might . If not. which will finally disappear. • Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ).15]. the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval. unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval. aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally.14. • According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12.could / should The use of “could” presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of “should” tells a high degree of certainty. the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive.

The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. • Therefore. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA. • No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. • we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. without the prior written permission of the publisher. which will be . Section 2. we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise. • The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage.The use of “might” presents uncertainty of a statement while “may” is frequently used to show certain degree of probability. • But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas.

Quoting When citing reference materials. we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. … …. the writer may directly quote from the original sources. In this section. internal learner capacities. accurate in every aspect including the punctuations. … ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that … Sample 1 Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. 1996. 1. the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original. … Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted . the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: • • • • According to ( the name of the author). particularly selective attention.discussed in the later chapter. Sample 2 . and output in productive ways" ( Long. In such case. pp. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. 451–452). (the name of the author) writes / says. As for a short quotation.

In other words. and how they comment on their classmates’ paper.” 2. learned from early childhood. their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve. from short critiques of articles they’ve read to dissertation defenses. They affect how students give oral presentations.when the innovation is subject to network effects” [5]. these affect the way they write. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others’ words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writer’s thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth” [1]. Warren-Boulton argued “copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low” [4]. Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection “if society truly believes it needs the technology. But most of all.Shurmer mentioned “the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements” [3]. They affect how students understand assignments. the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words. Sample 3 Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: “These differences. Paraphrasing is frequently . affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates. Farrell suggested “the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion . how they study.

the writer should not use too many direct quotations. the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3) Sample 1 While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. In effect. For example. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers’ work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): • • Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that… Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input . Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. the time) When citing other researchers’ work. the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts.used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writer’s understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. However. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers’ work. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners.

most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.e. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. production (Gass and Swain). and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. However. 1999). making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. Sample 3 .from their peers. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers..e. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. for review see Gass et al.. 2000). Sample 2 Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. 7–12 years). 1998). Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom.

3. socially. Similarly. the nature of the feedback. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children.An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others’ authoritative thoughts. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. Sample 1 A recent study by Mackey et al. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work. Forty-eight dyads. he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. and learner-native speaker . The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. and linguistically. Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). To make such a summary. 379). Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old.

and learner-learner pairings. Among children. although only among learner-learner dyads. to be sure. of course. Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Demers & Harnish. Sample 2 Noam Chomsky. pp. Suzette Haden Elgin observes that: . but that does not. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. 31-76. 1994. perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. Fromkin. mean that human beings – even otherwise well-educated human beings – are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill. the distinctive qualities of mind that are. learner vs. McWhorter. 1999). pp. 583620. O’Grady & Dobrovolsky. Sample 3 Language may indeed be central to being human. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. 1992). 1998. 1993. 2001. although not for the amount of feedback provided. once commented that. p. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. 2003. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. Wallman. 3).e. Animals communicate. so far as we know. Pinker. “When we study human language. pp. but none – at least as far as we can tell – communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian. native speaker) and learner age. arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century. 1996. engaged in task-based interactions. we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’. Rodman & Hyams. Wardhaugh. In her book The Language Imperative. 1992. 3-30.

we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes. “ based on the work of …” . because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages. Consciously or unconsciously. . (2000. or are unaware of. the power that language has over our minds and our lives.It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. Plagiarism Whether quoting. . We forget. p. paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writer’s text. Separate the quotation. The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. . paraphrasing or summarizing. 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B Section 3. • Using the transitional expressions such as “according to …” . • • Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. . we have let that miracle be trivialized . with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. grounds.

The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing. • Confusing the original author’s ideas with the writer’s own without indicating the source. On the basis of the genre knowledge. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy. 1. Genre Knowledge Generally speaking. a L2 writer may use imitation strategies • to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper . paraphrasing or summarizing other authors’ work with the detailed source information omitted. • Citing.Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: • Coping some words or phrases without mention of the author’s name or quotation marks. genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter). the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format.

To make an effective argument. the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of . The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: • • whether they are verifiable. • whether they serve as conclusions. evaluative. or support in an argument. never. none. everyone. the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always.• to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns. • • to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft. 2. if non-specific. premises. whether they are specific or. all. whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim. or advocatory claims. In specific. a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. no one. As such. Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues’ academic papers on an international basis. edit and format the whole paper Argumentation Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking.

In particular. the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others’ academic work. whether a word or phrase. • To separate the summary of other author’s opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another author’s words • To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another author’s work. However. So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: • To identify the author’s name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical. it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience. • To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author. . the page number before you document the material.plagiarism. • To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats. avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source.

but also a valuable learning process. a research paper abstract. Research Methodologies and Procedures. the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. in your own words. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding . but expresses them in a much shorter space. a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract. concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them. Results and Findings. In this chapter. the function. References or Appendixes (if any). On the other hand. Summary and Abstract A summary is a shorter version. Discussion and Conclusion. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification. also called executive summary. Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review. At the end of each section. tips for practical writing will be introduced.Chapter 3 Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper Generally. Introduction. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original. Section 1. of what you have read.

thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract. it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative. often behind the referee's back. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. [9 words] Sample 2 An abstract of a published paper The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M.whether or not read your paper. meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. Sample 1 Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls. Paulus Indiana University . damage stadiums. or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example.

and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this paper’s contribution. Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions. the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. 1. investigations and results and conclusions. identify the author’s (or your own) contributions in the research paper. results and conclusions of a study. and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper. • • Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper. Concise: to define terminally the scope. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement. and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. . the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own. research methods. together with required revision. is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom. or literature references in a summary or abstract. Objectiveness: to state objectively other’s or your own ideas and main points in the paper. evaluating the first and final drafts of students’ essays. such as the research theories. • Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: • • • • Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper). The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Witte’s (1981) taxonomy of revisions.Although teacher and peer feedback. and recording students’ verbal report during revision. tables. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures. to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper.

implication or recommendation if necessary. for example. Sample 1 A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) • • • • • Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope. . noting that classroom organization.Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) • • • • Who --. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. open versus teacher-centered classrooms.what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied.in what kind of context or scope of the study When--. For example.who has done the study What--. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion.the time order of similar studies What --. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners.

Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly. most of the existing research has focused on adults. This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to.Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey a . The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers. It should be expressed . Washington. we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. Abstract The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research.as far as possible . Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original. . Perth. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. ICC 460. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes. the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur. Interestingly.in your own words. During a 3-day treatment period. In the current study. 2. Western Australia 6050.b Department of Linguistics. but did not receive feedback. . while the control group (n=11) interacted. However. while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects.a and Rhonda Oliver . Edith Cowan University. Australia Received 2 May 2002. Georgetown University. revised 14 June 2002. accepted 17 June 2002. DC 20057. USA b School of Education. Approaches to summary and abstract writing How to Summarize • The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original.

• Serving as a useful tool in searching for information. so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other.• The question will usually set a maximum number of words. aim for something like one tenth of the original. helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently.] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. [A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful. By writing in this way. and try to understand its main subject or purpose. an abstract should be written in formal and academic language.] • • • • • • • • • • • Read the original quickly. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic. These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues.or make a diagram. The most frequently used tenses are the present. Leave out any illustrative examples. the past and the present perfect. If not. you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. an effective abstract . [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary. Look up any words or concepts you don't know. Focus your attention on the main point. Use a highlighter if this helps. Remember that it must be in your own words. concise and highly generalized text. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. Draw up a list of the topics . Besides. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. How to write abstract effectively • As a short.

• An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal. 3. the methods and the procedures of the study. • In terms of its form. thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. Step Three: Results. • An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself. direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. • Step One Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns To define the context and argument of the present study: • • This paper describes / presents …( the argument) within…( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject)…. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: • • Step One: Introduction---to define the context. Also. without any detailed information or comment on the research. In particular.to outline the main participants. the argument. and give suggestions of further study. the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study.to present the most important results and related findings. so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones.should be as concise as possible. an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. ( the related problem) …is as yet undetermined. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper. the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --. findings and conclusion --. .

the study has focused on … ( participants / materials) To present research methods and procedures • The method / approach used in the present study is… .• • • • (The research subject)…. ( the related problem) is that…. we inquired / examined / evaluated … ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved…( participants / materials). (the present agreement) is still problematic. however. To present the purpose of the present study: • • • • • The purpose / intention of this paper is… The primary goal / aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper / study. In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions)…. yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned. ( the related problem)…remains unsolved. despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…. because… While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to…. we aim at… The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on … Step Two Contents of the study: the frequently used formats To introduce the main participants or materials • • • • The present study has investigated …by using / analyzing…( participants / materials) In this study. ( Previous studies) have examined ….

• • • • • The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting … The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…. the results also imply the further study into… The investigation / experiment varied by. it is also found that… It is concluded that…. a transition . thus we may conclude that … As a result of the current experiments. we conducted the present study. and evaluated. findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns • • • • • • The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that…. we concluded that… Section 2.. categorized …. a review of previous studies. And the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… The data / results obtained appear to …... Introduction Writing The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background). Step Three Results.

it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject.it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies. • Step Four: Present study --. the purpose. • Step Six: Organization of the paper --. 2.it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study. • Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --. In some cases.it introduces the focus. • Step Two: Literature review --. . most frequently followed by the present researcher’s hypothesis and assumptions. the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction.1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : • Step One: Research background --. a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations). solutions or findings. the main procedures of the present study. a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline.it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper.it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study. or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. and a definition of research problems in a specific area.to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study. Or • Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --.

However. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learner’s ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh. 1997. 1994. and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process. 2001. Atkinson. many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy. 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students’ difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy. 2002). 1991. these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions. 1997. 1997. Fox. while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson.1997. Pally. assessment criteria and in written feedback on student’s assignments (Woodward-Kron. Ramanathan & Atkinson. 1991. Pally. . Stapleton. 1994. however. Fox. Hereafter. 1995. Spack. 2001. Spack. Atkinson & Ramanathan. there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students’ critical thinking ability. 1997. Ramanathan and Atkinson. 1999. Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students’ Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing. Matthews. Zamel. 1997). 2002. then identify each step used in the two Introductions. and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing. disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom.Woodward-Kron. 1997). 2001). To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing. academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing. The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson. 2001. Fox. 2001.To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples. With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing. Pally. 1994. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines. 2002). 1999).

2000). The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language. I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students’ struggles to meet Western academic writing standards. 1. production ( Gass and Swain). Snow and Snow). in press). Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). 1999)..a and Rhonda Oliver 1. . and output in productive ways" ( Long.. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. Introduction 1. research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition. for review see Gass et al. particularly selective attention. internal learner capacities. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. The interaction hypothesis Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. However. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. 1998). The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages . it is suggested that further studies on ESL students’ development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing. 451–452)..Then. on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom. more quickly ( Ervin.1. Harley. particularly grammar. pp. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Long.2. Age differences and SLA As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al. The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students’ development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking. Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey . Finally. Krashen. 1996. However. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences.

1. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. In the current study. influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input.3. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 8–12 year-old range. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. For example. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Oyama. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. for example. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. Children's interactional processes While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok. While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood. Johnson.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. For example. A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Birdsong and Birdsong).e. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period. However. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. Oyama. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. Patkowski and Singleton).e. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson). Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners.( Johnson. others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period. noting that classroom organization. . Bialystok. 7–12 years).

Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. In a later study.and 5th-grade learners of French. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition. Lyster and Lyster. 379). showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output. provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. however. Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output. although not for the amount of feedback provided. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. mainly their teachers. native speaker) and learner age. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations. the children were ESL learners. concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. especially in relation to children's L2 development.e. Forty-eight dyads. as . the nature of the feedback. paired with native age peers. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. and dyads have all been studied. Finally. Ellis et al. (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation. Among children. socially. Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. The children in their classrooms were 4th. adopting a different operationalization of uptake. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. A recent study by Mackey et al. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. and linguistically. small groups. Van den Branden suggests. Ellis et al. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. In Oliver's study. although only among learnerlearner dyads. and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings.Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. aged 6 to 12. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. engaged in task-based interactions. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges. although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults. Intact classes. learner vs.

facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback. as it has been shown to do with adults.well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. Research question In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999).2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above. The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children. 2. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures. Thus. including negotiation and recasts. arguments and the organization of the paper. Interestingly. Note that the following sentence . 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. 1. Although generally supportive. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. Specifically. in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback. Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA. In summary. however. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL. the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. 626). to provide the main purpose.4.

are typically solution processed at low solids content (7–30 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents [4]. to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field.2.However. commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). 2. Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached [1]. at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place. Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however). Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied… . generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present [1].1.patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings. Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies.2. such as boric acid.2. S3[ research focus] Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers. 2. especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN. The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer. Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors. particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 85–90 mol% AN [3]. rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form [2]. they are processed in the presence of toxic. organic solvents.

As a result. and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10. Coxe [8] showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures. The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion.11]. All-optical cross connects (OXC). However.8–16]. however. and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile.B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested… Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5. have not yet been used for the routing . the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 £ 106 lb per year) were reached. approximately 25–45 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing. a process was developed combining acetonitrile. and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5. methanol. but Porosoff [13] showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. Example 2 Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. To permit removal of the water from the fibers. 16]. their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks [1]–[8]. which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures.

The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning. [42]. [26]. The fact. the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. [ the problematic point] + So / therefore. usually with a small number of input–output fibers and/or wavelength channels [9]–[20]. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients. has probably prevented the use of OXC’s in commercial systems [21]–[23]. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. [41]. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature.of the signals in any of these commercial systems. Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. Therefore. 3. [27]–[36]. Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section “Interactional feedback and children's L2 development” ) B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however. that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect. the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. [31]. but their use has so far been limited to field trials. . an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or … Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases. most likely.

we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec. sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. we introduce the SCA model on complex networks.4. VIII. In Sec. the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. so-called hub nodes. As we shall see. In Secs. Finally. II. on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3. the focus is on … In this paper. on SFNs with r ≤3 where one or several nodes. The outline of this paper is as follows. III and IV. we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). Example In this paper. VI and VII. …(the organization) The outline the paper is as follows…. Then. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line ρc (ω) in the ρ . .ω plane with the exponent т =5/2. have a finite fraction of links. V. we summarize our results in Sec. respectively. However. The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study. To understand the condensation on SFNs with r ≤ 3. we discuss the SCA model at ω = ∞ and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees. we investigate / examine / explore… The paper start from …. Typical Sentence Patterns: • • • • • The aim of the present / current study is to …[ See the above example] In this paper.

apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis . Method and Materials This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines.Section 3. The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1): • • Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for … (for example. networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials • • • • • This part should mention: • • • • • • • The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials. It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials.

it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. • . viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. • SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. and by elementary and advanced level students. the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. 1990). the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. • The SILL is a self-scoring.The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. • While fixing the β source. • In addition to the measures described above. • The camera is mounted in the radial position. For example. Sample 1 . including patterns of use. Sometimes. • Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. For example. • A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. • A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements.

upper intermediate and advanced. Over the period of the study (one year).5. Germany. from 21 different countries: Japan.3. Czechoslovakia. selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals’ patterns of strategy use. a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. 5. Italy. Denmark. the population of the school averaged around 100. In the 100-item grammar test. whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a “minimal user”. Tahiti. upper elementary.Argentina.2. Thailand . Spain. Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level. which takes about 10 min. Malaysia.Switzer land. In part B. Portugal . for instance.1995 ). commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan. 5.1. midintermediate. including patterns of use. Hong Kong. students must select one of three options (for instance: “In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun”). while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). one of which is reported here. The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and . so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details. Poland. Taiwan. The school did not accept total beginners. is deemed an “independent user”. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). Arriving students were given the widely used. and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere. France. The listening test. Korea. Some were new arrivals at the school. There were 114 male students and 234 females. Indonesia. China. Brazil. The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140–150 on the Oxford Placement Test. as explained in Section 5. see below). mid-elementary. New Zealand. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary.2). There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. The study 5. Russia. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers’ perspectives on language learning strategy use.consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers. which takes about 50 min to complete. Overall design of the study The study had three phases. pre-intermediate. In part A. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland. aged 14–64. Participants’ levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels.

98 in various studies. The SILL is a self-scoring. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. 5. their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen. learning styles. p.1998. Oxford. The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire. Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options. Dornyei. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class.89 to 0. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement. including self-report strategy questionnaires. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as ‘‘I review English lessons often’’ to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). the oral interview assessment. Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se. and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. 1994. depended on a combination of the OPT score. 5. 1990). motivation. varying interpretations of terms. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. lack of self-awareness by students.5.1995 ). according to which they might be promoted. The level at which a student was working at any particular time.1995.. Turner. and the effects of cultural background on response patterns. have been debated in the research literature (for instance. but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use.539) and has been widely used. Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0. Dorrnyei.grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: “Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?”).19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately. The SILL was chosen for this study because it is “perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date” (Ellis. therefore. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. Ellis. 1998. Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency.4. However. Cohen. 2003. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a .2003.1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock. and other factors (for details.1990 ). possibly an assessment of written competence. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. a written task might be added. Ellis. see Oxford. Guetal. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts. 1994.1994.

powered the device. giving a peak discharge current of about 190– 245 kA. 5. In one experiment. 1. charged at 19–25 kV. In addition. a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. a mean of 3. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 μm active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters. B. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. Sample 2 II. that is.special Study Skills class held during the students’ first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the school’s facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied). as indicated in Fig. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system. and significant differences (Student’s t). Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. is used . and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students. The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter.5 μF single capacitor. The β source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. While fixing the β source. C. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. which is slightly tapered towards the open end. This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. Preionization A mesh-type radioactive β source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0.5 or above (Oxford. A 12. a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation). 1.6. 1990).

3. tables and diagrams) and written texts. During the experiment with Pb insert. Section 4. For the study of Cu K α line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube.to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy.5. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200. Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K α line radiation. Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film.5±0. The pinholes are masked separately with 10.μm-thick Co and Ni filters.μm-thick Co and 17. except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges. and Pb (55 μm) covers three p-i-n diode detectors. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 19±0. Results The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs. Ag (50 μm).71 keV window. D. and elevated at 1.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K αline of 8. The camera is mounted in the radial position.μm diameter multipinhole apertures is used.μm-thick Ni foils. The transmission curves and the detectors’ response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig. The figures show the complete .1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. 2. It is always followed by researchers’ comments or interpretations of these findings. During the experiment with Pb insert.1 cm from the anode tip. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7. the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used. E. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig.71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 4–7. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum.05 keV. a set of Mo (10 μm).

the influences of … As shown in Table 2. a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. 2) Sample 1 3. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage.1. in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of … on … As Fig. the effect of … Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of … The effect of … on … is shown / summarized in Fig. This difference was significant according to Fisher's . 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development. 2 shows. The results of sustained stage increase for each group. are summarized in Table 5. whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development.and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. As can be seen. Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3) The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: • • • • • • Fig. Results 3. The effect of … on…has… ( Fig. A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2). 2. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage. An effective introduction of results should present: • • • An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1).

exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: • • • As can be seen / found, the first group of … while the second…. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater … than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in … These results suggested that the effect of … was either close to or slightly lower than that of …

Sample 2
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without β source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with β source as compared to without β source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the β source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.

The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • These findings accord with / are consistent with those of … These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is … There is …( a general statement) …, the possible reason is that … It is considered / found that…, these may suggest the reason why….

Sample 3
It is evident from Figs. 5–8 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without β source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K α and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K α and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that β source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.

Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion

As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers’ explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:

Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?

• •

According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?

Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?

• •

Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researcher’s

contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).

Sample
IV. DISCUSSION

This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.

however. emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. When the motion amplitude is smaller than the sphere’s diameter.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume. They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%. the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data . with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2. 4. regardless of their attenuation correction methods.21 This large range. In the current study. an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. In Fig.With information of tumor motion. with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction. such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning.15. both underestimating and overestimating the volume. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol. Moreover. 1. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air. It must be kept in mind.9 cm amplitude experiment. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation.4% on average for the respective modalities. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. Pevsner et al. In the 3. The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study. Nehmeh et al. the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced. Moreover.5 cm amplitude. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT. non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data. The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. where some part of the sphere was present in every phase.9% and 1. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. and little actual attenuation occurred. an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation. internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. in the imaging of moving lung tumors. However. while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%. the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%. the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III). This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion. In clinical practice. up to 46% deviation from the true volume.

5. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. less motion artifacts. then show the differences or the matching degree between them. either CT or PET. the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined. and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1. . The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important.8 cm. respectively) show good correlation. it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point. followed by a review of the most important findings. the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. are not correlated with respiration. In future studies.9 and 4. indicate that a slight phase shift was still present. the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone. equal to the slice thickness.1 Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the original hypothesis or assumption in this section. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing. but perhaps even more important.was 75% lower than found with RCPET. however. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2. the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift. which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1. the calculated differences will not be significant. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. For both systems. V.

This suggests that… Existing theories suggested that ….sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences.2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section. because… This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in…. The results. Thus. The following are the typical sentence patterns: • • • • • • This research investigated the differences between ……. show that … In this paper. The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that…. It could . The reason why… is that… It was originally assumed that …. The results demonstrate that… We originally assumed that …. is an important support for the conclusions.. In the present study. However. the differences between ( the significant effect of)… were investigated (has been reported). The possible reason may … 5. it was found that …. This evidence led us to (infer that) …. the findings show that…. The results (or data) show that …. Therefore… • • • • • In this paper (study). The results. The data in the present study show that …. A further explanation. however. it is found that ( the fact ) results in… This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of …. show that…. however. We originally hypothesized that the effect of …. The results presented above show that…This suggests that… This study has presented a specific method for measuring…. The results in this study show that …. The possible reason is… The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which…. The differences between … are …. however. we have reported the significant effect of…. It is considered that …..

the present tense is preferred. when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies. When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study. For the present study: • • • • It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of … It is possible ( likely.3 Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study itself.be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper. unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this could be that inadequate use of …increased … These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in … resulted in … For the general • • • • • This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are … This rapid increase ( decrease ) in …is attributed to … The enhancement in … may be caused by… It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of … increases … 5. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is “may” as shown in the following sentence patterns. Compare the following two examples: . In contrast. the past tense is frequently used.

and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies. confirm ) that… Our conclusion is that… Therefore we may infer that… These findings support the hypothesis that … Our data provide the evidence that … It appears ( seems. or the limitation of the samples. show. indicate. as it has been shown to do with adults. the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring. • B: In the current study. They could be the research methodology. For example. suggests ) that… 5. • A: In the current study. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies.• • A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children. the results of the study. imply ) that… The data reported here imply (suggest. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children. the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring. the present tense is to show the limitations of the research . as it has been shown to do with adults. the theoretical models.4 Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • • • • These results indicate (suggest. To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing.

but cannot implemented in real time applications. For example. • • • Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula. . Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. • We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall. When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results. Sometimes. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. the present tense and modal verbs “may” or “might” are frequently used.methodology. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. For example. model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments. writers may start with “we” and use “admit” or “ recognize” to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate. • • • The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. • • • The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small.

In practice.3 Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies to the further research or practical applications of the results. the following sentence patterns are frequently used. Another interesting topic would be to examine how …[ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study …[ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. The generality of …[ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of …[research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for …[ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in …[ a practical area] such as … Further studies should focus on the practical use of …[ the results] into …[ a practical area] . it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. the effect of …[ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined. Thus.• We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor. 5. • • • • • • • • • A further experiment should be conducted with …[ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of …[ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply …[ a new aspect of the theory] to … In the future.

a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic. For example.To present a direct suggestion or recommendation. we will investigate the effect of …[ the results in present study] in a series of studies. or use “ we suggest that …” and we recommend that…”. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with …[ other research method] . • • • • We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with …[ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of …[ different materials or procedures] In the future.

Section 1. MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list.127. Generally. the typical citation system is the same. APA-Style References APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation. two reference styles. Besides. the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies.Chapter 4 Reference Styles Different journals may use quite different reference styles. Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year. the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected. thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere. in which references are listed alphabetically. APA (American Psychological Association) style. . 2003) noted. The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details. which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list. As Nature (424. see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association).

place both the name and the year. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers. • • • Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System Quoting directly or indirectly within the text. APA journals use the author-date method of citation. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&). • Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. cite both names each time the reference appears.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point. that is. Otherwise. 1. cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. When you refer to a work by two authors. . the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr.1. but within you text spell out the word and. in parentheses. 1999). the writer must provide the source of documented information. include only the year. For example.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors’(’s) work If you summarize the author’s work in your text. even if the reference includes month and year. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. separated by a comma. The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter.

Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).

When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author’ the page number follows the end of he quotation. • As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, “English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, …with values, and these values … with dilemmas and conflict” ( p. ix). • This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are “preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved” (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). • Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are “almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities” ( p. 422). • Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, “When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors’ work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of

the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, • • However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are “group rights” (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). • It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). • This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).

1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. For example,
• Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martínez-Roldán, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. …, For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that…

There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,

for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Várady, 1999).

Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, “The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice” (1995 , p. 16). …, According to Phillipson et al. (1995), …

When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al” (not underlined and with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, • As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. • Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by “et al.” For example,
• • • Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Várady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)

The In-text quotation should be:
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)

3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author. except conjunctions. and articles. Scollon (1994). or periodical is underlined. • Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. Scollon and S. whether in parentheses or not. • According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States.3). If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example. To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone. Within the text. the title of a book. B. R. use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ. For example. short prepositions. you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. All words are capitalized. W. and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. there is “much added value” in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin. • The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in “College English” (1998) and “ College Core English” (1996). a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text. For example. titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list.When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name. 1. report. brochure. 2003. Scollon (1994). you may use . p.

preceded by trans. followed by a comma and n. or the year of the version you used. When you know the original date of publication. 2000)… E. refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list.d. for “no date. include this in the citation. cite the year of the translation you used. To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source. 2005) stressed that…. followed by version. Specific Parts of a Source . C.(Aristotle. in large measure. such as for some very old works.1989)… The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa. the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication. ( TESOL News Letters. 1931). James(1890/1983) D.NSF for National Science Foundation).” When a date of publication is inapplicable.. 2002. cite in text the author’s name. • • Darwin’s metaphors (as quoted by Gould. The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested …. your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use. • The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are. trans. P. For example. ii) • The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada.

To cite a specific part of a source. figure. table. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. (2000).” (1999. power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. References cited in text must appear in the reference list. Reference List In APA style. J. year of publication. the list of sources is entitled “References”. Language. 24-25) 2. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: • In short. . indicate the page. chapter. conversely. to oppress people. . as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s. or to do almost anything in between. • As David Corson argued. or equation at the appropriate point in text. “Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of ‘negotiation’ over meaning at every turn” (1977. . “Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition. For example: Cummins. and publishing data. pp.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: • Elements of Each entry: author. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. p. 58). Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. 2. Always give page numbers for quotations. title.

. H.• The list must be double-spaced. Fettes. the earliest first. (1997).). (2003). TX: Harcourt Brace. • Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. Discourse analysis: An introduction. Gass. An introduction to language (5th ed. For example. V. (1995).M. A. (1997). Fromkin. • One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication. R. London: Longman. S. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations. . Rodman. Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. A critical approach to the teaching of language. Georgakopoulou. N. V.. Mahwah. & Hyams. M. D. • On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. Janks. Fromkin.. (1991). & Rodman. H. & Goutsos. For example. (1993).). Educational Review 43: 191199. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. R. Janks. Input. An introduction to language (7th ed. Worth. . and arranged in alphabetical order. Fairclough. For example. Entries should start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342. Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. N. Interaction and the Second Language Learner. For example. (1992). (1997). Ft. A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Boston: Heinle. NJ (1997).

B. pp. V. interaction. Values in English language teaching. 283–302. An introduction to language (7th ed. The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. For example. Fromkin. (Eds. A. different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. Mahwah. (2003).M. Ft. (1998). Mackey. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and . Gass S..Gass. N. Fromkin.. TX: Harcourt Brace. (1993). Input.M. MD: Linstok Press. (1993). and Pica T. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. • Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. 2. language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994).) Trans. (1994). and second language production.M. S. pp. Burtonsville.. & Rodman. R. S. 2 nd ed. and so on. V. & Hyams.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style. E. (2003). Modern Language Journal 82 (1998). & Varonis. Ed. Rodman.). An introduction to language (5th ed. Worth. R.). Boston: Heinle. Language choice. 299–307. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Johnston. • References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author. Ed. Johnston.

give the month and day. the volume number. the volume number. reports. Title of work. A period follows the author. of all authors.Rep.C. XX.. and so on. For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s). Location: Publisher. certain monographs. and audiovisual media. page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement In general. followed by the initials (not the entire first names).) Vol. and the page numbers are separated by commas. Title of Periodicals. Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals.. tech. The name of the periodicals. B. For magazine and newspaper articles.(1994). Suppl. and proper names within both are capitalized. A. brochures. the date. (PP. Author. scholarly newsletters.P. vols. For a basic entry. A. A. pt. Next comes the title of the article.B. the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals. not enclosed in quotation marks. the first word of the subtitle. No.(1994).﹠Author. C. Nonperiodical: Author. XXX-XXX. manuals. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books. they can be presented as follows: Periodical Author. and the end of the entry. All words . The year of publication follows in parentheses. magazines. the italicized title of the periodical. Title of Article.A. Only the first work of the article title. the title of the article.

Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. Journal paginated by Issue Reagan.or pp. and the pages. For example. Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines. 797-799. except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p.. followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first names. Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any). The title of the article. (2005. (2006). For example. 1829-1840. Gas crisis in the world. 20th ). & Pennycook. Science of Psychology. B12. Article by Two Authors Makoni. (2006. J. New York Times. followed by a period.14th ). 38(2). The language rights of the deaf. For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author. Only the first word of the . A. 2. (1996).except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical. S. For example. South African Medical Journal 86 (1). Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author. June. P. Sussan. The abbreviation p. 101-105. is used to indicate page(s). followed by periods. Nov. is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. 137-156. G. (2005). 1. the volume. edited books and work cited in another work. Article by One Author Smith. T. The title of Journal. S. as well as the year. or pp. Douglasa.. The date of publication appears in parentheses.

Tollefson. Spring. (1964). Darwin. The names of university presses are spelled out.) New York: Harp& Row Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. Globalization and educational rights.G. list he names of all the authors. etc. abbreviated (Rev. Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author.) or. The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. Postal Service abbreviations for states. (Eds. the first word of the subtitle.).book title. if it is a word. the name of the state. if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location. J. Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized “In” and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd. Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah. Ed. For example. Facts of publication include the city of publication and.Sussan. For example. (2004).4th. On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. For example. . J. Use U. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. c. (2001). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah.S.(2002). The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. and proper names within both are capitalized. Place an ampersand(﹠)before the name of the last author. Use parentheses to the page numbers. For example. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. A.. Ernst Mayer). The entry ends with a period. eds). Second language acquisition (3rd ed. 3rd. & Tsui. (Original work published 1859) .

Eggington (eds. place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position. Department of Agriculture). For example. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears. D. If it is presented at a conference or symposium. (1987). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.). Stanton. indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary . series. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. even if it is well known. In J.C. The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process. (2000). (Ed.) or editors (Eds. 7-21). Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U.) within parentheses in the author position. For example. For example. present by “in press” within parentheses.Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed.S. Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book. Beltsville.). if any. or number of the report. Hall & W. Policy and ideology in the spread of English. The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym. Tollefson. D. J. MD: National Agriculture Library. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. (1999). Woods. should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. The identifying title.The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century.

Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL. Mackey. DC. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author.after the title. The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks.toefl. CD-ROM. Leeman. (2003. Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads. S. a description of the medium—On-line Journals..jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods. J. the title of the section you used. a statement about availability of the product. Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies. Available: http//langue. McDonough. and Kirsch. J. (1997). RR-61[On-line]. J. Leeman. Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased. including E-journals and CD-ROM. Oliver. Washington. etc. Available: www. (1998). For example. an the method or path used to retrieve the material.. the name of the state may be omitted. Georgetown University. Language Learning (in press). For example. A. ONT. it requires more information than you normally need for print sources. 21 (10). K. Woods. include both city and state. The Language Teachers Online [On-line].chubu. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.org/rrpts. A study on Adult learners’ incorporation of feedback. (2001). B. ---placed within brackets. Toronto. otherwise. D. Eignor.hyper. the title of the entire source underlined. October). Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning.. diskette.html .html Taylor. Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source. if any.ac. If the name of the city is well known. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address. R. (in press). the date. should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material.

In-text Documentation Unlike APA format. Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. 1. 1.1 To quote from authors less than four . According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. whether in the form of direct quotation.Section 2. When the author’s name appears in the introduction the material. as the following examples indicate: • Recently. to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries. you need not repeat the name within parentheses. MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s). Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. MLA-style References Similar to the APA style. The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. paraphrase. there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189). a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries. • Woods’ series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190). or summary.

include the designation Jr. include the first initial in subsequent references. you should put the page number at the end of the cited section. in the reference. Jansen 43) and ( S. Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35). For example. For example. with the son designated as Jr. • • Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e. you do not need a parenthetical reference.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author .. the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. • Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook. Graff). a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the author’s name in your list of works cited. When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title. use the subsequent references ( H. 67). • Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their “encounters” in her book Listening to the World (2). Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen.g. 1. Jr. For example. When you have more than one author with the same last name. For example. When you cite from the author not named in text. When the two authors are father and son. preceded by a comma.. • That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian.When citing the resources with the author named in the text.

Goldberger. For example.” for example. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list. (AMNH 15). 100-30) or (Belenky.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited.…. • The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12. hereafter AMNH) . You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to “Pharaoh. because the entry should be alphabetized by “ancient”. • Due to air pollution. compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: • Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell). 1. use the title in parentheses. use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy. When a work has four or more authors. you may list all four authors or give only the last name of the first author followed by “er al”. Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (“Ancient Pharaoh Statue”). Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited. and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author. 1. Clinchy..3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors. shortening it to two or three words. after the first citation) in place of the name of the author. • The authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing make a distinction between “separate knowing “and “connected knowing” (Belenky et al. .

vol. “Diving in”68. When you have two works or more by the same author. 2). • Goethe wrote that “it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd. Brooks and Warren 5) . The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. • Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation. To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work. use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). In Newman 2:104) 1. For example.5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work.”. • Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozart’s The Magic Flute (2:104-05). use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. For example. For example. For example. In”. For example. to use (Errors 79. use the author’s name and the abbreviation “vol. • This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman.When you quote material from a source other than the original. introduce the name of the source with “ qtd. separate entries with a semicolon.

1 Construct of the reference list In general. • MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible. If you cannot finish within one line. 2. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as “ the first (surname) + comma + the last name” . Sussan. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97–111. For example. For example. Pienemann M. and Johnston. • When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it. Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. “The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions”.2. “Factors influencing the development of language proficiency”. AMEP. the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. Oliver. D. along with the editor of the volume. the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: • All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity. Adelaide. For example. Oyama. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list. “A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261–285. Ed Nunan. The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author. you should continue into the second line. M. • Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space. “University Press” . 1987: 45–141. you must list each article by author in the works cited section. Richard. New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center.

1996. of a publisher before the name of the publisher. : Penguin. Handbook of Language Acquisition. 311-19. Eng. 80-88. compilers. etc. citing a book published Harper and Row’s Colophon series as Colophon-Harper.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author. 28-59. For example. New York : Academic P. T.H.can be abbreviated as UP or U. Second Language Acquisition. Intod. 413–68. vol. Hakelly. or division. M.K. Long.P. 2. “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition”. Revisting the Washback. Dell. EG: 127-51. Ed. it can only be noted down as: Harper. MLA also puts the name of the imprint. Harmondsworth. and Bhatia. • The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. 1996. 2. (the key words only). the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. Martin Dodsworth. Fox. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) “the title of the article” 3) the name of the magazine . etc. Dorothy Collin. Ed. Ritchie C. Such as 17-18. For example. B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely. For the famous publishing house.

4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2. compiler(s). If the state is needed for clarification. and the facts of publication. 1995. Richard Dien. use U. If several cities are listed.1. cite only the first. the title of the book with any subtitle. and Barbara Katz Rothman. which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials. 1992. placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s). Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. Philadelphia: Temple UP. Book by four or more authors . Invert the first author’s name. Postal Service Abbreviations. Law in Civil Society.S. the names of any additional authors are not inverted.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s). Book by two or three authors Simons. available in most dictionaries. Book by a single author Winfield. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. include a standard abbreviation. Abbreviate the publisher’s name. And if the country or province is needed. but not the final period. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. Italicize the complete title and subtitle. Wendy. For example. which include the city of publication. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space.

Reconditioning the Bicycle. comp.” is preferred. For example. McPherson. the abbreviation “et al. 2. the volume number (for a scholarly journal only). 1987.” [ed. 1993-1994. 1992. Chicago: ALA.” or “trans. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen.1. An edited. 1989. for editor. the series name and number if any.” Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16. When the corporate author is also the publisher. American Museum of Natural History. Annual Report. the name is not repeated. for translator(s) ] . meaning “and others. and (3) the information of publication. comps. compiled.” “comp. and trans. or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the author’s position. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times. ed. New York: Rodale. . (2) the full title of the article within quotation marks. New York: Rutledge. for editors. English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. for compiler. the date of publication followed by a colon.Instead of presenting the names of all authors. New York. Baum. Article in a scholarly journal Fox. “Technical Writing Skills. for compilers. 1995. et al. and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general. not the Los Angeles Times).”. Robert. which usually includes the name periodical (italicized). eds. William. Janna. followed by an abbreviation for “ed. Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books.

“Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage.” Miami Herald 22 July 1995. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper.) Donnelly.1(1995): 103-19.: D7. treat the issue number like a volume number. John. for national. use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead. “U. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume. include its designation. for international. abbreviated. Milton M.E. after the date (natl.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. Erickson. Pamela. “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature.Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner. intl. ed.” New York Times 27 July 1995. intl. Thomas. 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. excluding any introductory article.” Kenyon Review ns 12.:1A+. “An Interview with Josie Graham. Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd. C. such as the. Mercer.S. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified.” Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22. Nwezeh. Peter. “Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich. 52(July 1995):483-87. “The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History. late city ed. Klein. and do on. Article in a magazine .Venture Bets Colombian Coal.4(1979): 22.” Denver Quarterly 26.

” Cooper and Odell. “On Eccentricity. Marcus.” Battaglia 59-76. month. Richard. Kinoshita. George E.” Battaglia 43-58. Rhetorics of Self-making. and July.” New York Times Magazine 18 Oct. for a monthly. Shaughnessy. 1995.3 Reference List for Electronic Sources: . June. “The Mapping of the Mind.” Science News 18 Mar. Mina P. give day.For a weekly magazine. U of California P. 1992: 44+. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia. one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation. 1995:171. Abbreviate all months except May. “Primary Trait Scoring. and year.J. Brody. ed. 2. June. “How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar. Research 73-84. Walter T. Gary Tate and Edward P. “Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. Roy.” The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook.” Cooper and Odell.1. “If you have the advertisement you don’t need the product. use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. 6268. “The Writing of Young Children. Lloyd-Jones. 1981. give the month and year only. Anonymous magazine article “Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. Wagner . Evaluating Petty. 1995:26-31. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s). Howard. Ed. Debbora. New York: Oxford UP. Corbett. your entry begins with the author of the article. Entry for article in the edited volume.

Windows 4. volume or issue number.2003. The equipment required to run it. Vic. the title of the section you used. 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed.: Space-time Research 1998.DOS 3. etc.ac. if necessary for your purpose. year or date of publication (in parentheses). diskette. For example. Paul. E.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003. if it is not well known. a description of the medium(CD-ROM. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry. Version. Release 2. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism.The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources. On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery. number of pages (if applicable). the date you accessed the source.1 rev.). italicized. The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author. Gardern.0. WA: Microsoft. CD-ROM. [ disk]. in quotation marks. et al. the title of the entire source. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England. the name of the computer network or vendor and. Hawthone East. Redmond. in the case of on-line or E-mail materials. . the date of electronic publication. P. 6MB. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]. and.4. [Computer software]. Georing.niss. if any . an assess preceded by the word Available from.31.

proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles. Proofreading 1. When editing the final draft. to do the proofreading of a research paper.to Finalize the Draft A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning. Section 1. and ii) presentation.Chapter 5 Proofreading and Editing --. Generally. you need identify i) coverage and organization. Focus on Argumentation: • Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? • Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? • • Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument? . you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required. drafting.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms.

Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?

Focus on Forms: • • • • • Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?

1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.

I. Wording
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).

Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be

Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is

Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of …. in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of

Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In …, for…. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for

by. Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British . these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by. due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far. because because about source oval because. Spelling It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in China’s EFL (English as Foreign language) context. oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that Concise use for academic writing form. with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that II. result to date round is mall after consider this fish.Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape.

1996). oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion (3) (4) . American (1) e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit “-e” acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction British ae.English in spoken and written languages. in the paper. to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones. especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu. As a basic requirement.

connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im. inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-. enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) .

V. C.humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae. undergraduate ill (12) (13) .

as ( see the examples below from a published paper) When the battery is charged.sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode. Logic of long sentences Any publishable research paper has limits of words. post code III. as. the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. As such. the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. the ions migrate back to provide the energy. which (see the examples below from published papers) . as. Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if . The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions. for. For example. In the charged state. (ii) agreement of contexts. and (iii) completeness of structures. when. To express Reason: because . where. lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. As the battery is used. If a spark occurs. skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article. since To present Attributive: that.

the proper use of articles and single or . As shown. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. To see this more explicitly. While paragraphing. Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun. thus. based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state. The inset of Fig. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4х105 on SFN with γ=2. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. although (see the examples above and below from published papers) In summary. mk ~k. we derive the relation. however. (5).0. so that. as it has been shown to do with adults. there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP. the peak soaks into the average mass mk. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub.4 for ρ=3. To indicate Results: therefore. 6(b)]. the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts. However. the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. Interestingly.In the steady state. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. hence. Although generally supportive. while. but. the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi ∞ [Fig. Hence by taking the average. To express Transition: however. so.0 and ρ=1. as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate.

and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" . The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition. you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph. oxygen and a flammable fluid. However. socially. and linguistically. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid. the anode. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. which serves as the cathode. and a strip of graphite. Completeness of structures Proper use of structures. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. may help build up clearness and conciseness. a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable. To study the following materials from a published paper. such as parallel structures and absolute structures. The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide. Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing.plural forms of pronouns.

If the abbreviation is needed. capitals and punctuations in research paper writing. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.1 million laptop batteries. made by Sony. Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing. and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills. was made apparent Monday with Dell’s recall of 4. 1.Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. as discussed in Chapter 4. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops. the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation. In this section. Section 2. including the styles of in-text citation and reference list. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. Editing: Final Draft Apart from following the documentation formats. Dell said the batteries. the term should . they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. Generally. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process. to meet the requirements of Abbreviation.

Smith. I. Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands.S. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM). Most abbreviation omits the prepositions. which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address. ( the chemical elements) --. such as Kim. PC --. D.be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis. The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): • • • • IEEE --. articles and the conjunction word “and” . and using an automatic tool flow. Fox. Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided. For example. The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory. The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File.in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --.in the journals of Chemistry CPU. L.in the journals of Applied Linguistics O. The EX stage had the ALU. The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD). . and Write-Back (WB). RAM. P. ROM.. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas. Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction. .in the journals of computer sciences The abbreviations in the reference list • The first name of authors. J. Memory (MEM). Li. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized. For example. Execute (EX). For example. ….

K(kelvin). (liter). Or Eds. s (second). μ (micron) Area: sq. dm (decimeter). mol (molal). Chap. No. A (ampere). kl (kiloliter) 2. ( number) The names of the states of America The abbreviations of units of measures and weights • 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter). Ed. ( chapter). ( Editor or editors).• • • • The names omitted by et al. Vol. ( means “and others”) Ed. km (square kilometer). ( Revised edition) P. cl ( centiliter). kg (kilogram). ml (milliliter). or pp. kg ( kilogram). g (gram). Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above: • Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized. For example. This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?" . ( volume). (square meter) sq. mm (millimeter). h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter). Rev. m. ( Second edition). min (hour). 2 nd ed. t ( ton) Capacity: l. Weight and mass: mg (milligram). km (kilometer). ( page or pages). cd( candela) • • • • • Time: s (second). including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses.

the language. the widely accepted names. the nationality. • The capitalization in formula. etc. but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. For example. Klemperer’s thesis. the country. . diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal. for example. in essence.• The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. such as the person’s name. and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents. For example. The title of an article The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude The title of a book cited Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies • The first letter of any specialized nouns. was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool.

3. there are still a lot of differences between them. 3). 2004). Period ( “ ” ) To compare the two sentences Noam Chomsky once commented that. 1993. so far as . Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. we know. p. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. On the other hand. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. 2005. Yu. ( √ ) .

Noam Chomsky once commented that. and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments. as discussed above. ( Χ ) However. and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. rather than on immediate responses. unique to man. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. such as timing and developmental readiness. such as clarifications of meaning. 1993. ( Χ ) (2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors. ( √ ) The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. to take place. This is of course an empirical question. so far as we know.” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than . ( √ ) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur.”) To study the two sentences. ( Χ ) To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place. which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests. p 3) ( Χ ) Comma (“.

of course.. 2. refer to the respective nuclei.. where j = 1. 3. such as timing and developmental readiness. but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok. N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 …+ S0 K(n-1) Dj. ( √ ) Ellipsis (“ …”) To study the following example ending with “….other factors. This is. an empirical question .” The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension. …. …. 2.. I've got a dad and a son. . n." In the formula The subscripts 1.

Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer .

Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol .

Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech .

Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut .

Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc) .Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U.S.

Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool .

.Godine. Inc. Inc. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers Publishers A. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co.. Inc. Inc.Appendix II Abbrs.Publishers...Inc Merriam-Webster Inc..A. Les Editions INSERM Little.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . Inc. Publishers Abbrs AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR. David R. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster . Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers. Futura Publishing Co. Inc. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Inc.Inc Merck& Co. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co.. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications.Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication.

.. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers.Publishers.. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc. Inc. Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing . Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Les Editions INSERM Little.. Inc.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill .Inc Merck& Co.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Chapman &Hall Sage Publication.Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone. Inc. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge. Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Inc. Inc. Futura Publishing Co... Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. David R. Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Inc. Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV Abbrs Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Godine.

The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Reader’s Digest Association. B. The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W.H.Publishers Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. Martin’s Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press. Inc. Inc The Shoe String Press. Martin’s State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Reader’s Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins . Inc. Saunders Company W. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins Abbrs Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St.

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