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Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
in terms of poverty reduc on. Various approaches that need to be implemented to accelerate the achievement of the MDG targets are also iden ﬁed in this Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia iii .Foreword Ten years ago. as well as na onal development policies and strategies. is a very important moment for Indonesia to again make a commitment to the global declara on on the MDGs. This year. at the General Assembly of the United Na ons held in New York in September 2000. This approach has been outlined in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025. Based on the na onal development strategy that is pro-growth. the propor on of the popula on living on less than USD 1 per day has been reduced from 20. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in all phases of development. A er the economic crisis in 1997/1998 Indonesia implemented a series of reforms in various ﬁelds which provided a strong founda on for the Indonesian people to return to a period of high and sustainable economic growth. This Roadmap includes details concerning the present situa on. The objec ves of the Declara on. In Indonesia and other developing countries.6 percent in 1990 to 5. the Government of Indonesia has formulated the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs. strategies. In addi on. alloca ons of public funding at the central and regional levels have been increased annually to support the achievement of the MDG targets. To that end. and pro-environment. For example. civil society organiza ons and the private sector have made a vital contribu on towards accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs. pro-poor. from planning and budge ng to implementa on. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans. and we are conﬁdent that other MDG targets will be realized by 2015. pro-jobs.9 percent in 2008. place people as the main focus of development and ar culate a set of interrelated goals as the agenda for development and global partnership. produc ve partnerships between the Government. Economic growth and the strengthening of democracy and social ins tu ons during the past ten years have supported the achievement of the MDGs. For several other MDG targets signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). and development programs. Special a en on will be given to several MDG targets. Indonesia will work harder to con nue to improve the welfare and quality of life of the people of Indonesia and to achieve the MDG targets on me. 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. including the reduc on of maternal mortality and increasing the ra o of forest cover so that those targets can be achieved by 2015. Heads of State and representa ves from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declara on to conﬁrm the global concern for the welfare of the people of the world. challenges faced. 2010. the MDGs are used as a reference in formula ng policies. Indonesia has already been successful in achieving several MDG targets. Each goal has been translated into one or more targets with measurable indicators. Annual Work Plans and budget documents.
SE. produc ve partnerships among all components of society. Prof. grass-roots movement to beneﬁt all Indonesians. including civil society organiza ons. Alisjahbana. and implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieve an inclusive pa ern of growth while improving public services and empowering communi es in all regions. we thank and express gra tude to all those who have contributed to the prepara on of this Roadmap. Dr. the Government of Indonesia con nues to build an environment that allows all components of society. MA Minister for Na onal Development Planning/ Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) iv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . At the same me.Roadmap. We hope that what we have produced will be useful for the na on. and the private sector to par cipate produc vely in a community-based. Armida S. Akhirul kalam. Success in achieving the MDGs is highly dependent upon good governance. The informa on presented in this publica on is expected to contribute to a be er understanding concerning the challenges faced and the steps that must be taken to achieve all the MDG targets in Indonesia.
Ir. Mon y Girianna. Wahyuningsih Daraja . Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo. MPM. Hidayat Syarief. Hadiat. Drs. Apprecia on and thanks are speciﬁcally extended to: • • Prof. MA who have coordinated the prepara on while also maintaining quality assurance for the substance of this Roadmap. MARS. Dr. Nila Moeloek. Imam Subek . Sri Yan . MSIE. MA.D. MSc. Ir. Ec. MSc. Wendy Hartanto. Ir. especially to Alan S. Happy Hardjo.Acknowledgement The Na onal Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Indonesia from 2010 to 2015 has been prepared by a Team consis ng of a Steering Commi ee and a Technical Team / Working Group responsible to the Minister of Na onal Development Planning / Head of BAPPENAS. Dr. Subandi. Arif Haryana. Hjalte S.A. Randy R. informa on and prepara on of the manuscript. who has guided the formula on process of this document. MPM. Ir. and Dr. MSc. Ir. Endah Murniningtyas. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia v . MPH. Ph. Ahmad Tauﬁk. MM. dr.Sc.Lic (Econ. Wynandin Imawan. Nina Sardjunani. • Our thanks are also extended to our development partners from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Agency for Interna onal Development (AusAid). M. Dra. MSc. Ir. Tri Goddess Virgiyan . Tauﬁk Hanaﬁ MUP. Prouty. S. Rahmana Yahya Hidayat. Woro Srihastu Sulistyaningrum. MSIE. Emmy Soeparmijatun. Adi Wismana Suryabrata. MA. MSc. MPIA. SKM. and to all others who contributed to the prepara on of this document but that cannot be men oned individually. Ir. Ir. Sularsono. DR. MPS. SE.). Budi Hidayat. MEM. Dr. To all members of the Prepara on Team we extend our gra tude and thanks for their hard work and dedica on which have contributed to the comple on of the Roadmap. MA who have contributed in providing data. MCP. Ir. MPH. Ir. Dr. H. MA and Dra. Ir. Prof. M. Ph. Nugroho Tri Utomo. ME. ST.. SE. MSc. Ir. Benny Azwir. Sederlof. Dr. as the Special Envoy of the President for the MDGs.D. Wrihatnolo. Dadang Rizki Ratman. MADM. ST. Rr. Dr. ST. Rahma Iryan . for their support in the prepara on of this Roadmap. Wet Hernowo. Ph. MSc. Dr. Dr. MSc. Kom. Arum Atmawikarta. Fithriyah. MPA. Dr. PhD. MPA. MIDS. Ir. The membership of the Team is presented in Appendix 4 of the Roadmap. SH. Tommy Hermawan. MIA. Dr. Dr. Dra. Msi. S. MA. Tu Riya . Yosi Tresna Diani. Dr. M. Ir. Hygiawa Nur Rahayu. ST. Ir. Siliwan . ST. MRPL Hamzah Riza. Sanjoyo.Eng. SH. Mahatmi Saronto Parwitasari. DEA. ST. MSc. MSc. Maliki. MPM. MA. Mohammad Sjuhdi Rasjid. MT.. Drs. MS. MA. Ec. Edi Eﬀendi Tedjakusuma. MAP. Ir. SE. Rd. and Sap a Novadiana. Rooswan Soeharno. Dr. Erwin Dimas. Ir. MA. SP.
May the Roadmap be used by all interested par es both within government and the concerned stakeholders in eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Dr. Alisjahbana. MA vi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . August 2010 Minister for the Na onal Development Planning / Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) Prof. Jakarta. Armida S. SE.
.............. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................... Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all.... TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................... children everywhere..................................................................... and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015...................................................... preferably by 2005.................................................................................................................................... Target 1A: Halve.................................................................... the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1............... GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN ......................................................... including women and young people ...............................00 (PPP) a day ......... between 1990 and 2015.............................. boys and girls alike..... OVERVIEW OF STATUS OF MDG TARGETS ................ GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER ........................................................... SUMMARY BY GOAL .............................. LIST OF MAPS ................................... universal access to reproduc ve health.... between 1990 and 2015.............................. Target 2A: Ensure that............................................................... LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............ LIST OF FIGURES .Table of Contents FOREWORD ....................................... between 1990 and 2015............................................................................................ GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATE .................................................................................................... Target 1C: Halve.................................................................................... Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger .......................................................................... the under-ﬁve mortality rate ...... Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on............................................................................................... INTRODUCTION.. by 2015...................... LIST OF TABLES .................................................................. GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH ................................. iii v vii ix xi xi xiii 1 9 15 23 25 39 43 49 51 59 61 69 71 78 79 79 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia vii ...................... Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters......................... the Maternal Mortality Ra o ... between 1990 and 2015........................................... will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ............................ GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION .................. Target 5B: Achieve......................... by 2015.......
......... 136 Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.................................... especially informa on and communica ons ......... 101 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ........................ rule-based..GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS...... 122 Target 7D: By 2020................ 129 GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT ... achieving..................... 144 viii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ........... the propor on of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on ... 141 Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector........................... to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers . make available the beneﬁts of new technologies............................ 111 Target 7A: Integra ng the principles of sustainable development in na onal policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources ................. a signiﬁcant reduc on in the rate of loss ................................................................................... 91 93 93 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases .... 113 Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss................................ 120 Target 7C: Halve........................... by 2010...... MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES .... by 2015.......................... universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it ................................. Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS ....... predictable.................................. 133 Target 8A: Develop further an open..................................... by 2010...................................................................... non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems .......................................... Target 6B: Achieve.......
........................... Figure 5........List of Figures Figure 1...................... 25 26 27 27 28 29 40 41 43 44 45 46 52 52 62 63 72 73 80 80 Figure 1.............................. The na onal trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index...................... Average monthly wages (Rp ‘000) of male and female workers in non-agricultural sectors .... Figure 1.. Figure 1.......................................2........7..... Figure 1......... Propor on of one-year-old children immunized against measles.... The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age by province (2007) ............... 2009 ...................................... 2002 to 2010...................... Figure 4..1.......................................3................ The growth rate of labor produc vity (in percentages) for the agriculture... Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ix ............................................................................. Figure 2............................9......................................................... Figure 1... Figure 3............................. Figure 3................. Figure 1.... Net Enrolment Rate for primary school including Madrasah by province..................11. Employment to Popula on Ra o for urban and rural areas and for the na onal level ............... Figure 5.............5.....8.......................................000 live births ...1............2....................................................6. industry and the service sector .......... 2009 ............................................ Long-term trends in poverty reduc on in Indonesia measured using the indicator for Na onal Poverty Line and the target for 2015 .......... Na onal trend Infant and Child Mortality per 1..................10.....1....................... Trend in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score of food consump on for rural and urban households............................ The distribu on of Indonesia’s poor by urban and rural se ng (1990-2010) ...... 2010 .........................2......... Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia... Figure 1........................... The propor on of vulnerable workers to total workers....... Trend in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age (1989-2007) using the WHO 2005 standard and the MDG Target for this indicator in 2015...........00/capita/day) as compared to the MDG target ........13.12................. Figure 4........................................................ Figure 1..................2........ Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os for primary and junior secondary educa on levels (including Madrasah) ....... Figure 1..........................................2.............................................. 2002-2007 .......1.... Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) senior secondary schools by province. Na onal trends and projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025..................................4.................. Figure 1................................. by provinces ....... Figure 2............ Percentage of births assisted by skilled provider......... Trends in the average calorie consump on for rural and urban households (2002-2009) .. by province 2007 ........... Figure 1........ 2009 ........... Figure 1............... The percentages of the popula on below the na onal poverty line by major geographical region of Indonesia (2010) . 1990-2009 .................................. Progress in reducing extreme poverty (USD1......1.......
................3.4............4. Figure 6........................... Figure 7.... Figure 6.............8......................... 97 Coverage of ART interven ons in Indonesia....... 96 Propor on of men and woemn aged 15-24 with correct of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS..... 122 The propor on of households that have access to improved drinking water in urban and rural and total according to the provinces......... 123 Proporsi households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural............ 95 Percentage of unmarried women and men age 15-24 who have ever had sex..........1........ by back ground characteris c.............3....................................7.... by province............................ 81 Unmet needs.. 137 Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of commercial and rural credit banks...6.000 popula on in Indonesia........................ 2006–2009 .......... 145 Percentage of households owning personal computers and having access to the internet by province (2009) ...................... Figure 6........ urban and total rural and urban.......... Figure 8. 1993 and 2009 .............................................1... according to background characteris c...... 138 The trend of foreign debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) during 1996-2009................ 2009 ........ 130 The trends for imports.................................... 129 The propor on of urban slum households by province............ 94 Distribu on of HIV Infec ons.....9....... 123 The propor on of households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural.... Figure 5.... Figure 8. by popula on group..4.... 94 Number of AIDS cases in Indonesia...........Figure 5... Figure 8...3................ 1993-2009.......................5... 1989-2009............... in 1993-2009 ................................... First and fourth antenatal visits......... 97 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.....................3..................... the year 1993-2009 .............. in Indonesia 1991... 2007.................... Indonesia 2007 ........................................ Figure 6............................................. GDP growth and the ra o of imports plus exports to GDP as the MDG indicator for economic openness .......... 106 The percentage of forest cover of the total land area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 .. 2009 .. Figure 7...5............9......... 2000 ........6. 101 The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 ............ Figure 6....... Figure 6........... Figure 6.... Figure 7.. 113 Total energy use of various types for the years 1990-2008 (equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in millions) ....................2009................ urban and rural and urban total....... 2009............. Figure 8................. 146 x Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .......... 114 Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 ...2....2008 ........5................... Figure 6........ Figure 7................... Figure 8..................... Figure 7...........2.2........... year 2009 .................................... 82 AIDS cases per 100..... 114 Propor on of households with access to propoer (improved) drinkingwater................................ Figure 7.4......... Figure 7............................. Figure 7.... Figure 6.................. who use condom at last sex.......... by province............. Indonesia 1991-2007 ...... Figure 7.......... 2009 ........8..............1......... 141 Percentage of popula on in Indonesia owning ﬁxed-line telephones or cellular telephones during 2004-2009 ..................... Indonesia 1990-2009 .......... 124 The propor on of urban households living in slums.......................7...... exports..... 95 Cumula ve percentage on AIDS cases by age group..
... 28 64 List of Tables Table 1................... 87 Priori es....................................... Outputs.. 54 Program Priori es.................................................................1................3.......... 44 Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) ..............1..... Table 4........... Outputs... Table 6.............. 2010 .. Poli cs................ Outputs.......................3..................................... Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program........................... 2010-2014 ........ 76 Priori es.............................................1...... 116 Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources ...................... Table 2...... 128 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums ........ 109 Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management ........................... Outputs and Indicators 2010-2014 ................ 2010-2014 . and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs............. 57 Priority..................... Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services....2. 2010-2014.................. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty ........ 67 Priori es................ Outputs........ Table 5................................ and Targets for Improvment of the Access to Drinking Water and Improved Sanita on........... Table 7. Table 7.. Map 3....................... 2010-2014......................... Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia.2... 2010-2014..... Table 6... 48 Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* ......1..................1.................... Table 1. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.......... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services..2. 119 Priori es..........3...............List of Maps Map 1...................................... 131 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xi ............ Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on................................................2.. 105 Priori es......................... 32 Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007)................1........................................ Table 5.............. Table 2. Table 7..1....... Table 7.. The average wages of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers by province in August 2009 ......1... Table 6.. Table 3...................4........ 2010—2014 .. Table 1....................... 2010-2014 .. 100 Priori es............ and Labor........... 2010-2014 ..............................1....2.... 88 Priori es........................
Communica on and Social Mobiliza on Artemisinin-based combina on therapy Asian Development Bank Annual Development Plan ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Free Trade Area Acquired Immuno-defeciency Syndrome The ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement Antenatal Care The Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum Areal Penggunaan Lain (areas for other uses) An retroviral Therapy The Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons Kementerian Negara Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (The Na onal Development Planning Agency) Behavioral Change Communica on Bacillus Calme e-Guérin Basic Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Assistance Program) Barrels of Oil Equivalent Biaya Operasional Kesehatan (subsidy for opera onal cost for health facili es) Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (School Opera onal Assistance) Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Supreme Audit Authority) Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (Local Environmental Management Agency) Badan Pusat Sta s k (Central Bureau of Sta s cs) Beasiswa Miskin (Scholarship for Poor Children) Board of Na onal Educa on Standards Broadband Wireless Access Coali on of Agricultural Expor ng Na ons Lobbying for Agricultural Trade Liberaliza on Compulsory Basic Educa on Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Development Mechanism Case Detec on Rate Commi ee of Experts on the Applica on of Conven ons and Recommenda ons Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care xii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .List of Abbreviations ACFTA ACSM ACT ADB ADP AEC AFTA AIDS AKFTA ANC APEC APL ART ASEAN BAPPENAS BCC BCG BEONC BLT BOE BOK BOS BPK BPLHD BPS BSM BSNP BWA CAIRNS CBE CCS CDM CDR CEACR CEONC The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement Advocacy.
Laos. Myanmar and Vietnam Community-Led Total Sanita on Carbon Dioxide Contracep ve Prevalence Rate Civil Society Organiza on Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Alloca on Funds) Alert Village: a village that has resources capability and readiness to overcome health problems and to reach a healthy village) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representa ve Council) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representa ves) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional House of Representa ves) Trivalent vaccines against three infec ous diseases in humans: diphtheria.CEPT CFCs CH4 CITES CLMV CLTS CO2 CPR CSO DAK Desa Siaga DOTS DPD DPR DPRD DPT 3 DRA DSR DSS ECED EFA FMU FSW G-20 G-33 GATT GDP GER GHG GMP GPI HCFC HDR HIS HIV HL HP The Common Eﬀec ve Preferen al Tariﬀ Chloroﬂuorocarbons Methane Conven on on Interna onal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Cambodia. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus Demand-Responsive Approach Debt Service Ra o Dengue Shock Syndrome Early Childhood Educa on and Development Educa on for All Forest Management Unit Female Sex Worker The group of 20 is a forum for 20 industrialized and developing countries to discuss key issues of the global economy Chair of the coali on of developing countries suppor ng ﬂexibility to undertake limited market openings on agricultural issues General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs Gross Domes c Product Gross Enrolment Rate Green House Gasses Growth Monitoring Prac ce Gender Parity Index Hydrochloroﬂuorocarbon Human Development Report Health Informa on System Human Immuno-deﬁciency Virus Hutan Lindung (Protected Forest) Hutan Produksi (Produc on Forest) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xiii .
HPK HPT ICCSR ICCTF ICT IDHS IDU IEC IJEPA ILO IMCI IMF IMR INHERENT IPCC IPPA IPTP IRS ITN IUCN IUD Jamkesmas KAP KPA KPU KSA KUR LDR LG LJK LKBB LLIN LMIC LMVD LPG LPTK LULUCF MA MARP MDGs MDR-TB Hutan Produksi yang bisa dikonversi (forest areas which can be converted to non-forest uses) Hutan Produksi Terbatas (Limited Produc on Forests) Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Informa on and Communica on Technology Indonesia Demographic Health Survey Injec ng Drug Users Informa on. Land Use Change and Forestry Madrasah Aliyah Most at Risk Popula on Millennium Development Goals Mul drug-Resistant TB xiv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . A tudes and Prac ce Kawasan Pelestarian Alam (Nature Conserva on Area) Komisi Pemilihan Umum (General Elec ons Commission) Kawasan Suaka Alam (Nature Reserve Area) Kredit Usaha Rakyat (People-Based Small Business Loan Program) Loan Deposit Ra o Local Government Lembaga Jasa Keuangan (ﬁnancial service ins tu on) Lembaga Keuangan Bukan Bank (non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on) Long-Las ng Insec cidal Nets Lower Middle Income Country Lembaga Modal Ventura Dasar Liquid Petroleum Gas Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (Teacher Training Ins tute) Land Use. Educa on and Communica ons Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement Interna onal Labor Organiza on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Interna onal Monetary Fund Infant Mortality Rate Indonesia Higher Educa on Network Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Interna onal Planned Parenthood Associa on Intermi ent Preven ve Treatment for Pregnant women Indoor Residual Spraying Insec cide-Treated Nets Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature Intra-Uterine Device Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Na onal Health Security Program) Knowledge.
Neonatal and Child Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Na onal Educa on Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs Micro. Krea f. Efek f dan Menyenangkan (Ac ve.MDTFs MI MMR MMT MNCH MOH MONE MORA MSME MSS MT MTEF NAMA 11 NCCC NER NFE NGHGI NIN NMTDP NO NPL NTP OBF ODP ODS ORS ORT PAKEM PAUD PFM PHBS PISA PISEW PKH PKK PLHIV PLWHA PMTCT PNC PNPM Mul -Donor Trust Funds Madrasah Ib daiyah Maternal Mortality Ra o Methadone Maintenance Therapy Maternal. Small and Medium Enterprise Minimum Service Standards Madrasah Tsanawiyah Medium-Term Expenditure Framework A coali on of developing countries seeking ﬂexibility to limit market opennings in trade of industrial goods Na onal Council for Climate Change Net Enrollment Rate Non-formal Educa on The Na onal Greenhouse Gases Inventory Na onal Iden ﬁca on Number Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan Nitrogen Oxide Non-Performing Loans Na onal TB Program Oil-Based Fuels Ozone Deple ng Poten al Ozone Deple ng Substances Oral Rehydra on Solu ons Oral Rehydra on Therapy Pembelajaran Ak f. Crea ve. Eﬀec ve and Fun Learning) Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Educa on) Public Finance Management Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat (clean and healthy behavior) Program for Interna onal Student Assessment Program Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah Program Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Program) Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) People Living with HIV People Living with HIV/AIDS Preven ng Mother to Child Transmission Postnatal Care Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (Na onal Program for Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xv .
conducted by the Central Bureau of Sta s cs School-Based Management Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) Survei Demograﬁ dan Kesehatan Indonesia (Indonesian Demography and Health Survey) Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (Household Health Survey) Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) Standar Pelayanan Minimum (Minimun Service Standard) School Par cipa on Rate Success Rate Sexual and Reproduc ve Health Sexually-Transmi ed Infec on Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Na onal Socio-Economic Survey). conducted by Central Bureau of Sta s cs Tuberculosis Tradi onal Birth A endant Total Fer lity Rate Third Interna onal Mathema cs Science Study United Na ons Development Programme United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change United Na ons Childrens’ Fund xvi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . a community-based basic health monitoring and services at village level) Pendataan Program Layanan Sosial (Social Service Program Survey) Purchasing Power Parity Public Switched Telephone Network Perguruan Tinggi (Higher Educa on) Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Primary Health Center) Rencana Aksi Nasional untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (Na onal Ac on Plan on Mi ga on and Adapta on to Climate Change) Beras Miskin (Rice for the Poor Program) Roll Back Malaria Recommended Dietary Allowance Reducing Emissions from Deforesta on and Degrada on Riset Kesehatan Dasar (basic health research.Posyandu PPLS PPP PSTN PT Puskesmas RANMAPI RASKIN RBM RDA REDD Riskesdas RPJPN RPJMN Sakernas SBM SD SDKI SKRT SMA SMP SPM SPR SR SRH STI Susenas TB TBA TFR TIMSS UNDP UNFCCC UNICEF Community Empowerment) Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Health Post. conducted by MOH-RI) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Nasional (Na onal Long-Term Development Plan) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan) Survei Tenagakerja Nasional (Na onal Labour Force Survey).
UNSD VCT WAN WB WBG WHO WiMAX WTO
United Na ons Sta s cs Division Voluntary Counseling and Tes ng Wide Area Network World Bank World Bank Group World Health Organiza on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access World Trade Organiza on
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
2 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
cultured. the Na onal Development Vision for the years 2005-2025 year has been deﬁned to be: an Indonesia that is self-reliant. and 8. 4. National Development Priorities Based on the current condi on of the Indonesian na on. and based on na onal interests. The MDGs are based on global partnership and developed countries also have stressed their agreement to fully support these eﬀorts. reduc on in the prevalence of communicable diseases. The MDGs have been an important considera on in preparing na onal development planning documents. at the Millennium Summit of the United Na ons (UN). Crea on of an Indonesia that is safe. advanced. taking into account the challenges to be faced over the next 20 years. Realiza on of a society that has strong moral values that are ethical. peaceful and united. environmental sustainability. To achieve this vision. 2. a ainment of universal basic educa on. advanced. Realiza on of Indonesia as an independent island na on. 7. The MDGs place human development as the focus of development and establish a set of measurable indicators of progress to be achieved by 2015. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN 2005-2025). eight missions related Na onal Development are to be achieved: 1. Achievement of an equitable and just pa ern of development. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3 . 3. Crea on of a compe ve na on. Crea on of a green and sustainable Indonesia. and Na onal Annual Development Plans (RKP) as well as the State Budget documents. and global coopera on. Crea on of a democra c society based on the rule of law. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). powerful. and based on the philosophy of Pancasila. Enabling Indonesia to play an important role in the interna onal community.Introduction In September 2000. 189 member states agreed to adopt the Millennium Declara on which was then translated into a prac cal framework. and the resource endowment of Indonesia. There now remain ﬁve years for developing member states of the UN to achieve the eight MDGs related to poverty reduc on. prosperous and just. 6. 5. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). gender equality. improving maternal and child health.
(x) border areas. the fourth Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2020-2025) will create a selfreliant Indonesian society. and (xi) culture. democra c. and 4. and prosperous through the accelera on of development in various ﬁelds built on a solid economic structure and based on compe ve advantages in various ﬁelds supported by qualiﬁed and compe ve human resources. The current Na onal Medium-Term Plan will be implemented during 2010 to 2014. (ix) the natural environment and disasters. (ii) strengthen the pillars of democracy. the third Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2015-2019) will further strengthen overall development in various ﬁelds by emphasizing the achievement of compe veness of the economy based on compara ve advantages of natural and human resources and the expanding capacity of science and technology. and the strengthening of economic compe veness. and technological innova on. and (iii) improve the jus ce system in all sectors. the ﬁrst Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2005-2009) was formulated to reorganize and develop all regions of Indonesia and to create Indonesia as a safe and peaceful. 2. the second Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) aims to consolidate the restructuring of Indonesia in all ﬁelds with an emphasis on improving the quality of human resources. (iv) poverty reduc on. 3. remote areas and post-conﬂict areas. just and democra c na on while increasing the welfare of the people. (vii) energy. 4 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . eﬀorts to achieve the Vision and Mission of the Na onal Development will also be carried out through achievement of other na onal priori es in the poli cal. In addi on to these eleven na onal priori es. The ﬁve-year development phases are summarized as follows: 1.The strategies to be implemented to accomplish this vision and missions have been translated into stages of ﬁve-year periods that are presented in Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan documents (RPJMN). (vi) infrastructure. and security areas and in the ﬁelds of the economy and people’s welfare. crea vity. progressive. (iii) health. (ii) educa on. (v) food security. including development of science and technology. legal. and just na on. This vision has been translated into three Na onal Development Missions which are to: (i) con nue developing towards a prosperous Indonesia. The Vision and Missions of Na onal Development 2010-2014 have been formulated and translated into opera onal terms in a number of na onal priori es in the following thema c areas: (i) reform of the bureaucracy and governance. (vii) investment and improving the business climate. The Na onal Development Vision during this period has been deﬁned as follows: The realiza on of Indonesia as a prosperous. fair.
In reviewing trends in the achievement of the MDG targets. Extreme weather events have increased. In this unfavorable global environment. Although there are s ll many challenges and problems in the implementa on of development in Indonesia. In turn. The MDG targets that have already been achieved include: • MDG 1 . Alloca on of funds in na onal and local budgets in Indonesia has increased from year to year to support the achievement of the MDGs. The various crises and global challenges men oned above have provided the lesson that globaliza on has two diﬀerent sides which provide both opportuni es and challenges. lower middle income households and the poor have been forced to expend a greater share of their incomes on food. high rainfall has resulted in crop failures and damage to crops. Se ng measurable targets related to the MDGs that can be monitored and evaluated has proven to be eﬀec ve in increasing the eﬃciency of resource alloca on. global climate change and the global ﬁnancial crisis of 2007/2008. Indonesia has faced signiﬁcant global challenges. while the na on has not yet fully recovered from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. ﬁshermen have been unable to go to sea and public health has been nega vely aﬀected. The global economic crisis has resulted in a world economic recession which has inﬂuenced the performance of the domes c economy. evalua on of the progress in achievement of the MDGs has been useful in adjus ng plans to be more responsive to the needs of poor and vulnerable groups. The growth rate of GDP dropped to 4 to 5 percent as compared with the growth rate of the economy prior to the crisis. (b) targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been achieved.The level of extreme poverty. Posi ve economic growth and strengthening of democra c ins tu ons during the last ten years have strengthened the posi on of the na on to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. Currently. which amounted to 7-8 percent. The Indonesian na on has also worked consistently over the last decade to achieve the MDG targets. With rising food prices. This has been done to accelerate the achievement of na onal goals.Development of Indonesia After the Global Crisis and Achievement of the MDG Targets During the past ﬁve years. rising food prices. Some of the most important have been the ﬂuctua on of oil prices. that is the propor on of people living with per Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 5 . Indonesia is the third most populous democracy of the world and has been able to strengthen the economy to achieve the status of a middle-income country. the Government remains determined to fulﬁll the commitment to achieve the MDG targets on me. the current status can be grouped into three categories of achievement: (a) targets which have already been achieved. Indonesia con nues to organize and develop in all ﬁelds. and (c) targets that s ll require great eﬀort to be achieved. A na on must be fully prepared in all ﬁelds to address the global crises and challenges.
9 percent in 2008. rule-based. • MDG 3 .capita income of less than USD 1 per day. MDG 2 – The par cipa on rate for primary educa on is close to 100 percent and the literacy rate of the popula on was more than 99. MDG 3 –The par cipa on ra o of females to males in SMA / MA / Paket C and higher educa on in 2009 was 96.Indonesia has been successful in developing trade and ﬁnancial systems that are open.000 births in 1991 to 44 per 1. predictable and non-discriminatory . MDG 4 – The number of deaths in children under the age of ﬁve years has decreased from 97 per 1.0 percent in 2000 to 73. In 2009. has declined from 20. signiﬁcant progress has been made in reducing the foreign debt ra o to GDP from 24.16 and 102.000 popula on in 1990 to 244 cases per 100. the Gender Parity Index (GPI) at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI) was 99.000 births in 2007.33 percent (2010). • • • • The MDG targets where a posi ve trend has been demonstrated but which s ll require special eﬀorts to achieve the targets by 2015 include the following: • MDG 1 .1 percent in 2009 as compared to the MDG target of 70.47 percent in 2009. MDG 6 . It is expected that the MDG target of 15.000 popula on in 2009.as evidenced by the posi ve trends in indicators related to trade and the na onal banking system.6 percent in 1990 to 5. It is expected that the target of 32 per 1. MDG 8 .99 percent. from 31 percent in 1989 to 18. The Debt Service Ra o has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009.6 percent in 1996 to 10.An increase in detec on of tuberculosis cases has been achieved.4 percent in 2007.5 percent will be achieved by 2015.000 births will be achieved by 2015. • The MDG targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been demonstrated include: • MDG 1 .The prevalence of infant malnutri on has been reduced by nearly half.Indonesia has raised its targets for poverty reduc on and will give special a en on to reducing poverty levels as measured against the na onal poverty line from 13. Thus it is expected that the target of 100 will be achieved by 2015.The targets for gender equality in all levels of educa on are expected to be achieved. from 20.7 percent while at the junior secondary schools including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MTs) and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA) the GPI was 101.9 percent in 2009.95.0 percent. 6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . There has also been a decrease the prevalence of tuberculosis from 443 cases per 100.85 percent. At the same me. The ra o of literate women to men in the age group of 15-24 years has reached 99.
Maternal mortality has been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. expanding partnerships. India.• • • MDG 5 . growth and distribu on of the popula on is one important considera on.000 live births in 2007. improving public services. including injec ng drug users and sex workers. produc ve partnerships at all levels of society and the implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieving pro-poor growth. elimina ng illegal logging and implemen ng a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years. par cularly in high risk groups. only 47.5 million people (2010 Popula on Census . but is commi ed to increasing forest cover. In planning to achieve the MDGs. and developing decentralized approaches to reducing dispari es while empowering communi es in all regions of Indonesia. Accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs and all related targets requires that popula on problems are addressed in a comprehensive and integrated approach. which has a very important and decisive role in shaping global economic policy.Indonesia has high levels of greenhouse gas emissions.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved water supply. The rate of increase is also high in some areas where awareness about this disease is low. Developed countries who are members of the Organiza on of Economic Coopera on and Development (OECD) recognize and appreciate Indonesia’s development progress. Although Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 7 . improving coordina on among stakeholders. the twenty countries that control 85 percent of Gross Domes c Product (GDP) of the world. At present. Progress in developing the na onal economy over the past ﬁve years has reduced the gap between Indonesia and the developed countries. Special a en on is required to achieve the MDG targets for Goal 7 by 2015.000 live births by 2015. Indonesia along with China. Therefore.Preliminary results. MDG 7 . The Indonesian popula on is 237. New Initiatives Moving Forward Success in achieving the MDGs in Indonesia depends on the achievement of good governance. MDG 6 – The number of people living with HIV / AIDS has increased. BPS). and 51. i. The success of Indonesia’s development has been recognized globally and has received various awards. increasing the alloca on of resources. Brazil and South Africa were invited to enter the group of ‘enhanced engagement countries’ or states with an increasingly enhanced engagement with developed countries. including expanding access to reproduc ve health services and family planning while protec ng reproduc ve rights. having more than doubled since 1971. Indonesia has also joined the G-20.e. Special eﬀorts are required to achieve the target of 102 per 100.19 percent of households have access to improved sanita on. the size.
6 million people (Indonesian Popula on Projec on 2005-2025). • Provincial governments will prepare “Regional Ac on Plans to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs” and these will be used is used as a reference in improving planning and coordina on of eﬀorts to reduce poverty and improve people’s welfare. and especially women’s groups.30 per cent per annum rate in 2005. A funding mechanism will be prepared to provide incen ves to local governments that perform well in achieving the MDGs. civil society organiza ons and the private sector can par cipate produc vely in improving the welfare of all Indonesians. approximately 60. especially educa on and health. In the future. • Partnerships between the Government and private enterprises (Public . • Alloca on of funds by the central. especially in educa on. the total popula on of Indonesia in 2015 is expected to be approximately 247. • Enhanced coopera on with creditor countries will be sought for the conversion of debt (debt swap) for achieving the MDGs. • Mechanisms to expand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ini a ves will be strengthened to support the achievement of the MDGs. In eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. and to a 1. provincial and district governments will con nue to be increased to support the intensiﬁca on and expansion of programs to achieve the MDGs. no less than 80 percent of industries are concentrated in Java. the supply of clean water and the living environment. In addi on. Steps to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs during the next ﬁve years as mandated by Presiden al Instruc on No.Private Partnerships or PPP) will be developed in the social sectors. health.97 per cent per annum during 1980-1990 to 1. • Support for the expansion of social services in disadvantaged areas and remote areas will be increased.49 per cent per annum in the period 1990-2000.the popula on growth rate decreased from 1. Of this amount. 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . grass-roots organiza ons will con nue to be given a en on to speed up achievement of the MDGs and increase the welfare of the people on a sustainable basis. the role of communi es. The Government is commi ed to maintaining a socio-economic environment and culture where all ci zens. have contributed signiﬁcantly. including community organiza ons.2 percent will be in Java which has an area of only 7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. 3 of 2010 concerning Equitable Development Programming include the following: • The Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs will be distributed as a reference for stakeholders in working to speed up a ainment of the MDGs throughout Indonesia. to expand sources of funding to support achievement of the MDGs.
Summary by Goal .
improve suppor ng infrastructure and strengthen the agricultural sector. Government policies and programs to address this challenge: (i) expansion of equitable access to basic educa on par cularly for the poor. and (iii) strengthening governance and accountability of educa on services. eﬃciency. and eﬀec veness of educa on.Summary of the Status of Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia MDG 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Indonesia has achieved the target of halving the incidence of extreme poverty as measured by the indicator of USD 1. disparity in educa on par cipa on among provinces has been signiﬁcantly reduced with NER above 90 percent in almost all provinces. The main challenge in acelera ng the achievment of MDG educa on target is improving equal access of children. The country aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. In 2008/09 gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary educa on level (SD/MI) was 116. The policy to allocate minimal 20 percent of government budget to the educa on sector will be con nued to accelerate the achievement of universal junior secondary educa on by 2015. girls and boys. to quality basic educa on.50 percent in 2015. The prevalence of undernourished children under ﬁve years of age decreased from 31. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 11 . and (iv) improving the provision of social protec on to the poorest of the poor. (ii) improvement of the quality.77 percent and the ne enrolment rate (NER) was 95. grades 7 to 9) to the universal basic educa on targets. Special a en on will be given to: (i) expanding credit facili es for micro.00 per capita per day. At primary educa on level.23 percent.4 percent in 2007 and Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target of 15. Progress is also being made to further reduce poverty as measured against the na onal poverty line from the current rate of 13. MDG 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target for primary educa on and literacy. small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). (iii) improving access of the poor to social services.1 percent in 1989 to 18. Priori es for the future to reduce poverty are to expand employment opportuni es.33 percent (2010) to the targeted rate of 8-10 percent by 2014. (ii) empowering disadvantaged communi es in all regions of the na on to be er access and use resources to improve their welfare.
junior secondary schools.99 respec vely. In Indonesia. In poli cs. several factors such as high risk pregnancy and abor on are considered to be constraints that require special a en on. Indonesia is on track to achieve the educa on-related targets for gender equality by 2015.73 and 101.35. the lowest rate of global achievement has been recorded in the improvement of maternal health. MDG 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of all the MDGs. Priori es for the future are to: (i) improve the role of women in development. Extra hard work will be needed to achieve the MDG target by 2015 of 102 per 100. the target of 23 per 1. and (iii) mainstream gender equality in all policies and programs while building greater public awareness on issues of gender. MDG 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has shown a signiﬁcant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1. reﬂec ng the discrepancy in accessing health services. The ra o of NER for women to men at primary educa on and junior secondary educa on levels was 99. the number of women in the Indonesian parliament increased to 17. In the workforce.MDG 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Progress has been achieved in increasing the propor on of females in primary. (ii) improve protec on for women against all forms of abuse.000 live births in 2015 is expected to be achieved.9 percent in 2009. With this rate. the maternal mortality ra o (MMR) has gradually been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. par cularly in underserved and remote areas. senior high schools and ins tu ons of higher educa on. the child mortality target is expected to be achieved. Cri cal measures to reduce maternal mortality are improving the contracep ve prevalence rate 12 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and literacy among females aged 15-24 years has already reached 99.000 live births in 2007. As a result.000 live births. Likewise. However. the share of female wage employment in the nonagricultural sector has increased. regional dispari es remain as constraints to achieve the targets. Even though the rates for antenatal care and births a ended by skilled health personnel are rela vely high. The future priori es are to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services especially for the poor and remote areas.000 live births in 2007.
68 in 1990 to 1.000 popula on decreased from 4. eliminate illegal logging and is commi ed to implemen ng a comprehensive policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions over the next 20 years. priori es to improve maternal health will be focused on expanding be er quality health care and comprehensive obstetric care. the case detec on rate and successfully treated TB cases have already reached the 2015 targets. Meanwhile. with communi es taking responsibility for opera on and management of infrastructure with advisory support from local authori es. For the future. communicable disease control eﬀorts must involve all stakeholders and strengthen health promo on ac vi es to increase public awareness. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Indonesia more than doubled between 2004 and 2005. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 13 . communi es are expected to play a larger role. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES In Indonesia. but has worked to increase forest cover.73 percent in 1993 to 47. improving family planning services and provision of informa on.19 percent in 2009. A en on will be given to investments on water and sanita on systems to serve growing urban popula ons. injec ng drug users and sex workers. The role and detailed responsibili es of local governments in natural resource management and water supply /sanita on will be be er delineated and their skills enhanced. Beyond that. educa on and communica on (IEC) messages to the community. especially among high risk groups. i.71 percent in 2009. At the same me. MDG 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS.85 in 2009. The communicable disease control approaches are focusing on preven ve measures and mainstreaming into the na onal health system.e. the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has increased.and reducing the unmet need through expanding access and improving quality of family planning and reproduc ve health services. The propor on of households with access to improved sources of drinking water increased from 37. The incidence of malaria per 1. In rural areas. MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Indonesia has a high rate of greenhouse gas emission. the propor on of households with access to improved sanita on facili es increased from 24. in TB control. Accelera on of achievement of the targets for improving access to improved water and sanita on facili es will be con nued with increased support.81 percent in 1993 to 51.
Indonesia has commited to reducing interna onal borrowing as a percentage of GDP and this is demonstrated by the reduc on of foreign debt to GDP from 24.41 percent of the popula on had access to cellular telephones. Indonesia’s debt service ra o has also con nued to decline from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. Indonesia has beneﬁted from close collabora on with the interna onal donor community and interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons. The private sector has made major investments in informa on and communica ons technology and access to cellular telephones.6 percent in 1996 to 10. telephone land lines and internet communica ons has increased drama cally over the past ﬁve years.MDG 8: BUILDING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is an ac ve par cipant in a wide variety of interna onal forums and is commi ed to con nuing to build successful partnerships with mul lateral organiza ons. In 2009 some 82. bilateral partners and representa ves of the private sector to achieve a pro-poor pa ern of economic growth.9 percent in 2009. The Jakarta Commitment was signed with 26 development partners in 2009 to provide a roadmap for all concerned to improve coopera on and management of development assistance in Indonesia. 14 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
30% • ► World Bank and BPS BPS.60% (1990) 2.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed Employment-topopula on (over 15 years of age) Propor on of own-account and contribu ng family workers in total employment Prevalence of underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of severe underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of moderate underweight children under-ﬁve years of age 3.52% (1990) 65% (1990) 2. between 1990 and 2015.24% (2009) 62% (2009) BPS. Sakernas Decrease PDB Na onal and Sakernas 1. Susenas 1. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1.0% (2007)** 11.8a 7.6% ► 1. including women and young people 1.8 31.5% ► * BPS.90% (2008) 10.21% (2010) Reduce Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all.4% (2007)** 3. between 1990 and 2015.5 1.2 2.7 71% (1990) 64% (2009) ► Target 1C: Halve.2% (1989)* 5.4% (2007)** 15.0% (1989)* 18.8b 23.1 Propor on of popula on below USD 1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 1. 2007 1.9% ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 15 . Susenas ** Ministry of Health Riskesdas.8% (1989)* 13.00 (PPP) per day Poverty gap ra o (incidence x depth of poverty) 20. the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger 1.70% (1990) 5.0 (PPP) a day 1.
27 (1993) 99. will be able to complete full course of primary schooling 2.70% (1992)** 62.32% BPS.00% ► BPS. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015 3.95 (2009) 99.00 ● ● ► ► BPS.1 Net Enrolment Ra o (NER) in primary educa on Propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school.1a Literacy ra o of women to men in the 15-24 year age group 100.23% (2009)* 93.60% (1990) 100.Ra o of girls to boys in primary schools .9 1400 kcal/capita/day 2000 kcal/capita/day Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source ▼ 17. by 2015.00% ► 2.06 (1993) 98. MONE ** BPS. Literacy rate of populaon aged 15-24 year.21% (1990) 14.85 (2009) 100.00 100.86 (1993) 93.00 100. women and men 88.00 100.47% (2009) 61.1 Ra os of girls to boys in primary. children everywhere. secondary and ter ary educa on .67 (1993) 74.00% (1990)* 95.00% (2008)** 99.73 (2009) 101.99 (2009) 96.16 (2009) 102.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Propor on of populaon below minimum level of dietary energy consump on: 1. Sakernas ● Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 16 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .50% 35.Ra o of girls to boys in junior high schools .44 (1993) 99. Susenas Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on.00 100.86% (2009) 8.00% (1990) 64. preferably by 2005.47% (2009) Female: 99.40% Male: 99. Susenas * BPS. Susenas Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Educa on Target 2A: Ensure that.55% 100.00% ► * MONE **BPS.Ra o of girls to boys in senior high schools .3 96.2 100.Ra o of girls to boys in higher educa on 3. Susenas 2. boys and girls alike.
000 live births) Propor on of births a ended by skilled health personnel (%) Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.70% (1992) 228 (2007) 77. by 2015.4% (2007) Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 17 .2 Increase Target 5B: Achieve. between 1990 and 2015.50% (1990) Current 33.Indicator Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Propor on of seats held by women in na onal parliament Baseline 29. Susenas 1992-2009 ▼ ► 5. IDHS 1991.2a Under-ﬁve mortality rate per 1. IDHS 1991.5% (1991) 44 (2007) 34 (2007) 19 (2007) 67. 2007 5.34% (2009) 102 BPS.90% (2009) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source BPS. 2007 4.3 Decrease ► Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters. 2007 BPS.2 ► 3.3 49. the Maternal Mortality Ra o 5. Sakernas Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 3.000 live births Infant mortality rate per 1. universal access to reproduc ve health 5.24% (1990) 12. IDHS 1991.0% (2007) 32 23 Decrease ► ► ► BPS. modern method 390 (1991) 40.000 live births Neonatal mortality rate per 1.1 4.1 Maternal Mortality Ra o (per 100.4% (2007) Increase ► BPS.1% (1991) 57.2 4.3 Decrease ► KPU Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. between 1990 and 2015.45% (2009) 17.7% (1991) 61.000 live births Propor on of oneyear-old children immunized against measles 97 (1991) 68 (1991) 32 (1991) 44. any method Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.3a 47. the under-ﬁve mortality rate 4.
1 visit: . by 2010. 2007 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.2 12.Married - Increase ▼ BPS.5% (2007) 9.7% (1991) 93.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator 5.6% Male: 1.1 HIV/AIDS Prevalence among total popula on (percent) Condom use at last high-risk sex Propor on of popula on aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6. 2010 as per 30 November 2009 6.2% (2009) Female: 10. SKRRI 2007 Target 6B: Achieve.7% (2007) Female: 2. IYARHS 2002/2003 & 2007 ▼ ▼ 6.5% Male: 14.5 75.4% (2009) MOH.4% (2007) Decrease MOH es mated 2006 BPS.4 visits: 5.Unmarried - Increase ▼ BPS. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Propor on of popula on with advanced HIV infec on with access to an retroviral drugs 38.3% Male: 18.4% (2007) 0.8% (2002/3) Increase ▼ .0% (1991) 12.4 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15-19) Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visists) .3% Increase 81.6 Unmet need for family planning Baseline 67 (1991) Current 35 (2007) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source ► 5.0% 56.1% (2007) Decrease ► ► ▼ BPS.5 - Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 18 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . IDHS 1991.3 Female: 9. IDHS 2007 . Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.
9b 443 (1990) 92 (1990) 244 (2009) 39 (2009) 6.000) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short courses Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS * TB Global WHO Report.incidence of Malaria in Jawa & Bali . 2009 343 (1990) 228 (2009) Stop.0% ● ● 6.85 (2009) 0.10b 87.6 Incidence and death rates associated with Malaria (per 1.1% (2009)** 70.000) Death rate of Tuberculosis (per 100. prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis Incidence rates associated with Tuberculosis (all cases/100.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 6. MOH 2008 BPS. MOH 2008 AMI.68 (1990) 0.6% -2007 Decrease Decrease Decrease Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets ► ► ► ▼ MOH 2009 API.10 6.0% (2009)** 85.6a .7 Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cidetreated bednets Incidence.0% (2000)* 91.000 pop/ year) Prevalence rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.77 (2008) 3.10a 20.5% Urban: 1.9c 6.9a ● ● ● TB Global WHO Report.000): 6. IDHS 2007 Increase 6.3% Rural: 4.Incidence of Malaria outside Jawa & Bali 6. began to reduce 4.0% ** MOH Report-2009 Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 19 .10 (1990) 1.0% (2000)* 73.16 (2008) 17.9 6.000) Incidence rate associated with Malaria (per 1.17 (1990) 24. 2009 6.
64 BOE (1991) 5.08% (1998) 4.70% (1990) 52.2b.3 ► 7.83% (2008) not exceed ► 7.000 (1990) 0.711.98 (1991) 3.2d Energy Elas city Energy mix for renewable energy Total consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) in metric tons Propor on of ﬁsh stocks within safe biological limits The ra o of terrestrial areas protected to maintain biological diversity to total terrestrial area The ra o of marine protected areas to total territorial marine area Decrease 0 CFCs while reducing HCFCs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries Ministry of Forestry *Ministry of Forestry / **Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries 7.14% (1990)* 4.626 Gg Gg CO2e CO2e (2008) (2000) 2.7 metric tons (1992) 66.40% (2008) Increase ► 7.28 BOE/ USD 1.4 91.2c 7.416.1 59.074 1. Decrease Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 7.40% (1990) 26.2 1.6 0.332.43% (2008) Increase ▼ Ministry of Forestry 7.5% (2000) 8.000 (2008) 1.1 BOE/ USD 1.35% (2009)** Increase ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 20 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources The ra o of actual forest cover to total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Primary energy consump on (per capita) Energy Intensity 7.2a 7.6 (2008) 3.5 26.45% (2008) 0 CFCs (2009) Reduce at least 26% by 2020 Reduce ▼ Ministry of Environment 7.3 BOE (2008) 2.
predictable.81% ▼ ▼ BPS.81% (1993) 53. non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems 7.59% (1996) 51.55% ▼ ▼ Target 7D: By 2020.61% (1993) 24.58% (1993) 31.64% (1993) 11.41% ▼ 7. to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7.82% 55.00% (1996) 10.8 37. the propor on of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on Propor on of households with sustainable access to an improved water source.73% (1993) 47.89% (2009) 22.29% 65. Susenas Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open.71% (2009) 68.8a 7.10% (1993) 49.87% ▼ 7.1 - BI Economic Report 2008. 19% (2009) 69. 2009 7. Susenas 7.12% (2009) BPS.75% (1993) 12.12% (2009) - ► ► ► BPS & The World Bank 7.51% (2009) 33.8b 50.9a 7. urban and rural Urban Rural Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 7.12% (2009) 12.12 8.12a Status: Ra o of Interna onal Debt to GDP Debt Service Ra o (DSR) 24.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.75% (1993) 20.75% (1993) 20.72% (2009) 51.9b 76.9 62. urban and rural Urban Rural Propor on of households with sustainable access to basic sanita on.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20. rule-based.12% (2009) 12.75% (1993) 12.00% (2009) en on Reduce Reduce ► ► Ministry of Finance BI Annual Report 2009 ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 21 .1 - Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 8.82% (2009) 45.96% (2009) 75. by 2015.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 7C: Halve.
15 14.41% (2009) 11. especially informa on and communica ons Propor on of popula on with ﬁxed-line telephones (teledensity in popula on) Propor on of popula on with cellular phones Propor on of households with access to internet Propor on of households with personal computers 4. Susenas 2009 8.14 3.02% (2004) 8.65% (2009) Increase ► Minister of Communica on and Informa cs 2010 8.16 50. make available the beneﬁts of new technologies.00% 8.79% (2004) - 82.51% (2009) 8. Susenas 2009 BPS.32% (2009) 100.16a - Increase Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 22 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .00% ► ▼ ▼ BPS.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.
Coming Home from the Field Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger .
24 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
9 7.9 9.9 percent in 2008.00 (PPP) per capita per day as measured by World Bank/BPS annually from 1990 to 2008.6 5.2 Target: 10.5 6.8 12. the proportion of people whose income is less than USD 1.8 20.6 9. and Indonesia has already achieved and exceeded Target 1 for reduc on of extreme poverty. The declining trend is expected to be sustained to 2015 and beyond.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.3 7.0 6. between 1990 and 2015.00/capita/day) as Compared to the MDG Target 14. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 25 .2 7.9 2008 2009 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.0 Percentage 15 9.1: Progress in Reducing Extreme Poverty (USD1.7 2006 2007 6.4 8.00 (PPP) a day Current Status The incidence of extreme poverty (using the measurement of USD 1.1 presents the trend for the declining percentages of the popula on es mated to have levels of consump on below USD 1. The World Bank 2008.00 purchasing power parity per capita per day) has been reduced in Indonesia from 20.6 percent in 1990 to 5. 25 20 Figure 1. Susenas. Figure 1.
3 39.7 37.8).3).7 15. Of the 31.0 35. The economic crisis in 1997/8 resulted in a drama c increase in the number of Indonesians below the poverty line.1 13.94).2 21.26).2).0 38.5 14. Since 1999.2 48. The Poverty Gap Index measured for rural areas (3.6 23. As a result it is necessary to take steps to increase the rate of poverty reduc on.47).2 30. Maluku (6.3 36.0 27. Number of poor popula on (milliions) Na onal Poverty Line (percentage) The Poverty Gap Index is an indicator which measures the gap between the average income of the poor and the na onal poverty line.0 32.6 15. During the period 2002-2010 the trend for this indicator was generally downward.9 38.4 17.3 54. Gorontalo (6.3 31.2 17. Figure 1.5. and in 2010 there was a further decline to 2.2 percent in 1998 when a nega ve GDP growth rate was recorded and prices increased drama cally.1 35.0 .1 33.5 42. the total number of people living below the na onal poverty line was s ll high. several years.02 million people living below the na onal poverty line in 2010. At the same me it is important to note that the decline of the poverty rate from March 2009 to March 2010 is only 0.27 percent. Sumatera 26 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2010 13.52).83 percent) are resident on the island of Jawa.4 20 10 0 26. amoun ng to 31. and Nusa Tenggara Timur (4. although there was a signiﬁcant increase in 2006 reﬂec ng increases in the na onal price of fuel and other basic consumer goods. Although the percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line in 2010 had been reduced.2.1 37. Papua (11.02 million people.87). the incidence of poverty has generally trended downwards during the period 1976 to 1996 (Figure 1.91) and the highest levels were found in the rural areas of the provinces of Papua Barat (12. In 2009 the average Poverty Gap Index for all areas was 2.1 18.05) was signiﬁcantly higher than for urban areas (1.4 18.2: Long-Term Trends in Poverty Reduc on in Indonesia Measured Using the Na onal Poverty Line 60 50 40 40.9 19.3 1998* 1976 1978 1980 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: BPS.2 28.33 percent (2010) as the na onal economy has recovered and as ini a ves to reduce the incidence of poverty proved to be eﬀec ve in beneﬁ ng the poor. the na onal poverty rate had been reduced to 13. Aceh (4.6 47.74). Sulawesi Tengah (4.4 16.4 37.6 24.51). The total number of poor is large and the distribu on of the poor among the provinces and islands of Indonesia is uneven.7 17.0 16. Susenas.3 40. A er 2006 there has been a posi ve downward trend reﬂec ng the impact of the measures to stablize prices and mi gate the impact of price increases on the poor (see Figure 1.4 11.9 22.2 35.8 16.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Using the prevailing na onal poverty line.82 percent and that was less than during the previous year (2008/2009) when the decline of the poverty rate was 1. Yogyakarta (4.2 49. the largest share (55.5 30 25. The incidence of poverty more than doubled to 24.
4).5 2. 2002 to 2010 3. Papua Barat (34.33 percent include Papua (36. The Na onal Trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.3.6% Kalimantan 3. the provinces of Jawa Tengah.5).4.0 2.9 2.74 percent). The Percentages of the Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Major Geographical Region of Indonesia (2010) Jawa 55. On the island Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 27 .2 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: BPS. In Sumatera the incidence of poverty is s ll higher than the na onal average in the provinces of Aceh.9 3.ranks second in terms of percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line (21.4% Figure 1.44 percent) while Bali/ Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi are the geographical regions with the third and fourth largest shares of people living below the poverty line (Figure 1.8 2. while in 16 provinces they are above the na onal average (see Figure 1. Sumatera Selatan. Susenas 2010. The provinces where the incidence of poverty is more than double the na onal average of 13. Yogyakarta and Jawa Timur also have an incidence of poverty that is higher than the na onal average.8% Source: BPS.80 percent). Bengkulu and Lampung. On the islands of Jawa and Bali. Poverty rates in 17 provinces are below the na onal average. There remain signiﬁcant dispari es in the incidence of poverty among the 33 provinces of Indonesia. Susenas.1% Maluku 1.88 percent) and Maluku (27.3% Bali & Nusa Tenggara 7. Figure 1.3% Sumatera 21.5% Papua 3.4 Poverty Gap Ra o 3.1 3.0 2. Sulawesi 7.
1 18. 28 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3. Figure 1.1 8. Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.5 6. 2010 Source: BPS.4 9.8 7. Map 1.5 Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.1 9.8 DKI Jakarta Bali Kalimantan Selatan Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Banten Kalimantan Timur Kepulauan Riau Jambi Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat Jawa Barat Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur Sumatera Selatan Jawa Tengah DI Yogyakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Lampung Aceh Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Gorontalo Maluku Papua Barat Papua Na onal Average 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 - Source: BPS.7 8.6 16.3 11.9 36.6 13. The poverty rate in rural areas of Indonesia was 16.2 7.6 23. The poverty rate is signiﬁcantly higher in rural areas than in urban centers in Indonesia.48 percent).1. the provinces of Sulawesi Tengah.7 9.3 15.2 27.3 11.0 23.9 21. Kalimantan Selatan (5.2 6.1.5 4. Sulawesi Tenggara and Gorontalo also have poverty rates higher than the na onal rate while the same is true for the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT). The three provinces with the lowest incidence of poverty in 2010 were Jakarta (3.0 21.1 18.56 percent in 2010 compared to 9.87 percent in urban areas (Figure 1.6 15.9 5. Susenas 2010.3 8.3 13. 2010 Percentage 34.5 11.88 percent).21 percent) and Bali (4.6).Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger of Sulawesi.0 9.7 . Susenas 2010.5 16.8 17. The geographical distribu on of the incidence of poverty by province is presented in Map 1.3 18.
Figure 1.6. Percentages of Urban and Rural Popula ons below the Na onal Poverty Line (1990-2010)
18.9 17.4 10.7 2009 16.6 2010 9.9
1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: BPS, Susenas Several Years
A major challenge is to reduce the propor on of the na onal popula on living below the na onal poverty line while also reducing dispari es in the incidence of poverty among provinces and districts. The government is faced with the challenge of maintaining a high growth rate of GDP in order to expand employment opportuni es for the poor. To break the cycle of poverty there is a need to further strengthen the provision of educa on and health services and social protec on. Decentraliza on has brought new challenges to both central and local government authori es in Indonesia to coordinate programs to reduce poverty and to u lize ﬁscal resources eﬀec vely to promote inclusive growth, empower the poor and improve public services.
Policies and Strategies
Indonesia is commi ed to reducing poverty in all regions, districts and villages. A mul dimensional approach will con nue to be applied, one that includes ac ons to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth, to create employment opportuni es, to empower communi es and to improve delivery of basic social services to all communi es. The government is commi ed to establishing a more conducive environment for all stakeholders to work to reduce poverty and achieve the na onal goals of development. It is expected that
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
the incidence of poverty as measured by the na onal poverty line will be reduced to 8 to 10 percent by 2014 in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (20102014). The Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on, led by the Vice President and senior cabinet oﬃcials, will take the lead in improving coordina on of implementa on of all policies and programs to reduce the incidence of poverty. Cabinet members to be directly involved include the Coordina ng Minister for People’s Welfare, the Coordina ng Minister for Economic Aﬀairs, the Minister of Health, the Minister of Na onal Educa on, the Minister of Social Aﬀairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister for Coopera ves and SMEs and the Minister of Na onal Development Planning (BAPPENAS). The na onal priori es iden ﬁed to reduce poverty and achieve the target for poverty are grouped into three policy areas: 1. Policies to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth will provide the founda on to provide produc ve employment for the poor. It is expected that growth of GDP will reach 6.3 to 6.8 percent during 2011 to 2013 and increase to 7 percent in 2014. 2. Aﬃrma ve ac ons to empower the poor and break the cycle of poverty will be implemented in three clusters of programs: First - Strengthening Social Services and Social Protec on (Cluster 1). Government support to strengthen the provision of health and educa on services will be expanded through the Na onal Health Security Program (Jamkesmas), the Family Hope Program (PKH) and provision of Scholarships for the Children from Poor Households. Second - Support will be expanded to empower communi es to reduce their poverty through PNPM Mandiri (Cluster 2). The government will increase support for the PNPM Mandiri Program to Rupiah 12.1 trillion per year and coverage will be expanded to include all 78,000 villages in Indonesia. Third - Facili es to increase the capacity of MSMEs and coopera ves will be expanded through (i.) entrepreneurship and capacity building on business management; (ii.) provision of informa on services and business consultancy; and through expansion of the PeopleBased Small Business Loan Program (KUR) (Cluster 3). KUR will be expanded to channel funds through local microﬁnance ins tu ons to increase access of medium and small scale enterprises and coopera ves to credit. Bank guarantees will con nue to be provided in the form of Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) by Perum Jamkrindo and PT Askrindo. 3. Increasing eﬀec veness of poverty reduc on programs: a. Priority will be given to improving coordina on of policies and programs to reduce poverty. Increased coordina on across programs within the three clusters is key for eﬀec ve poverty reduc on. Therefore, coordina on of all poverty allevia on policies will be intensiﬁed through the establishment of the Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on under the oﬃce of the Vice President in accordance with Presiden al Decree 15/2010 concerning the Accelera on of Poverty Reduc on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
This eﬀort will be supported by enhancing capacity and func ons of various technical ministries and government oﬃces at the na onal, provincial and district levels. The coordina on of poverty reduc on will also be conducted at provincial and district levels by the Provincial and District Coordina ng Teams for Poverty Reduc on. Concerted eﬀorts for poverty allevia on will also involve private sector partnerships through CSR and other types of funding such as “zikat, infaq and sodaqoh”. The above eﬀorts will be supported by implementa on of an accurate monitoring and evalua on system to achieve greater eﬀec veness in programming to alleviate poverty. Building local capacity to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate poverty reduc on programs, will be given special a en on in those provinces and districts with the highest incidence of poverty. Fiscal policies and instruments will be adjusted to be er support local government in ﬁgh ng poverty and providing services at the community level. Targe ng of the poor and near poor in poverty reduc on programs will be carried out in a systema c manner at the local level using the latest database on the poor. To maintain the accuracy of targe ng of these groups, it is planned that the Survey for Social Protec on Program will be implemented every three years.
In order to implement the policies to reduce poverty as presented above and to achieve the targets for poverty reduc on in 2015, the government has prepared and will implement the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) which deﬁnes programs and ac vi es with speciﬁc targets as presented below in Table 1.1.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
1.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) The number of ac ve poor family planning par cipants (KPS and KS-I) and other vulnerable groups to receive coaching and contracep ves free through the 23.000 88.89 3.40% 94.9 12.5 12. par cipa on and self-reliance of family planning acceptors Number of new family planning acceptors (KPS and KS-I) (poor and other vulnerable groups) to receive coaching and free contracep ves through 23.000 44.2 12.1 Increased guidance and self reliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 22.737 8.30% 84.000 Increased referral of the poor for health services at hospitals Health Referral Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 75 80 85 90 95 Increased guidance.608 8.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) Total number of PUS group members of produc ve age who become members of KB Mandiri Groups 3.000 Source: RPJMN 2010-2014 32 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .8 13.000 110.50% 100% Increased basic health services for the poor (JAMKESMAS) Basic Health Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 8.481 8.868 9.000 66.97 4. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty Prioritas Guidance and Development of Health Security Output/Indicator Percentage of the popula on (including all the poor people) who have health security The number of primary health centers providing basic health services for the poor The percentage of hospitals that serve poor pa ents / JAMKESMAS program par cipants 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Formulated ﬁnancing and health insurance policy 59% 70.75 3.05 Development of policy and guidance to family planning equality 11.80 3.
000 640.783 501.358 645.000 67.780 3.370.767.898 614.000 320.Prioritas Output/Indicator Total number of working partners who provide capital assistance and business guidance to economic working groups Total number of working partners to become facilitators for working groups Number of primary school students from poor households to receive scholarships Number of junior high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.653 800.000 320.346.220 3. MTs.064 1.000 540.395.282 3.100 1.000 Provision of scholarships for students from poor households (MI.916.000 320.000 640.000 69.103.535 390.200 3.1 Con nued Increasing selfreliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 34 34 34 34 34 3 3 3 3 3 Provision of educa on subsidies/ scholarships for students from elementary schools Provision of lementary School Scholarships 2.195.000 veness 70 .700 Provision of High School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality high school educa on in all districts and ci es The number of high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 378.000 540.000 320.298 Ins tu onal Service Delivery Ac vi es Expanding the availability and equitable access and quality of PT interna onal compe The number of poor students receiving scholarships 65.840 1.000 Providing Scholarships for Qualiﬁed Madrasah Educa on 540.000 67.000 320.210 Provision of Junior Secondary School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to junior high schools in all districts and ci es 966.000 Provision of Voca onal Educa on Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality voca onal educa on in all districts and ci es The number of vocaonal school students from poor households to receive scholarships 305.000 540.000 640.000 640.000 540.396 714.275.020 1.000 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 33 .640. and MA) Number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MI) The number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MT) The number of students from poor households receive scholarships (MA) 640.417 560.476 475.
000 1.000 1.000 210.170.000 210. Con nued Prioritas Provision of Scholarships for Islamic Higher Educa on Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased availability of scholarships for students from poor households The number of students from poor households targetd to receive scholarships (PTA ) Total number of the poorest households to receive condi onal cash assistance (PKH) Total recipient households (15 kg per household per 12 months) Implementa on of the redistribu on of land (hectares) 59.538 59.000 210.404.1.538 59.516.000 4.000 The provision of rice to poor households Provision of Subsidized Rice for the Poor (RASKIN) Annual targets will be determined based on surveys of need.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.5 million The realiza on of the land redistribu on Provincial Land Management 210.900 8.600 6.538 59.000 people 90.538 59.000 people 90. Increased Worker Protec on for Women and the Elimina on of Child Labour 3.000 people 90.000 people 90.116.400 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 34 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 people 231 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es - Facilita on of child workers to return to school or receive skills training . The percentage of child workers withdrawn from the worst form of child labor who return to school and / or acquire skills training. Condi onal Cash Transfers (PKH) 816.000 Increasing the availability of temporary employment for the unemployed and development of community infrastructure Development and Expansion of Employment Opportuni es The number of unemployed people to have temporary jobs Number of districts / ci es to implement temporary employment crea on for the unemployed 24.538 Implementa on of condi onal cash aid to beneﬁt the poorest households (PKH).000 1.000 210. 17.300 5.Reduc on of the number of children working in worst forms of child labor The number of child workers withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.000 1.
943 subdistricts 4. Guidance.791 subdistricts 4.Prioritas Improving Urban Community SelfReliance (PNPM Urban) Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.237 1.226 Regula ons.165 500 700 813 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 35 . Control and Opera on of Se lement Development (RISE) Number of subdistricts served by the suppor ng infrastructure and socio-economic ac vi es.500 villages in 1.650 villages (PAMSIMAS) 1.946 subdistricts 4. Financing. Control.237 1. 237 237 237 237 237 Accelera ng poverty reduc on through infrastructure development and community empowerment (RIS PNPM + PPIP) Number of villages improved through development of infrastructure 3.1. Guidance.482 villages in 805 subdistricts 4. The target areas of applica on of PNPMMP and strengthening PNPM Coverage areas of post-disaster reconstruc on and rehabilita on in crisis districts: Nias and Nias Selatan 4.968 villages in 460 subdistricts 552 villages in 460 subdistricts 482 villages in 460 subdistricts Empowering communi es to accelerate reduc on of poverty and unemployment in districts and rural villages / (PNPM Perdesaan). Financing and Development of Water Supply Systema 210 districts/ ci es (SANIMAS) Target areas for infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site systems (district / city) Number of villages facilitated 30 districts/ ci es system on-site 35 districts/ ci es system on-site 40 districts/ ci es system on-site 45 districts/ ci es system on-site 50 districts/ ci es system on-site 4.940 subdistricts 4.094 ubdistricts 7.45 1. The number of eighborhoods/ villages which beneﬁt from facilita on to empower 8. and Management of Sanita on Improvement Supervision.9 2.949 subdistricts Improving Rural Community Self-Reliance (PNPM-MP) 2 districts / 9 subdistricts Regula ons. Con nued Empowering communi es and accelera ng reduc on of poverty and unemployment in urban neighborhoods / sub-districts (PNPM Urban).472 1.
000 10.5 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2. Islamic ﬁnancing.000 10.2 Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased empowerment and self reliance of two million micro enterprises in coastal se lements.5 trillion Rupiah Rural Agribusiness Development (PUAP) and Strengthening of Rural Economic Ins tu ons through LM3 4 trillion Rupiah 5 trillion Rupiah 6 trillion Rupiah 7 trillion Rupiah 8 trillion Rupiah 200 200 200 200 200 10.000 businesses Increasing realiza on of the lending program (KKP-E and KUR) commercial ﬁnancing. 4. Coordina on and Facilita on of Local Governments in Less Developed Regions (P2DTK/SPADA) – PNPM Improvement of Tourism Sector PNPM Mandiri Support the People’s Business Credit Guarantee Cooperaon (KUR) 1.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. and development of farmer groups PUAP Realiza on of lending for agriculture (CTF-E.000 Increasing socio-economic recovery and growth in less developed regions The number of districts.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. and KUR) Realiza on of distribu on of Sharia ﬁnancing and commercial ﬁnancing for agricultural sector Total number of agricultural business centers in rural areas Total number of farmer groups PUAP (units) Policy Development.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1. 186 subdistricts.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.596 villages 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) Increased number of tourist villages through PNPM tourism ini a ves Number of tourism villages 200 450 550 450 350 Budget available to guarantee People’s Business Credit (KUR) Percentage of budget available to guarantee KUR 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . subdistricts and villages targeted in less developed regions 51 districts. opera ng in 300 districts/ ci es supported by one unit BLU The number of groups of micro-enterprises in coastal areas and small islands are bankable Business Services and Community Empowerment Development of micro tools LKM Rural Community Empowerment Funding / PNPM MK Facilitators Micro Business Groups 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.000 10. Ins tu onal Strengthening.000 10. development of rural agricultural business centers.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.
factoring. 9 Prov. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2 2 2 3 3 The increased capacity and coverage of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons to provide ﬁnancing to coopera ves and SMEs Number of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on established 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 37 . which supported the development of synergies and coopera on with ﬁnancial ins tu ons Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons (LPKD) doing co-guarantee with the na onal insurance agency The number of coopera ves that can access credit / ﬁnancing banks through linkages Number of MFIs (coopera ves and rural banks). such as KSP / KJKS. which work closely with the bank ﬁnancing Number of Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons Increasing the role of nonbank ﬁnancial ins tu ons. 8 Prov. leasing companies. 10 Prov.1. The expansion of credit services / ﬁnancing banks for coopera ves and SMEs. coupled with the development of informa on networks 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 7 Prov. a venture capital. pawnshops in support of ﬁnance for coopera ves and SMEs.Prioritas Policy Coordina on People’s Business Credit (KUR) Output/Indicator Percentage of policy recommenda ons to be implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1. 10 Prov. Con nued Increasing people’s business credit policy coordina on (KUR) 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increased coverage of credit / bank ﬁnancing for coopera ves and SMEs Coopera on involving ﬁnancing from banks and ﬁnancial ins tu ons / other ﬁnancing.
000 managers MFIs 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres of the more eﬀec ve The number of par cipants increase public understanding of coopera ves among the strategic groups.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 38 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .200 people - 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Revitalizing the educa on system.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1. Improved ins tu onal capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs).750 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1.000 people 1. training and coopera ve educa on for members and managers of coopera ves.1.750 people 1. The number of par cipants increased understanding of educa on and training of coopera ves and human resources in coopera ves 1. 1.750 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1. including MFIs incorporated under the law of the oopera ve 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs Increasing the capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs). as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres System of educa on.000 people 1.000 people - 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.200 people 2 Unit 1. Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator The number of MFIs that are registered and accredited in accordance with the law of the MFI The number of MFIs that par cipate in management training Total HR management staﬀ KSP/ KJKS cer ﬁed Total LDP KJK and reinforced TUK Number of managers/ heads of branch KJK which included training and cer ﬁca on of competencies for MFIs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased ins tu onal capacity of MFIs.000 managers MFIs 1. training and coopera ve extension for members and managers of coopera ves.200 people 2 Unit 1.000 people 1.000 people 1. including the accredita on and cer ﬁca on service for MFIs.
has resulted in a rapid increase in the working popula on. The ra o of the employed to working age popula on in the 1990-2009 period experienced a rela vely small. with an average annual growth of about 2. and the lowest in 1998 amounted to -12. amoun ng to 5. the working age popula on amounted to 63.15 per cent. The strong economic growth during the 19901997 and 2004-2008 period resulted in the employment growth rate exceeding the rate of workforce growth. from a popula on structure dominated by the younger genera on in the 1970s to the current structure dominated by those of middle age. The employment opportuni es created during this me were able to absorb new members of the workforce entering the labor market.36 percent per year during the past 10 years. at the me of the economic crisis.02 million in 2010. indica ng that there is a higher preference Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 39 . The last two decades have seen a diminishing ra o of employment to the working age popula on.8). amoun ng to 18. the agricultural sector also experienced the highest growth rate of 12. The growth of the working age popula on has been higher than the growth of the workforce.68 percent and the lowest in 2001.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all. job opportuni es were s ll created even though they were mainly in the informal sector (Figure 1.05 percent. averaging 3. In the industrial sector the highest growth rate occurred in 1995.8). Meanwhile.34 million whereas it is es mated to have reached 171. from 65 percent to 62 percent. including women and young people Current Status Since the 1970s employment condi ons in Indonesia have been inﬂuenced by the demographic transi on of the popula on structure and two economic crises that occurred in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008.53 percent. Growth of GDP per worker in the period before the crisis of 1997/1998 (during 1990-1995) was rela vely high.42 percent as compared to the period a er the crisis period (1997/1998 . the growth rate of labor produc vity showed a tendency to decline. The demographic transi on. In 1971. but quite dynamic change. including women and young people" is detailed as follows: The growth of gross domes c product (GDP) per worker during the 1990-2009 period has varied signiﬁcantly. The lower growth rate of "post crisis" labor produc vity was partly due to the dwindling capital accumula on per worker during the post crisis period.2008). In the same year (1995). A er the crisis. The development of various indicators for "the crea on of full and produc ve employment opportuni es and provision of decent jobs for all. amoun ng to -0.91 percent (see Figure 1.
9). 1990-2009 25% The growth rate of labor produc vity (%) 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15% -20% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: BPS. This source of 40 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . Figure 1. 1990-2009 EPR Urban EPR Rural EPR Total The declining ra o of workers who work in the informal sector is made possible by the growth of wage employment and increasing worker produc vity. The Growth Rate of Labor Produc vity (in Percentages) for the Agriculture. Employment to Popula on Ra o for Urban and Rural Areas and for the Na onal Level 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: BPS. The employment ra o in the sector has decreased from 71 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2009 (Figure 1. 1999-2009 Agriculture Industry Services Total Improvements in the quality of job opportuni es have resulted in a reduc on in the propor on of self-employed workers and family workers (generally in the informal sector) to total employment. Extracted from Sakernas and Indonesia Sta s cs in years 1990. 1993. Industry and the Service Sector. 1996.8.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger among students to con nue their schooling to higher levels of educa on rather than to ﬁnd a job.7. Sakernas. 80% Figure 1.
employment grew by 1.9 percent per annum during the period 2008-2009. Produc vity of workers has increased signiﬁcantly over the last several years.
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nop-05 Agust-06 Agust-07 Agust-08 Agust-09
Figure 1.9. The Propor on of Vulnerable Workers to Total Workers, 1990-2009
Source: BPS, Sakernas (1990-2009).
First: Expanding formal employment opportuni es. Investment recovery that has not met expecta ons may well be a constraint to achievement of a higher economic growth rate. Contribu ng factors to the weak investment climate have been well documented and include, among others, slow investment recovery in infrastructure provision, legal and bureaucra c issues as well as uncertainty in property ownership. Uncertainty in industrial rela ons, including the provisions of severance payment due to layoﬀ as well as on contract and outsourced workers, has aﬀected the compe veness of several key labor-intensive industries, although this is not the sole, deciding factor. Second: Narrowing the wage gap between workers at the same level. Current changes in wages are determined by the increasing price level rather than improvements in produc vity. Produc vity has not yet become the main determinant in wage calcula on. Ideally, the components for determining the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR) should not only include inﬂa on factors, but also produc vity and achievement of job outputs. Third: Accelera ng workers transi on from lower produc vity jobs to higher produc vity jobs. This entails moving “labor surplus” out of the tradi onal or informal sector into more produc ve jobs which provide higher wages. Worker transi on from tradi onal sectors with low produc vity encourages wage increment, improves workers’ output as well as narrows the gap in wage and labor produc vity. Should the growth in the formal sector slow down, it will result in more workers entering the informal sector so that workers in the informal sector (including their families) will be in a state of greater uncertainty.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Policies and Strategis
Crea ng as many employment opportuni es as possible by promo ng investment and business expansion. The government will con nue to promote the crea on of job opportuni es in the formal sector by promo ng investment growth and business expansion. This policy con nues to be implemented so that the economy will grow and develop. Improving the investment climate is one of the government’s na onal priori es, both for urban and rural areas. Improving the environment and mechanisms of industrial rela ons to promote employment and business opportuni es. Through a process of nego a on and delibera on and bipar te discussions, workers and employers can resolve issues rela ng to their respec ve needs and interests. The government will be more ac ve in working to create more conducive industrial rela ons and to encourage collec ve bargaining between workers and employers. Crea ng employment opportuni es through government programs. This policy aims to assist the unemployed who do not have access to economic ac vi es. Unemployment is not only found in urban areas, but also in areas that have been le behind in terms of economic development. Improving the quality of workers. The competence of Indonesian workers is s ll perceived as an obstacle for business development. The low level of competence is a constraint to the improvement of na onal economic security. Indonesia's compe veness and produc vity s ll lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. One eﬀort to be taken to improve labor produc vity will be to improve worker skills. Improving the produc vity of agricultural workers. The government will give a en on to workers in the agricultural sector through improving agricultural sector produc vity. This will be done through various ac vi es, including: (a) extending the scope of agricultural sector management by intensifying research to expand agricultural ac vi es, thus increasing agricultural output and added value; and (b) providing workers with knowledge and skills, through educa on, training and agricultural extension. In me, knowledge and skills improvement will have an impact on the enhancement of agricultural produc vity. Developing social security and empowering workers. Strategies for providing workers with social security will be implemented, including development of social security programs that provide workers with the greatest possible beneﬁts. For informal workers, there is a need to protect workers from their working environment and the dispropor onate use of their labor. Assistance will also be provided to workers in the form of training to improve skills to help them increase their produc vity and, thus, their welfare.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Implemen ng key employment regula ons. The ILO Declara on on the Principles and Fundamental Rights in the Workplace mandates the implementa on and enforcement of basic labor standards.
Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
The nutri onal level of the popula on has improved over me, as indicated by the decline in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age. Indonesia has made good progress in improving nutri on outcomes over the past two decades. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age, who are moderately and severely underweight, decreased from 31.0 percent in 1989 to 21.6 percent in 2000. A slight rise was seen between 2000 and 2005, reaching 24.5 percent in 2005. However in 2007 it decreased to 18.4 percent (Riskesdas 2007) and progress on this indicator is considered to be on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.5 percent by 2015 (Figure 1.10). In the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) the Government has set the new target for this indicator to be less than 15.0 percent in 2014.
29.8 27.7 26.1 22.8 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.2 24.5 18.4
Target MDG 2015
Figure 1.10. Trend in the Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age (1989-2007) Using the WHO 2005 Standard and the MDG Target for this Indicator in 2015
23.8 7.2 21.7 8.1 15.4 12.3 14.8 11.3 13.9 8,9 13.2 8.4 15.0 6.8 14.6 8.6 14.5 8.7 14.8 9.7 13.0 5.4
1989 1992 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2007 2015
Source: BPS, Susenas 1989 to 2005 and MOH, Riskesdas 2007.
Dispari es in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age remain a problem. Even though the na onal MDG target for the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age is expected to be achieved, dispari es exist in nutri onal
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
6 27. Kalimantan Selatan (26.3 18. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age in rural areas in 2007 was 20.6 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). and Aceh (26.7 22.4 12. while in urban areas it was 15.5 percent) (Figure 1. Sulawesi Tengah (27.4 17. Riskesdas 2007 Region Rural Urban Indonesia Severely Underweight 6.9 15.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger status among provinces.4 18.11). 15.5 17.6 percent). Figure 1. Based on the average daily dietary energy consump on intake per capita. The data indicates that the MDG target of 3.8 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TARGET 2015 . Riskesdas 2007 showed that the lower the household income the higher the prevalence of underweight of children under ﬁve years of age.4 percent and in urban areas 4.4 22.4 Moderately Underweight 14 11.9 18. there has been a signiﬁcant improvement in reducing undernourishment in Indonesia.0 16. provinces with the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve above 25 percent include: Maluku (27.2 18.4 4.8 23.7 22.2 5.000 calories is s ll high.7 17.3 percent is not yet achieved in rural and urban areas.8 25.4 percent na onally while in rural areas it was 6.9 3.6 18.4 12.2 21.4 15. which indicates achievement of the MDG target (Table 1.8 16.9 percent. Riskesdas 2007 indicated that the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age ranged from 10.4 percent. The Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age by Province (2007) Percentage 33.2.5 26.2 24.9 percent (DI Yogyakarta) to 33. and among socio-economic groups. Table 1.2).11. between rural and urban areas.9 19. In addi on to Nusa Tenggara Timur.6 27.2 also indicates that the prevalence of severely underweight children under ﬁve years of age was 5.5 22.4 26.6 40 10.6 16. Riskesdas 2007 Severely Underweight Moderately Underweight Total Underweight Moreover. Data in Table 1.8 percent).5 11.2 percent. Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007) Source: MOH.3 20.4 25.7 13 Total Underweight 20.2 21.2 24.6 DI Yogyakarta Bali Kepulauan Riau DKI Jakarta Jawa Barat Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Banten Bengkulu Jawa Timur Lampung Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung INDONESIA Jambi Kalimantan Timur Sumatera Barat Papua Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Sumatera Utara Maluku Utara Papua Barat Kalimantan Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Aceh Kalimantan Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Maluku Nusa Tenggara Timur Source: MOH.0 15.4 The propor on of the popula on with a daily kcal intake of less than 2.9 11. disparity between rural and urban areas remains. The Susenas 2002-2008 data showed that the average dietary calorie intake in 2002 was 44 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .6 percent).
2.12. Susenas.010 2. several years. (iii) promo on of healthy lifestyle behavior. par cularly due to poverty. Trends in the Average Calorie Consump on for Rural and Urban Households (2002-2008) 2. Lack of access of the poor with low educa on to quality and safe food. In 2008.040 2.950 2002 1.007 2. To address the high prevalence of malnutri on among children. the government has implemented the Food and Nutri on Ac on Plan 2006-2010.030 2.015 2. lack of awareness and commitment of the government contributes to the existence of the malnutri on problem.970 1. Moreover. 2005 2007 2008 The Government of Indonesia is commi ed to improving the nutri onal status of the popula on. it increased to 2. par cularly the poor.990 1. The data conﬁrm that food consump on improvement par cularly among the poor is urgently needed. with the following immediate objec ves: (i) improvement of family nutri on awareness (kadarzi) through community-based growth monitoring and counseling. poor people in par cular consume unsafe food which adversely aﬀects their health and nutri onal status.986 kcal per capita per day which was below the minimum requirement of 2. Moreover.12). tuberculosis.038 Figure 1. and HIV/AIDS. malaria. The poor have low Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 45 .000 1.986 Source: BPS.980 1.038 kcal per capita per day (Figure 1. (ii) inappropriate child care due to low levels of educa on among mothers.000 kcal per capita per day. Challenges Economic and socio-cultural factors aﬀec ng low nutri onal status among children under ﬁve years of age include: (i) lack of access to quality food.960 1.050 2. the government set up health sector policies in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2009 which cover the community nutri on improvement program. In its eﬀorts to fulﬁll the global accord. water and sanita on services. (ii) preven on of nutri on-related diseases such as diarrhea. and (iii) inadequate access to health.020 Kcal/capita/day 2. and (iv) improvement of food for ﬁca on.1.
5 in 2002 to 83. Lack of food intake and inappropriate caring pa ern result in malnutri on among chidren under ﬁve years of age. 2002-2007 PPH Score 88. Nutri on policy development and program planning and management are inadequate in both capacity and ins tu onal linkages.0 80.6 in 2007.0 82.2 68. Figure 1. Susenas.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger capacity to acquire the required food intake. several years.0 74. the na onwide system of Posyandus was the main mechanism for nutri on service delivery at the community level. the Posyandu ac vi es deteriorated under decentraliza on as indicated by huge varia ons of malnutri on rates among provinces.0 Source: BPS.0 76.6 81. the unbalanced food consump on pa ern of Indonesians can lead to serious disease problems and even death. has been undertaken in Integrated Health Posts (Posyandu). the United Na ons Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organiza on (WHO) recommend that children be exclusively breas ed for at least six months a er birth. Moreover.1 77. However.8 79. A strong na onal intersectoral body for coordina ng and enforcing nutri on policies across sectors and across the levels of administra on does not exist. 85.9 83. in terms of quan ty as well as quality.0 78. this ﬁgure is s ll far from the ideal PPH score of 100 in both rural and urban popula ons. During the period 2002-2007.0 86. The role of the community in dealing with malnutri on has been declining.0 77. Trend in the Desirable Dietary Pa ern (PPH) Score of Food Consump on for Rural and Urban Households. The quality of food consump on is s ll low.13. Un l the early 1990s. Lack of ins tu ons dealing with hunger eradica on programs. 46 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .0 2002 2005 2007 Rural Urban Indonesia The prac ce of exclusive breast feeding has declined.0 70. In 2007 only about 32 percent of children under six months were exclusively breas ed in Indonesia.0 72.0 84. To minimize morbidity and mortality of children. par c ularly among children under ﬁve.6 81. Community par cipa on in dealing with malnutri on.5 75. However.9 80. the quality of food consump on improved as indicated by an increase in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score from 77. and only 41 percent of children under four months old were exclusively breas ed.
par cularly in rural and urban slum areas. Improve food security at the local level par cularly to reduce disparity among regions. the Government set the new target of reducing undernourishment of children under ﬁve years of age to be less than 15. Policies and programs should be formulated holis cally and require an ins tu onal framework with a strong authority and capacity in synchronizing and coordina ng ac vi es in food and nutri on. and (iii) developing a local-based food diversiﬁca on program through improvement of food produc on and post-harvest technology and advocacy of balanced diets. Strengthen food and nutri on service delivery at the grassroots level through the following: (i) revitalize Posyandu to expand coverage of service delivery for food and nutri on. Ac ons to be carried out include: (i) expansion of exclusive breast- Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47 . economic. Other strategies that will be developed include: (i) socializa on and advocacy on social and cultural behavior for healthy lifestyle. sanita on). Policies and Strategis Policies and strategies to reduce the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age to 15. 2. and (iii) develop nutri on programs through community-based ac vi es by empowering local community-based ins tu ons such as religious gatherings (kelompok pengajian) and women’s organiza ons. to adequate nutri ous and safe food and other interven ons such as nutrient supplementa on. including reac va on of growth monitoring prac ce (GMP). and poli cal issues. (ii) provide linkages of nutri on to early child educa on program (PAUD). water. related to socio-cultural. Strengthen ins tu ons at the central and dictrict levels that have a strong authority in formula ng policy and programs in food and nutri on. Ensure food security at the local level by: (i) increasing agricultural produc vity. Develop speciﬁc pro-poor assistance interven ons to provinces and districts with high prevalence of malnutri on. par cularly to promote exclusive breast-feeding and infant feeding prac ces.Na onal food security ins tu ons are not eﬀec ve in solving problems related to hunger and malnutri on. Therefore. the ins tu onal framework for nutri on and food security at central and district levels will be strengthened. (ii) improving the eﬃciency of food distribu on and handling systems.0 percent.5 percent in 2015 and to improve the propor on of the popula on consuming at least the minimum level of dietary energy consump on are as follows: 1. Strengthen community empowerment and revitalize Posyandus. 3. 4. In the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. and (ii) investments in basic infrastructure (health. par cularly children under ﬁve years of age and pregnant women. The problem of malnutri on and food insecurity is mul sectoral in nature. Increase access of the poor.
3.3. (iv) strengthening communitybased nutri on programs through Posyandu. Table 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger feeding. (vi) strengthening malnutri on mi ga on management in primary health centers (Puskesmas) and hospitals. (ii) complementary and supplementary feeding for children 6-24 months old. (v) nutri on educa on and kadarzi. (iii) supplementary feeding for pregnant and lacta ng mothers. In line with the above policies and strategies. 3/2010. and (v) strengthening the food and nutri on surveillance system. Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) Outputs/Indicators Percentage of severe undernourished children under 5 years ﬁve years old receiving care Percentage of severe undernourished children 6-24 months old from poor households receiving MPASI (food supplement) Percentage 0-6 months old babies with exclusive breast feeding Coverage of Iodized salt Percentage of 6-59 month old children receiving vitamin A supplement Percentage of Puskemas implemen ng nutri onal status monitoring and providing care for the severely undernourished Percentage of districts implemen ng nutri on surveillance Percentage of children under 5 years old weighed for growth monitoring Percentage of children under 5 years old of poor households (GAKIN) receiving recovery food supplements (PMT pemulihan) 2010 100 2011 100 2012 100 2013 100 2014 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 75 75 67 78 78 70 80 80 75 83 83 100 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 100 70 100 75 100 80 100 85 100 100 60 100 100 65 100 100 70 100 100 75 100 100 80 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014). MPASI buﬀer stock for disaster areas Percentage of households with nutri onal awareness (keluarga sadar gizi) 48 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the Na onal Medium-Term Developement Plan 20102014 set up programs and targets to address malnutri on par cularly among children under ﬁve years of age as listed in Table 1. Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2010-2014 and Presiden al Instruc on No.
Kindergarten and primary school students Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education .
the GER was 98. Access to Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on. In 2008/2009.09 percent (Figure 2. The school drop-out rate has been decreasing.8 percent in 1995 to 93.2). grades 7 to 9) in the universal basic educa on target. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 51 . At the junior secondary level (SMP/MT). by 2015. Susenas data indicates that the percentage of children aged 16-18 years who completed primary educa on increased from 87. This ﬁgure indicates the decreasing trend in the dropout rate at primary schools. except for Papua where the NER was measured to be 76. The primary school (SD/MI) gross enrolment ra o (GER) achieved universal coverage by the early 1980s. children everywhere.0 percent in 2008.77 percent while the net enrolment ra o (NER) was 95.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2A: Ensure that. the GER was 116. disparity in educa on par cipa on has been reduced. The propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school shows an increasing trend. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Current Status Indonesia aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to include junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. boys and girls alike. At the primary school level. including madrasah. and stayed high despite the ﬁnancial crisis of the late 1990s.11 percent and the NER was 74.1). The Susenas 2009 indicated the NER of all other provinces were above 90 percent.23 percent.52 percent (Figure 2.
5 95.8 percent in 2006 for the 15-24 years age group (UNESCO.6 1997 1998 57.5 60 65. Based on the Third Interna onal 52 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sum matera Selatan Sul lawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Gorontalo Papua .9 64. Indonesia’s educa onal quality is low compared to neighboring countries.5 2004 65.3 93.7 92.5 78.0 1996 54.7 2007 71.Primary School/MI GER .3 79.9 20 0 1992 42.3 107. 2009 Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 95.7 92.2 2001 60.1 1995 51.2009 116.3 88.2 2005 65. The Susenas data of 1992 to 2009 indicated that the literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years increased from 96.1 116.0 93.6 107.2 91.71 percent in 1992 to 99.5 92.1 76.3 Source: BPS.2 98.9 110.2 73.6 2002 61.4 107.6 93.Junior Secondary School/MTs GER .9 81.2 95.3 106.6 57. The nine-year basic educa on graduates do not always have adequate skills relevant to the needs of the community or the labor market.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Percentage 74. Beyond access.5 Figure 2. the quality of educa on has been a concern of the government.1 55.0 105.3 107.8 40 1994 50. Measured by interna onal standards.1 108.7 100 92.5 88.4 61.6 2008 72.1 108. Progress in increasing the literacy rate has occurred largely due to improvements in the par cipa on rate of educa on and the propor on of students who have been able to complete their educa on at the primary level.3 92. The literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years is increasing.8 Nusa Te enggara Timur Jambi Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Maluku Papua Barat INDONESIA Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Lampung S Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Kalim mantan Selatan Kalim mantan Tengah Kalim mantan Timur Sul lawesi Tengah Ba angka Belitung Su umatera Utara Su umatera Barat DI Yogyakarta Ke epulauan Riau S Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur wesi Sulaw Tenggara Source: BPS.0 1993 46. 1992 .9 percent in 1995 to 97. Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School Including Madrasah by Province.6 96.6 92.1 82.1 107. Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os (NER) for Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on Levels (Including Madrasah).Primary School/MI NER .2 82.7 92. Susenas and MoNE Sta s cs.6 91. Susenas 2009 and MoNE Sta s cs 2008/2009.Junior Secondary School/MTs Figure 2. NER .47 percent in 2009.3 80 70.0 120 106.0 115.4 2006 66.23 Bali Banten Aceh Riau Kali imantan Barat 2009 74.0 102. The literacy rate of the poorest group in the popula on rose signiﬁcantly from 92.7 92. 2006).2.9 91.2 107.5 94.2 92.1 107.1.2 2000 60.1 106.0 77.0 1999 59.7 2003 63.
lack of qualiﬁed teachers. Several cri cal factors have prevented Indonesia from achieving universal basic educa on. and (iv) lack of funding for school opera ons. In the 2006 Program for Interna onal Student Assessment (PISA). which was below the average of OECD countries (492). (ii) lack of highly qualiﬁed teachers. On the demand side. (iii) lack of relevant curriculum and the low quality of teaching learning process. boys and girls. On the supply side. underserved areas. the average score of reading ability of Indonesian students was 393.1). Indonesian student performance ranked 34 out of 45 countries. In addi on. including teaching-learning materials and equipment. poverty is considered to be a major factor contribu ng to the low access to schooling. the low quality of governance in educa on management contributes to low equitable access of all children to quality basic educa on. There is a strong correla on between teachers’ academic qualiﬁca ons. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge in achieving the educa on MDG target. and improved learning outcomes. uniforms and books. Poverty is a major factor contribu ng to low enrollment in basic educa on with lack of aﬀordability being the reason for 70 percent of non-a endance at school (AIBEP 2008). Improving the quality and equal distribu on of teachers in all regions to improve the quality of basic educa on. and Indonesia ranked 44 among 57 countries. However. there is a need to expand provision of an adequate infrastructure. books and teaching learning equipments for basic educa on. par cularly in remote. is a major challenge in improving equitable access to quality basic educa on in Indonesia (Table 2. boys and girls. However. This was due to lack of access to books and other reading materials. par cularly in remote and underserved areas. lunches. which examines how well students aged 15 years are prepared for life. Moreover. The na onwide implementa on of the BOS program which was intended to support the government policy of free basic educa on contributed to improvement of school par cipa on by elimina ng cost barriers. it includes: (i) insuﬃcient educa onal infrastructure. in reality. there is a challenge to develop the holis c and integrated ECED program and to improve the quality of non-formal educa on (NFE) programs par cularly to poor communi es. costs are s ll signiﬁcant and o en unaﬀordable for poor parents. par cularly for daily travel. overall school eﬀec veness. Moreover. only 31 percent of children could complete more than the most basic reading tasks. Reaching the unreached in improving equitable access of all children. Challenges Improving equitable access of all children. especially in the poorest urban and rural areas. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge to the achievement of the MDG educa on targets.Mathema cs Science Study (TIMSS 2003). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 53 . In addi on.
The transi on to decentraliza on has not yet included guidelines for monitoring and evalua on as well benchmarking on progress achieved by ins tu ons at all levels of government.659 502. accountability. transfer of resources from central government to district and to schools resulted in reduc on of local budget for educa on (subs tu on eﬀect).Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Table 2.54 7. Formulate and implement policy at na onal and local levels to accelerate provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facili es.70 25.4 percent to 20 percent. including in educa on. the government has drama cally increased public funding alloca ons for educa on.984 374.607.806 535.1.08 20.080 758.378 364.78 31. 11.876 961.88 89.83 20. and equity in funding and to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on. accountability. decentraliza on of educa on policy has not been fully implemented as intended.49 24.890 ≥ Dipl. madrasah and pesantren.728 29.02 5. In line with educa on reform plans to accelerate the pace of achieving MDG educa on targets. Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* Number of Teachers Educa on Level ≤ Senior SS 119. From 2001 to 2009. underserved and remote areas.7 percent and as a propor on of public expenditures from 11. Improving educa on management accountability and eﬃciency in the decentralized system. Indonesia’s decision to decentralize government is transforming the nature and level of public service delivery.633 1. and equity in funding to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on. Senior 1-3 4 / S1 SS 53.60 100 100 Developing be er ﬁnancing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve eﬃciency.110. 2010.120 341. 4 / S1 32.13 46. However. MONE. Priori es to Improve Equitable Access: a.422 1.915 Diploma 1-3 71. *not including madrasah teachers. par cularly in poor.497.79 36. However.96 Total 100 100 100 PrePrimary (TK) Primary School (SD/MI) Junior Secondary School (SMP/ MT) Senior Secondary School (SMA/SMK/MA) TOTAL Source: Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Educa on Personnel. Therefore.35 73.601 29.311 3.8 percent to 3.590 475.917 2.083 Propor on (%) Total 223.81 50. educa on spending as a propor on of GDP increased from 2.637 341.972 ≤ Diploma ≥ Dipl. and fund transfer mechanisms to improve eﬃciency. Policies and Strategies 1. A en on will be given to concurrently ra onalizing and accelera ng provision of adequate school infrastructure 54 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .26 14.294 101. a challenge is to further develop be er ﬁnancing.
monitoring. Equivalency program (Packets A and B) will be be er targeted to reach poor and dropout students. Ins tu onal capacity at district. Curriculum reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and teaching-learning process to enable students to develop their intellectual. The training will cover teacher support and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 55 . and evalua on of BOS by enhancing the capacity of school commi ees. Ensure educa on ﬁnancing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address inequitable alloca on of funds and educa on resources. Strategies may include: (i) increasing the eﬃcient u liza on of formal school human resources. More speciﬁcally. and social capaci es. and central levels to improve planning and monitoring on program performance will be strengthened e. community par cipa on will be increased in planning. c. b.and teaching learning resources that meet minimum service standards (MSS). (ii) improving eﬃciency and quality of services through enhancement of the curriculum and quality assurance of program implementa on to ensure equivalency to formal educa on. spiritual. This should include increasing the number of cost-based scholarships for poor students in primary and junior secondary schools in targeted areas with the lowest enrolment rates. 2. all teacher training ins tutes (Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTKs) will review their courses with a view to improve prac cal classroom performance and apply best prac ces in linking teaching to improved student learning. In order to increase learning quality. the curriculum and teaching-learning process will be enhanced to build moral values and character. eﬃciency. d. and (iii) improving coordina on of educa on equivalency programs between MoNE and the Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs (MoRA). facili es and infrastructure for informal educa on. b. Priori es to Improve Quality and Relevance: a. and ensuring matching funds from revenue-rich districts. Accelerate provision of holis c and integrated ECED services in rural and underserved areas. Capacity of local government and schools in managing the implementa on of BOS will be strengthened in order to raise the eﬀec veness. Districts will be encouraged or mandated to allocate a share of their budget to support an increase in holis c and integrated ECED services in underserved areas. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. emo onal. c. Moreover. and accountability of BOS. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for school dropouts. and accountability in the implementa on of BOS. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training provision. Strengthen the eﬀec veness. Improvement of training on school-based management (SBM) targeted to school principals and supervisors. eﬃciency. provincial. An aﬃrma ve policy for the poor is essen al to accelerate access to quality educa on services.
Improvement of community par cipa on in educa on management will be conducted through: (i) advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobiliza on. (v) developing governance and accountability indicators and informa on systems at the district level. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 sets up program priori es as listed in Table 2. Improve local government capacity in managing basic educa on programs. Increase community par cipa on. (iii) strengthening performance evalua on and quality assurance systems.2: 56 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Strengthen accountability in educa on resource management. The strategies will include: (i) evalua ng budget eﬃciency and funding mechanisms. and (vi) improving the quality of informa on for educa on sector performance to ensure adherence to standards. monitoring and evalua on. as well as ﬁnancial management. and community par cipa on. monitoring and supervision. (ii) developing performance-based budge ng ed to quality standards and incen ve mechanisms. planning and budge ng. and between schools and parents. alongside eﬀec ve mechanisms for ensuring mutual accountability between central and districts. ﬁnancial planning and management. (iv) strengthening management informa on systems. c. (ii) promo on of public-private partnerships with explicit roles for parents and the community in school performance and school-based management. (iv) strengthening ﬁnancial repor ng systems. In line with the above policies and strategies. 3. District ins tu onal capacity will be strengthened through expanding coverage of capacity development programs in educa on management including analysis. b. (iii) recogni on of civil society organiza ons as legi mate par cipants in the direc on of the educa on system through strengthening Provincial Educa on Councils and District Educa on Councils. Priori es to Strengthen Governance and Accountability: a.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education staﬀ performance appraisal. and establishment of the Na onal Educa on Council to improve governance.
2.3% 95.543 3. control.672.820 27. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 57 .555.973.7% 95.626.736.803 3. Program Priori es.322 3.Priori es Improving access and quality of primary educa o n (SD/MI) Outputs/ Indicators Equitable access to quality primary educa on in all districts achieved/ NER of primary educa on Subsidy for students in SD/SDLB allocated and distributed/ Number of students in SD/SLB received BOS Subsidy for students in MI/Diniyah Ula allocated and distributed/ Number of students in MI/ Diniyah Ula received BOS Availability of curriculum and teachinglearning models/ Percentage of improved curriculum implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 2. implementa on. Outputs and Indicators of the Educa on Sector.591 Provision of quality and aﬀordable text books 100% - - - - Availability of qualiﬁed teachers Provision of and educa on teaching-learning personnel of SD/MI system and that equitable in all curriculum districts/ Percentage of SD/MI principals a ending the training Management and quality assurance system at DG of Primary and Secondary Management improved/ Involvement of community in duca on planning.000 28. and ﬁnance through Educa on Council 10% 15% 25% 65% 100% Improving quality and welfare of teacher and educa on personnel for primary educa on 15% 25% 45% 70% 90% Improving Management Capacity for basic educa on Improved improved Improved Improved Improved Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014.8% 96.000 28.919 3.211.2% 95.681. 2010-2014 95.006.791.0% Provision of educa on subsidy for SD/SDLB 27.000 Provision of educa on subsidy for MI 3.000 28.085.
58 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
May 11. This supernets event was held to commemorate Kar ni Day. 2009 using the internet. One thousand women in the Atrium TP3 Surabaya.SUPERNETS. Na onal Educa on Day and the 716th Anniversary of Surabaya Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women .
gender equality has improved signiﬁcantly. preferably by 2005.5 (Kepulauan Riau).99. and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA/Package C) increased signiﬁcantly. Susenas data from 1993 to 2009 shows that the NER of both girls and boys at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI/Package A) was more than 90.16. and at all levels of higher educa on it was 102. gender equality in educa on has shown signiﬁcant progress. the GPI at primary schools (SD/MI/Package A) was 99. However. the NER at the junior secondary level including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MT/Package B).54 (Papua) to 116. Susenas 2009 indicated that the NER of females to males was close to homogenous among provinces with the GPI ranging from 96.39 (Papua Barat) to 102. the MDG target to achieve gender equality at all levels of educa on will be met. Using this indicator. where at the junior secondary level the GPI ranged from 89.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. while at the junior secondary educa on level (SMP/MT/Package B) it was 101. Much eﬀort has been undertaken to improve the quality of life and the role of women to enable them to be equal partners with men in development. at the senior secondary educa on level (SM/MA/Package C) it was 96. Measured by the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) or the ra o of NER of females to males. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Current Status One of the human development goals of Indonesia is to achieve gender equality by building human resources without diﬀeren a ng between men and women.1). In 2009. During the same period. In educa on. dispari es s ll exist at the post pimary educa on level (Figure 3.73.95 (Susenas 2009). Meanwhile. the GPI of NER for higher educa on ﬂuctuates with a tendency to rise signiﬁcantly.17 (Gorontalo) and at the senior secondary level Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 61 .
Papua.1. the female labor force par cipa on rate is lower than that of males. Riau. with female literacy rates at 99. Kepulauan Riau.5 million males were recorded to be in this category. In 2009 the GPI was almost 100. For example in August 2009 around 31. In the employment sector. from 14. and Gorontalo. At the senior secondary level. Jawa Barat. the female labor force par cipa on rate has shown no signiﬁcant increase from 2004 to 2009.22 (Kepulauan Riau).71 percent to 8. Morover. In several provinces the GPI exceeded 110 which indicates that the NER of female students is much higher than that of males. provinces with GPI higher than 110 include DI Yogyakarta. while provinces with GPI less than 90 include DKI Jakarta.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women it ranged from 68. Nusa Tenggara Timur.4 percent and male literacy rates at 99. Based on the Na onal Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). Susenas 2009. Figure 3. Nusa Tenggara Timur. from 9.47 percent. the open unemployment rate of females showed signiﬁcant progress. Nusa Tenggara Barat. This rate is signiﬁcantly lower than that of their male counterparts which averaged around 84 percent during the same period. At the junior secondary level. Bangka Belitung. The ﬁgures indicate that disparity among provinces is s ll a major problem par cularly for senior and higher educa on levels. provinces with GPI of more than 110 include Sumatera Barat. Progress in educa on par cipa on of both male and female contributed to improvement of the na onal GPI for literacy of the 15-24 year age group.6 percent. However. Sumatera Selatan.60 (Papua Barat) to 143. with an average rate of around 50 percent. The low labor par cipa on rate of females was due to most females chosing to work domes cally as housewives. the percentage of waged 62 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .8 million females chose to work as housewives while only 1. Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) Senior Secondary Schools by Province. The MDG target on the literacy ra o of females to males aged 15-24 years has been achieved. and Papua Barat (6 provinces). Jawa Timur. 2009 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Papua Barat DKI Jakarta Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Jawa Timur Papua Bali Banten Lampung Maluku Utara DI Yogyakarta INDONESIA Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sumatera Utara Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Aceh Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Maluku Gorontalo Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Utara Jambi Riau Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau 0 Source: BPS. and Sulawesi Barat (7 provinces).5 percent. declining by 6 percent during 2005 to 2009.51 percent during the same period.29 percent to 7. while the open unemployment rate for males declined by only 1.
400 1. wage discrimina on is s ll prevalent. In poli cs.200 1. an increase from 11.3 percent in the period 2004-2009.098.02 percent in 2004 to 3.3 percent in 2009.000 800 600 400 200 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 915 677 540 930 689 609 824 715 593 633 396 732 1. white collars Female labour workers.9 percent of seats in the legisla ve branch. the data shows that there is a wide wage disparity between females and males. execu ve and judica ve).115.8 percent in 2004 to 27.183 to Rp 396. While the wage levels of female workers have increased.098 Figure 3. Average Monthly Wages (Rp ‘000) of Male and Female Workers in Non-Agricultural Sectors 277 267 294 337 355 Male labour workers.255 1. the wage of female worker was only 58 percent of the average male worker’s wage in 2009.45 percent in 2009 (Sakernas 2004-2009).2. Sakernas 2004-2009. In Sulawesi Utara the average wage of women is higher than that of males (Map 3. (Figure 3. The biggest gap was in casual employees in non-agriculture sectors where women receive only 54 percent of males’ wage.166 1. In Nusa Tenggara Barat. The quota for women legisla ve candidates as mandated by law was met by all poli cal par es in the 2009 general elec on.083 974 893 1. In non-agricultural sectors. Sakernas data showed that from 2004 to 2009.1).2).448 Average monthly wages (thousand Rp. The propor on of women in DPD has also increased from 19.364. The result of the 2009 general elec on were that women have 17. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 63 . Disparity in the average wage of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers exists among provinces. A quan ﬁable improvement has been recorded in the propor on of women in public ins tu ons (legisla ve. the average wage of female casual employees also increased from Rp 277.611 to Rp 1.women in non-agricultural sectors increased from 29. white collars Male casual employee in non-agricultural sector Female casual employee in non-agricultural sector Source: BPS. Although the average wage of female workers has increased.600 1. progress has been achieved as indicated by the issuance of a law that mandates a quota of 30 percent women’s representa on in parliament.) 1. the average monthly wage of female workers categorized as employees increased from Rp 676. 1.
2009. there is only one female Vice Governor while. Sakernas In decision making. women’s par cipa on in senior management posi ons of execu ve and judica ve ins tu ons is s ll low. In educa on. par cularly those in remote and rural areas. only 8. In employment. The Average Wages of Female Workers as Percentages of the Average Wages of Male Workers by Province in August 2009 Source: BPS. Moreover. Ministry of Home Aﬀairs.1. The propor on of women out of the total number of state civil servants was 44.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Map 3.1 percent of Echelon 2 posi ons were ﬁlled by women. therefore. However.5 percent. dispari es among provinces at senior secondary and hgher educa on as well as in employment and poli cs are s ll a major challenge.7 percent of senior (Echelon 1) posi ons and 7. less than 10 women ﬁll the posi on of Mayor or district head (Bupa ). The primary focus is to target children from poor families. enforcing laws to ensure equal opportuni es without discrimina on for women and men in employment and in the job place is a major challenge. In 2008. Special a en on is.id 64 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2 Challenges At the na onal level.depdagri.go. 2008. at the district level. par cularly in par cipa on in educa on. www. gender equality and empowerment showed signiﬁcant progress. and also to implement comprehensive 1 2 State Civil Service Agency. Sta s cal Yearbook of Indonesia. needed to achieve gender parity among geographically dis nct provinces which have diﬀering characteris cs and cultural values. the challenge is not only improving the NER of females but also the NER of males depending on the situa on. strong coordina on among government ins tu ons at the central and provincial levels is required to ensure a synergy between na onal and regional laws.1 At the provincial level.
and district levels. Strategies to address the challenges in employment are as follows: a) Priori ze the enforcement of exis ng laws. Focus will be given to improve knowledge and life skills par culary in income genera ng ac vi es targeted to those who are unable to enroll in formal schooling. policies on improving gender equality and women’s empowerment will be carried out in all sectors and ins tu ons at both the na onal and local levels. The strategy will include provision of subsidies for the poor to join social insurance programs under the na onal social insurance scheme to the poor.coordina on and monitoring to ensure enforcement of laws and regula ons on employment at the provincial and district levels. and (iv) local governance processes. as well as company/ employers. 3. capacity and competency of labor inspectors to ensure be er enforcement of core labor standards. Policies and Strategies To address the above challenges. (iii) poli cs. This is due to lack of planning related to gender issues. The ac vi es will include improving the access of women to educa on and skills training. 1. Strategies to ensure gender equality in poli cs include the followings: a) Improve partnerships with civil society organiza ons (CSO) to improve women’s 2. c) Strengthen labor inspec on through improving the number. In poli cal ins tu ons. including synchronizing policies and employment regula ons at the na onal and regional levels. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 65 . to ensure that men and women are able to equally par cipate without discrimina on in the labor force. Lack of adequate legal and poli cal literacy training contributes to the low par cipa on of women in poli cal ins tu ons. Strategic steps to be carried out in educa on are as follows: a) Improve access and quality of educa on to reduce gender inequality among regions and among socio-economic groups. The priori es iden ﬁed to enhance gender equality are grouped into four areas: (i) educa on. b) Improve access and quality of gender responsive non-formal educa on. e) Improve the quality of female workers and job seekers. (ii) employment. there is a need to ensure greater par cipa on of women in decisionmaking posi ons at the na onal. provincial. to improve capacity and skills of women workers in the ﬁelds where there is a need for workers. d) Provide social protec on to women who work in the informal sector. b) Strengthen coordina on between central and local government to ensure the enforcement of labor laws and regula ons.
and evalua on processes of development policies. To ensure achievement of the MDG targets for gender par cularly in educa on. implementa on. and ac vi es at the local levels. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 has set the following targets. MORA. the poor. employment. and elderly. programs. A strategy to implement gender mainstreaming in local governance processes will be carried out through developing a general guideline for local governments agencies to integrate a gender perspec ve into planning. General Elec on Commission.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women b) c) d) 4. and MOLT. under the responsibilty of MONE. Improve voter educa on concerning women legisla ve candidates. par cipa on in poli cs. disabled. Improve poli cal educa on for female members of poli cal par es. 66 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and poli cs. MOHA. monitoring. both provincial and district levels. budge ng. Design modules on voter educa on for women’s groups.
80 > 0. disabled. and Strategic Planning of Ministry of Labor antdTransmigra on 2010-2014.90 1 1 1 1 1 > 0.98 > 0. 10% 20% 25% 30% 40% 120 150 180 240 990 k) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 67 .85 > 0.80 > 0.12 97.98 > 0. and elderly women Number of elec on educa on for women legisla ve candidates Number of women cadre of poli cal party trained in poli c educa on Labor Percentage of Improve protec on company that fulﬁlled work norm of of women against women and children abuse Number of labor controlers for women and children that improved their capacity > 0.12 98.98 > 0. Strategic Planning of MOHA 2010-2014.0 95% 85% 5 - 100 5 10 100 100 5 10 150 100 5 10 200 400 k) 25 k) 40 k) 500 k) Note: k) cumula ve.98 > 0.97 > 0. 2010-2014 NER Ra o of female to male at general primary educa on (SD) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic primary educa on (MI) Improve quality of life and role of women in development NER Ra o of female to male at general junior educa on (SMP) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic junior educa on (MTs) GER Ra o of female to male at general senior educa on GER Ra o of female to male at Islamic general senior educa on (MA) GER Ra o of female to male at general higher educa on GER Ra o of female to male at general Islamic higher educa on Literacy ra o of female to male age 15-24 years Ra o of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher in public school Ra on of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher at madrasah Poli cs Number of partnership with NGO on par cipa on of women in poli cs Number of elec on educa on modules for poor. Strategic Planning of MONE 2010-2014.98 > 0. Poli cs and Labor.05 1.12 98.08 1.90 > 0.98 > 0. Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.12 1. Priori es.8 68% 60% 1.04 1.98 > 0.97 > 0.0 85% 80% 1.05 1.Prioritas Educa on Output Target 2010-2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 3. Strategic Planning of MORA 2010-2014.85 > 0.95 1 1.0 75% 70% 1.04 98.97 > 0. Source: MTDP 2010-2014.6 60% 50% 1.1.97 > 0.85 1 1 1 1 > 0. Strategic Planning of General Elec on Comission 2010-2014.12 97.98 > 0.
68 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Lining up to get Vitamin A Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate .
and it had fallen to 44 in 2007 (IDHS 2007). water and sanita on access and improved environmental condi ons.000 live births. a rate that is more than four mes higher than the province with the lowest rate. from 68 deaths per 1. Signiﬁcant diﬀerences in child mortality among provinces are recorded. This trend shows that the decline of child mortality is faster than the decline in the rate of infant mortality.e. antenatal care. In 1991. Children of less educated mothers generally have higher mortality rates than those born to more educated mothers. and promo on of clean and healthy behavior (PHBS). as well as by social and economic status. simple medical care. DI Yogayakarta (22). especially at the community level. including immuniza on. between 1990 and 2015. infant and under-ﬁve mortality rates vary widely by region. as well as increased community awareness. nutri on. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 71 .1). by 2002/2003 it had dropped to 46. However.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. the under-five mortality rate Current Status The health of children in Indonesia has been improving steadily over me in response to be er health care. The signiﬁcant progress that has been achieved in reducing child mortality reﬂects the con nuous expansion of coverage and improvements in the quality of health services. the under-ﬁve mortality rate was 97 deaths per 1. This is shown by the declining rates of infant and child mortality over the past two decades. The decline of child mortality has been accompanied by a reduc on in infant mortality. i. the highest rate was recorded in Sulawesi Barat (96).000 live births in 1991 to 34 in 2007 (IDHS). neonatal mortality has fallen more gradually from 32 in 1991 to 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2007 (Figure 4. Neonatal.
(Infant Mortality) Expon. management of diarrhea. Na onal Trend and Projec on of Child. In addi on to the constraints of geography. with 94.2).8 percent coverage (Figure 4.000 live birth 120 100 97 81 80 68 60 57 58 46 40 32 30 46 35 26 20 19 44 34 RPJMN Target 2014 IMR: 24 Target MDGs 2015 IMR: 32 USMR: 23 20 0 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Source: BPS. transporta on. infant and neonatal mortality causes are preventable. Infant and Neonatal Mortality per 1. (Under-5 Mortality) Under-5 Mortality Expon. Immuniza on against measles has a direct impact on child mortality.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate while children in richer households have lower mortality rates than those in poorer households. access to. It is proven that increasing the immuniza on rate can reduce the number of child deaths. and access to care could signiﬁcantly reduce child mortality. 72 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and Papua (49. and malaria. (Neonatal Mortality) Most of child. Data from the IDHS 2007 indicates that there are 18 provinces with lower coverage of immuniza on against measles than the na onal average (67 percent). informa on access. Infant Mortality Neonatal Mortality Expon. IDHS several years. In order to achieve universal coverage of immuniza on against measles in areas that have 1 Based on sta s c regression of immuniza on against measles by UNSD-ADB. access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC/CEONC). skilled a endance at birth. Aceh (40. The provinces with the lowest coverage were North Sumatra (36. 2009. Two eﬀec ve preven ve measures to ﬁght child. availability of clean water and sanita on. infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality are immediate and exclusive breas eeding and immuniza on. pneumonia.1.6 percent). In addi on to these. safe water and good sanita on. ADB)1. Figure 4.9 percent).9 percent). 1991-2015 Per 1. while the province with the highest coverage was DIY. appropriate feeding prac ces. and it is proven that an increase of three percentage points in the immuniza on rate reduces the number of deaths of children under-ﬁve years of age caused by measles by one per thousand live births (UNSD 2009. and infrastructure contribute signiﬁcantly to decreasing child mortality.000 Live Births.
Indonesia started a campaign to immunize all one-year-old children against measles.0 50. in the areas where coverage targets have not been reached during three consecu ve years.2 50. Another interven on.2 74. Coverage of immuniza on against measles for children aged 12-23 months will be surveyed to assess coverage of measles immuniza on for infants (<12 months) from previous years’ programs. however. not achieved the coverage target.9 85.5 61. Diphtheria. coverage by some key immuniza on programs against Tuberculosis.3 74. IDHS 2007.9 66.6 40. ensuring early detec on and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 73 .0 51.2 60. coverage for some other types of immuniza on has regressed. Propor on of One-Year-Old Children Immunized Against Measles. irrespec ve of their vaccina on status. will carry out a vaccina on campaign covering all children aged 6-59 months.0 67. While immuniza on coverage has increased. providing a second measles vaccina on to children in school. 17 and 7 percent.6 67. Pertusis and Tetanus and Hepa s – has increased by 6.5 57.5 94.0 58.6 64.8 59. by Province 2007 Source: BPS. Over the 2002-2005 period.2.8 58. In 2008.0 58.0 74. These include: maintaining and scaling-up eﬀorts in immuniza on coverage.2 80.1 77.8 Figure 4. reaching 82 percent.8 51.9 64. Challenges While progress in improving child (and infant) mortality has been good.8 72. counterbalanced by drops in polio and measles immuniza ons from 74 and 76 percent respec vely. That is. respec vely.3 79. Indonesia s ll faces important challenges in all key policy and program areas aﬀec ng child health. called the ‘Measles Crash Program’. Full immuniza on coverage is s ll below 50 percent.100 80 Percent coverage 60 40 20 0 Sumatera Utara Aceh Papua Maluku Maluku Utara Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Jambi Sulawesi Barat Sumatera Selatan Lampung Nusa Tenggara Timur Riau Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sumatera Barat DKI Jakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Tengah Jawa Timur Jawa Barat Banten Kepulauan Riau Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Timur Bengkulu Sulawesi Utara Bali DI Yogyakarta 36.9 65.4 69. to 70 percent.8 77. 88 percent and 72 percent of children.8 71.9 49. Back Log Figh ng (BLF) ac ons.6 78. .6 76.that is increased coverage of unvaccinated children aged 12-36 months – will be conducted for those who have not been vaccinated un l they reach their ﬁrst birthday.
To achieve the national target for immunization against measles of 93 percent by 2014. Some 54 percent of households use pollu ng solid fuels in the household. It is reported also that 35 .e. The risk factors of child and infant mortality are highly correlated with environmental health. while about 30 . setting norms and standards. Central government will strengthen its roles in policy making. (iii) cost-eﬀec ve. improving nutri on outcomes. etc). The 2007 Riskesdas report found that 65 percent of infants and children have access to clean water and 71 percent to basic sanita on. Risk factors for infant and child mortality are strongly related to environmental health – clean water. without which expansion and even maintenance of achievements in immuniza on coverage will slow down. child nutri on program. integra on of such interven ons into results-based sector planning and budge ng. implemented by well-trained and properly resourced health care providers. staﬀ training. To maintain the necessary momentum in pursuing key interven ons. and (iv) designing informa on and behavior change programs that promote the role of the family (i. promo ng family ac on and community prac ces. par cular emphasis needs to be placed on the following policy areas: immuniza on. key challenges lie in the areas of: (i) program monitoring. feasible and adaptable nutri on interven ons. procurement of vaccines and equipment. funding and grassroots promo on of IMCI. enhancing access to health facili es. early ini a on of breas eeding. Policies and Strategies While current policy correctly focuses on building up and expanding core interven ons.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate prompt treatment of sick children (IMCI2). IMCI. and controlling for environmental risk factors (access to clean water and sanita on) About 20 percent of births had no access to proper health services. ensuring adequate resources availability and defining clear roles between central and local government are crucially needed in program implementation.60 percent of children have no access to proper health services when ill and 40 percent were unprotected from preventable diseases. basic sanita on and low levels of indoor pollu on.45 percent live in high risk environments. and the design of disease surveillance. only about 30 percent of mothers apply good health prac ces. hand washing. 2 IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 74 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (ii) management. while at the same me most babies born in Indonesia are at high risk (Riskesdas 2007). strengthening the role of the family. synchroniza on of eﬀec ve evidence-based interven ons with universal coverage.
Strengthening Newborn care and Maternal Health. (iv) feed and oﬀer more ﬂuids. oral polio vaccine. and (v) provision of counseling for mothers and caregivers on how to care for child and infants. (iii) introduce communication for behavior change (BCC). through BCC and IEC. (iii) recognize when sick children need treatment outside the home and then seek care from appropriate providers. coordinate with other child health programs and eliminate conﬂic ng regula ons. and (iv) vaccina ons and support for iron supplementa on to prevent anemia during pregnancy. (ii) promote child growth aimed at providing basic informa on for households and communi es about feeding. and improve supervision at facility levels. increase funding for IMCI. and (vi) follow health workers’ advice about treatment. reduce staﬀ turnover. (ii) strengthen management structures at the central and district levels. (iv) pursue micronutrient interventions. infec on detec on and treatment. and (v) pursue food supplementation strategies. food for ﬁca on and direct supplementa on. to children when they are sick. (ii) support focusing on the ‘essen al obstetric and neonatal care’ approach to preven on/early treatment of complica ons during pregnancy. follow-up. and measles) before their ﬁrst birthday. Strategies at the family level relate to the following: (i) protec on of children in malariaendemic areas with insec cide-treated nets. (iii) quality improvement to promote hygiene and training for community health workers in clean delivery prac ces. through: (i) support for implementa on of the newborn and child survival strategy emphasizing focused pregnancy and delivery care. 3 The Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. Strategy at the community and household levels includes: increasing clean and healthy life behavior (PHBS) prac ces at the household level from 50 percent to 70 percent by 2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). (v) give sick children appropriate home treatment for infec on. and special care for low birth weight newborns. childcare and health care seeking. BCG. increased dietary intake. and referral. Strategies to address the key nutritional concerns so as to achieve the national target to reduce stunting in under-five children from 36. warmth. (ii) ensure that children complete a full course of immuniza ons (hepa s.8 percent to 32 percent by 20143 are as follows: (i) emphasize exclusive breast-feeding and appropriate complementary feeding. delivery and the newborn period. (iii) ensure that essen al drugs are available for IMCI. . and clean cord care). (iv) implement IMCI at the household and community levels to improve care-seeking prac ces and health services u liza on. adequate nutri onal care during illness and severe malnutri on. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 75 . essen al care for all newborns (including immediate and exclusive breas eeding. and adequate micronutrient intake. including breast milk. pertussis. diphtheria.Strategies to address the key IMCI concerns are as follows: (i ) focus on IMCI training for health workers. tetanus.
To support the aforemen oned strategies and leverage their impact. especially for the poor. ensure adequate opera ng costs for hospitals and primary health centers. through: (i) improved resource alloca on taking into account absorp ve capacity. 2010—2014 Priority Outputs Coverage of Neonatal ﬁrst visit Coverage of Complete Neonatal Visits Coverage of Treatment on Neonatal Complica on 2010 84% 80% 60% 84% 78% 80% 80% 2011 86% 82% 65% 85% 80% 82% 85% 2012 88% 84% 70% 86% 81% 85% 88% 2013 89% 86% 75% 87% 83% 88% 90% 2014 90% 88% 80% 90% 85% 90% 92% Improve the quality of child health care: Coverage of Health Services for Infants Coverage of Health Services for Under-ﬁve Children Coverage of one-year-old children fully immunized Coverage of one-year-old children immunized against measles Source: The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 and Inpres no. educa on.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Strengthening and improving health facili es. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services. Mobiliza on of community par cipa on through Posyandu ac vi es that include: monitoring the nutri onal status of infants and toddlers each month through observa on of their body weight. by introducing strategies to promote primary health care and revitalize Posyandus. border and island areas. surveillance and IEC technologies with ac ons in water and sanita on. To ensure progress. through BOK (Biaya Operasional Kesehatan). and (v) addressing strategic needs of health workers in remote areas. Policy advocacy will be targeted to provinces with lower levels of achievement on the indicators for MDG 4. underserved. environmental pollu on. gender and women empowerment. 3/2010. (iii) development of monitoring instruments. linking service delivery. enable Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC and CEONC). na onal targets for newborn. communicable diseases control. infant and child care have been set out in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan as presented in the following table: Table 4.1. (ii) increased provision of public funding for health in order to reduce ﬁnancial risks. distribu on mechanisms. and social protec on programs. Outputs. Priori es. (iv) improved advocacy and capacity building of health personnel. complete basic immuniza on and other health services that are provided at the Posyandu. 76 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . cross sectoral approaches will be considered.
NTT” Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .“Antenatal care at Puskesmas (primary health center) in Praya.
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters. family planning to avoid early pregnancies. Compared to 307 per 100. The most eﬀec ve way to reduce maternal mortality is to have births a ended by a skilled health provider.000 live births for the period 2004-2007. universal access to reproductive health Current Status Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) remains high.000 live births for the period 1998–2002 and 390 deaths per 100. the Maternal Mortality Ratio Target 5B: Achieve. It is es mated by WHO that 15-20 percent of pregnant women in both developed and developing countries will experience high risk and/or complica ons during pregnancy or at birth. Currently.000 live births in 1991 (IDHS).000 live births by 2015. by 2015. While maternal mortality ﬁgures tend to vary by source. the number reﬂects a gradual decline of MMR (Figure 5. proper care of high-risk pregnancies. high risk abortions and post abortion care. Key areas of intervention that influence the MMR include appropriate antenatal care. IDHS 2007 places the MMR at 228 maternal deaths per 100. but extra efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 deaths per 100. 77.34 percent of births are assisted by a skilled health provider Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 79 .1). births attendance by skilled health personnel. With current trends. and programs aimed at behavior change (raising awareness) among women of reproductive age. the MMR has been falling gradually. between 1990 and 2015.
3).5 71.3 87.7 49.4 77.6 68. Na onal Trends and Projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025 450 390 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 102 2015 (MDG) 334 307 228 226 118 2014 (NMTDP) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: BPS.2 47.2 63.3 85.14 percent in DKI Jakarta to 42. Percentage of Births Assisted by Skilled Provider.4 85.9 69. as shown by Figure 5. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a health professional during pregnancy (Figure 5.2 85. There are 81. IDHS several years.1 2025 .4 62.3 78. 2009 100 90 80 70 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: BPS.2 70. by Provinces.1 60. The MoH target for 2010 is 90 percent.9 86.1.9 96.7 88.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Susenas 2009). Figure 5.2 85.5 63.7 percent in 2002 (IDHS 2002/03). 80 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Maluku Maluku Utara Sulawesi Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur Kalimantan Barat Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Gorontalo Kalimantan Tengah Banten Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Barat Jambi Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Selatan Lampung INDONESIA Sumatera Selatan Riau Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Bangka Belitung Aceh Jawa Timur Kepulauan Riau Sumatera Utara Sumatera Barat Bali DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta 42.9 60 59.48 percent in Maluku.5 88.1 49. Figure 5.5 48.7 82. IDHS MDG Target NMTDP Linear (IDHS) The disparity of births assisted by skilled health personnel among regions ranges from 98. Even with rela vely high coverage.2.9 98. Susenas 2009. compared with 72.0 76. but only 65.5 47.7 82.2 96.3 76.5 percent of pregnant women who have at least four ANC contacts during pregnancy.2.5 percent in 2007 (IDHS 2007) and 66.5 percent of pregnant women have complied with the recommended schedule of the minimum of four ANC visits.5 70.8 84.
but are not using any method of family planning. in Indonesia 1991.4 percent for any method (IDHS 2007).0 percent and 70. The CPR varies among provinces. contracep ve use did not show signiﬁcant improvement.0 86. The number of couples of reproduc ve age who want to space pregnancy or limit births. and wealth quin le. the average increase in contracep ve use was 3. while the lowest for modern methods is in Papua (24.0 79. especially since MMR remains high. the contracep ve prevalence rate (CPR) is rela vely low. contracep ve use is high when the respondent’s level of educa on and wealth quin le are high.ANC s ll needs a en on. IDHS several years. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased insigniﬁcantly in the last ﬁve years.0 93. Con nuum of care is a cri cal element in the strategy to achieve maternal and child health targets. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased only by 1. compared to the steady increase recorded in the period of 1991 to 2002/03.1 percent). Disparity of CPR among provinces indicates the uneven coverage of family planning programs. 100 83.0 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1994 1 visit 81. level of educa on. contracep ve and reproduc ve health are the crucial issues to be improved. has increased from 8. respec vely.1 percent for all methods and 0. amenorrheic Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 81 . The highest for any and modern methods are in Bengkulu. The lowest CPR for any method is in Maluku (34.2 percent for all methods and modern methods.4 percent for modern methods and 61.5 percent). In general. First and Fourth Antenatal Visits.5 75.5 percent and 3. beside an integrated and holis c approach of maternal health.7 93.0 63. Regarding the pre-pregnancy period.4 percent. 57.6 percent (IDHS 2002- 1 14 Unmet need is deﬁned here as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth.7 percent for modern methods during the period 2002/03 to 2007. respec vely. One aspect to be considered is quality of ANC services in ensuring early diagnosis and prompt treatment.5 64. During the period of 2002/03 to 2007. Na onally.3 1997 ≥ 4 visits 2003 ≥ 4 visits as recommended 2007 Source: BPS. where the rates recorded are 74.2007 65.1 56. but do not use any contracep ves (unmet need1).0 81. while in the period 1991 to 2002/03.3.5 Figure 5. Women with an unmet need for “spacing” include pregnant women whose pregnancy was mis med.
The high unmet need is also caused by the concern about side eﬀects and the inconvenience of using contracep ves.7 percent).7 percentage points for limi ng) (IDHS 2007).3 2.7 10.2 8.0 6.0 4. and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic.7 9. 0 6.8 5.3 Source: BPS. Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children (IDHS 2007). The lowest unmet need is found in Bangka Belitung (3.0 10.4 5.0 8. These numbers have been nearly stagnant since 1997 (Figure 5.6 4. and who want to wait two or more years for their next birth.6 6.16).2 4. Moreover.3 percent women aged 15-19 are not willing to use any contracep ve because of side eﬀects.0 4.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health 2003) to 9.0 % of married women aged 15-49 12. Figure 5. and 80 percent of married women with 5 or more live children. which reﬂect the low quality of family planning services. This fact indicates that the more educated and prosperous the group. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth. and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. In addi on.8 4. Indonesia 1991-2007 14. Higher unmet need was found in rural areas (9.1 percent because of health problems and 3.0 percent (4. but are not using any contracep ve method.1 percent because their husbands forbid them to do so. and who want no more children. the more informa on and services of family planning and reproduc ve health have been accessed. 82 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 2002/2003. 2007. while for women in the lowest quin le it is 13 percent and 8 percent for women in the highest quin le (Figure 5.2 percent) as compared with urban areas (8. 1991 1994 Spacing 1997 Limi ng Total 2002/3 2007 Unmet need varies greatly among provinces.0 4. 75 percent of married women with 3-4 living children. who are not using any method of family planning. Measures of unmet need for family planning are used to evaluate the extent to which programs are mee ng the demand for services.0 12. 12.3 percentage points are for spacing and 4.4). IDHS 1991. women whose last birth was mis med.6 9. who are not using any method of family planning.4. do not want more children.0 4. 10. unmet need also tends to be inversely correlated with higher levels of educa on and welfare quin le: it is 11 percent for women with no educa on and 8 percent for women with higher educa on (secondary and above). regions and socio-economic status. 1997.2 percent) and the highest in Maluku (22. Unmet need for “limi ng” refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted. IDHS 2007 shows that 60 percent of married women with 2 children. amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted.4 percent). Unmet Needs. 1994.
and points to the need to promote be er understanding of adolescent reproduc ve health.The CPR and unmet need contribute to the Total Fer lity Rate (TFR).000 married women (IDHS 2007). proﬁle Indonesia Abor on in Indonesia Gu macher Ins tute.33 in 1991. 2 3 4 MDGs countdown. The highest ASFR aged 15-19 is found in Sulawesi Tengah (92 births). Demographically. a decrease from 0. par cularly during the perinatal and neonatal period. pregnant women seek unsafe abor on services. early child birth raises fer lity rates. Adolescent births risk reproduc ve health system injuries. as well as complica ons during pregnancy and childbirth. which in turn lead to termina on of pregnancies. Unmet need leads to unwanted and unintended pregnancies. which is due to the low median age of the ﬁrst marriage of women. The need for family planning is further underlined by the high adolescent birth rate in Indonesia. in addi on to increasing maternal mortality. Since abor on is illegal in Indonesia. In addi on. The Age Speciﬁc Fer lity Rate for individuals aged 15-19 has decreased from 67 births per 1. while the disparity among provinces and regions and socio-economic is s ll the main challenge. babies born to teenage mothers are more prone to injury during birth. in some provinces. From a health perspec ve. and s llbirth. Policy Brief. delaying pregnancy broadens opportuni es for pursuing educa on and expanding access to employment opportuni es. the risks for both mother and child increase. as well as the provision of family planning and reproduc ve health services for couples in reproduc ve ages. The high adolescent birth rate is caused by lack of access to quality reproduc ve health services and reliable informa on on sexual and reproduc ve health Adolescent fer lity raises both health and demographic concerns. with an es mated 62 -163 per cent caused by unsafe abor on prac ces. Knowledge and awareness of youth and couples in reproduc ve age about family planning and reproduc ve health is s ll low. revealed the presence of teenagers who approved of having intercourse before marriage. 9/2008 Adolescent Birth Rate is counted using the ASFR aged 15-19 (number of birth by married women aged 15-19 years divided by number of married women aged 15-19) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 83 . Furthermore.000 married women (IDHS 1991) to 35 births per 1. The Indonesia Youth and Adolescent Reproduc ve Health Survey (IYARHS. Furthermore. which result in elevated infant and maternal mortality rates. especially in rural areas4. low birth weight. 16 provinces s ll have ASFR aged 15-19 above the na onal average. TFR is signiﬁcantly higher due to the high Adolescent Birth Rate.3 in Indonesia (IDHS 2007). 2005. This risks increasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abor ons. BPS) in 2007. The TFR is currently 2. while the lowest is in Yogyakarta (7 births).
The risk of maternal death is even greater for mothers with the “4 TOOes”: (i) too many (children). The current health care facili es are not preferred loca ons for giving birth due to limited access. especially in remote and poor areas. communi es come to depend on tradi onal birth a endants (TBAs) and o en dangerous tradi onal prac ces. 84 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . posyandu and blood transfusion units. 3.6 percent (Riskesdas 2007). (iii) too old. 4. Some socio-economic indicators. as well as cultural factors. In addi on. such as availability and quality of Basic Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC) and Comprehensive Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEONC). Community mo va on and mobiliza on becomes a par cularly important tool in an environment of uncertain service provision. 2. is cri cal for a successful safe motherhood program. (ii) too close (interval between pregnancies). Due to the inadequate number and distribu on of midwives. or (iv) too young (age of the mother). 5 The educa on and training programs with crash program approaches some mes poorly resulted with insuﬃciently skilled health workers. Lack of knowledge and awareness on the signiﬁcance of safe motherhood. which s ll are common problems in most of places in Indonesia. are low. as well as the lack of medical equipment. which may constrain demand and contribute to the maternal deaths ﬁgure in Indonesia. the referral system is weak. where risks to pregnancy and child births are par cularly high. Low nutri onal and health status of pregnant women. especially with the diversity of condi ons that exist in Indonesia. border and island areas area (DTPK). Limited access to quality health care facili es. medicines and blood supplies that are crucial to handling obstetric emergencies. cultural issues and lack of necessary facili es and materials. especially midwives. remote. etc. and cultural factors. This risk is exacerbated when other underlying condi ons are present (anemia. 13. Health workers are some mes inadequately trained. This is exacerbated by geographic and transporta on barriers to access health facili es and health workers. especially for the poor in disadvantaged areas.). such as aﬀordability and educa on. The low nutri onal status. especially when they have to work in diﬃcult circumstances where in fact they are most needed. especially midwives. The percentage of women of reproduc ve age (15-45 years old) who suﬀer from chronic protein energy malnutri on is rela vely high. quality and their distribu on. from community to primary to referral facili es. Limited availability of health personnel both in terms of quan ty. infec ous diseases. in addi on to escala ng health risks for pregnant women.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Challenges 1.5 access to trained health personnel. is one cause of high prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) among infants.
the following policies will ensure improvements: (a) increasing the frequency of antenatal6 contacts between skilled health personnel and pregnant women. mother’s age at child birth (too old. 6 7 8 Antenatal care is a poten ally important way to connect a woman with the health system. The rate is currently obtained from a survey using a direct es ma on procedure drawing on the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). including partnering with TBAs. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 85 .. BEONC. Policies and Strategies Considering that the decline in maternal mortality has been slow with complex problems faced in achieving the target for 2015. 6. too young). and strengthening the community based care through TBA-midwife partnership. (c) increasing access to emergency (basic and comprehensive) obstetric care for highrisk deliveries. village health posts (poskesdes). 3. (b) increasing the use of skilled health personnel in deliveries. high abor on rates. Mother and Baby Friendly Hospitals (CEONC8) and posyandu revitaliza on. a complete vital sta s cs model should be compiled through registra on. UN guidelines recommend a minimum of one comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility and four basic emergency obstetric care facili es per 500. integrated health posts (posyandu). that is they are key interven ons that accelerate achievement of the full range of health MDG targets. expanding the village midwife func on. if it is func oning. 2. and low contracep ve use – are indicators of the weakness of family planning services which are an important driver in reducing maternal mortality. the future policies and strategies to be pursued are:7 1. This has been the case since 1994. the respondent’s brothers and sisters). or a popula on census with the cause of death recorded needs to be implemented immediately. CEONC. improving facility-based and outreach services by improving quality and quan ty of puskesmas. which. The eﬀects of these policies are not narrowly focused on maternal health. Therefore.000 live births. but are systemic. The Maternal Mortality Ra o remains uncertain.000 popula on. that is 102 per 100. increasing access to family planning services. and (d) increasing the percentage of deliveries in a health facility. will be cri cal for saving her life in the event of a complica on.5. The high IMR and MMR. as the system for recording causes of maternal deaths is not robust. Low rates of contracep ve use and high unmet need remain major challenges. To obtain accurate death rates and causes of death. by means of expanding the service network (coverage and access) and integra ng family planning with other reproduc ve health programs with a focus on the poor and underserved areas.e. The surveys collect informa on on the survivorship of all live births of the respondent’s natural mother (i.
in the aforemen oned 23. underserved. Improving promo on and community mobiliza on by: α. focusing to fulﬁll needs in remote. β. increasing the availability of health workers (general prac oners. β. χ. NGOs. 9. that includes integrated service delivery for mothers and children from pregnancy to delivery. BOK (subsidy for non-salary opera ng cost for primary health facili es). 4. border and islands areas. a tudes and behavior of teenagers related to adolescent reproduc ve health. improving adequate micronutrient intake by pregnant women by ensuring adequate 86 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . improving knowledge. and childhood. χ. improving commitment and par cipa on across sectors and local governments in popula on and family planning program implementa on. improving human resources capacity in the family planning program at all levels.500 clinics in order to assist and develop self-reliance in family planning. paramedical staﬀ) in term of quan ty. and communi es in family planning program implementa on.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Con nuing family planning revitaliza on in order to control the popula on is one of the key features of policies to achieve universal access to reproduc ve health by 2015. Jamkesmas (social health insurance for the poor). increasing par cipa on and self-reliance training for family planning through 23. to reduce the “three delays” and to save women’s lives by giving adequate care on me. specialists. and will be pursued through a series of strategies. by providing material support for the clinics.500 government and private family planning clinics. a tudes and behavior related to popula on control. improving knowledge. improve the con nuum of care. the immediate postnatal period. δ. 8. communica on and educa on for popula on control and family planning. reducing ﬁnancial barriers through: PKH (condi onal cash transfers). Supervising and building self reliance to par cipate in family planning by: α. addic ve drugs use. promo ng and strengthening partnerships with the private sector. raising awareness about safe motherhood at the community and household level by strengthening public health educa on. including: 1. developing media communica ons and intensifying informa on. Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). village midwives. 7. 5. strengthening the referral system. life skills educa on and family life educa on for adolescents. 6. quality and distribu on. family planning and reproduc ve health. HIV/AIDS. free contracep ve devices/drugs and free family planning services for the poor. through pre-service and in-service training of key health personnel and implemen ng the contractual service provider scheme. 2.
and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services. in par cular by: (i) introducing analy cal methods to measure maternal deaths drawing on diverse sources of varying quality. addressing par cular issues related to decentraliza on and strengthening and sharpening the tasks in achieving health Minimum Services Standards (MSS). (ii) focusing on groups and areas most at risk of maternal death. provincial and district authori es and introducing be er program oversight and management through surveillance. 11. to ensure the achievement of health MDGs at all levels. 10. while focusing targe ng of interven ons in poor and underserved areas. 13. monitoring. Priori es. 12. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set annual targets as follows: Table 5. and promote collabora on among programs and sectors as well as between public and private sector en es. Outputs. improving the informa on system. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled birth a endant (PN) 2010 84% 2011 86% 2012 88% 2013 89% 2014 90% Improve quality of maternal and reproduc ve health services Percentage of pregnant mothers with at least 4 ANC visits (K4) Percentage of health care services that provides standardized family planning services Number of puskesmas that implement standardized midwifery services based on guidelines 84% 86% 90% 93% 95% 10% 40% 75% 90% 100% Improve expansion of nursing and midwifery services 70 140 210 280 350 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 87 . strengthening coordina on mechanisms by deﬁning modali es for sharing roles and responsibili es among central. including developing linkages with communi es to achieve synergies in advocacy and service delivery. and (iii) developing models for iden fying eﬀec ve safe motherhood strategies. In emphasizing the aforemen oned strategies. providing an enabling environment to support management and stakeholders’ par cipa on in policy development and the planning process.1. In addi on. building eﬀec ve partnerships across programs and sectors to make use of synergies in service provision and advocacy.nutri on intake. evalua on and ﬁnancing.
2 12.000 78.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 3.4 49.2 3.700 100 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Improving human resources capacity of the family planning providers in 23.8 3. Percentage of new par cipants for long term contracep ve method f.000 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Table 5.7 12. Number of new poor (KPS/family within below prosperity level and KS-1/ prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.3 28. Percentage of trained family planning human resources in 23. 2010-2014 Priori es Outputs Contracep ve Prevalence Rate/CPR (%) a.9 4.97 4.000 72.6 27.9 25.1 4.2 26. Percentage of family planning clinic providing family planning services based on the proper Standard Opera ng Procedure (SOP) (from the whole 23.500 2013 7. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.500 Popula on and Family Planning 3.4 49.0 23. Number of public and private clinics receiving infrastructure support 2010 57. Percentage of current self-reliant users e.4 12.8 3.9 13. Percentage of current users for long term contracep ve method g.5 12.500 public and private clinics 2.500 2011 7. Percentage of new male par cipants 1.5 25.1 4. Number of public and private clinic providing family planning service 2.0 23.700 35 4.2 3.1 24.5 29 3. Number of new par cipants (in millions) b.5 50. Number of self-reliant users (in thousands) d.2.700 90 4.4 48.000 76.500 public and private clinics 11.6 29. par cipa on and independence in family planning 1.6 23.6 51 13. Number of poor current users (KPS/ family within below prosperity level and KS-1/prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.3 23. par cipa on.7 4.5 5.9 12.1. Priori es.500 public and private clinics in promo ng guidance. Con nued Priority Improve support for management and implementa on of technical tasks in Nutri on and Health programs for Maternal-Child Outputs Number of func oning Poskesdes (village health posts) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 70.6 12.000 74. Number of current users (in millions) c.7 3.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Table 5.500 2012 7. and independence in ge ng family planning service from 23.05 Increasing guidance. Outputs.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 4.89 3.500 2014 65 7.6 23.5 3.8 13.75 3.700 75 4.1 26.500 public and private exis ng clinics) 20 35 50 70 85 88 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .700 45 4.2 27.4 7.
157 1.343 2. Planning family life 2.450 2. Number of PKBR trainer receiving training 3. reproduc ve age women and adolescence obtaining informa on on popula on and family planning from printed and electronic media and outdoor media Number of trained family planning ﬁeld worker (Family Planning Field Workers/ PLKB. Refreshing c. Number of center of excellent PKBR (per province) 4.065 1.373 53 67 15 115 2 12. Number of adolescence/student Informa on and Counseling Center (PIK) established and guided 1.700 2. HIV/AIDS Promo ng adolescence knowledge. manner and a tude toward popula on control and family planning 95 95 95 95 95 Improving NGO.253 56 70 20 30 3 13.342 2.195 59 72 25 30 4 14.700 950 50 64 10 1 9.140 62 76 30 30 5 15. Percentage of Informa on. manner and a tude about planning family life among adolescence (PKBR) c.350 3. General Basic Training (LDU) b. Educa on and Communica on (IEC) media and materials produced 2. Percentage of adolescence knowledge about: a. private sector and community par cipa on in maintaining popula on and family planning program Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 89 .300 1.500 3. Family Planning Counselors/PKB): a.1.016 38 65 84 100 100 Promo ng people’s knowledge. Technical Training 1. Adolescence reproduc ve health b.750 3. Percentage of reproduc ve age couples.018 1.
90 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.“Stop AIDS. Start Running”. Malaria and Other Diseases .
Malaria and Other Diseases 92 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.
two provinces.4 percent among the general popula on aged 15 – 49 (IBBS. DKI Jakarta (2. universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it Current Status The number of new HIV infec ons has been increasing in Indonesia.615 cases). In 2009 there were 19.).1.17 percent of the popula on. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 93 .5 percent and it is es mated that some 193.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.22% in 2008. Papua (2.808 cases). Cases of HIV and AIDS are found in all areas of Indonesia. although the percentage of HIV-infected individuals in Indonesia is s ll rela vely low at 0. Cumula vely. more than double the number compared with the 8. Papua and Papua Barat. are shi ing to a generalized epidemic with a prevalence of 2.194 cases recorded in 2006 (Figure 6.973 cases. CDC MoH 2007). During the period 1996 to 2006. East Java (3. but the number of cases varies by province (Figure 6. Although in most parts of Indonesia the AIDS epidemic is generally concentrated among high-risk popula ons with an es mated na onal adult prevalence of 0. and Bali (1.227 cases).2).828 cases). the number of HIV cases increased by some 17.000 people are currently living with HIV in Indonesia. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve.598 cases). The provinces with the greatest number of AIDS cases are West Java (3. the number of AIDS cases has tended to increase. by 2010.
3 percent and 3.227 . 2009 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Number of AIDS Cases Cumula ve AIDS Cases 3. Number of AIDS Cases in Indonesia.000 10.600 people by the 94 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sulawesi Barat Gorontalo Maluku Utara Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Selatan Aceh Papua Barat Bengkulu Bangka Belitung Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Jambi Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sumatera Selatan DI Yogyakarta Banten Sumatera Barat Kepulauan Riau Riau Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Bali Papua DKI Jakarta Jawa Timur Jawa Barat 0 3 10 11 12 21 27 43 58 91 117 119 138 144 165 173 192 219 290 318 330 333 475 485 591 717 794 1. and the spread of HIV through injec ng drug use accelerates.141 3.1 percent of cases.195 5. which will increase the number of people with AIDS from some 404.110 11. At current rates.21 percent in 2008 to 0. 19892009 20. together with their partners represent most reported new HIV cases (50.000 Popula on in Indonesia.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. by Province.000 2.3 percent from homosexuals (men having sex with men – MSM).000 1.000 8. 21 Source: MoH.171 316 Source: MoH.000 12.000 2.4 percent in 2014.000 6.828 3.615 Figure 6.3.808 2.2. Modes of transmission are indicated in Figure 6.6 percent are perinatal infec ons resul ng from mother-to-child transmission. about 2. Heterosexual groups such as female sex workers (FSW) and transsexuals.873 2.1. and blood transfusion transmission cause about 0.000 16.500 3. AIDS Cases per 100. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.) es mates increasing HIV prevalence in the popula on aged 15-49 years from 0. 2009.973 16.000 18.000 3.000 - 19.500 2.969 2.000 500 - 2. HIV infec on in Indonesia would con nue increasing over the next decades as people increasingly engage in unprotected sex.321 2. The projec on of this modeling (Figure 6.947 4.000 14.863 8. 2009.639 2.3.682 1.500 4.000 4.500 1. followed by injec ng drug users (IDUs) at 39.194 1.598 4. DG of CDC and EH. About 91 percent of AIDS cases have occurred in the reproduc ve age group (15-49 years of age). DG of CDC and EH.3 percent).
3% IDUs. Unknown.1 2. Ministry of Health.0 Percentage (%) 40. In total. 2009 Heterosex. NAC Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 95 .800 cases in 2014.5) 1 Mathema c modeling of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia.6% MSM. Figure 6. Indonesia.3 percent of young unmarried women (IDHS 2007).2 Source: DG of CDC & EH Ministry of Health. 3.7 Cumula ve Percentage on AIDS Cases by Age Goup. 2010-2025.4 percent of young unmarried men and 10.0 1.0 10.6 3. Condom use is also posi vely correlated with level of educa on (Figure 6. 2009 8. Diﬀerent pa erns are found in women.9 1. men in urban areas are more likely to use a condom during high-risk sex than men in rural areas. 60. IDU=injec ng drug user. 2009 Age Group By residence. that in turn will result in the increased need for an retroviral therapy (ART) from 50. 0.720 by 20141 ().3% Source: Surveillance reports.5 0. 39.2 0. by Popula on Group.400 cases in 2010 to 86.4. 50. Blood Transfussion. the percentage of young unmarried people repor ng condom use during their most recent sexual encounter is only about 18.0 50.1% Perinatal.3 30. 4. where women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to report condom use in their last high risk intercourse.5 3.0 20.0 30.3.end of 2010 to some 813. Another related factor in HIV/AIDS transmission is the failure to use condom. Na onal AIDS Programme.0 <1 1-4 5-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 Unknown Figure 6. 2. 48.4% Distribu on of HIV Infec ons.3% Note : MSM=men who have sex with men.
urban). Likewise.0 20. with regard to socio-economic status.7 15. Knowledge of married men and women in urban areas was higher than in rural areas.8 21.4 percent3 of the total es mated cohort of eligible people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (calculated from MOH report 2010) as presented in Figure 6. IYARHS 2007. Who Use Condom at Last Sex.5 percent (married men) and 21.1 10.5.9 percent for married men and married women.0 28. While most youth (15-24 years of age) in the country are aware of HIV/AIDS. less than 50 percent2 (Figure 6.2 20.0 10.6 percent of unmarried women have correct and comprehensive knowledge of AIDS (Figure 6. This coverage increased from ART interven on coverage in 2006 by about 24.0 7. this falls far short of the 95 percent target set by the United Na ons and is the lowest in the region. and is being oﬀered to 38. respec vely. an retroviral therapy (ART) is available at 180 facili es.4 percent of unmarried men and 2. only 1. The equivalent numbers for the lowest quin le are 3.6 13. In Indonesia. while the number of PLWHA is es mated based on the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). Percentage of Unmarried Women and Men Age 15-24 Who Have Ever Had Sex. educa on and socio-economic status. The higher the level of educa on. Total - 5.3 8.8 percent. Among youth who are unmarried.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. 2007 15-19 Age 15. the higher the percentage of correct and comprehensive knowledge about AIDS. knowledge in the highest wealth quin le was 27.4 24.3 18.0 25.5 9.0 30. According to Background Characteris c.6).3 20-24 Residence Urban Rural Less than completed primary Men Women Education Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Source: BPS.4 12.7 percent (married women).0 4.4 10. There are also dispari es in knowledge among regions.6 11. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. residence (rural vs.0 15. The es mated number of eligible PLWHA for ART per year is based on “cut of point” of the result of CD4 <200/ mm3 is about 10 . 96 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .20% from the total PLWHA in that period.7). country reports: HIV / AIDS in the South-East Asia Region 2009.1 percent and 1.0 Knowledge about HIV and its preven on is an important prerequisite for adop ng healthy behaviors.5 percent of married women have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV.7 percent of married men and 9. only 14.7. 2 3 UNGASS.
Source: Country reports.2 2.6 2.3 9.7.8 Unmarried Women Educa on 2.7 10.1 12.1 2.2 1.0 10.8 1. 5.6 20-24 15-24 Propor on of Men and Women Aged 15-24 with Correct of Comprehensive Knowledge about AIDS.0 Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Lowest Highest 1.0 20. the trend and projected cases of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is es mated to increase uncontrollably. Figure 6.660 in 2014 (MoH 2010).5 14.1 Figure 6.0 Source: BPS.7 27. **) covering age group of 15-49 years old for married women.NASAP 2010-2014).2.0 5.0 30.0 25.3 2.4 0.1 1.800 in 2014 (Na onal AIDS Strategy Ac on Plan . Without adequate interven ons.2 10.9 3. the need for ART among the 15-49 age group is projected to increase three fold from 30.8 1.0 2. Without eﬀec ve preven on.7 9.6.1 0.5 15-19 Age 1. except when describing marreid women by age group Total 1.2 22. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 97 .5 Note: *) covering age group of 15-54 years old for married man. IDHS and IYARHS 2007.9 1.0 35.2 2.4 2.6 1.9 10.0 15. except when describing married men by age group.2 5.2 3.7 3.6 0.100 in 2008 to 86.7 18.9 8.9 Quin le 21.9 3.2 1. Coverage of ART Interven ons in Indonesia.4 2.6 0. by Background Characteris c.8 Married Men* Married Women* Unmarried Men 4.1 0. Indonesia 2007 Residence Urban Rural no educa on Some primary 14. 2006–2009 Note: An retroviral treatment (ART) is given to individuals with advanced HIV infec on as per na onal treatment protocols.7 28. The number of children needing ART will also increase from 930 in 2008 to 2.5 15.
immigra on) and places great demands on eﬀec ve coordina on of strategies and interven ons. harm reduc on for IDUs. care. voluntary counceling and tes ng (VCT) is not yet available in all regions. diagnosis. preven ng mother-to-child infec ons.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. currently. 3. the penal system. safe blood transfusions and universal precau ons. 2. Policies and Strategies 1. Strengthening the health-care system is crucial in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases. care and 4 Protocols would be for managing STIs.4 and (iii) improving coverage of preven on. While much eﬀort has gone into se ng up good governance prac ces at the na onal level. and conserva ve a tudes may serve as a signiﬁcant barrier to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. 4. Some of the crucial challenges in AIDS mi ga on are: 1. There are some constraints due to s gma and discrimina on of PLWHA in the community as well as the existence of gender inequali es and viola ons of human rights. Malaria and Other Diseases Challenges The basic challenge in HIV/AIDS is to halt and reverse the upward trend in the incidence/ prevalence of the infec on and the disease. they may not be keeping pace with the spread of the disease. as it spreads na onwide. transporta on. educa on and communica ons (IEC) programs are being pursued as part of the HIV/AIDS strategy. infec on and disease management protocols. HIV tes ng 98 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . While behavioral change communica ons (BCC) and informa on. Limited access to health services related to HIV/AIDS. preven on. This places the emphasis squarely on preven on strategies and infec on control. Community values shape a tudes. The limited budget alloca ons and sustainability of funding in controlling HIV and AIDS. through: (i) improving the number and quality of health-care facili es in providing sustainable promo on. The availability and sustainability of funding remain major obstacles in tackling the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. and sociogeographically. coordina on within the Na onal Aids Commission (NAC) itself needs further improvement. treatment and care. The health-care system needs to be strengthened in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases in preven on. they may not be suﬃciently eﬀec ve nor well-targeted. educa on. Limited facili es and human resources as well as limited availability of ART in term of quan ty and quality. 5. The weakness of inter-sectoral coordina on as well as monitoring and evalua on systems. (ii) strengthening the ability to apply preven on. Tackling the disease involves par cipa on by a number of sectors (health. Improving access by strengthening public health services so that they have the necessary skills and resources to an cipate and respond to the epidemic. treatment. the military. diagnosis.
and maintaining an eﬀec ve coordina ng mechanism (NAC). (iv) developing na onal guidelines for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. and (v) crea ng an enabling and conducive environment to reduce s gma za on and discrimina on. Enhancing community mobiliza on to improve HIV/AIDS preven on. in par cular. including mobile units. the Na onal Medium-Term Plan (2010-2014) has set targets to control the spread of HIV/AIDS as follows: and counseling. (iii) social marke ng of condoms. by: (i) establishing a concerted system within government that synergizes various levels of organiza on and ins tu ons to contribute towards an integrated strategy. in the community. and (ii) providing informa on to policy makers on the socio-economic costs of HIV/AIDS and on scaling-up interven ons.2. (ii) strengthening the role of Na onal and Local AIDS Commissions. (iii) strengthening cross-sectoral partnerships by escala ng the role of HIV/AIDS planning and budge ng forums. 5. through: (i) conduc ng health monitoring and analysis including. Mobilizing addi onal ﬁnancial resources for a successful HIV/AIDS strategy. 3. and among pa ents. treatment including ARV coverage. while encouraging community ac on. and (vi) pursuing an inclusive approach that promotes complementarity among government. treatment and care services in drop-in centers and similar loca ons. (vi) human resource planning that recognizes the increasing demands of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (management and provider skills). counseling. Strengthening informa on and monitoring and evalua on systems. second genera on surveillance. In underlining the strategies. and for the clinical management of treatment and care for people living with HIV. and (v) adap ng them to speciﬁc situa ons (stage of epidemic. high-risk groups. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 99 . nongovernment and private sector organiza ons. care and treatment interven ons through: (i) providing IEC services on incurring HIV infec ons and preven ng transmission. resources). (v) formula ng na onal guidelines for BCC programs and IEC messages. (ii) undertaking community outreach that focuses on the most-at-risk popula ons and includes HIV tes ng. capacity. provincial and district health authori es in tackling the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. Improving cross-sectoral coordina on and good governance. subsequently tailored to the par cular environment. (iv) deﬁning the respec ve roles of central. (ii) mobiliza on of addi onal ﬁnancial resources in controlling HIV/AIDS. (iv) assuaging prejudices – among health workers. 4. preven ng the progression of HIV to AIDS. and (iii ) development of public private partnerships (PPP). gender inequity and human rights viola ons in implementa on of HIV/AIDS programs. through: (i) integra ng HIV/AIDS into development programs both at the na onal level (ﬁnanced through the na onal budget/APBN) and local level (ﬁnanced through the local budget/ APBD).
60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 2012 <0. Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program.1. Inpres 3/2010 and MOH Strategic Plan 2010-2014.000 500.000 Reducing morbidity and mortality rates of communicable diseases (HIV/AIDS) Percentage of districts that implement appropriate guidelines for preven on of HIV transmission Use of condoms in high-risk sex groups (based on the report by the user) Percentage of people living with AIDS(PLWHA) who receive an retroviral therapy (ART) Percentage of public hospitals provide referral service for people with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% - 35% (f) 20% (m) 45% (f) 30% (m) 55% (f) 40% (m) 65% (f) 50% (m) 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.5 65% 75% 85% 90% 95% 300.000 700. Priori es.5 2013 <0. Malaria and Other Diseases Table 6.2 2011 <0. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Prevalence of HIV Percentage of Popula on above 15 years have correct and comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS The number of people aged ≥15 who received HIV counseling and tes ng 2010 0.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.000 400.5 2014 <0.000 600.
50 1. Indonesia 1990-2009 2. by 2009.0 percent).36 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria. As a result.000 popula on. the incidence was at 3. where the highest number of malaria cases are reported.85 cases per 1. The na onal prevalence based on clinical diagnosis5 is 2.18 3. Bengkulu. treatment-suscep ble plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are equally common. Jambi. Kalimantan Tengah.50 4.47 2008 2009 1. Bangka Belitung.8.63 3. The highest prevalence rates are to be found in eastern Indonesia.89 percent (Riskesdas 2007). and drug-resistant plasmodium vivax malaria predominates.33 3. Maluku Utara.4 percent) and NTT (12.68 5. about 0. 4.50 0.00 0.000 popula on 3. malaria in Jawa and Bali is hypo-endemic.Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases Current Status Incidence and death rate associated with Malaria.00 Figure 6.54 3.50 2.62 cases per 1.000 popula on. 5 Based on diagnosis results by health professionals and respondent complaints.74 4.5 percent.00 2. Sumatera Utara.53 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 3. Papua Barat and Papua). Nusa Tenggara Barat.89 2.1 percent). The malaria incidence rate during the period of 2000-2009 shows that malaria cases tended to decline: in 2000.50 5.62 3.45 3. There are 15 provinces where malaria prevalence is above the na onal average (Aceh. In the outer islands. Sulawesi Tengah.83 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 2.7 Posi ve per 1.50 3.66 3. Gorontalo. Almost half the popula on lives in endemic areas. Only some 20 percent of pa ents with symptoma c malaria seek treatment at public health facili es. with the rate varying between 0. 3.81 2003 2004 2005 4.00 1990 3. it had declined to 1. Nusa Tenggara Timur.1 percent among regions. the highest being in the provinces of Papua Barat (26. 2010.23 3. and some 35 percent of this popula on is malaria posi ve.00 1. making it diﬃcult to es mate the actual malaria incidence among the popula on.1 2006 2007 Source: Ministry of Health. Maluku.85 2.85 2.2 percent and 26. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 101 . Provinces in Jawa and Bali have the lowest (clinical) prevalence.00 3. Papua (18.
and it will have the desired impact if messages are standardized and pay suﬃcient a en on to the local epidemiology. virtually three mes that of urban households. malaria can be prevented. Financial factors become essen al in ensuring availability.5 percent and 1. larviciding and environmental management) are also used. Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cide-treated bed nets. and community awareness about mely treatment is important. distribu on and monitoring and evalua on of an malarial drugs. vector control and the limited supply of malaria-related informa on systems. Ineﬀec ve malaria preven ve ac ons. Insuﬃcient understanding of appropriate preven ve ac ons and the need to seek prompt care pose challenges to eﬀec ve infec on control and disease management at the community level. Underlining the par cular circumstances that may have led to the posi ve results of the MOH study is the conclusion of the 2007 IDHS study that only 50 percent of communi es na onally were aware of essen al an malarial strategies. access to treatment. Challenges 1. or 2) a pretreated net obtained within the past 12 months. geography and socio-economic condi ons. uses and manages the environment is involved. and 3.3 percent have legi mate ITNs6.6 percent. However.7 is s ll inadequate on a na onal scale. Appropriate IEC and BCC messages are a crucial element. while provision of an malarial medicines by public health services has increased over me. 102 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 4. Malaria and Other Diseases Today.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. 6 7 8 An insec cide-treated net (ITN) is 1) a factory-treated net that does not require any further treatment. In general. especially of ACT. management of salinity in aquaculture and coastal lagoons.8 Other constraints may also be due to ineﬀec ve implementa on of epidemiological surveillance. indoor residual spraying with insec cides (IRS). ACT: Artemisinin-based Combina on Therapy. the use of ITN is almost non-existent. the use of insec cide treated bed nets is an important interven on. Prompt malaria treatment (that is within 24 hours) occurs in some 48 percent of cases. Case management (diagnosis and treatment) emphasizes prompt interven ons. Households in rural areas are more likely to have insec cide treated bed nets. respec vely. Other vector control measures (for example. and intermi ent preven ve treatment for pregnant women (IPTP). The primary preven ve tools are long-las ng insec cidal nets (LLINs). It is mainly through interac ons between well-informed communi es at risk and health authori es that results can be accelerated. In preven on eﬀorts. rice ﬁeld draining) can work well only if the community that lives in. diagnosed and treated with a combina on of available tools. Larval control and environmental management measures (for example. but ownership of treated nets is very low– only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net (ITN). Some 30 percent of households own some type of mosquito net. or 3) a net that has been soaked with insec cide within the past 12 months.
a ﬁnancial mobiliza on strategy for both interna onal and domes c funding will be expanded for medium and long term programs. with the program encountering bo lenecks at the service level. Inadequate monitoring and evalua on system. (iii) increasing a en on to a strong malaria informa on system by collec ng adequate malaria-related morbidity and mortality data. Health services may not be suﬃciently equipped and staﬀed to respond promptly to needs. The transfer of responsibility for implemen ng the malaria program may not have paid enough a en on to limited capaci es at local levels. 3. improving and strengthening the implementa on of universal coverage RBM strategy are crucially needed. Limited capacity at local level. and there may be shortages of necessary technical exper se (for example. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 103 .2. 4. (vii) strengthening epidemiological surveillance and outbreak 9 The par cipa on of malaria cadres. So far. (vi) improving vector control that is suitable to local condi ons. the workforce may not have the appropriate training. through: 1. Oversight capabili es remain limited. Developing strategies for social mobiliza on that focus on promo ng community awareness about preven on interven ons and in malaria control. human. and TBAs in malaria control eﬀorts are key parts of the response strategy. through: (i) developing IEC and BCC messages that are designed with par cipa on by service providers and user representa ves. so that they are tailored to speciﬁc regional and community situa ons (that is client orienta on)9. entomologists and monitoring and evalua on specialists). Therefore. (iv) strengthening monitoring progress at local levels and undertake local situa on analysis. Interna onal ﬁnancial contribu ons need to be balanced with the increment of domes c ﬁnancial resources. (ii) developing social mobiliza on strategies that focus on increasing public awareness about malaria preven on eﬀorts. especially in the high malaria endemic areas. Case management may suﬀer from weak logis c planning at the facility level with interrup ons in the availability of drugs and the means to carry out diagnos c tests. domes c ﬁnancing–through na onal and sub-na onal budgets–has been rela vely modest. Policies and Strategies To accelerate eﬀorts to achieve the MDG targets related to malaria. and ﬁnancial resources. community health workers. In some instances. monitoring and evalua on ac vi es are insuﬃcient to allow good planning and budge ng for the na onal malaria program. Expanding malaria preven on and treatment along the lines set out in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program will require addi onal physical. (v) providing and promo ng the use of insec cide treated bed nets.
Long-term and predictable funding will be needed to maintain the sustainability of the programs. and entomology.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. (iii) strengthening of village malaria posts (posmaldes) to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with malaria. 4. and allow the incorpora on of local diﬀerences into strategic planning. (viii) developing cross-sectoral interven on models such as larvaciding and biological control. Malaria and Other Diseases control systems. through: (i) strengthening program oversight with well-designed monitoring and evalua on systems that draw on a good understanding of community dynamics. Improving ﬁnancial support. (ii) ensuring early detec on and care seeking. especially in awareness raising. Health services have a central role in raising awareness. especially related to improve malaria case detec on. 104 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and informa on systems that allow monitoring for be er planning and targe ng of malaria interven ons. To ensure sustainability of control programs. control and treatment. par cularly in remote areas. work programs. To accelerate reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of emerging communicable diseases. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set out some crucial targets that also are speciﬁed in the Presiden al Instruc on No. (iii) ensuring be er use of donor support by placing it in the context of comprehensive na onal strategic planning for malaria. 3. the human resources need to be equipped with the appropriate skills in: advocacy. technical assistance and targeted training programs will be provided to ensure increased capacity at all levels. in par cular by strengthening partnerships with research and technical en es to conduct opera onal research on the eﬀec veness of drugs. and (iv) controlling drug quality and use. through the private sector and the interna onal community. Some improvements are needed in: (i) promo ng preven on and control in the community. Strengthening health services in preven on. Improving capacity of human resources. insec cides and preven ve tools. malaria detec on and rapid treatment. 5. (iii) responding to the need for case management in a mely manner. concerning Equitable Development Programs. and (iv) integra ng malaria program with maternal and child health program interven ons. 3/2010. Improving management structures and governance that include strategies. control and treatment. and (ix) developing a capacity to assess the eﬃcacy of the malaria control eﬀorts. (ii) developing opportuni es for collabora on between public agencies and exploring public-private synergies. To be able to carry out the strategies. supply chain management. 2.
resul ng from inadequate treatment of TB. be er logis cs and a stronger TB monitoring system. as well as community-based TB care providers.9).10 and treatment outcomes show a success rate of 91 percent (2006).75 40 100 2012 1. The TB case detec on rate has increased rapidly – from 30. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.50 50 100 2013 1.7 percent in 2006.000 popula on Percentage of District/Municipality conduct vector mapping Percentage of Outbreak reported and tackled 2010 2 30 100 2011 1.2. Although the achievement of TB case detec on and treatment success has been rela vely sa sfactory. more focus needs to be placed on measures that adhere to interna onal standards for TB care.000 popula on/year. ensure drug quality. With an increasing threat of MDR-TB. 85 percent treatment success. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 105 . Both exceed the MDG targets of 70 and 85 percent respec vely.25 60 100 2014 1 70 100 Table 6.2008. Es mates for 1990 are prevalence 443/100. 2010-2014 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.000 popula on and mortality of 91/100. increased focus on capacity building in human resources in health services. and it reached 91 percent in 2005 . Indonesia has made progress by strengthening of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) program as a na onal policy. This performance reﬂects increased collabora on between sub-na onal oﬃces and private health services. and to reduce incidence rates and halve 1990 prevalence and mortality rates by 2015.Priority Reducing the morbidity rate and the mortality rate of Malaria and other communicable diseases Outputs Malaria case detec on rate per 1. there remains a need to face the high incidence of Mul drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB). In order to increase the eﬀec veness of TB control. 3/2010. The treatment success rate has been above 85 percent since 2000. to improve prescrip on prac ces. to ensure that the incidence rate con nues to fall through 2015. 10 Targets are 70 percent case detec on of smear-posi ve cases under DOTS. Priori es.6 percent in 2002 to 75. Indonesia was the ﬁrst high TB burdened country in the WHO South-East Asia Region to achieve the global targets for case detec on (70 percent) and treatment success (85 percent). and avoid interrup ons in medica on cycles. Inpres No. Case detec on now exceeds 70 percent. MOH Strategic Plan 20102014 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases (Tuberculosis) Current Status The na onal surveillance report on TB prevalence shows that the number of people infected by TB is declining (Figure 6.
and only about 2-3 percent of private prac oners. Interven on guidelines and ACSM need to be ﬁ ed to local circumstances.6 7. there is signiﬁcant varia on between regions. about 13 percent.5 86 86.1 1. 2.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. 3. and a consequently 11 ACSM is s ll a new area in TB program strategy and much more guidance and technical support is necessary. The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 81 73. ﬁeld-level implementa on needs to pay par cular a en on to strengthening of health services and dissemina on of informa on. communica on and social mobiliza on (ACSM) are being pursued as part of the TB strategy. but only some 38 percent of hospitals.5 12 19 20 21 30. but results are s ll modest and understanding of the issues remains weak. Advocacy. including professional associa ons. reﬂec ng a combina on of the following factors: (i) ACSM11 coverage is s ll low and messages may not be eﬀec ve. which will require strong commitments of stakeholders. Directorate CDC. (iii) most of the community does not know that an -TB drugs are free and provided by local health facili es (only 19 percent knew). reduce demand for services and consequently lower eﬀec veness of na onal strategies. Involvement of communi es in TB care is essen al. In addi on. Poor awareness of the TB program. and (ii) access to services is limited. private health facili es and peniten aries do so.4 4.6 69. Detec on and treatment services for TB are not yet rou nely delivered in all health services facili es (98 percent of Puskesmas do that rou nely.6 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: MoH-RI. Moreover.8 54 58 87 89. A tudes and Prac ce (KAP) conducted recently reported the following ﬁndings: (i) knowing what is TB (76 percent) and knowing that TB can be totally cured (85 percent).8 73. (ii) s gma za on according to TB (keep TB a secret if a family member had TB) is low. partnerships between public and private en es need to be established. A survey of Knowledge. The low household and community awareness and behaviors that increase the risk of infec on. Only 16 percent of respondents could correctly iden fy the signs and symptoms of TB.7 68 54 37. DG of CDC&EH. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. 106 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . 2009.8 72. The high case detec on rate has not been followed by the availability of adequate health care services. SR CDR Challenges 1. Insuﬃcient TB control policies with appropriate local strategies.1 86.9. To be successful.7 91 91 91 91 Percentage 75.
(iv) ensuring availability of adequate health personnel both in quan ty and quality. informa on is sparse and insuﬃcient to support strong policy making. In the absence of integrated planning and budge ng for TB ac vi es. 2. including the produc on of informa on that can be used.(ii) improving poli cal support and strengthening decentraliza on programs for eﬀec ve implementa on of DOTS. and by means of eﬃciency improvements in current program spending. The situa on may be par cularly challenging in remote areas where the combina on of poverty and TB can be more devasta ng. At the present me. However. and (viii) improving the evalua on and monitoring system and measuring the impact of treatment under DOTS. including through ini a ves that draw more a en on to TB. Some surveillance has been conducted. because data on the former is limited). ACSM. NGOs and the private sector in an integrated movement for na onal TB mi ga on (Gerdunas TB). par cipa on of care providers. family and community as well as work environment in inﬂuencing behavior. 5. (vii) improving eﬀec ve communica on to people with TB. (v) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 107 . (v) improving logis c and eﬀec ve drugs management systems. the informa on base needs to be improved so that policy making can be based on facts. implementa on of some components in the TB Strategy–health systems strengthening. Policies and Strategies Mee ng the challenges in TB preven on and control program depends on strengthening some strategies: 1. Funding so far has mainly come from donors. Beyond distribu ng informa on about TB. research (is less well understood than DOTS expansion and TB/HIV and MDR-TB rela onships. increasing awareness and promo ng passive case ﬁnding. (iii) improving partnerships involving government. currently characterize many situa ons at the local level and are reﬂected in insuﬃcient resources being allocated to the TB program. 4. there is a need to increase mobiliza on of local resources. Expanding DOTS coverage through health services by: (i) expanding and intensifying ACSM and facilitate access. (vi) improving ac ve promo on of TB control. (iv) expanding access to health care and free of charge medicines. (ii) implemen ng the Interna onal Standards for TB Care (ISTC) to all services. Improving capacity and quality in the TB program by: (i) strengthening laboratory diagnos c capacity in all health care facili es.weak commitment to it. however. (iii) intensifying involvement of private and public services. There is a shortage of ﬁnancial resources available to combat TB in Indonesia. resource use is neither eﬃcient nor eﬀec ve. for results management. providers and stakeholders. and would be used.
(iii) implemen ng surveillance to iden fy speciﬁc risks (such as the emergence of MDR TB). and (viii) establishing TB control capacity as a district level priority. 5. (vi) drug quality control: (vii) public-private collabora ve arrangements. The local commitment in alloca ng funds to local government budgets (APBD) to TB as part of MSS (Minimum Services Standards) as well as the MDGs is crucial since both are na onal and local priori es in health development. through promo ng an appropriate alloca on of resources. Malaria and Other Diseases ensuring the availability and sustainability of drug supply. through periodic studies about eﬀorts to improve provision of services. (vi) improving collabora on in TB/HIV programs. as well as cross-sectoral collabora on and a monitoring and evalua on system. (viii) promo ng community-based treatment. both at the central level and among local authori es. reduce delays in diagnosis. strong surveillance. while strengthening partnerships with other sectors and the private sector. (ii) reviewing and adjus ng the design of case detec on. (iv) periodic evalua on at na onal and local levels to increase accountability and mo va on to perform. monitoring and evalua on system. strengthening policies and fostering local ownership are key strategies to ensure the sustainability of the TB Program by reducing dependency of the local level on central transfers and external funds. through: (i) expanding research related to TB. (v) periodic surveys to iden fy special risks (emergence of MRD-TB or outbreaks in prisons or health facili es). (ii) improving coverage of laboratory services. vector control and other locally based preven ve interven ons.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Promo ng the alloca on of funds to ﬁnance the Stop TB program. In order to accelerate the achievement of the targets in reducing the incidence and death rate related to TB. and treatment delivery schemes to local condi ons and resources. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) sets targets for the following ac vi es and indicators as described in the table below: 108 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and implementa on of the DOTS. 4. (x) expanding case detec on rate and coverage of TB treatment and care services in all health services. Strengthening the health informa on. (iii) suppor ve advisory services that facilitate adop on of correct prac ces. enforcement of regula ons. and (xi) providing standardized facili es and infrastructure for TB services. diagnos c. 3. and (iv) increasing availability of an eﬀec ve health informa on system. (vii) strengthening public health services in providing eﬀec ve responses to the Stop TB program. Enforcing policies and regula ons to build eﬀec ve sector leadership and governance by establishing strong poli cal commitment. Therefore. (ix) outreach that applies appropriate remote area strategies. It will require: (i) further strengthening the capacity of the health system to prevent and control infec ous disease – reviewing surveillance and case-repor ng systems and se ng up alert and response mechanisms to lower the case fatality rate. and promo ng evidence-based planning and decision making.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 109 . Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB.Priority Indicators Prevalence of TB per 100. 3/2010. Inpres No. 2010-2014 Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of TB 85 86 87 87 88 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.000 popula on Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) 2010 235 73 2011 231 75 2012 228 80 2013 226 85 2014 224 90 Table 6.3. Priori es.
110 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Maintaining replanted mangrove trees Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .
forest ﬁres. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 113 . The Percentage of Forest Cover of the Total Land Area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 Source: Ministry of Forestry (1990-2008).1. a reduc on of forest cover as compared with the baseline year of 1990 when forest cover was 59.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrating the principles of sustainable development in national policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources Current Status The ra o of actual forest cover to the total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys was 52. Degrada on of Indonesia’s forests and reduc on in biodiversity occurred on a large scale prior to 2002 due to unsustainable forest management prac ces. Figure 7.97 percent. illegal logging.43 percent in 2008.
the use of nonrenewable energy in Indonesia more than doubled between 1990 and 2008. The consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) has been signiﬁcantly reduced in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.000 4. Halon.000 9. the availability of non-renewable energy is becoming more limited.000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Ministry of Environment.000 1. TCA. a reduc on as compared to 1.000 3. Figure 7.000 6. This in turn increases the threat of an energy crisis in the future. MBr) HCFCs 114 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1 million hectares between 1997 and 2001. 23 of 1992 on the Elimina on of the Consump on of Figure 7. Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 10.3. Total Energy Use of Various Types for the Years 1990-2008 (Equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in Millions) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. This reﬂects the increasing eﬃciency in the use of energy. CTC.000 2. Nevertheless. The Indonesian government ra ﬁed the Montreal Protocol through Presiden al Decree No.2. ODS was phased out (CFC.6 million hectares per year during 1985 .1997 and 2.000 5. The ra o of energy use per GDP in Indonesia has tended to decline.089 million hectares per year. The rate of forest degrada on between 2000 and 2005 was es mated to be 1.000 7.000 Consump on in ODP tonnes 8. Besides causing emissions that aﬀect climate change.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and conversion of forest lands to other uses.
In addi on. Indonesia announced the target to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 percent from Business as Usual (BAU) condi ons in 2020 in the forum of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009. and a regula on prohibi ng the importa on of ozone deple ng substances was enacted in 1998 and revised in 2006 by the Ministry of Trade. The steps that the government has already implemented include the following: To overcome Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 115 . Indonesia is vulnerable to the nega ve impacts of climate change. ini a ves are being taken to reduce deforesta on and forest degrada on through preven on of illegal logging. The target will be increased up to 41 percent with interna onal assistance. Although since 1998 the import of CFCs and goods related to the CFC has been oﬃcially banned. As the largest archipelagic country in the world. control over the smuggling. Challenges Global warming is leading to climate change and having nega ve impacts on the environment. and Indonesia is commi ed to cooperate ac vely with the world community in dealing with the important issues related to climate change. many regions in Indonesia will experience water supply shortages. including sea level rise. illegal importa on and use of ODS is very diﬃcult. building capacity for these ins tu ons at all levels. and other environmental changes.5 million hectares during 2010-2014. declining crop yields.Ozone Deple ng Substances. The government is working to increase forest cover through rehabilita on of 2. If appropriate steps are not taken. both to mi gate global climate change and implement steps to empower the people of Indonesia to adapt to the nega ve impacts of climate change. Na onal plans and policies will be focused on improving coordina on among the ins tu ons directly involved in environmental management. forest ﬁres and encroachment on forest lands. and strengthening the enforcement of laws and regula ons governing environmental management in Indonesia. Reduc on of global warming requires interna onal partnerships. and na onal ac ons are needed. and reduced produc vity of coastal ecosystems. development policies will be directed to achieve a sustainable pa ern of natural resource use and environmental management. Policies and Strategies In accordance with the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (2005-2025) and the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). there are s ll indica ons of illegal importa on and trade in ODS. more variable rainfall pa erns that can cause ﬂoods and droughts.
000 Ha 100.000 Ha 295. peat and swamp areas 160.000 Ha 240. The government.000 Ha 4.000 Ha 200.000 Ha 2. The government has also launched a na onal movement of rehabilia on of forests and cri cal lands.000 Ha 116 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1.000 Ha 1.000 Ha 3. in 2008 the government increased the total area of protected forests and protected aqua c waters signiﬁcantly. has already launched a 10. Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rehabilita on of cri cal lands and forest reclama on Implementa on of Forest and Land Rehabilita on Facilitate the rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 120.000 Ha 295.000 Ha 60.000 Ha 320.000 Ha 480. Comba ng illegal logging is being carried out in various areas to maintain the forest cover and protect conserva on areas. especially geothermal energy which comprises 39 percent.000 Ha Reduced area of cri cal lands through rehabilita on and reclama on of forests Facilitate and implement forest rehabilita on in priority catchment areas Implementa on of Land Reclamaon and Forest Rehabilita on in Priority Watersheds Facilitate land rehabilita on in the priority catchment areas Facilitate development of the urban forest areas Facilitate rehabilita on of mangrove forests. the government is socializing and providing ﬁscal and non-ﬁscal incen vies to promote energy saving measures and use of more eﬃcient. for example.000 MW electricity program Phase II which has renewable energy as its main energy source.000 Ha 240.000 Ha 120. The policy framework and strategy have been translated into programs and ac vi es in the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) as follows: Table 7.000 Ha 180. environmentally friendly and renewable alterna ve energy sources.000 Ha 500. Law Number 30/2007 has mandated increased use of New and Renewable Energy as an eﬀort to diversify.000 Ha 5.000 Ha 400. and implementa on of this law will become the responsibility of central and local governments.000 Ha 640. Through the ozone layer protec on program.000 Ha 300.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability the rate of deforesta on. peat and swamp areas (295 000 ha) 60.000 Ha 180. the government has and will con nue to maintain the ban on the use of materials that have been legally banned. In addi on.000 Ha 800.
200.000 ha 200.Con nued Table 7.000 ha 1. covering 2 million ha.000 ha 200.000.000 ha Increased quality of conserva on policies and forest damage control and integrated land management with various ministries and ins tu ons including.000 ha 800. with the Ministry of Forestry.000 ha 250.1. Facilitate 500 group / unit management business license HKM Facilitate 50 partnership units HKM Social Forestry Development Facilitate ins tu onal support food security in 32 provinces Facilitate community forest development partnership for industrial wood raw materials covering 250 000 ha Facilitate establishment and func oning of the center at 30 HHBK districts Targeted working area of 500.000 ha 300.000 ha of village forests 400.000 ha 100.000 ha 400.000 ha 2.000 ha 6 Districts 12 Districts 18 Districts 24 Districts 30 Districts 100.000 ha 1.000 ha 100 groups 200 groups 300 groups 400 groups 500 groups 10 Unit 20 Unit 30 Unit 40 Unit 50 Unit 4 Prov 8 Prov 16 Prov 22 Prov 32 Prov 50. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Improved forest management through community empowerment Facilitate establishment of community forest management areas (HKM). BPN and Local Governments Number of conserva on policies ﬁnalized to control forest destruc on and land use issued (the criteria and guidelines) are coordinated among the concerned ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Control of Forest and Land Degrada on Data on hotspots in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres that are desseminated to the concerned ministries and ins tu ons An implementa on mechanism for land and forest ﬁre preven on in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons 3 3 3 3 3 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 8 8 8 8 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 117 .000 ha 150.600.000 ha 500.
2% Forest Fire Control 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Adequacy of policies. impacts to land and forest ﬁres Hotspots on the islands of Borneo. Priori es Output / Indicators Detailed data on land and forest damage in 11 priority watersheds and and areas poten ally prone to landslides are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons The data of land cover and land use change (landuse change) compiled through the Program Go Green Indonesia Number of provinces (ecosystem approach) that are monitored according to the data and the poten al for disaster % of conserva on policy recommenda ons and control of forest destruc on and land area of the provinces implemented are monitored each year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 10 15 20 25 30 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Management of the 20% area of coral reefs. seagrass.1. to monitor the success of the implementa on mechanisms for the preven on of forest ﬁres 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% Implementa on of integrated watershed management in priority watersheds Integrated watershed management plan in 108 priority watersheds (DAS) Build a base line data on the 36 watershed management BPDAS Provision of data and maps of cri cal land in 36 BPDAS 22 DAS 44 DAS 66 DAS 88 DAS 100 DAS Development of Watershed Management 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 118 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Con nued Table 7. mangrove and 15 species of endangered aqua c biota Sea and freshwater conservaon areas and sustainably managed brackish areas Number of conserva on areas and protected aqua c biota species iden ﬁed and mapped accurately 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha Management and Conserva on Development Areas 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types Improved system blackout preven on.2% 67.8% 59. data and informa on to control land and forest ﬁres is integrated and coordinated with the concerned ministries and ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Forest and Control of Land Degrada on Data on the distribu on of hotspots/ forest ﬁres in eight Provinces disseminated to the ministries/ departments. Sumatera. mi ga on. and Sulawesi reduced by 20% each year The area of forest ﬁre is reduced compared to 2008 condi ons 20% 36% 48.
38 5.Number of Pilot Projects genera ng electricity from ocean energy resources DME 3.78 11.53 0 0 1 24.The number of ocean energy feasibility studies .1 1 27.419 2.55 0.795 The realiza on of new renewable energy and energy conserva on op ons Lisdes (EBT) . Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Availability of integrated water quality management policy tools among the concerned ministries and ins tuons % Se ng classiﬁca on of water at the district/ municipality level for 13 rivers in 119 priority districts and ci es.16 0.PLT Wind (kW) Managing the provision of EBT and Implementa on of Energy Conserva on .55 1.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 50 50 50 50 50 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 119 .1 1 24.32 0. Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources Contribu on to achieving the target of 10.PLTMH (kW) .9 5.64 0.PLTS 50 Wp .42 5.59 10.261 1. perfec ng and tes ng produc on Technology for Control and Mi ga on of the Impacts of Global Warming Policy recommenda ons to reduce emissions and increase carbon sinks and pilot plant photobioreactor for CO2 absorb on 1 1 1 1 1 Priori es Increased use of renewable energy including geothermal energy to reach 2000 MW in 2012 and 5000 MW by 2014 the commencement of coal bed methane produc on to generate electricity in 2011 accompanied by the u liza on of solar energy poten al Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 7.2.1 1 24.Con nued Table 7.Biomass (MW) .000 5.000 MW geothermal power plants in the phase II program Total installed capacity of geothermal power plants. ins tu ons and local governments Management of Water Quality and Peat Areas Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons 25% 25% 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% The physical model for CO2 absorb on. with coordina on across the concerned ministries.49 10.69 11.94 5. Amoun ng to 5795 MW in year 2014 1.1.260 3.
Indonesia may have lost "pearls" without a chance to know the value and beneﬁt lost. 120 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The average rate of degrada on of forest ecosystems in the period 2000-2005 reached 1. This document was published before the ra ﬁca on of the United Na ons Conven on on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) through Law No. Transfer of some ecosystems into areas to be used for industry. During the last 50 years. BAPI aimed to preserve biodiversity through reduced degrada on of ecosystems. 5 / 1994. Reduc on of biodiversity has occurred. is not well documented.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. a significant reduction in the rate of loss Current Status Indonesian biodiversity is threatened due to the u liza on of natural resources in unsustainable ways. development of the database. but also at the level of species and gene c diversity.09 million hectares per year. and providing support to the management of sustainable natural resources. transporta on and other uses has had a nega ve impact on biodiversity. Challenges Deprecia on of gene c diversity. Meanwhile. damage to coral reefs has increased from 10 percent to 50 percent. residences. Policies and Strategies The Indonesian government launched the Indonesian Biodiversity Ac on Plan (BAPI) in 1993 as a document to set priori es and investment in biodiversity conserva on and this plan was used in preparing the ﬁ h and sixth Five Year Development Plans (un l 1999). the percentage with 50 percent live coral reef popula ons has declined from 36 percent to 29 percent. by 2010. not only at the level of ecosystems. achieving. approximately 240 rare plant species have been declared endangered and some ﬁsh species are also threatened with ex nc on. par cularly species of wild animals and plants. Since not all gene c erosion occurring in wild species is known. Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature (IUCN) Red List data reports that 772 species of ﬂora and fauna are threatened with ex nc on. Between 1989 and 2000. Discussions on gene c erosion in the ﬁeld of agro-ecosystems may also be true for wild species.
Management and development of ecosystem and species conserva on in coastal zones and marine areas a) Improved management of ecosystems of coral reefs. b) Iden ﬁca on and mapping of marine conserva on areas and protected species Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 121 . IBSAP was built through a par cipatory process and addressed more current environmental problems. Environmental services and ecotourism development 7. new challenges and obstacles in implemen ng biodiversity conserva on. etc. Inves ga on and security protec on forest a) Reduce forest crime b) Finaliza on of cases of crime in conserva on areas 4. sea grass. namely: 1. Eﬀorts to conserve biodiversity and expand protec on of endangered species is illustrated with clear indicators and targets to be achieved. In order to address the various issues speciﬁed in the UNCBD and learning from the BAPI experience.Ten years later. ac ons. Conserving biodiversity is one of the priori es in natural resources management as contained in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). BAPI was updated into the "Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Ac on Plan (IBSAP)". opportuni es. Development of species and biodiversity conserva on gene cs a) Enhance biodiversity and endangered species popula ons b) Cap ve c) Interna onal and regional coopera on 5. Development and conserva on of essen al ecosystems a) Reduce conﬂict and pressure on na onal parks and other conserva on areas b) Improving the management of essen al ecosystem c) Improved management of problems resul ng from encroachment of conserva on areas d) Recovery of conserva on areas 3. Improving biodiversity conserva on a) Biodiversity conserva on policy b) Monitor the implementa on of biodiversity conserva on c) Facilitate the development of Biodiversity Parks 2. mangroves. Forest ﬁre control a) Reduce the number of hot spots b) Reduce the burned area c) Improving human resource capacity in controlling forest ﬁres 6. IBSAP iden ﬁed a number of needs.
71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7. Therefore. par cularly in urban areas where development has not matched the growth rate of popula on.9 % 58. In addi on. by 2015.2 37. greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets for access to improved drinking water (68.7 49.0 41. 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.1 70 53.7 53.8 47.7 48. The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reﬂects the slow rate of development of drinking water infrastructure.7 31. Figure 7. the number of households who have sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47. priority should be given to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies.19 percent respec vely.2 57.3 42.6 54. Susenas.7 43. Access to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37. Urban and all Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources in Indonesia (1993-2009) 80 Urban+Rural: 59. DRINKING WATER Improved drinking water is deﬁned as water from a protected water source located more than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina on.6 51.8 60 65.0 50.3 56.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7C: Halve.9 35.9 52. several years.5 42.2 Percentage 50 40 46.4.9 40.6 34.6 54.7 48.5 30.3 30 35. TOTAL URBAN RURAL 122 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47.7 38.5 75.4).3 % 68.4 40.0 45.71 percent and 51.3 46.5 48.73 percent of households in 1993 to 47. both in rural and urban areas. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Current Status The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and sanita on has con nuously increased.0 41.7 37.0 42.9 42.8 54. To achieve the MDG target by 2015.2 Notes: Data does not include Timor Timur.7 50.8 % TARGET MDG 35. Access to improved sources of drinking water tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas.8 20 10 37.8 48.7 42.5 51. Propor ons of Rural.0 43. many water supply facili es are not operated and maintained well. However.41 percent) in 2015.3 47.8 55.87 percent) and sanita on (62.5 30.6 31.3 41.7 .6 47.
3 17.8 20.44 36.9 40 32. Bali and Southeast Sulawesi.50 55.62 47.6 32.7 22.7 34. URBAN RURAL TOTAL Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 123 .2 Note: Data does not include Timor Timur Source: BPS.02 34.5 24.6 60 51.13 51. Aceh.85 44.8 62. Banten.71 58.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.02 55.45 46. the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta.4 12.7 59.3 56. As shown in Figure 7.71 48. hygienic.2 11.19 51.49 44.96 45.6 35.81 percent in 1993 to 51.2 48.6.70 55.4 45.5 28.9 57. Percentages of Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources by Urban and Rural Popula ons by Province (2009) 27. and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources.6 The propor on of households with access to adequate sanita on in rural. Figure 7.5.1 14.6 31.6 38. Susenas 2009.75 44. from 24.89 37.3 35.0 35.6 28.81 35.96 42.5.4 34.9 25.0 30 21.51 40.6 12.2 27.53 50.60 33.99 60.1 9.2 49.47 30. progress has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic development.97 54. 1993-2009 51. SANITATION Improved sanita on is deﬁned as facili es that are safe. and comfortable and that can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces.1 51.0 44.36 44.5 MDGs TARGET 80 57.1 64.5 20 17.2 15.08 48.12 59. urban and total rural and urban.7 69.74 40. Susenas 1993 – 2009.29 40.92 43.6 56.04 51. 100 90 66.6 10 0 17.0 20.2 70 53. However.1 50 27. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 7.7 54.7 56. The propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than doubled.38 Percentage Banten Aceh Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Papua Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Kepulauan Riau Lampung Jawa Barat Riau Sulawesi Barat Maluku Utara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Gorontalo Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Barat INDONESIA Papua Barat Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Maluku Jawa Timur Kalimantan Timur Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Bali DI Yogyakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL Source: BPS.30 59.Signiﬁcant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.6 53.6).4 55.84 36.7 76.3 18.
Susenas 2009.69 39.48 42. In terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas.03 43. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved 124 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur Papua Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Bengkulu Lampung Maluku Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Aceh Maluku Utara Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Timur INDONESIA Sumatera Utara Jawa Barat Riau Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Selatan Kalimantan Timur Banten Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara DI Yogyakarta Bali DKI Jakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL 80.06 57. 2.93 41.92 52. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised.59 75. Challenges The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include the following: 1.43 38. Figure 7. Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to achieve the MDG target in 2015.12 40. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over the years.37 20 .Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on.35 75.66 63.63 34. Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and sanita on.58 58.78 32.91 51. and this gap varies among provinces.07 51. making it diﬃcult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate.16 41. especially in urban areas where the popula on growth rate is higher than the na onal popula on growth rate.18 43.75 54.19 51.51 percent of urban popula ons have access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33. Propor ons of Households with Access to Improved Sanita on Facili es by Rural/ urban Areas by Province (2009) 100 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 14. with the largest gap found in the provinces of Kepulauan Riau.95 10 - Source: BPS.21 39.17 52.35 45.96 percent in rural areas.48 58.98 21. for example.83 40.82 60.84 45.02 42. Act No. there are 21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average. There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons. Na onwide.65 28.66 38. 69.78 45.7.
some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas. 5. especially at the level of program implementa on. and there is a need for more intensive coordina on. centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems have been less than adequate. At the same me there are many on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment in infrastructure. 3. This results from a tendency to rely on central government funding. especially in urban areas with development of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita on. Hand washing with soap is s ll not common. and this is reﬂected in the low budget alloca ons of regional governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking water and sanita on. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low. and although almost all households boil water for drinking. both from the government and the private sector. Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate. and about 55. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water. Diarrhea Morbidity Survey. and disposal of fecal waste. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for development of drinking water and sanita on.drinking water and sanita on. The level of investment in the provision of piped water connec ons. There are s ll many households that rely on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality. An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly owned water companies are func oning properly. some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E. and this increases the likelihood of contamina on of water sources. 2010). Lack of balance between popula on growth. especially in urban areas. 6. storage. although the provision and management of improved drinking water and sanita on has become the responsibility of the local governments.coli bacteria. Unsanitary behavior is reﬂected in the high incidence of diarrhea. especially in urban areas. processing. investments in the provision of water service connec ons. Planning and budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a priority of local governments. The low ﬁnancial performance of the municipal water Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 125 . 8. which reached 411 per 1.000 inhabitants (MOH. 7. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water. 4. Determina on and se ng of tariﬀs does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery). The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector is limited. Similarly. including both Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional).51 percent of the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariﬀ below the cost of water produc on. is not in balance with the rate of urban popula on growth.
DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS). either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale. donors. 2. and the community. through the addi on. and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014. maintenance. coastal and rural areas. 126 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 3. The central government will also encourage and facilitate the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance and ﬁnancing. the development of drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Health. Alloca on of funding from Central Government will give priority to the poor. Eﬀorts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved drinking water and sanita on. the private sector. the future policy of investment is aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. development and improvement of transmission and distribu on networks. In addi on. In rural areas. and deregula on of the laws. including the government. construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of all par es. To increase access of households to improved sanita on. Funding from the private sector. remote. revision.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve ﬁnancing. At the same me. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement of water systems. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water and sanita on are as follows: 1. Investment will be focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale basis (oﬀ-site). Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support provision of improved drinking water and sanita on. To increase the pace in the provision of sanita on services. especially in urban areas. the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK) for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns.
7. 5. both for ins tu ons and communi es. through the control of ground water use by domes c and industrial users. through communica on. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior. informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water and sanita on facili es in schools as part of eﬀorts to improve the hygienic behavior of students and communi es. through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM) based on community based ini a ves. asset management and human resource capacity building. aligned with the RIS-SPAM. and among government. between government and the private sector. implementa on of corpora za on. (c) improving the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the government. as well as the applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water reclama on. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on systems. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and basic sanita on that is focused on services for urban popula ons. protec on of ground and surface water from sources of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services. Ensuring the availability of drinking water. the private sector and the public. The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. and (d) op mizing the u liza on of ﬁnancial resources. as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on. prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK). between government and society. Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of business plans. 9. Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private sector and the community through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). as presented in the following table: Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 127 . especially regarding the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has been deﬁned in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan. especially the poor.4. 8. (b) increasing coopera on among government agencies. and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems. 6.
000 16.500 5.5 67 85 90 95 100 100 Improving surveillance and monitoring of environmental quality Percentage of popula on that have access to basic sanita on 64 67 69 72 75 Number of villages where Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) will be implemented Number of urban areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of rural areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of areas with improved infrastructure developed for syistem oﬀ-site sewerage Number of areas with infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site sewerage systems 2.000 20.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Table 7.000 218 area 31 areas and 1. Priori es Outputs Percentage of households with access to improved drinking water source Percentage of drinking water quality that meets the requirements 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 62 62.000 villages 360 areas 32 areas and 700 villages 11 districts/ ci es 11 11 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan ( RPJMN 20102014) and Inpres no.5 63 63.165 villages 11 districts/ ci es Improve the development of drinkig water supply systems 260 areas 30 areas and 500 villages 315 areas 30 areas and 1.3.472 villages 9 districts/ ci es 244 areas 30 areas and 1. Annual Implementa on Targets to Improve Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources and Basic Sanita on 2010-2014.500 11.3/2010 Improve the development of sanita on infrastructure 30 districts/ ci es 35 districts/ ci es 40 districts/ ci es 50 55 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es 128 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
the Community-Based Ini a ves for Housing and Local Development (CoBILD).8. The provinces with the lowest propor ons of slum households are DI Yogyakarta. Jawa Tengah and Kalimantan Barat. Susenas. urban slums in Indonesia has declined The Propor on of Urban Households Living in Slums. Signiﬁcant disparites are found among provinces in the propor on of the urban popula ons categorized as slum households. Papua and DKI Jakarta. by 8. several ini a ves to empower those who live in urban slums are being implemented. and the Neighborhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Program (NUSSP).10 percent (DI Yogyakarta) while the highest propor on is 28. In addi on. including the Na onal Community Empowerment Program (PNPM Mandiri) with technical support from various na onal ministries. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 129 . but 12. the Urban Poverty Project (UPP).12 percent of urban households are s ll found to be living in slums (see Figure 7.9. As seen in Figure 7.63 percentage points from 1993. The Government of Indonesia has implemented many programs to improve the lives of slum dwellers. the provinces where with the highest percentage of slum households are found are Nusa Tenggara Timur.85 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). urban renewal.Target 7D: By 2020. The lowest propor on of slum households for a province is 5. 1993 and 2009 Many ini a ves have been carried out to improve the welfare of urban households. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Current Status The propor on of households living in Figure 7. Source: BPS. including: the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP).8).
2009 Percentage 35 5.4 24.0 18.6 15. Limited provision of basic facili es for urban se lements.5 13. Addi onal ini a ves will increase access of low income households to decent and aﬀordable housing through a liquidity facility. Limited capacity of the government and the private sector to build aﬀordable houses. Previous programs have produced less than op mal results in improving the lives of slum dwellers.3 14. the major challenges in reducing the propor on of urban slum households in Indonesia are as follows: 1. Several steps have been taken to improve the provision of decent and aﬀordable housing for low-income communi es through development of public housing for rent.9 8.6 7.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Figure 7.5 8.3 13.8 19.9 . 2.6 5. Susenas.7 9.1 5.5 10. The Propor on of Urban Slum Households by Province. Challenges Aside from the regional dispari es.7 7.1 25. and 5.6 9. as well as facilita ng the provision of land.6 8.7 7.0 25.9 12.7 10.9.1 14. and adequate public u li es.1 21.4 DI Yogyakarta Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Maluku Utara Jambi Sumatera Utara Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Timur Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Aceh Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Lampung INDONESIA Gorontalo Bali Kalimantan Tengah Bengkulu Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Kepulauan Riau Jawa Barat Banten Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sulawesi Barat Papua Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat DKI Jakarta Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: BPS. integrated with real estate development to realize ci es without slums.3 13. and microcredit for housing and na onal housing savings. Other priori es are to improve the quality of residen al environments through the provision of infrastructure.1 12. facilita on of development of new housing and improvement in the quality of selfhelp housing and the provision of infrastructure. 130 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 28. facili es and u li es for self-help housing. Limited access of low-income households to land for housing in urban areas.5 8. safe and aﬀordable housing. basic facili es. Limited access to housing ﬁnance.7 17.8 10. 4. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies is to fulﬁll the needs of the urban poor for adequate.1 14.0 9. 3.0 14.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 131 .250 Development of mul -story low rent housing units* 100 100 180 0 0 Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. district / city governments and urban communi es.250 6.250 7.200 15 2014 22 22 3. provincial governments. Note: *) Simpliﬁed Rental Housing Development es mated 30 percent for low-income communi es. Control and Opera on in the Development of Se lements Urban slum areas to be improved Units of apartment dwellings built up with suppor ng infrastructure Se lement infrastructure improved in low income residen al areas Facilita on and promo on of environmental planning for slum areas Facilita on and promo on of development of self-help housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp improvement of housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp infrastructure Number of slum areas facilitated 50 Number of self-help new housing construc on ini a ves Number of self-help improvement of exis ng housing ini a ves Number of ini a ves to facilitate and s mulate self-help improvement of infrastructure. Eﬀorts to achieve these targets will be implemented by the Ministry of Public Works.250 7.458 21 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums Targets Priori es Indicators 2010 Prepara on of ac on plans on urban slums at district/ municipality level Regula ons.250 16. Guidance.041 50 7.500 7.500 12.500 12.The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set priori es and targets to reduce the number of households living in urban slums in order to accelerate the achievement of this MDG.500 16. as shown in Table 7.2.500 6. Table 7.500 12.960 104 2011 30 30 7.041 50 2012 30 30 7. 2013 30 30 5.500 6. the Ministry of Housing. facili es and u li es Number of mul -story low rent housing units built (Rusunawa) 100 150 175 180 95 95 3.250 7.500 16.4.500 7.
132 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
2009 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .G-20 Summit in Pi sburgh. September 24-25.
Chile. Indonesia. Australia. The goal of the government is to seek quality investments that create jobs and reduce social inequality. To support u liza on of foreign loans. Indonesia works to achieve a more equitable and dynamic pa ern of global partnerships as a member of mul lateral ins tu ons. In ﬁnancing na onal development. child and maternal mortality. Mozambique. the World Trade Organiza on (WTO). along with other Sherpa’s from ten countries (Norway. including the United Na ons. Brazil. the government will proceed with cau on and borrow from interna onal sources that provide the most favourable terms and condi ons while protec ng Indonesia’s interna onal posi on. UK.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Indonesia is ac vely engaged with the interna onal community in working to improve governance of interna onal trade. although funding from interna onal sources is expected to decline as a propor on of the na onal budget. Netherlands. the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Indonesia is commi ed to achieving produc ve partnerships with the private sector while maintaining a conducive investment climate to increase domes c and foreign private investment. the government works to strengthen interna onal partnerships and to improve the eﬀec veness and eﬃciency in u liza on of foreign grants and loans to support na onal development. Tanzania. including south-south and triangular coopera on. Liberia and Senegal) have established a Network of Global Leaders for Global Campaign on Health MDGs (NGL 45) with the sole purpose of garnering interna onal support on one of the most neglected and cri cal social MDGs. the Government of Indonesia will con nue to rely on foreign grants and loans. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 135 . To best accomplish this approach. The United Na ons Conference on Trade and Development recently ranked Indonesia as one of the top ten most a rac ve des na ons for foreign direct investment globally. the Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons (ASEAN). Public – private partnerships are encouraged to promote economic growth and improve provision of public services. investment and transfer of technology to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. Indonesia has built a wide network of strong bilateral partnerships to promote equitable development and trade. the Interna onal Monetary Fund (IMF). Indonesia also par cipates with the interna onal community in many interna onal and regional forums including the Group of Twenty (G-20) and the Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum (APEC) to promote collabora on on issues related to economic development and trade between emerging economies and developed economies.
the NAMA 11. ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the ASEANEuropean Union FTA. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)1 and the ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement (AKFTA) are among the free trade agreements which have been entered into force. 136 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . ASEAN has also reached out to enter into free trade agreements with other Asian na ons as well as na ons outside of Asia. Indonesia has also entered into bilateral agreements for free trade with several other countries. predictable. especially the rural poor. rule-based. ASEAN is now in the process of nego a ng other ASEAN FTA such as: the ASEAN-India FTA. The agreement is expected to reduce threats of rising protec onism and to provide a s mulus to global recovery. In addi on. the CAIRNS Group. At the same me Indonesia supports a Special Safeguard Mechanism to reduce the short term nega ve impacts of trade liberaliza on on those involved in the agricultural sector. Indonesia has par cipated in the Doha Development Round and remains commi ed to reaching an agreement to maintain conﬁdence in the mul lateral trading system.9 billion) and the third largest in terms of GDP (USD 6.6 trillion) a er the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area. and W52 Sponsors. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Current Status Star ng in the 1950s Indonesia par cipated in global discussions on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs (GATT) to improve the global trading system and was a founding member of the World Trade Organiza on (WTO) in January 1995. and movement of individuals 1 ACFTA creates the world’s largest free-trade area in terms of the popula on of the na ons which are signatories to the agreement (1. Besides regional trade agreements. ASEAN is also moving toward the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2015 and the goal of regional economic integra on. and it went into eﬀect on 1 July 2008.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open. covering wide-ranging coopera on in investment. the G-33. The objec ve of this agreement is to strengthen bilateral economic rela ons. The Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) was signed on 20 August 2007 as the ﬁrst Indonesian bilateral trade agreement. trade. Indonesia is one of the founding member states of ASEAN which established the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992. Indonesia has also par cipated in various interna onal nego a ng forums related to interna onal trade including: APEC.
including strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reduc on of bank vulnerabili es through higher capitaliza on and be er supervision. The LDR for commercial banks has increased steadily from a level of 45.8 percent in 2000 to a rate of 72.001 billion in 2009 while the LDR for rural banks also increased signiﬁcantly from 101.0 percent in 2009.8 percent in 2009. An improved regulatory framework for trade has yielded substan ve economic beneﬁts. 100% Percentage (level of economic openness) 600 Figure 8. The recent data for the indicator of economic openness reveals a long-term trend to greater openness in the management of the Indonesian economy. Exports. Comprehensive reforms in Indonesia’s banking sector have been ins tuted based on the diﬃcult lessons learned from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. Trade has increased substan ally since 1980 and has led to growth of the na onal economy and the expansion of employment opportuni es.868 billion in 2003 to Rp 28. The indicator for banking for MDG 8 is the Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR) for commercial banks and rural banks.1. GDP Growth and the Ra o of Imports Plus Exports to GDP as the MDG Indicator for Economic Openness 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 400 Billion USD 300 37.3 percent in 2003 to 109. The level of nonperforming loans (NPL) at commercial has been improved during the repor ng period while the NPL at rural banks is considered to have been maintained at a safe level. 2009.9% 39. The deposits of rural banks also increased from Rp 8.5% 200 100 - Level of Economic Openness IMPORTS EXPORTS GDP at Current Price (billion USD) Sources: BPS and the World Bank. The Trends for Imports.Indonesia has been successful in developing greater openness in trading with the global community. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 137 .
LDR Rural Banking LDR Commercial Banking Challenges The fragility of the global recovery underlines the importance of s mulus packages and the need to maintain the certainty of open trade and a rule-based mul lateral trading system.9 111. A er eight years of nego a ons on the Doha Development Agreement. • Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure. 138 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .4 120 101.1 53.7 69. 2010. Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of Commercial and Rural Credit Banks. The Logis cs Performance Index (LPI) survey highlighted the need for Indonesia to take further ac on to improve border management. logis cs and freight-forwarding services) and overall logis cs infrastructure. service sector performance (transport.2 72.3 100 108. Among the factors in determining the logis cal performance of a na on on trade are the following: • Eﬃciency of the customs clearance process and border procedures. the challenge now is to conclude an agreement that will provide a strong founda on for global recovery and sustained growth. and • Frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected me.5 109.7 64.7 77. • Ease of arranging compe vely priced shipments. “Connec ng to Compete in Indonesia”.2 107.2 2 World Bank.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8.7 109. especially mari me ports.0 49.8 60 45.0 Percentage 80 61. 2000 .2009 140 119. • Competence and quality of logis cs services.2. • Ability to track and trace consignments. The survey iden ﬁed the need to give special a en on to improve customs and especially quality and standards inspec ons agencies.8 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Bank Indonesia Economic Report 2009.8 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 45.2 64.
5. Support u liza on of trade schemes and interna onal trade coopera on that are more beneﬁcial to na onal interests. Secondly. 6. Strengthen trade ins tu ons and foreign trade ﬁnancing that can induce eﬀec veness of non-oil export development. footwear and leather products. Encourage eﬀorts of market diversiﬁca on to reduce export dependency on certain markets. Encourage exports of crea ve products and services. nondiscriminatory trading system. machinery. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 139 . The low composi on of investment credit cannot be separated from the structure of deposits in banks which are short-term funds with a maturity of one to three months so that there is the poten al for funding mismatches in the long term. Increase non oil and gas exports of products that are high value-added. foods. Improve trade ac vi es in border regions which are func on as the front gates for economic and trade ac vi es with neighboring countries. Therefore. tex les. and high demand. beverages. In terms of microﬁnance. development of Indonesian exports will be focused on agriculture and ﬁshery products. The advantages of rural banks compared to commercial banks are the services they provide to SMEs and low income people who priori ze in macy through direct services (door to door). chemical products. 3. there is a tendency for rural banks to focus on clients considered to be more bankable. Policies and Strategies Various steps will be taken to further develop an open. rules-based. due to a lack of informa on about the businesses owned by their customers.BPR) has improved. promo on and export facilita on in Africa and Asia. natural resourcebased. 4. predictable. 2. including the following: 1.There is a need to control the intermedia on func on of the banking system. the magnitude of the spread between lending and deposit interest rates is an cipated to be one cause of low investment lending in the banking industry. and a personal approach with a en on to local culture. chemicals. mining. the performance of rural banks (Bank Perkreditan Rakyat . However. 7. electrical equipment. par cularly of small and medium enterprises. Emphasize eﬀorts on expansion of market access.
140 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . c. The strategy to strenghten the performance and stability of the banking sector includes the following ini a ves: 1. Accelerate strategic intermedia on and distribu on of public funds to increase access to ﬁnancial service ins tu ons (LJK) for low income groups through the following ini a ves: a. and d. improve the suppor ng infrastructure of ﬁnancial services ins tu ons.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The Government of Indonesia will also con ne to work to maintain a healthy. expand the scope of ﬁnancial services. 4. Strengthen the quality of management and opera onal services of all banking ins tu ons. b. Strengthen the regulatory framework and further improve supervision of commercial and rural banks. 3. 2. develop appropriate banking products and Islamic borrowing arrangements. Enhance eﬀorts to protect the consumer and investors. diversiﬁca on of sources of development funding through non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons (LKBB). especially ﬁnancial services to support micro. stable and eﬃcient banking system to be er support achievement of the goals of na onal development. small and medium enterprises.
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
In the decade following the economic crisis of 1997/98 the Government of Indonesia ins tuted a comprehensive set of reforms to strengthen the na on’s economic fundamentals, including a reduc on of interna onal debt and strengthening of the banking sector. These reforms have provided a strong founda on for the Government to implement policies to recover from the crisis and also to achieve growth with equity. Mul lateral and bilateral coopera on has assisted Indonesia to work towards achievement of the MDGs while a decade of sustained economic growth has enabled the Government to reduce dependency on interna onal borrowing to a sustainable level. The success of Indonesia’s economic reforms and improvements in the management of the na onal debt are reﬂected in the reduc on of the debt to GDP ra o which had declined from a peak of 89 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2009. While the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP has been reduced from 24.59 percent in 1996 to only 10.89 percent in 2009 (see Figure 8.3).
(% ) 120%
Debt Service Ra o
The Trend of Foreign Debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) During 1996-2009
6,000 5,000 4,000
Ra o of foreign debt to GDP
3,000 2,000 1,000 0
50.7% 47.3% 37.9% 24.6%
41.1% 39.4% 33.1% 34.1% 39.9% 41.9% 37.2% 40% 27.1% 24.8% 24.2% 21.9% 31.3% 29.0% 27.8% 19.2% 17.3% 22.4% 20% 16.8% 14.8% 14.7% 10.9%
1996 DSR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 GDP Foreign Loans 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Outstanding Debt Ra o of Debt to GDP Ra o of Foreign Debt to GDP
Source: Economic Report Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, 2008, Sta s cs of Foreign Debt, Ministry of Finance and Bank Indonesia, 2010, Ministry of Finance, 2009.
The ra o of debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services or the na on’s Debt Service Ra o (DSR) also declined during the same period, having reached a maximum in the crisis years of 60 percent. A level of 19.4 percent was recorded in 2007 and a level of
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
22 percent was recorded in 2009. Both these rates are about 50 percent of the MDG baseline ﬁgure of 51.0 percent in 1996 and reﬂect the success of the Government in applying improved prac ces of debt management as well as prudent ﬁscal policies. The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the Monterrey Consensus (2002) and the Paris Declara on on Aid Eﬀec veness (2005), and is commi ed to the principles of aid eﬀec veness. Indonesia was also an ac ve par cipant in the regional prepara ons for the Third High Level Forum on Aid Eﬀec veness (2008). In 2009, the Government and 26 key interna onal development partners3 signed the “Jakarta Commitment: Aid for Development Eﬀec veness - Indonesia’s Road Map to 2014”. The Jakarta Commitment supports Indonesia’s eﬀorts to maximize the eﬀec veness of its aid in suppor ng development and deﬁnes the policy direc on to achieve greater development eﬀec veness to 2014 and beyond. The roadmap for aid eﬀec veness sets out the strategic vision to which Indonesia, along with development partners, have commi ed. The agenda is based on the principles of the Paris Declara on and the Accra Agenda for Ac on. The program will work to: (i) increase the u lity of interna onal assistance in support of implementa on of the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan; (ii) increase na onal ownership of development assistance; (iii) encourage and assist development partners to follow regula ons and mechanisms established by the Government; (iv) support inclusion of development assistance in the na onal budget (APBN); and (v) encourage development partners to adopt “un ed” systems.
The main constraint facing Indonesia in addressing the challenges and achieving its planned development outcomes is to strengthen capacity to u lize all resources eﬀec vely. Maintaining the current debt por olio is one of the focuses while working to achieve cost eﬃcient and manageable risks within the dynamic of ﬁnancial markets. The Government has worked to increase eﬀec veness in use of interna onal grants and loans in providing support to achievement of na onal development objec ves, but there is s ll room to improve aid eﬀec veness. Various reviews of programs and projects funded by
Development partners signing the Jakarta Commitment include: the Asian Development Bank; the Government of Australia; the Government of Japan; the Government of the Netherlands; the Government of the Republic of Poland; the World Bank; the Austrian Embassy; l’Agence Française de Développement; the Canadian Interna onal Development Agency; the Department for Interna onal Development of the United Kingdom; the Delega on of the European Commission; the Embassy of Finland; the Embassy of France; the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany; the Embassy of Italy; Japan Interna onal Coopera on Agency; Korea Interna onal Coopera on Agency; the Royal Norwegian Embassy; the New Zealand Agency for Interna onal Development; the Embassy of Sweden; the United States Agency for Interna onal Development/Indonesia; the United Na ons System in Indonesia; the Islamic Development Bank; the Danish Interna onal Development Agency; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons and the donor community have found that common challenges exist in increasing the eﬀec veness of aid in Indonesia. These include the following: a. a low sense of ownership of loan and grant funded programs by those responsible for implementa on; b. procedures of the donors are not always fully aligned with those of the Government; c. programming of loans and grants are not always fully harmonized with Government planning and priori es; d. development programs are not always managed to achieve op mum results and the sense of mutual accountability is some mes less than required; and e. weaknesses exist in suppor ng management informa on systems as well as in the human resources assigned to manage informa on on development programs.
Policies and Strategies
Priori es of the Government in the management of loans and grants from mul lateral and bilateral ins tu ons as well as commercial credit ins tu ons for the coming years are as follows: 1. Foreign loans and grants will be used to support achievement of the na onal priori es, goals and objec ves in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) and in harmony with Indonesia’s commitment to achieve the MDGs; 2. Con nuous eﬀorts will be made to reduce the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP while con nuing to maintain a situa on of nega ve net transfers; 3. Further improvements will be made in the regula ons and laws rela ng to interna onal loans and grants; 4. Increased na onal ownership for programs funded by interna onal loans and grants will be promoted as will applica on of improved na onal procedures for management of interna onal funding; 5. Improvements will be made in the ins tu onal coordina on mechanisms, transparency and accountability at all stages, from planning and implementa on to monitoring and evalua on; and 6. Strengthening na onal capacity to manage programming and u liza on of development funding eﬀec vely will be priori zed. The Jakarta Commitment4 is based on the spirit of mutual respect, support and accountability and will be implemented to achieve greater beneﬁts in the achievement of Indonesia’s development objec ves, including the MDGs. It enjoins upon the Government and development partners to make available appropriate resources, knowledge and capacity to
Jakarta Commitment, Aid for Development Eﬀec veness – Indonesia’s Roadmap to 2014 (January, 2009).
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
and Delivering and Accoun ng for Development Results. make available the benefits of new technologies. Only 8. Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector.a4des. the complete text is available at the website of the Secretariat for Aid Eﬀec veness in Jakarta: h p://www. especially information and communications Current Status The government is commited to expanding collabora on with the private sector to ensure that all Indonesians are able to beneﬁt from the opportuni es that Informa on Communica on Technologies (ICTs) oﬀer in building an inclusive Informa on Society. Telecommunica ons in Indonesia have expanded rapidly in the period since the economic crisis. Building More Eﬀec ve and Inclusive Partnerships for Development.32 percent of Indonesian households owned personal computers in 2009. and to create an enabling regulatory/policy environment to achieve the goals agreed at the World Summit on the Informa on Society.org/ 144 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . civil society 5 The following is a summary adapted from the Jakarta Commitment.4 presents the rapid increase in the percentages of the popula on owning cellular telephones in recent years as compared to the rela ve decline in the use of ﬁxed line telephones (Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN). The Government has established a Secretariat for Aid for Development Eﬀec veness (A4DES) to support implementa on of the Jakarta Commitment and to ensure that government ins tu ons have the capacity to take full ownership and to lead aid coordina on and management processes. Ongoing ini a ves include those to improve infrastructure for ICT. The expansion in the use of personal computers has grown at a slower rate than cellular telephones due to the rela vely high cost of their purchase and the need for a minimum level of competency to u lize them. The three main components of the Jakarta Commitment5 are as follows: • • • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development implement the Jakarta Commitment. Figure 8. to build capacity of users of ICT. although the use of computers is common in businesses.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 145 . equipment manufacturers and user solu ons. there is a need to build a more compe ve environment for the provision of ICT services as well as a more conducive environment for collabora on in all ICT industries. Investment in ICT industries has exceeded expecta ons. Infrastructure and internet use is expanding rapidly in the major urban centers. but suppor ng infrastructure is far weaker in rural areas. including those providing services for users. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ministry of Communica ons and Informa on Technology. With the increased investments in ICT industries. ICT communica ons play a strategic role in trade. Percentage of Popula on in Indonesia Owning FixedLine Telephones or Cellular Telephones During 2004-2009 Fixed Telephone Cellular Phone Challenges One of the primary challenges for the future is to close the gap in access to ICT communica ons by improving the telecommunica ons infrastructure to provide broadband access throughout Indonesia. As a result. especially in eastern Indonesia. wireless access and land lines.000 Indonesians were able to u lize the internet. there exist major dispari es in the use of telephones.4. Access to the internet has expanded rapidly since 1998 when it was es mated that only 512. 2010. government and in community-based organiza ons. government and civil society. Figure 8. Awareness and capacity to use ICT eﬀec vely is developing rapidly including among SMEs. The exis ng na onal infrastructure in support of telecommunica ons has been based on a system of satellites. Most remote areas do not yet have access to modern ICT and the quality of access in many areas is basic. By 2009 the number of internet users had risen to 11. while capacity building is s ll required to increase the na onal e-literacy rate. so ware and device applica ons. with the lowest rates of use occurring in the remote eastern provinces (see Figure 8. In a na on as large and diverse as Indonesia.5).51 percent of the na onal households. computers and the internet among regions.organiza ons.
Corporate social responsibility will also be encouraged to contribute to the achievement of community objec ves. Improvement of ICT Infrastructure: The Palapa Ring Program. Transi on to Digital Television. The government will also expand direct collabora on with the private sector through public-private partnerships while suppor ng the development of special economic zones for specialized products. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Deployment.5. including achievement of the MDGs. 3G Implementa on. At the same me the government will con nue to cooperate with the private sector and the public in implemen ng four components of a comprehensive ICT blueprint for Indonesia: 1. Computer Internet Policies and Strategies The government is commi ed to the promo on of private sector investment to achieve the objec ves of na onal development. At present the popula ons of the larger urban centers of Indonesia have far greater access to ICT. but government policy is to make informa on available to communi es in all areas. In order to create a more conducive environment for investors. Percentage of Households Owning Personal Computers and Having Access to the Internet by Province (2009) 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Sulawesi Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Maluku Utara Kalimantan Tengah Maluku Jambi Aceh Papua Barat Papua Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jawa Tengah Sumatera Selatan Kalimantan Selatan Gorontalo Jawa Timur Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara INDONESIA Bengkulu Jawa Barat Sumatera Barat Riau Kepulauan Riau Bali Banten Kalimantan Timur DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta Source: BPS. 146 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . including remote and isolated regions. the government will work to strengthen the regulatory framework for investors and harmonize the regula ons of na onal and regional government on investment. Susenas 2009. Community Access Points (CAP). It is the government’s objec ve to transform Indonesia into an informa on-based society driven by the free ﬂow of informa on.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8.
• The applica on of e-budge ng by government agencies will increase the transparency and eﬃciency of government planning and budge ng. improving eﬃciency and strengthening rela ons with ci zens. • Implement e-government strategies focusing on applica ons aimed at innova ng and promo ng transparency in public administra ons and democra c processes. The government is preparing an Electronic System at the central and regional levels of government to support a na onal system of e-government.4. businesses and communi es. • Building capacity for ICT will be accomplished through a public-private partnership model to be developed in such a way that all the par es involved will beneﬁt. ICT Industry Development which will include: implementa on of the Electronic Informa on and Transac ons Law. educa onal ins tu ons. e-procurement and e-licensing services by the end of 2014. prepara on of government regula ons on the dessemina on of informa on and electronic transac ons (RPP PITE). E-Educa on under the Ministry of Na onal Educa on: • The na onal educa on network (www. 4. at all levels. It is planned that: • E-services and e-procurement will be applied by all government agencies.Jardiknas. 3. accountability and eﬃciency at all levels of government. • Support interna onal coopera on ini a ves in the ﬁeld of e-government. • Develop na onal e-government ini a ves and services. to improve the management of educa on. and • The government will formulate a dra Na onal e-Government Master Plan in 2010 and each government ins tu on will be required to prepare a their own e-Government Master Plan. It is expected that online public services will be available for e-ci zen. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 147 .2. • At the end of the current Na onal Medium Term Development Plan it is expected that the score of the na onal system of e-government will have reached 3. improvement of the ICT Convergence Law. and crea on of an investment climate to promote private sector investment in ICT. E-Government: Various decrees and regula ons of the government have been issued to support adop on of innova ve prac ces of e-government through public-private partnerships and coopera on between central and regional governments and private sector service providers. in order to enhance transparency. ICT will be used as an instrument to re-engineer the provision of public services to all Indonesians. to achieve a more eﬃcient alloca on of resources and public goods. adapted to the needs of ci zens and business.net) has been established to integrate ICT in learning. and to make use of ICT in research and development of educa on. The development of human resources for ICT will be focused on the target groups within government.
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