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An Introduction to Academic Writing:

Publishable Research Paper
Xu Xiwen

2006, 08

Course Outline
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments • Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Author’s name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;

Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis • Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse • Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper • Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline • Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice

in-class assignments and final test. sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. Topic assignments: 1. Final grades will include the attendance. practice the use of Punctuations. format of a research paper. and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers. the presentation and the logic of long sentences. structures and sample analysis of application letters. Practice CV and resume 3. pre-reading assignments and after-class readings. students’ assignments will be evaluated. Identify the format errors in Punctuations. Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments. . Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization. C V and resume. Abbreviation 2. Sample analysis of one research paper • Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis. Write one proposal report 2.Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing.

Content Table .

particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format. Discussion and Conclusion. and organizing ideas in writing. Introduction ( literature review). Research Methodologies and Procedures. References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any).Chapter 1 Introduction Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students. meet the requirements of the Western academic community. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms. Research Paper Format Although different languages and their cultures have different “rules” for presenting. While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students’ errors in vocabulary or grammar. The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper: . the course tries to present typical writing styles. in terms of international communications or publications. attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English. 1. it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. explaining. Results and Findings. preferences.

Items • • Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms • • Functions To frame the writer’s idea To identify the writer’s contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues • • • Fundamentals Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings. 2. 2) MLA (Modern Language Association • Research Methodologies and Procedures • To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results • Results and Findings • • • Discussion and Conclusion • To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications • • • • • • • • References ( or Bibliography) • . paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a . tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers’ findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ). conclusion and implications or suggestions Introduction ( Literature Review) To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation • To review previous research • To present arguments and hypothesis Terms to generalize research concerns • The purpose and background of present study • The scope and focus to develop the study • Problems. Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion. argumentation and hypothesis • • • • • • Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs.

The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers. who were able to .Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design. It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts. Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. the RF performance of such links was often modest at best. or data. typically one would obtain from such a “design” a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB. antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets. which severely limited the applications of such links. More recently. which is closely related to. Sample 2 ( Presenting by direct indication expressions) Initially naive “link design” merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. Sample 1 ( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. However.paragraph. . Technique one--. device design. of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. evidence. but distinct from. and terrible at worst. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales. RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al.

Technique Two--. proper election of anode length and insulator. nature and pressure of working gases. . attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy. For example. operating voltage. circuit inductance. or support writer’s preference for one over the other. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects. preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writer’s attitude and suggestion. Such limits have proven useful in providing a “calibration” on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable. reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain. results or ideas. while contrast deals with the differences existing between them. Results and Findings or Discussion. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance.achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design. Sample 3 ( Presenting by detailings) During the last decades.Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review. whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact. material and shape of electrodes.

We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature). 2) by reducing V and increasing P. but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter. we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices. This is in contrast to “digital” optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%. one in front of and one behind the switch. although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play. Thus. we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. . . the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. Sample 3 ( For developing a summary) To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design. But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters. this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier.Sample 1 ( For organizing the literature review) By comparing the first two topologies. Sample 2 ( For developing a conclusion) Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as “RF” or “analog” optical links. By contrast.

upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons.. while definition explains limits and specifies. On the other hand. most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett. such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse’ loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw. & Reilly. In addition to being a costly investment for organizations. we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order.Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas. To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving. relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. In classification. 1990). (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification. real estate assistance.) Sample 1 ( Classification by grouping and examplication) According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC). comparison-contrast. Stroh. etc. 1994. spouse employment assistance. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques. cost-of-living . These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving. including exemplification.000 per home-owning employee. among other services. Luo & Cooper. 1994). and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept. 1990). we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. we may capture the essence. set the boundary. according to their similarities and differences. with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC. This can include. cause-effect. By classifying. ect. concepts.Technique Three--. results. by definition. family visits to the new area. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45.

general adjustment. ERC. three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment.adjustments. Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. Sample 3 ( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation. and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al. From this research. 1994). these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement. international relocation. 1990. . and interaction adjustment. and work-role transitions was reviewed. because the spouse’s perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research. this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. Specifically. relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified. as well as couples with children living at home. Although there are other comparisons that could be made. single-income and dual-income couples. 1993. First. we systematically compare employees’ and spouses’ perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. we explore two main issues. This focus includes comparing male and female employees.. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses. the research on domestic relocation. Finally. Sample 2 ( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind. The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables.

however. there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state.Technique Four--. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under . Comparing the following samples: Sample 1 ( Focus on the cause) In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch). N signals are combined coming from different input fibers. is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. the requirements for the filters are less strict. That effect also results in crosstalk. 4. the reverse order. Therefore. The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters). As for the arrangement of such a paragraph. it may start from the effect first and then the causes. Sample 3 ( Focus on causes) In Fig. some of the power is leaking through the gate.Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and –effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. If wavelength converters are used. Sample 2 ( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates. This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format. Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state. very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers.

in comparison with. the differences lie in…. in particular. be similar to. resemble. Tips for using the techniques Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. have …in common. the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel. nevertheless. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: • Exemplification such (…) as. for example. in many cases • Comparison and Contrast by comparing …. instead. as follows. generally. similarly. especially. Due to this effect. be different from. likewise. however. just as. almost the same as. At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel. for instance. take ( consider) … as an example. differ from. on the whole. particularly. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. each with a different wavelength. in general. compare … with. as an example. on the contrary. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect).study and M-1 suppressed channels. stands opposition . unlike. in contrast to/ with. otherwise.

accordingly. so. Their writings are frequently judged as “illogical”. affect the way the non-native students write. so as to. Helen Fox (1994) in her book “Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing” has noted that cultural differences. as a result of. since. as. on account of. the definition of …is . … is widely accepted as the definition of • Cause and Effect therefore. have an effect on. problems may develop when these students’ concepts of “effective” writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. due to. thus. as a result. because (of ). given. result in. Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English.. consequently. According to Matthews (2002). or “inadequately developed” because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community. fall into. so that. there are …kinds / groups /categories/ types of. “for writing touches the heart of a student’s identity. be divided into. learned from early childhood. drawing its . hence.• Classification and Definition be categorized as. the effect on …is 3. be defined / named / known as. be classified as. “poorly organized”. now that. “lacking focus”.

clichés. Preference for clear. accurate. direct communication patterns. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles. artistic. factual accuracy is stressed 4. emotional)value of writing. analogies. therefore. Focus on informational value of writing. Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who “subscribe to Aristotle’s dictum” (p. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information. creative metaphors. and getting to . Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. 2002. to accomplish a purpose Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon . Matalene. and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns. therefore. Focus on clarity. attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews. and relevant 5. Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism. it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic. and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past. 790).voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world” (p vi). preferences. Precise. and always rely on idioms. messages are expected to be specific and detailed. including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the 2. 1985). imagery. Taoism and Buddhism). and set-phrases. Information is expected to be specific. simplicity. avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6. Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1.

explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report. Stress on linear development—points are organized sequentially. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. experiences. experiences. The “burden of meaning” falls on the writer—referred to as “writer responsible” 15. etc. which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic. Because the backgrounds. language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the reader’s attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds. with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section. and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper. writers in introduce and discuss a topic. examples. with readers expected to infer the writer’s point Writers supply facts. but may not state the point or relate the examples to each 13. writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. they introduce yet another opinion or topic. explicit background information and extensive 10. Direct. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11.the point 7. in the next section they introduce a new topic. research paper. which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations . explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed. One theme is favored 9. with a beginning and an end 12. the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s). and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse. and values of people in traditional. writers shows respect for the reader’s intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The “burden of meaning” falls on the reader—referred to as “reader responsible” Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point. Explicit signals—such as transitions—are often necessary to show logical links between ideas. in the final section. homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared. essay.

which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information. even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical. and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoning—a single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issue—without taking a strong. 20. 19. Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. personal stand. scholarship.16. students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers. knowledgeable and ideas. examples. statistics. analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts. questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas. writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas other. step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue. Focus on building arguments in a logical. respect for authority is encouraged . etc.’ the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements— showing respect for the reader’s knowledge. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated. 18. personal issue—without taking a strong. 17.

Voice Yourself Some techniques to show the writer’s identity To show the author’s attitude towards previous research or present argument. Authority and Plagiarism Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired. In this chapter. to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. and present the researcher’s contribution to a research paper. Section 1. the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words.Consistent use of formal tone . the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writer’s voice. Technique One --. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. 3) how to avoid plagiarism.Chapter 2 Voice. Meanwhile. over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper. 2) basic methods to cite reference materials. based on the relevance materials.

the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. On SFNs with r ≤3. masses diffuse with unit rate. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices. So …. due to…) …. on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for ω ≠ ∞. proves) that … As a conclusion (ending of the paper). Then. However. I think (believe. we know ( the fact is) that…. and unit mass chips off from mass with rate ω. • • • • • • • In this (such a) case ( way). Practically. Particularly). in the steady state. many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density. we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k− r. shown) that… Basically ( Actually. the study shows that … Based on … (on the basis of …/ according to …). the critical line ρc (ω ) depends on network structures. analyzed) above. the present study suggests (shows. we can (may) conclude that… Besides (furthermore. Apparently. argue) that … As discussed (mentioned. In the SCA model. Sample 1 Study the following abstract. my study has confirmed (demonstrated. I would argue (suggest ) that… Because of ( Owing to. For the existence of the condensed phase for r ≤ . Instead. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community.Influenced by the first language. and try to make the underlined parts better In our study. The dynamics conserves total mass density ρ. in addition).

we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any ρ > 0 on RNs. apparently by the impact of electrons’ bombardment. Sample 2 Study the following conclusion. the present. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46. the system with 3. and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r ≤ 3.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. Further. most frequently used tenses are: the present future. Together with the recent study on SFNs.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by β source and without preionization.3 at the zero density limit. Technique Two --. enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r ≤ 3. at ω = ∞. the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate.3–3. we have investigated 2. the present perfect and the past tenses. degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV. we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r ≤ 3. We also found that at optimum condition.Proper use of tenses Generally speaking.4%. the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion. besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility. In particular. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an . In addition. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant. Besides. The preionization. at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1.

Pattern 1 The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss several approaches to improving… + a new method for analyzing … a theory that attempts to explain… new equations for expressing… Or This paper will argue In this paper. Introduction and Discussion of a research report . we will attempt to show + that / how … Pattern 2 The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract.accepted paper may strengthen writer’s academic attitude and objective tones. we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns.

Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to + Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on + Topic Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic Pattern 3 The past tense may be used in any part of a research report The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or examined / explored / showed + reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated + Topic Pattern 4 .

including the most frequently used modal verbs “ will / would” . In practical academic writing. will / would . A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper. The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper. non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs. A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example. Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability.The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic + Technique Three --. Normally. a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks. “could / should”.Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers’ attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues. “may / might”. one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements.

not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. t) in time. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. . for example. • Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. • Otherwise. • However. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. in the imaging of moving lung tumors. • Given the respiration cycle length (3–6 s). the time dependence of P(mo±1. most likely. and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. equal to the slice thickness.t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo . a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan.The use of “will” is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of “would” spells a conditional high probable degree. On a PET image. • The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. • Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. and will represent several full respiratory cycles. a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position. the calculated differences will not be significant. • The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min.

unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval. which will finally disappear. • Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ). • For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit. • According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12. If not. aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally.could / should The use of “could” presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of “should” tells a high degree of certainty. unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation. • Conversely.14. the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval.15]. • For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state. may / might . the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive.

Section 2. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise.The use of “might” presents uncertainty of a statement while “may” is frequently used to show certain degree of probability. • we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media. • The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage. • No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. • But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. which will be . The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. without the prior written permission of the publisher. • Therefore. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas.

the writer may directly quote from the original sources. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: • • • • According to ( the name of the author). Quoting When citing reference materials. … ….discussed in the later chapter. 1996. In this section. particularly selective attention. pp. … ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that … Sample 1 Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original. internal learner capacities. accurate in every aspect including the punctuations. we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. 451–452). … Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted . 1. and output in productive ways" ( Long. As for a short quotation. the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. Sample 2 . (the name of the author) writes / says. In such case.

But most of all. In other words. the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words.when the innovation is subject to network effects” [5]. Paraphrasing is frequently . these affect the way they write. They affect how students understand assignments. from short critiques of articles they’ve read to dissertation defenses. Warren-Boulton argued “copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low” [4]. They affect how students give oral presentations. Farrell suggested “the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion . their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve. how they study. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others’ words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writer’s thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection “if society truly believes it needs the technology. and how they comment on their classmates’ paper.Shurmer mentioned “the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements” [3]. Sample 3 Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: “These differences. affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates. it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth” [1]. learned from early childhood.” 2.

In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers’ work. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input . the writer should not use too many direct quotations.used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writer’s understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers’ work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): • • Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that… Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers. However. the time) When citing other researchers’ work. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. For example. the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts. the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3) Sample 1 While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. In effect. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners.

e... most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. Sample 2 Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.e. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in.from their peers. However. production (Gass and Swain). arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. 7–12 years). and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. Sample 3 . 2000). making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. for review see Gass et al. 1999). 1998).

the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others’ authoritative thoughts. to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. 3. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review. and linguistically. Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). Similarly. Sample 1 A recent study by Mackey et al.An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing. To make such a summary. socially. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work. 379). the nature of the feedback. and learner-native speaker . and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. Forty-eight dyads.

1998. 2001. perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. Wallman. Animals communicate. McWhorter. Pinker. 1999). once commented that. the distinctive qualities of mind that are. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. engaged in task-based interactions. Among children. 3-30. 1992). to be sure. “When we study human language. In her book The Language Imperative. Demers & Harnish. although only among learner-learner dyads. Suzette Haden Elgin observes that: . 1992. 1993. 2003. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. pp. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. Rodman & Hyams. Sample 3 Language may indeed be central to being human. Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways. pp. but none – at least as far as we can tell – communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian. 1996. Sample 2 Noam Chomsky. of course. 583620. mean that human beings – even otherwise well-educated human beings – are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill. we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’. 3). arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century. learner vs. Wardhaugh. so far as we know. 1994. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. but that does not. native speaker) and learner age. O’Grady & Dobrovolsky. pp. 31-76. Fromkin.e. p. although not for the amount of feedback provided.and learner-learner pairings.

. a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. or are unaware of. • • Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. . Consciously or unconsciously. we have let that miracle be trivialized . paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writer’s text. the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. p.It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. grounds. . because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages. (2000. We forget. with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. “ based on the work of …” . . Separate the quotation. Plagiarism Whether quoting. the power that language has over our minds and our lives. we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes. • Using the transitional expressions such as “according to …” . paraphrasing or summarizing. The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B Section 3.

On the basis of the genre knowledge. The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing. the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format.Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: • Coping some words or phrases without mention of the author’s name or quotation marks. paraphrasing or summarizing other authors’ work with the detailed source information omitted. a L2 writer may use imitation strategies • to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper . • Confusing the original author’s ideas with the writer’s own without indicating the source. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy. • Citing. genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter). Genre Knowledge Generally speaking. 1.

or support in an argument. • • to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft. premises. whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim. 2. a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. edit and format the whole paper Argumentation Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking. the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of . Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues’ academic papers on an international basis. As such. evaluative. never. To make an effective argument. if non-specific. everyone. or advocatory claims. none. no one. • whether they serve as conclusions. whether they are specific or. the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always. all.• to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns. In specific. The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: • • whether they are verifiable.

• To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author. avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source. • To separate the summary of other author’s opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another author’s words • To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another author’s work. • To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats. it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience. . However. In particular. the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others’ academic work. the page number before you document the material. whether a word or phrase.plagiarism. So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: • To identify the author’s name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical.

References or Appendixes (if any). Research Methodologies and Procedures. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification. In this chapter. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding . the function. but expresses them in a much shorter space. but also a valuable learning process. On the other hand. also called executive summary. Discussion and Conclusion. Introduction. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original. in your own words. we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. Results and Findings. At the end of each section. tips for practical writing will be introduced. a research paper abstract. the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract. of what you have read. Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review.Chapter 3 Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper Generally. Summary and Abstract A summary is a shorter version. Section 1. concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them.

meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. often behind the referee's back. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off.whether or not read your paper. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example. thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper. damage stadiums. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract. or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative. Paulus Indiana University . Sample 1 Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls. [9 words] Sample 2 An abstract of a published paper The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators.

Concise: to define terminally the scope. and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this paper’s contribution. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions. or literature references in a summary or abstract. and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper. tables. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures. and recording students’ verbal report during revision. • • Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper. is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom. and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. evaluating the first and final drafts of students’ essays. research methods. to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: • • • • Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper). together with required revision. the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Witte’s (1981) taxonomy of revisions. the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement. identify the author’s (or your own) contributions in the research paper. • Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic. investigations and results and conclusions. 1.Although teacher and peer feedback. Objectiveness: to state objectively other’s or your own ideas and main points in the paper. . Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. such as the research theories. results and conclusions of a study.

influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. implication or recommendation if necessary. For example. Sample 1 A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning.Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) • • • • Who --. for example.who has done the study What--. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) • • • • • Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope.in what kind of context or scope of the study When--. noting that classroom organization.the time order of similar studies What --. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities.what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. .

ICC 460. but did not receive feedback. However. the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly. 2. Edith Cowan University. Australia Received 2 May 2002. Interestingly. DC 20057.Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey a . The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers.in your own words. most of the existing research has focused on adults. Georgetown University. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. It should be expressed . Approaches to summary and abstract writing How to Summarize • The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original. .as far as possible . . In the current study. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur.a and Rhonda Oliver . Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. accepted 17 June 2002. the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms. USA b School of Education. Western Australia 6050. Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original. Perth. During a 3-day treatment period. This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes.b Department of Linguistics. Washington. Abstract The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research. while the control group (n=11) interacted. while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects. we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. revised 14 June 2002.

you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you. the past and the present perfect. By writing in this way. Look up any words or concepts you don't know. Focus your attention on the main point. an effective abstract . How to write abstract effectively • As a short. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. Use a highlighter if this helps. an abstract should be written in formal and academic language.• The question will usually set a maximum number of words. If not. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. Remember that it must be in your own words. Besides. Leave out any illustrative examples. aim for something like one tenth of the original. The most frequently used tenses are the present. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. Draw up a list of the topics .] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. concise and highly generalized text. helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently. • Serving as a useful tool in searching for information. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues. so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other.] • • • • • • • • • • • Read the original quickly. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments. the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary.or make a diagram. and try to understand its main subject or purpose. [A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful. These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages.

• Step One Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns To define the context and argument of the present study: • • This paper describes / presents …( the argument) within…( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject)….to present the most important results and related findings. In particular. and give suggestions of further study. an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study. direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: • • Step One: Introduction---to define the context. thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. • In terms of its form. without any detailed information or comment on the research. the methods and the procedures of the study. • An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal.to outline the main participants.should be as concise as possible. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper. Step Three: Results. so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones. the argument. . • An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself. 3. findings and conclusion --. Also. the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --. ( the related problem) …is as yet undetermined.

yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned. we inquired / examined / evaluated … ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved…( participants / materials). because… While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to….• • • • (The research subject)…. ( the related problem) is that…. To present the purpose of the present study: • • • • • The purpose / intention of this paper is… The primary goal / aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper / study. ( the related problem)…remains unsolved. despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…. the study has focused on … ( participants / materials) To present research methods and procedures • The method / approach used in the present study is… . ( Previous studies) have examined …. however. (the present agreement) is still problematic. In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions)…. we aim at… The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on … Step Two Contents of the study: the frequently used formats To introduce the main participants or materials • • • • The present study has investigated …by using / analyzing…( participants / materials) In this study.

we conducted the present study. we concluded that… Section 2.. findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns • • • • • • The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that…. categorized …. Introduction Writing The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background). and evaluated. Step Three Results. a review of previous studies.• • • • • The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting … The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…. And the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… The data / results obtained appear to …. the results also imply the further study into… The investigation / experiment varied by. it is also found that… It is concluded that…. thus we may conclude that … As a result of the current experiments. a transition ...

1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : • Step One: Research background --.it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study.to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study. Or • Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --.it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper. most frequently followed by the present researcher’s hypothesis and assumptions.it introduces the focus. the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction. • Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --. a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations). the purpose. the main procedures of the present study.it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies. solutions or findings. a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline.it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject. • Step Six: Organization of the paper --. • Step Two: Literature review --. and a definition of research problems in a specific area. • Step Four: Present study --. 2. or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. In some cases.it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study. .

The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson. Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students’ Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing. Hereafter. 1994. Zamel. 1994. while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson. however. Fox. then identify each step used in the two Introductions.Woodward-Kron. these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions. Atkinson. To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing. there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students’ critical thinking ability. assessment criteria and in written feedback on student’s assignments (Woodward-Kron. 1997. However. 1997). 2001. some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh. . Ramanathan and Atkinson. 1999).1997. 2002). 2001. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learner’s ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. Atkinson & Ramanathan. 1997. 2002). and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing. Pally. many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy. 1991. Pally. 1999. With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing. Matthews. 1997). disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. 1991. Ramanathan & Atkinson. academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing. 1997. 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students’ difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy. 1994. Spack. Spack. 1997. Stapleton.To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples. 2001. 2002. 2001. Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines. and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process. 2001). Fox. Fox. 1995. Pally.

1. despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong. The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language. Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development Alison Mackey . Age differences and SLA As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al. and output in productive ways" ( Long. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. pp. Krashen. The interaction hypothesis Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input. 1996. 2000). it is suggested that further studies on ESL students’ development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing.1. However. 1999). production ( Gass and Swain). research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition.. the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences. Introduction 1.a and Rhonda Oliver 1. more quickly ( Ervin. 1998). particularly selective attention.. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.Then. 451–452)..2. . on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom. There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al. Long. and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey. Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica). as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. Snow and Snow). younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages . However. for review see Gass et al. Finally. internal learner capacities. Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. particularly grammar. in press). I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students’ struggles to meet Western academic writing standards. Harley. The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students’ development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking.

for example. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. However. Johnson. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. Patkowski and Singleton). Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. open versus teacher-centered classrooms. In the current study. Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. noting that classroom organization. several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. For example.e. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually.3. Bialystok. more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning. Birdsong and Birdsong). While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period. Oyama. 7–12 years). and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand. Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners. and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. . influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input.( Johnson. While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood.e. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers. A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. Oyama. we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 8–12 year-old range. or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson). beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom. arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i. Children's interactional processes While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes. others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period. 1. researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. For example. and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners.

Forty-eight dyads. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Van den Branden suggests. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. and dyads have all been studied. the children were ESL learners. In Oliver's study. The children in their classrooms were 4th. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. although not for the amount of feedback provided. aged 6 to 12. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. adopting a different operationalization of uptake. Ellis et al. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback. Intact classes. Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. Lyster and Lyster.e. and linguistically. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. A recent study by Mackey et al. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations. socially. Finally. Ellis et al. concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. learner vs. 379). although only among learnerlearner dyads.Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster. although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. paired with native age peers. native speaker) and learner age. and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. the nature of the feedback. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads. (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997). provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults. In a later study. and only for the nature of and response to feedback. Among children. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i. and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings.and 5th-grade learners of French. evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old. she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning. Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn. Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output. mainly their teachers. especially in relation to children's L2 development. showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output. engaged in task-based interactions. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges. as . that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition. however. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. small groups. and use a variety of negotiation strategies. learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers.

Although generally supportive. including negotiation and recasts. to provide the main purpose.2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above. Note that the following sentence . arguments and the organization of the paper. Specifically. in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback. Interestingly. in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback. 2. as it has been shown to do with adults. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes.well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. 1. however. the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999). 626). have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures. the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. Research question In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL.4. Thus. In summary. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA.

particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 85–90 mol% AN [3]. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however). 2. Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached [1]. commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies. Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied… . Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope. to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field. they are processed in the presence of toxic. especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN.1.2.patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings.However.2. 2. generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present [1]. The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer. Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors. such as boric acid. at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place. rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form [2]. are typically solution processed at low solids content (7–30 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents [4]. organic solvents.2. S3[ research focus] Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers.

and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10. However. their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks [1]–[8].8–16]. the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 £ 106 lb per year) were reached. methanol. All-optical cross connects (OXC). approximately 25–45 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing. As a result. however. Example 2 Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth. 16]. have not yet been used for the routing . To permit removal of the water from the fibers. which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult.11].B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested… Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5. but Porosoff [13] showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5. The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. a process was developed combining acetonitrile. and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile. Coxe [8] showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures.

Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. [26]. usually with a small number of input–output fibers and/or wavelength channels [9]–[20]. the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature. the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. but their use has so far been limited to field trials. [31]. [41]. Therefore. lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. The fact. Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section “Interactional feedback and children's L2 development” ) B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or … Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases. [42]. [27]–[36]. . that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus. The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning.of the signals in any of these commercial systems. [ the problematic point] + So / therefore. an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients. has probably prevented the use of OXC’s in commercial systems [21]–[23]. 3. most likely.

.ω plane with the exponent т =5/2. on SFNs with r ≤3 where one or several nodes. we introduce the SCA model on complex networks. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. we discuss the SCA model at ω = ∞ and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees. the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line ρc (ω) in the ρ . VI and VII. we summarize our results in Sec. the focus is on … In this paper. Example In this paper. so-called hub nodes. As we shall see. we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec. The outline of this paper is as follows. VIII. In Sec. II.4. …(the organization) The outline the paper is as follows…. we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study. In Secs. Then. However. III and IV. sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. To understand the condensation on SFNs with r ≤ 3. V. Finally. we investigate / examine / explore… The paper start from …. Typical Sentence Patterns: • • • • • The aim of the present / current study is to …[ See the above example] In this paper. respectively. on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3. the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. have a finite fraction of links.

networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials • • • • • This part should mention: • • • • • • • The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials. Method and Materials This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines.Section 3. It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials. The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1): • • Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for … (for example. apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis .

• While fixing the β source. For example. including patterns of use. • A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. • A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. 1990). For example.The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. and by elementary and advanced level students. • The SILL is a self-scoring. Sample 1 . it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. • . the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. • Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. • In addition to the measures described above. • The camera is mounted in the radial position. Sometimes. • SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements.

including patterns of use. Taiwan. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary. Malaysia. Over the period of the study (one year). Portugal . upper intermediate and advanced.Argentina. Korea. Czechoslovakia. from 21 different countries: Japan. which takes about 50 min to complete. Tahiti. Thailand . midintermediate.2). Arriving students were given the widely used. Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere. aged 14–64. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). mid-elementary. students must select one of three options (for instance: “In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun”). Indonesia.1. is deemed an “independent user”. Poland. Brazil. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers’ perspectives on language learning strategy use. while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and . pre-intermediate. There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23. for instance. Russia. China. Hong Kong. consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers. Participants’ levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels. a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use. 5. 5. In the 100-item grammar test. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level. Overall design of the study The study had three phases. selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals’ patterns of strategy use.Switzer land.3.2.5. The study 5. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework. New Zealand.consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. see below). one of which is reported here. In part B. The listening test. Spain. the population of the school averaged around 100. Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students. France. as explained in Section 5. upper elementary. Some were new arrivals at the school. and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140–150 on the Oxford Placement Test. Denmark. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland. Italy. commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan. whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a “minimal user”. Germany. so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details. In part A. The school did not accept total beginners. There were 114 male students and 234 females. which takes about 10 min.1995 ).

Oxford. Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options. Dornyei. The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire. Cohen. see Oxford. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class. The level at which a student was working at any particular time. Turner. and the effects of cultural background on response patterns.89 to 0. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. The SILL is a self-scoring. lack of self-awareness by students. Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency.98 in various studies. varying interpretations of terms. possibly an assessment of written competence. and other factors (for details.1995. but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford. 5.grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: “Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?”).4. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. including self-report strategy questionnaires. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy.539) and has been widely used. 1994. a written task might be added. paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as ‘‘I review English lessons often’’ to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). Dorrnyei. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school.1995 ).1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock. Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se. have been debated in the research literature (for instance. p. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement. Ellis. 2003. their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen. learning styles.. the oral interview assessment. Ellis. motivation. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts. 1998. Guetal. The SILL was chosen for this study because it is “perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date” (Ellis. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a .2003. according to which they might be promoted. depended on a combination of the OPT score.1990 ). Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0. However.1994. therefore. 5.5.1998.19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately. 1994. 1990).

B. Preionization A mesh-type radioactive β source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0. charged at 19–25 kV. Sample 2 II. which is slightly tapered towards the open end. and significant differences (Student’s t). 1. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 μm active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters. powered the device. giving a peak discharge current of about 190– 245 kA. 1. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. A 12. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig. 1990). While fixing the β source. that is. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system. and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels.6. 5. a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization. In one experiment. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter. a mean of 3. C.5 or above (Oxford. This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. In addition. as indicated in Fig.5 μF single capacitor. The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation). Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. The β source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level. it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. is used .special Study Skills class held during the students’ first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the school’s facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied).

tables and diagrams) and written texts.1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film.05 keV. The camera is mounted in the radial position. the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used.71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 4–7.μm-thick Co and Ni filters. Results The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. a set of Mo (10 μm). E. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy.μm diameter multipinhole apertures is used. 3.5±0.μm-thick Ni foils. The figures show the complete . The pinholes are masked separately with 10.71 keV window. For the study of Cu K α line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 19±0. Ag (50 μm). except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges. It is always followed by researchers’ comments or interpretations of these findings. During the experiment with Pb insert. and elevated at 1. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7. Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range.to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots.5. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8. Section 4. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200.μm-thick Co and 17. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals. 2. Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K α line radiation.1 cm from the anode tip.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K αline of 8. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum. viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. The transmission curves and the detectors’ response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig. During the experiment with Pb insert. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig. and Pb (55 μm) covers three p-i-n diode detectors. D.

A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2). As can be seen. are summarized in Table 5. The results of sustained stage increase for each group.and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. The effect of … on…has… ( Fig. Results 3. 2) Sample 1 3. whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development. 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development. the influences of … As shown in Table 2. This difference was significant according to Fisher's . An effective introduction of results should present: • • • An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1). the effect of … Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of … The effect of … on … is shown / summarized in Fig. 2 shows. in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage. a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of … on … As Fig.1. Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3) The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: • • • • • • Fig. 2. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage.

exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: • • • As can be seen / found, the first group of … while the second…. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater … than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in … These results suggested that the effect of … was either close to or slightly lower than that of …

Sample 2
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without β source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with β source as compared to without β source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the β source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.

The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • These findings accord with / are consistent with those of … These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is … There is …( a general statement) …, the possible reason is that … It is considered / found that…, these may suggest the reason why….

Sample 3
It is evident from Figs. 5–8 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without β source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K α and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K α and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the β source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that β source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.

Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion

As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers’ explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:

Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?

• •

According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?

Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?

• •

Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researcher’s

contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).

Sample
IV. DISCUSSION

This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.

The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation. The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT. up to 46% deviation from the true volume. They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%. 4. Moreover. an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation. while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%. Nehmeh et al. the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data . both underestimating and overestimating the volume. When the motion amplitude is smaller than the sphere’s diameter. in the imaging of moving lung tumors.9% and 1. Moreover. internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. regardless of their attenuation correction methods. In the current study.9 cm amplitude experiment. with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III). This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion. that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air.With information of tumor motion.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT.21 This large range. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning. Pevsner et al. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol. such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced. the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients. the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. however. where some part of the sphere was present in every phase. as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2. However. not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor.15. and little actual attenuation occurred. In Fig. non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data.5 cm amplitude. In clinical practice.4% on average for the respective modalities. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. 1. It must be kept in mind. emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. In the 3. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume.

and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration. The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. indicate that a slight phase shift was still present. however. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important. which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction. For both systems. In future studies. the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point. .8 cm. the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. respectively) show good correlation. but perhaps even more important. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. followed by a review of the most important findings. either CT or PET. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing. V. then show the differences or the matching degree between them. the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined. are not correlated with respiration.was 75% lower than found with RCPET. it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. 5. the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone.1 Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the original hypothesis or assumption in this section.9 and 4. less motion artifacts. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration. and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. equal to the slice thickness. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1. the calculated differences will not be significant.

The differences between … are …. Therefore… • • • • • In this paper (study). show that … In this paper. This evidence led us to (infer that) …. The results in this study show that …. The possible reason may … 5. show that…. The results. The results (or data) show that …. In the present study. We originally hypothesized that the effect of …. The reason why… is that… It was originally assumed that …. However. This suggests that… Existing theories suggested that …. It could . the differences between ( the significant effect of)… were investigated (has been reported). It is considered that …. The results demonstrate that… We originally assumed that …. The results.2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section. A further explanation. the findings show that….sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences. it is found that ( the fact ) results in… This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of …. however.. The following are the typical sentence patterns: • • • • • • This research investigated the differences between ……. it was found that …. The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that…. The data in the present study show that ….. we have reported the significant effect of…. The possible reason is… The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which…. The results presented above show that…This suggests that… This study has presented a specific method for measuring…. however. is an important support for the conclusions. Thus. because… This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in…. however.

be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this could be that inadequate use of …increased … These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in … resulted in … For the general • • • • • This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are … This rapid increase ( decrease ) in …is attributed to … The enhancement in … may be caused by… It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to)… One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of … increases … 5. In contrast.3 Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study itself. For the present study: • • • • It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of … It is possible ( likely. the present tense is preferred. Compare the following two examples: . when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies. Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper. When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is “may” as shown in the following sentence patterns. the past tense is frequently used.

the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring. • B: In the current study. confirm ) that… Our conclusion is that… Therefore we may infer that… These findings support the hypothesis that … Our data provide the evidence that … It appears ( seems. indicate. • A: In the current study. the theoretical models. imply ) that… The data reported here imply (suggest. For example. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies. The typical sentence patterns are: • • • • • • • These results indicate (suggest. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children. as it has been shown to do with adults. as it has been shown to do with adults. and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies.• • A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children. the present tense is to show the limitations of the research . show. suggests ) that… 5. To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing. the results of the study. or the limitation of the samples. They could be the research methodology. the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring.4 Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design.

Sometimes. For example. When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate. Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. • • • The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study. • We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall. • • • The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments.methodology. For example. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. writers may start with “we” and use “admit” or “ recognize” to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula. • • • Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results. but cannot implemented in real time applications. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. the present tense and modal verbs “may” or “might” are frequently used. .

Thus.3 Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies to the further research or practical applications of the results. • • • • • • • • • A further experiment should be conducted with …[ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of …[ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply …[ a new aspect of the theory] to … In the future. 5.• We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor. it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. The generality of …[ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of …[research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for …[ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in …[ a practical area] such as … Further studies should focus on the practical use of …[ the results] into …[ a practical area] . the effect of …[ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined. the following sentence patterns are frequently used. Another interesting topic would be to examine how …[ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study …[ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. In practice.

To present a direct suggestion or recommendation. a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with …[ other research method] . For example. or use “ we suggest that …” and we recommend that…”. we will investigate the effect of …[ the results in present study] in a series of studies. • • • • We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with …[ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of …[ different materials or procedures] In the future.

Besides. the typical citation system is the same. the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies.Chapter 4 Reference Styles Different journals may use quite different reference styles. thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts. 2003) noted. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details. . The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers. APA-Style References APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation. Generally. the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected.127. Section 1. APA (American Psychological Association) style. in which references are listed alphabetically. MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list. two reference styles. As Nature (424. which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list. see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year.

Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers. 1. in parentheses. separated by a comma. place both the name and the year.1. Otherwise. • Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning. For example. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System Quoting directly or indirectly within the text. even if the reference includes month and year. • • • Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 8–13 years in 96 dyads. the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr. but within you text spell out the word and. cite both names each time the reference appears. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point. APA journals use the author-date method of citation. cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. . The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter. include only the year. When you refer to a work by two authors. that is. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&). 1999). the writer must provide the source of documented information.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors’(’s) work If you summarize the author’s work in your text.

Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).

When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author’ the page number follows the end of he quotation. • As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, “English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, …with values, and these values … with dilemmas and conflict” ( p. ix). • This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are “preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved” (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). • Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are “almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities” ( p. 422). • Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, “When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors’ work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of

the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, • • However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are “group rights” (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). • It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). • This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).

1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. For example,
• Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martínez-Roldán, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. …, For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that…

There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,

for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Várady, 1999).

Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, “The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice” (1995 , p. 16). …, According to Phillipson et al. (1995), …

When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al” (not underlined and with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, • As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. • Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by “et al.” For example,
• • • Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Várady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)

The In-text quotation should be:
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)

titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list. a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text. whether in parentheses or not. If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example. use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ. you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone. • The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in “College English” (1998) and “ College Core English” (1996). p. report.3). and articles. the title of a book. except conjunctions. you may use .3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. • According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States. or periodical is underlined.When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name. Scollon (1994). For example. 1. B. To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author. R. there is “much added value” in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin. Within the text. All words are capitalized. W. 2003. Scollon (1994). and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. For example. • Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. short prepositions. brochure. Scollon and S.

2005) stressed that…. in large measure. cite the year of the translation you used. 1931). Specific Parts of a Source . 2000)… E. trans. or the year of the version you used. cite in text the author’s name. To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source.d.. for “no date. 2002.NSF for National Science Foundation).1989)… The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa. followed by version. include this in the citation. your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use. ii) • The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada. For example. P. • • Darwin’s metaphors (as quoted by Gould. When you know the original date of publication. such as for some very old works. refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication. The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested ….(Aristotle. ( TESOL News Letters. followed by a comma and n. preceded by trans. James(1890/1983) D.” When a date of publication is inapplicable. C. the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community. • The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are.

the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition. or equation at the appropriate point in text. the list of sources is entitled “References”. Reference List In APA style. pp. (2000). figure. 24-25) 2. References cited in text must appear in the reference list.To cite a specific part of a source. chapter. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. p. J.” (1999. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: • In short. . Always give page numbers for quotations. . conversely. title. as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s. “Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of ‘negotiation’ over meaning at every turn” (1977.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: • Elements of Each entry: author. and publishing data. 58). power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. indicate the page. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. to oppress people. “Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. Language. or to do almost anything in between. 2. . For example: Cummins. table. Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. year of publication. • As David Corson argued.

(1997). . A. N. Discourse analysis: An introduction. • On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. Fettes. (2003). V. (1997).• The list must be double-spaced. Fromkin. Fromkin. (1997).). An introduction to language (5th ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rodman. R. Janks. An introduction to language (7th ed. Input. S.. Interaction and the Second Language Learner. . (1993). TX: Harcourt Brace. (1995). For example. D. the earliest first..M. Boston: Heinle. H. London: Longman. Gass. A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities.. & Hyams. H. (1992). N. Worth. For example. For example. Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. & Rodman. Janks. • One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication. M. & Goutsos. V.). Fairclough. and arranged in alphabetical order. Educational Review 43: 191199. Entries should start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations. A critical approach to the teaching of language. • Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. Mahwah. NJ (1997). R. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. (1991). For example. Georgakopoulou. Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342. Ft.

Johnston. Input. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. R. An introduction to language (5th ed. (Eds. 2. V. pp. different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. Fromkin. (1993). 2 nd ed. Values in English language teaching. R. Modern Language Journal 82 (1998). N. B. (1998). (1994). and Pica T. The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. & Rodman. Ed.) Trans. Worth. Rodman.M. Burtonsville. & Hyams. • References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author. S. (2003).M. Ft..Gass. (1993). A. Mackey. Language choice. language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students.).. Boston: Heinle. and second language production. & Varonis. Johnston. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah. • Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. 283–302.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and .. TX: Harcourt Brace.M. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994). E. (2003). V. Ed. interaction. Fromkin. An introduction to language (7th ed. MD: Linstok Press. 299–307. Gass S.). For example. and so on. pp. S.

For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s). No. The name of the periodicals. give the month and day. of all authors. Title of Periodicals. Location: Publisher. scholarly newsletters. the title of the article. tech. Suppl. For magazine and newspaper articles. and the end of the entry.(1994). certain monographs. the date. followed by the initials (not the entire first names). the italicized title of the periodical. page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement In general. Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals. (PP. For a basic entry. magazines. B.B.(1994). and audiovisual media.A. brochures..C. A period follows the author. Nonperiodical: Author. A. the volume number. reports.Rep. the first word of the subtitle. C. The year of publication follows in parentheses.P.﹠Author. manuals. Title of Article. the volume number. not enclosed in quotation marks. A. and the page numbers are separated by commas. the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals. they can be presented as follows: Periodical Author. Next comes the title of the article. and proper names within both are capitalized. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books. XXX-XXX.) Vol. and so on. vols.. XX. Only the first work of the article title. A. pt. Author. Title of work. All words .

. South African Medical Journal 86 (1). 2. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. 797-799. & Pennycook. S. S. Science of Psychology. For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author. The language rights of the deaf.except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical. A. is used to indicate page(s). (2006. Douglasa. G. Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. New York Times. T. and the pages. The title of the article. or pp. For example. Journal paginated by Issue Reagan. Article by Two Authors Makoni. 1829-1840. Only the first word of the . 38(2). (1996). as well as the year. Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines. except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p. followed by periods. B12. Sussan. June. Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any). the volume. For example. The title of Journal. 101-105. Article by One Author Smith. P.14th ). 1. is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. (2005). J. followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s first names. The abbreviation p. (2005. The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author. 20th ).or pp. For example. Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. Nov.. (2006). followed by a period. edited books and work cited in another work. 137-156. Gas crisis in the world. The date of publication appears in parentheses.

On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod.) New York: Harp& Row Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. Use U.G. The entry ends with a period. Globalization and educational rights.S. Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (2004). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. abbreviated (Rev. (1964). & Tsui.. eds). 3rd.Sussan. list he names of all the authors. if it is a word. (Original work published 1859) .4th. the name of the state. A. Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author. Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized “In” and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd. The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. J. the first word of the subtitle. (Eds. Postal Service abbreviations for states. Tollefson. etc. Ed.book title. Second language acquisition (3rd ed. J. (2001).) or. c. For example. For example. Spring. . if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location.(2002).). and proper names within both are capitalized. The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. For example. Ernst Mayer). Facts of publication include the city of publication and. For example. The names of university presses are spelled out. Use parentheses to the page numbers. Mahwah. Darwin. Place an ampersand(﹠)before the name of the last author.

(Ed. place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position. For example. series. Eggington (eds. J.) or editors (Eds. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears. even if it is well known. indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary . Department of Agriculture). In J. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. D.) within parentheses in the author position. Woods. if any. Policy and ideology in the spread of English.). For example.S. Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted. (1987).The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. present by “in press” within parentheses. (1999). should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. Stanton. D. 7-21). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. Hall & W. The identifying title. or number of the report. For example.Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed. The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. If it is presented at a conference or symposium. Tollefson.). MD: National Agriculture Library.C. The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym. Beltsville. (2000). Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book.

Eignor. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address. RR-61[On-line].ac.html . (in press). it requires more information than you normally need for print sources. J. (2003. should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material. an the method or path used to retrieve the material..org/rrpts. Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source. Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads.toefl. Oliver. diskette.after the title. For example. (1998). K. a statement about availability of the product. a description of the medium—On-line Journals. Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased. R. A. ---placed within brackets. DC. If the name of the city is well known. including E-journals and CD-ROM. etc. Woods. if any. otherwise. the title of the entire source underlined. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.html Taylor.hyper. A study on Adult learners’ incorporation of feedback.. the date. Washington. CD-ROM. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL. and Kirsch. 21 (10).jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods. The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks. Available: www.chubu. the title of the section you used. Leeman. D. October). Toronto. Available: http//langue. For example. The Language Teachers Online [On-line]. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author. Leeman. McDonough. Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning. J. (2001). Language Learning (in press). ONT. S.. Mackey. the name of the state may be omitted. B. J. include both city and state. Georgetown University. Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies. (1997).

According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. you need not repeat the name within parentheses. MLA-style References Similar to the APA style. paraphrase. to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries. • Woods’ series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190). The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. or summary.1 To quote from authors less than four . Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. as the following examples indicate: • Recently. MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section. When the author’s name appears in the introduction the material. 1. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s). In-text Documentation Unlike APA format. 1. a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries. whether in the form of direct quotation. there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189).Section 2.

• • Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e. the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. • Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook. When you cite from the author not named in text. include the first initial in subsequent references... Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen. Jansen 43) and ( S.g.When citing the resources with the author named in the text. preceded by a comma. Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35). When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title. When you have more than one author with the same last name. When the two authors are father and son. use the subsequent references ( H. 67). 1.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author . For example. with the son designated as Jr. you do not need a parenthetical reference. Graff). • Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their “encounters” in her book Listening to the World (2). For example. include the designation Jr. Jr. For example. in the reference. you should put the page number at the end of the cited section. a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the author’s name in your list of works cited. • That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian. For example.

You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to “Pharaoh. . hereafter AMNH) . Goldberger. use the title in parentheses. 100-30) or (Belenky. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list.…..3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors. you may list all four authors or give only the last name of the first author followed by “er al”. compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: • Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell). • The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited. shortening it to two or three words. and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author. • The authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing make a distinction between “separate knowing “and “connected knowing” (Belenky et al. 1. Clinchy. because the entry should be alphabetized by “ancient”. When a work has four or more authors. after the first citation) in place of the name of the author. 1. Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited. For example.” for example. use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy. Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (“Ancient Pharaoh Statue”). • Due to air pollution. (AMNH 15).

vol. • Goethe wrote that “it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd. For example. In Newman 2:104) 1. For example. 2). In”. For example. “Diving in”68.5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work. The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. separate entries with a semicolon. • Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation. To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work. use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. • This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman. For example. introduce the name of the source with “ qtd. use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). to use (Errors 79. • Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozart’s The Magic Flute (2:104-05).”.When you quote material from a source other than the original. use the author’s name and the abbreviation “vol. When you have two works or more by the same author. Brooks and Warren 5) . For example.

you must list each article by author in the works cited section. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: • All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity. • MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible. D. • When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it. • Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space. For example. Pienemann M.1 Construct of the reference list In general. and Johnston. Oliver. Richard. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97–111. The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author. M. the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation. “University Press” .2. AMEP. Oyama. For example. Ed Nunan. Sussan. Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. 1987: 45–141. along with the editor of the volume. If you cannot finish within one line. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as “ the first (surname) + comma + the last name” . New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center. For example. Adelaide. “The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions”. you should continue into the second line. “Factors influencing the development of language proficiency”. 2. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261–285. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list. “A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system”.

can be abbreviated as UP or U. Ritchie C. etc. EG: 127-51. T. 1996. M. : Penguin. 311-19. • The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. (the key words only). Dell.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author. 413–68. Intod.K. “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition”. citing a book published Harper and Row’s Colophon series as Colophon-Harper. Martin Dodsworth. B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely. 2. Eng. Long. Handbook of Language Acquisition. it can only be noted down as: Harper. of a publisher before the name of the publisher. 28-59.P. Ed. vol. 1996. the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. 2. and Bhatia. Ed. Harmondsworth.H. Dorothy Collin. New York : Academic P. Second Language Acquisition. or division. Fox. etc. Revisting the Washback. For the famous publishing house. compilers. For example. 80-88. Hakelly. MLA also puts the name of the imprint. For example. Such as 17-18. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) “the title of the article” 3) the name of the magazine .

Abbreviate the publisher’s name.4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2. compiler(s). If the state is needed for clarification. which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials. For example.1. If several cities are listed. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. and the facts of publication.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s). but not the final period. Book by two or three authors Simons. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space. cite only the first. Madison: U of Wisconsin P. placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s). Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. available in most dictionaries. the title of the book with any subtitle. include a standard abbreviation. Postal Service Abbreviations.S. Book by four or more authors . Wendy. and Barbara Katz Rothman. Invert the first author’s name. 1995. use U. Book by a single author Winfield. And if the country or province is needed. Law in Civil Society. which include the city of publication. Italicize the complete title and subtitle. 1992. Philadelphia: Temple UP. the names of any additional authors are not inverted. Richard Dien.

” is preferred. and trans. Article in a scholarly journal Fox.”. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen. the series name and number if any. For example. Annual Report. An edited. . eds. English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. When the corporate author is also the publisher. followed by an abbreviation for “ed. 1989. comp.” “comp.1. and (3) the information of publication. New York: Rutledge. and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears.Instead of presenting the names of all authors. which usually includes the name periodical (italicized). 1987. Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. the date of publication followed by a colon. for compiler. (2) the full title of the article within quotation marks. 1993-1994. Janna. William. for editor. American Museum of Natural History. Robert. for translator(s) ] . 1995. 2. McPherson. for compilers. the name is not repeated.” or “trans. New York. ed. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times. comps. New York: Rodale. “Technical Writing Skills. not the Los Angeles Times). et al. Baum. the volume number (for a scholarly journal only).” [ed.” Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general. Chicago: ALA. compiled. 1992. or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the author’s position. for editors. the abbreviation “et al. Reconditioning the Bicycle. the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books. meaning “and others.

“An Interview with Josie Graham. “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature.1(1995): 103-19.:1A+. for international. include its designation. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified. for national. Klein. “The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History. 52(July 1995):483-87.” Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22. “U. Peter. C. abbreviated. Thomas.” Denver Quarterly 26. 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead. Nwezeh.E. after the date (natl. late city ed. “Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage. Pamela. Mercer.: D7. Article in a magazine . Milton M.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. and do on. “Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich.” Kenyon Review ns 12. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume. intl. ed.Venture Bets Colombian Coal.S. excluding any introductory article. John.Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner. Erickson. intl. such as the. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper.) Donnelly.4(1979): 22.” New York Times 27 July 1995. Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd. treat the issue number like a volume number.” Miami Herald 22 July 1995.

“The Mapping of the Mind.For a weekly magazine.” Cooper and Odell. Ed. Walter T. and year.” Cooper and Odell. George E. and July. one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation. for a monthly. Rhetorics of Self-making. ed. Richard. Debbora. 1995:26-31. 1995. give the month and year only. Corbett.1. Kinoshita. June. Mina P. Abbreviate all months except May. June. Entry for article in the edited volume.J. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia. Evaluating Petty. Research 73-84.” New York Times Magazine 18 Oct.3 Reference List for Electronic Sources: . “If you have the advertisement you don’t need the product. “The Writing of Young Children. “Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. Marcus.” Battaglia 59-76. New York: Oxford UP. your entry begins with the author of the article. month. use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. Brody. Roy.” The Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook. “Primary Trait Scoring. 6268. 2. 1992: 44+. give day. 1981. Lloyd-Jones. 1995:171. “On Eccentricity. Gary Tate and Edward P. Howard. Shaughnessy. U of California P. Wagner .” Battaglia 43-58.” Science News 18 Mar. “How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar. Anonymous magazine article “Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s).

Paul. The equipment required to run it. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]. number of pages (if applicable). if any . an assess preceded by the word Available from.ac. P. E. the name of the computer network or vendor and.2003.DOS 3. WA: Microsoft.0. Gardern. etc.). Version. the date you accessed the source. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England. if necessary for your purpose. et al.: Space-time Research 1998. Redmond. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism. and. [Computer software]. Hawthone East. in quotation marks. CD-ROM.4. diskette. year or date of publication (in parentheses).31. the title of the section you used. The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author. Vic. On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery.1 rev. the title of the entire source. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry. 6MB.The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources.niss. volume or issue number. if it is not well known. a description of the medium(CD-ROM.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003. in the case of on-line or E-mail materials. italicized. For example. [ disk]. . the date of electronic publication. Georing. Release 2. 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed. Windows 4.

you need identify i) coverage and organization.Chapter 5 Proofreading and Editing --. Generally. proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft. drafting. Proofreading 1. to do the proofreading of a research paper. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms. you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required. Focus on Argumentation: • Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? • Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? • • Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument? . and ii) presentation.to Finalize the Draft A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning. Section 1. When editing the final draft.

Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?

Focus on Forms: • • • • • Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?

1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.

I. Wording
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).

Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be

Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is

Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of …. in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of

Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In …, for…. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for

Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British . oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that Concise use for academic writing form.Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape. result to date round is mall after consider this fish. these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by. because because about source oval because. with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that II. due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far. Spelling It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in China’s EFL (English as Foreign language) context. by.

As a basic requirement. oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion (3) (4) . American (1) e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit “-e” acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction British ae.English in spoken and written languages. to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones. 1996). in the paper. especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu.

connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im. inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-. enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) .

V.humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae. undergraduate ill (12) (13) . C.

The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions. (ii) agreement of contexts. Logic of long sentences Any publishable research paper has limits of words. as. when. lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. since To present Attributive: that.sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode. As the battery is used. As such. the ions migrate back to provide the energy. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. as. post code III. where. To express Reason: because . which (see the examples below from published papers) . In the charged state. Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if . the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article. for. If a spark occurs. and (iii) completeness of structures. For example. as ( see the examples below from a published paper) When the battery is charged. the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees.

the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi ∞ [Fig. so. based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state. however. To express Transition: however. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children. unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub. the interaction hypothesis (described in Long. While paragraphing. most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. hence. (5). but. thus. To see this more explicitly. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4х105 on SFN with γ=2. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question. 6(b)]. although (see the examples above and below from published papers) In summary. mk ~k. However. as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate. the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons. the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts. we derive the relation. as it has been shown to do with adults. while. Hence by taking the average.0. the proper use of articles and single or .0 and ρ=1. have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. the peak soaks into the average mass mk. The inset of Fig. 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development.4 for ρ=3. As shown. there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP. Although generally supportive. To indicate Results: therefore. Interestingly. while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes. so that. Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun.In the steady state.

plural forms of pronouns. the anode. a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable. and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. To study the following materials from a published paper. and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing. incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners. such as parallel structures and absolute structures. which serves as the cathode. The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition. socially. and linguistically. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid. and a strip of graphite. The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively. they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" . Completeness of structures Proper use of structures. Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon. may help build up clearness and conciseness. you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph. However. oxygen and a flammable fluid.

they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. Dell said the batteries. noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. was made apparent Monday with Dell’s recall of 4. could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73. Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing. and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. Generally.Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible. including the styles of in-text citation and reference list. In this section.1 million laptop batteries. to meet the requirements of Abbreviation. as discussed in Chapter 4. If the abbreviation is needed. the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation. capitals and punctuations in research paper writing. made by Sony. Section 2. 1. the term should . Editing: Final Draft Apart from following the documentation formats.

The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD). Smith. Memory (MEM). The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory. The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized.in the journals of Chemistry CPU.in the journals of Applied Linguistics O.be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis.in the journals of computer sciences The abbreviations in the reference list • The first name of authors. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas. and Write-Back (WB). Execute (EX). The EX stage had the ALU.S. and using an automatic tool flow. Li. . ( the chemical elements) --. Most abbreviation omits the prepositions.in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --. L. Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction. The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): • • • • IEEE --. P. For example. …. For example. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM). ROM. Fox. RAM. I. such as Kim. articles and the conjunction word “and” . Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided. For example. J. Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands. .. which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address. D. PC --.

km (kilometer). Ed. A (ampere). ( number) The names of the states of America The abbreviations of units of measures and weights • 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter). ( page or pages). Chap. μ (micron) Area: sq. This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?" . including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses. No. ( Editor or editors). h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter). (square meter) sq.• • • • The names omitted by et al. cl ( centiliter). kl (kiloliter) 2. t ( ton) Capacity: l. ( Second edition). Rev. dm (decimeter). s (second). (liter). cd( candela) • • • • • Time: s (second). Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above: • Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized. Or Eds. m. For example. mm (millimeter). mol (molal). ( chapter). ( volume). 2 nd ed. Weight and mass: mg (milligram). K(kelvin). min (hour). ( Revised edition) P. g (gram). ml (milliliter). kg (kilogram). kg ( kilogram). or pp. km (square kilometer). Vol. ( means “and others”) Ed.

the language.• The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. the country. such as the person’s name. The title of an article The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude The title of a book cited Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies • The first letter of any specialized nouns. diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal. the nationality. For example. etc. was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool. For example. Klemperer’s thesis. and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents. the widely accepted names. . • The capitalization in formula. in essence. but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. for example.

p. Yu. unique to man” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. On the other hand. there are still a lot of differences between them.3. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang. Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. 2004). we know. 1993. so far as . ( √ ) . 3). Period ( “ ” ) To compare the two sentences Noam Chomsky once commented that. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. 2005.

unique to man. and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments. ( √ ) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur. ( √ ) The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. p 3) ( Χ ) Comma (“. ( Χ ) To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place. such as timing and developmental readiness. ( Χ ) However. to take place. so far as we know. research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than . 1993.Noam Chomsky once commented that.”) To study the two sentences.” (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman. which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests. ( Χ ) (2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors. “The distinctive qualities of mind that are. as discussed above. rather than on immediate responses. This is of course an empirical question. such as clarifications of meaning.

n. but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok. 2. of course.other factors. 2. I've got a dad and a son. where j = 1." In the formula The subscripts 1. refer to the respective nuclei. 3. ….. ….. N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 …+ S0 K(n-1) Dj. ( √ ) Ellipsis (“ …”) To study the following example ending with “…. an empirical question .” The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension. This is.. . such as timing and developmental readiness.

Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer .

Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol .

Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech .

Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut .

S.Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U. Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc) .

Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool .

Futura Publishing Co. Inc. Inc.. Publishers Abbrs AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Inc. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers. Inc.Inc Merck& Co. Les Editions INSERM Little.Godine.A. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. David R.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers Publishers A.. Inc.Publishers.. Inc.Appendix II Abbrs. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster ...Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill .Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R.. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications.

. Inc. Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone...Inc Merriam-Webster Inc. Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication. Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV Abbrs Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR. Inc. Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing .Publishers. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row. Les Editions INSERM Little. Futura Publishing Co.Inc Merck& Co.Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications. Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge. Inc.Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill . Inc. Inc. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co... Inc. Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co. Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge.. Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers.Godine. Chapman &Hall Sage Publication. Inc. David R. Cornell University Press CRC Press,Inc.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little.

Inc. Inc. Martin’s Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press. Inc The Shoe String Press.H. The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins Abbrs Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St. B.Publishers Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. Saunders Company W. Martin’s State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Reader’s Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins . The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Reader’s Digest Association.

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