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Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
produc ve partnerships between the Government.6 percent in 1990 to 5. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). place people as the main focus of development and ar culate a set of interrelated goals as the agenda for development and global partnership. in terms of poverty reduc on. the Government of Indonesia has formulated the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs. Annual Work Plans and budget documents. pro-poor. strategies. alloca ons of public funding at the central and regional levels have been increased annually to support the achievement of the MDG targets. 2010. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans. Economic growth and the strengthening of democracy and social ins tu ons during the past ten years have supported the achievement of the MDGs. This Roadmap includes details concerning the present situa on. Indonesia has already been successful in achieving several MDG targets.9 percent in 2008. Each goal has been translated into one or more targets with measurable indicators. 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. is a very important moment for Indonesia to again make a commitment to the global declara on on the MDGs. including the reduc on of maternal mortality and increasing the ra o of forest cover so that those targets can be achieved by 2015. the propor on of the popula on living on less than USD 1 per day has been reduced from 20. and we are conﬁdent that other MDG targets will be realized by 2015. Heads of State and representa ves from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declara on to conﬁrm the global concern for the welfare of the people of the world. In addi on. Various approaches that need to be implemented to accelerate the achievement of the MDG targets are also iden ﬁed in this Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia iii . pro-jobs. Based on the na onal development strategy that is pro-growth. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in all phases of development.Foreword Ten years ago. at the General Assembly of the United Na ons held in New York in September 2000. the MDGs are used as a reference in formula ng policies. civil society organiza ons and the private sector have made a vital contribu on towards accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs. Special a en on will be given to several MDG targets. Indonesia will work harder to con nue to improve the welfare and quality of life of the people of Indonesia and to achieve the MDG targets on me. In Indonesia and other developing countries. and development programs. To that end. as well as na onal development policies and strategies. This approach has been outlined in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025. The objec ves of the Declara on. For example. For several other MDG targets signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. and pro-environment. A er the economic crisis in 1997/1998 Indonesia implemented a series of reforms in various ﬁelds which provided a strong founda on for the Indonesian people to return to a period of high and sustainable economic growth. This year. challenges faced. from planning and budge ng to implementa on.
Success in achieving the MDGs is highly dependent upon good governance. grass-roots movement to beneﬁt all Indonesians. the Government of Indonesia con nues to build an environment that allows all components of society. Akhirul kalam. Prof. and implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieve an inclusive pa ern of growth while improving public services and empowering communi es in all regions.Roadmap. The informa on presented in this publica on is expected to contribute to a be er understanding concerning the challenges faced and the steps that must be taken to achieve all the MDG targets in Indonesia. and the private sector to par cipate produc vely in a community-based. Dr. MA Minister for Na onal Development Planning/ Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) iv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . SE. produc ve partnerships among all components of society. We hope that what we have produced will be useful for the na on. including civil society organiza ons. At the same me. Armida S. Alisjahbana. we thank and express gra tude to all those who have contributed to the prepara on of this Roadmap.
MSIE. Ph. Ir. Msi. Sederlof. MPA. Ir. Prouty. Arif Haryana. Hygiawa Nur Rahayu. Prof. Kom. Tommy Hermawan. Ir. MPH. Dr. Rahma Iryan . Apprecia on and thanks are speciﬁcally extended to: • • Prof. MSc. MARS. Wet Hernowo. Emmy Soeparmijatun. Endah Murniningtyas. MT. Ir. who has guided the formula on process of this document. Ir. and to all others who contributed to the prepara on of this document but that cannot be men oned individually. SH. Ir. Ir. MPM. MCP. Sri Yan . Tauﬁk Hanaﬁ MUP. ST. Ir. MAP. SE. Mon y Girianna. Imam Subek .D. M. Ir. Rooswan Soeharno.Sc. Dr. Dr. Tri Goddess Virgiyan . Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia v . Hidayat Syarief. ST. DR. MSc. Hjalte S. M. Wrihatnolo. Dr. MS. MSc. Tu Riya . dr. Dr. Ahmad Tauﬁk. Rahmana Yahya Hidayat. MIA.. Sularsono. ST. Mohammad Sjuhdi Rasjid.Acknowledgement The Na onal Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Indonesia from 2010 to 2015 has been prepared by a Team consis ng of a Steering Commi ee and a Technical Team / Working Group responsible to the Minister of Na onal Development Planning / Head of BAPPENAS. MA who have coordinated the prepara on while also maintaining quality assurance for the substance of this Roadmap. H. Ph. Randy R.A. Ir. MSc. especially to Alan S. Dra. MSc. Ir. Nugroho Tri Utomo. MPM. Dr. Ir. Dr. Dr. Drs. MRPL Hamzah Riza. as the Special Envoy of the President for the MDGs. MA. for their support in the prepara on of this Roadmap. MA. Dr. Erwin Dimas.. SH. Fithriyah. Mahatmi Saronto Parwitasari. MSc. • Our thanks are also extended to our development partners from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Agency for Interna onal Development (AusAid). SE. MPM. Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo. Happy Hardjo. Ir. To all members of the Prepara on Team we extend our gra tude and thanks for their hard work and dedica on which have contributed to the comple on of the Roadmap. Ph.Lic (Econ. Ir. MA. MPIA. Nila Moeloek. ST. Dadang Rizki Ratman. MSIE. ST. MA who have contributed in providing data. Dra. MA. Arum Atmawikarta. and Dr. MADM. Nina Sardjunani.Eng. MSc. Budi Hidayat. Ir. Rd. MPA. Edi Eﬀendi Tedjakusuma. MPH. Subandi. MA and Dra. MA. MA. informa on and prepara on of the manuscript. Hadiat. S. DEA. Dr. Dr. Wendy Hartanto. The membership of the Team is presented in Appendix 4 of the Roadmap. Dr. Rr. Benny Azwir. Ir.D. Drs. and Sap a Novadiana. Siliwan . PhD. MSc. Maliki. MM. SKM. Dr. ST. ME. Woro Srihastu Sulistyaningrum. Adi Wismana Suryabrata. Sanjoyo. SP. SE. MSc. Ec. Wahyuningsih Daraja . MEM. MPS. Yosi Tresna Diani. M. Wynandin Imawan.). MSc. MIDS. Ir. Ec. S.
SE.May the Roadmap be used by all interested par es both within government and the concerned stakeholders in eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. MA vi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . August 2010 Minister for the Na onal Development Planning / Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) Prof. Armida S. Jakarta. Alisjahbana. Dr.
.................... the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger ........................... Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.............................................................. LIST OF FIGURES ................................ LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................................................................. between 1990 and 2015................................... GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION .......................... boys and girls alike................................................... GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH .......................... iii v vii ix xi xi xiii 1 9 15 23 25 39 43 49 51 59 61 69 71 78 79 79 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia vii ............................................................ Target 2A: Ensure that................................................................................................... by 2015..................................... LIST OF MAPS ................. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1........................................................ the Maternal Mortality Ra o ......... GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN ........ Target 5B: Achieve.... GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATE ................................................. Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all...... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................... between 1990 and 2015........................ by 2015........................ the under-ﬁve mortality rate ..... INTRODUCTION........................................................................... preferably by 2005........................................................... between 1990 and 2015.. OVERVIEW OF STATUS OF MDG TARGETS .......................... Target 1A: Halve................ Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on.00 (PPP) a day ............. GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER .............. including women and young people ............................ Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.. SUMMARY BY GOAL .. universal access to reproduc ve health.......................................... will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ........... between 1990 and 2015.................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................Table of Contents FOREWORD ................ children everywhere........... Target 1C: Halve............................................................................................................ LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................ and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015........................................................................................................................................................
..... to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers .......... Target 6B: Achieve.......... Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS ............. a signiﬁcant reduc on in the rate of loss .................................................... 120 Target 7C: Halve......................... the propor on of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on .. rule-based.....................GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS................................................... 111 Target 7A: Integra ng the principles of sustainable development in na onal policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources ............... 91 93 93 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases ........................ 101 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ............... by 2010............................................. 133 Target 8A: Develop further an open... 122 Target 7D: By 2020............. predictable...... 136 Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.............................. 113 Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss............... 141 Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector...................... especially informa on and communica ons .................................................................... universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it ............. achieving............. 129 GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT ............ by 2010............ non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems ....................................................... MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES ...... by 2015....................... 144 viii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ...................................... make available the beneﬁts of new technologies........
.............................. Figure 1.................... Figure 5................................ 2009 .............................. The growth rate of labor produc vity (in percentages) for the agriculture...... The distribu on of Indonesia’s poor by urban and rural se ng (1990-2010) ...000 live births ...4................00/capita/day) as compared to the MDG target ......................................10......2.............. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age by province (2007) .. Figure 1................... Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os for primary and junior secondary educa on levels (including Madrasah) ................12.................... Figure 1.....5.. Figure 1......... Progress in reducing extreme poverty (USD1..............1................ 2010 . Propor on of one-year-old children immunized against measles.............................1.......... The percentages of the popula on below the na onal poverty line by major geographical region of Indonesia (2010) ........ Employment to Popula on Ra o for urban and rural areas and for the na onal level ...................................... Figure 3...... 25 26 27 27 28 29 40 41 43 44 45 46 52 52 62 63 72 73 80 80 Figure 1............................................. Figure 1............................List of Figures Figure 1..... industry and the service sector .......................... 2002 to 2010.............. The na onal trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index....7...................... Na onal trends and projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025..... Percentage of births assisted by skilled provider...................2.......................................................................................................... 2009 .... by province 2007 ..9................1..... Figure 5..................... Net Enrolment Rate for primary school including Madrasah by province....... 2009 ..... Figure 3........................... Figure 4..................1..........3................... Long-term trends in poverty reduc on in Indonesia measured using the indicator for Na onal Poverty Line and the target for 2015 ........................ Figure 1....6...11............. Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) senior secondary schools by province.....................................2.................... Trends in the average calorie consump on for rural and urban households (2002-2009) ...............................................1....................................... Figure 1.........13........ by provinces . Figure 1.. The propor on of vulnerable workers to total workers.............................. Trend in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score of food consump on for rural and urban households..... Figure 1................ Figure 1....... Trend in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age (1989-2007) using the WHO 2005 standard and the MDG Target for this indicator in 2015........................................ Figure 2.... Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia.....2............................ 2002-2007 ........... 1990-2009 ............2... Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ix ............... Figure 2...............8........................... Figure 4.................... Average monthly wages (Rp ‘000) of male and female workers in non-agricultural sectors ............................................... Figure 1............... Na onal trend Infant and Child Mortality per 1..............................
.................. in 1993-2009 ..7................ 2000 ................000 popula on in Indonesia..... Figure 8..................... 2007................. 1993-2009..... Figure 5.... 82 AIDS cases per 100.. Figure 6......... Figure 6.4.... Figure 8..................6..........9.... Figure 7.. 97 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.. Figure 6... Figure 6........ 145 Percentage of households owning personal computers and having access to the internet by province (2009) .................... year 2009 ....... by popula on group......................... Figure 6..4.. urban and total rural and urban.................................... 129 The propor on of urban slum households by province.....Figure 5... by back ground characteris c....................... the year 1993-2009 .................. by province................ Figure 7............................ 1989-2009......................... Figure 6..........8.............................................................. 141 Percentage of popula on in Indonesia owning ﬁxed-line telephones or cellular telephones during 2004-2009 ........... Figure 8....................... Figure 8. Figure 6..... Figure 7................... by province..1.........................6....4.. Indonesia 1990-2009 .......... 2009............... First and fourth antenatal visits............ 137 Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of commercial and rural credit banks.....2....... Indonesia 2007 .............. 123 The propor on of households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural....... 122 The propor on of households that have access to improved drinking water in urban and rural and total according to the provinces.... Figure 8....... Figure 7..... 81 Unmet needs........ 123 Proporsi households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural....................... Figure 7..1.2..... 95 Percentage of unmarried women and men age 15-24 who have ever had sex........9. 94 Distribu on of HIV Infec ons.......................... 101 The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 ... Figure 7............... 2009 ....2... 113 Total energy use of various types for the years 1990-2008 (equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in millions) ................ 96 Propor on of men and woemn aged 15-24 with correct of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS.........5............2009......8.. exports.....3..........4........... 114 Propor on of households with access to propoer (improved) drinkingwater............ 146 x Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ............ Figure 7.. according to background characteris c...5.........................7................. Figure 7............................................................................ 97 Coverage of ART interven ons in Indonesia........ 2006–2009 .............. 94 Number of AIDS cases in Indonesia............... GDP growth and the ra o of imports plus exports to GDP as the MDG indicator for economic openness .................................... Indonesia 1991-2007 ..............2008 .....3. in Indonesia 1991... 130 The trends for imports.. 95 Cumula ve percentage on AIDS cases by age group.... 106 The percentage of forest cover of the total land area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 .... 2009 ........3......................................................................... urban and rural and urban total.....5.... who use condom at last sex....3................... 114 Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 ...................................... 138 The trend of foreign debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) during 1996-2009............... 1993 and 2009 ....1........ Figure 7............................................. 2009 .... Figure 6...... Figure 6.. 124 The propor on of urban households living in slums....
...................... 2010-2014.... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services............. Table 2................ Table 7........... Table 2..... Table 1... Table 6........................... 28 64 List of Tables Table 1............ Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on...............2......3..................4......2........................ Table 4..... 131 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xi ............ 2010 ... Outputs..... Outputs and Indicators 2010-2014 .......... 54 Program Priori es..............................1...................... The average wages of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers by province in August 2009 .............. 109 Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management ....List of Maps Map 1................ and Labor. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.......................................2...... 32 Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007)........................ 116 Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources ...2.. 57 Priority..................... 2010-2014 .1...........1. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services...................................................................... 105 Priori es............................................. and Targets for Improvment of the Access to Drinking Water and Improved Sanita on........... Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty ..........1.......... 88 Priori es.. 2010-2014 ..1... Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB... Table 6...... Table 7.... Table 3.................. Table 1.... 2010-2014 .............1........................................................ and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs....... Table 7..... 76 Priori es........3............... Outputs.................................1....................... 67 Priori es........................... Poli cs................. 2010-2014........................1. 87 Priori es.......... 44 Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) .. Map 3. 2010—2014 .................... 100 Priori es.................. Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program........................ Table 5....3.................. 119 Priori es..... 48 Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* ................... 2010-2014...... Outputs....1.......2.......... 128 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums . Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia....... Table 6........... Outputs..................... Table 5....... Table 7........................................ 2010-2014 ...................
Communica on and Social Mobiliza on Artemisinin-based combina on therapy Asian Development Bank Annual Development Plan ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Free Trade Area Acquired Immuno-defeciency Syndrome The ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement Antenatal Care The Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum Areal Penggunaan Lain (areas for other uses) An retroviral Therapy The Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons Kementerian Negara Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (The Na onal Development Planning Agency) Behavioral Change Communica on Bacillus Calme e-Guérin Basic Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Assistance Program) Barrels of Oil Equivalent Biaya Operasional Kesehatan (subsidy for opera onal cost for health facili es) Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (School Opera onal Assistance) Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Supreme Audit Authority) Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (Local Environmental Management Agency) Badan Pusat Sta s k (Central Bureau of Sta s cs) Beasiswa Miskin (Scholarship for Poor Children) Board of Na onal Educa on Standards Broadband Wireless Access Coali on of Agricultural Expor ng Na ons Lobbying for Agricultural Trade Liberaliza on Compulsory Basic Educa on Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Development Mechanism Case Detec on Rate Commi ee of Experts on the Applica on of Conven ons and Recommenda ons Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care xii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .List of Abbreviations ACFTA ACSM ACT ADB ADP AEC AFTA AIDS AKFTA ANC APEC APL ART ASEAN BAPPENAS BCC BCG BEONC BLT BOE BOK BOS BPK BPLHD BPS BSM BSNP BWA CAIRNS CBE CCS CDM CDR CEACR CEONC The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement Advocacy.
Laos. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus Demand-Responsive Approach Debt Service Ra o Dengue Shock Syndrome Early Childhood Educa on and Development Educa on for All Forest Management Unit Female Sex Worker The group of 20 is a forum for 20 industrialized and developing countries to discuss key issues of the global economy Chair of the coali on of developing countries suppor ng ﬂexibility to undertake limited market openings on agricultural issues General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs Gross Domes c Product Gross Enrolment Rate Green House Gasses Growth Monitoring Prac ce Gender Parity Index Hydrochloroﬂuorocarbon Human Development Report Health Informa on System Human Immuno-deﬁciency Virus Hutan Lindung (Protected Forest) Hutan Produksi (Produc on Forest) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xiii .CEPT CFCs CH4 CITES CLMV CLTS CO2 CPR CSO DAK Desa Siaga DOTS DPD DPR DPRD DPT 3 DRA DSR DSS ECED EFA FMU FSW G-20 G-33 GATT GDP GER GHG GMP GPI HCFC HDR HIS HIV HL HP The Common Eﬀec ve Preferen al Tariﬀ Chloroﬂuorocarbons Methane Conven on on Interna onal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Cambodia. Myanmar and Vietnam Community-Led Total Sanita on Carbon Dioxide Contracep ve Prevalence Rate Civil Society Organiza on Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Alloca on Funds) Alert Village: a village that has resources capability and readiness to overcome health problems and to reach a healthy village) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representa ve Council) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representa ves) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional House of Representa ves) Trivalent vaccines against three infec ous diseases in humans: diphtheria.
HPK HPT ICCSR ICCTF ICT IDHS IDU IEC IJEPA ILO IMCI IMF IMR INHERENT IPCC IPPA IPTP IRS ITN IUCN IUD Jamkesmas KAP KPA KPU KSA KUR LDR LG LJK LKBB LLIN LMIC LMVD LPG LPTK LULUCF MA MARP MDGs MDR-TB Hutan Produksi yang bisa dikonversi (forest areas which can be converted to non-forest uses) Hutan Produksi Terbatas (Limited Produc on Forests) Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Informa on and Communica on Technology Indonesia Demographic Health Survey Injec ng Drug Users Informa on. Educa on and Communica ons Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement Interna onal Labor Organiza on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Interna onal Monetary Fund Infant Mortality Rate Indonesia Higher Educa on Network Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Interna onal Planned Parenthood Associa on Intermi ent Preven ve Treatment for Pregnant women Indoor Residual Spraying Insec cide-Treated Nets Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature Intra-Uterine Device Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Na onal Health Security Program) Knowledge. A tudes and Prac ce Kawasan Pelestarian Alam (Nature Conserva on Area) Komisi Pemilihan Umum (General Elec ons Commission) Kawasan Suaka Alam (Nature Reserve Area) Kredit Usaha Rakyat (People-Based Small Business Loan Program) Loan Deposit Ra o Local Government Lembaga Jasa Keuangan (ﬁnancial service ins tu on) Lembaga Keuangan Bukan Bank (non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on) Long-Las ng Insec cidal Nets Lower Middle Income Country Lembaga Modal Ventura Dasar Liquid Petroleum Gas Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (Teacher Training Ins tute) Land Use. Land Use Change and Forestry Madrasah Aliyah Most at Risk Popula on Millennium Development Goals Mul drug-Resistant TB xiv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Krea f. Crea ve. Eﬀec ve and Fun Learning) Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Educa on) Public Finance Management Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat (clean and healthy behavior) Program for Interna onal Student Assessment Program Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah Program Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Program) Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) People Living with HIV People Living with HIV/AIDS Preven ng Mother to Child Transmission Postnatal Care Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (Na onal Program for Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xv . Small and Medium Enterprise Minimum Service Standards Madrasah Tsanawiyah Medium-Term Expenditure Framework A coali on of developing countries seeking ﬂexibility to limit market opennings in trade of industrial goods Na onal Council for Climate Change Net Enrollment Rate Non-formal Educa on The Na onal Greenhouse Gases Inventory Na onal Iden ﬁca on Number Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan Nitrogen Oxide Non-Performing Loans Na onal TB Program Oil-Based Fuels Ozone Deple ng Poten al Ozone Deple ng Substances Oral Rehydra on Solu ons Oral Rehydra on Therapy Pembelajaran Ak f.MDTFs MI MMR MMT MNCH MOH MONE MORA MSME MSS MT MTEF NAMA 11 NCCC NER NFE NGHGI NIN NMTDP NO NPL NTP OBF ODP ODS ORS ORT PAKEM PAUD PFM PHBS PISA PISEW PKH PKK PLHIV PLWHA PMTCT PNC PNPM Mul -Donor Trust Funds Madrasah Ib daiyah Maternal Mortality Ra o Methadone Maintenance Therapy Maternal. Neonatal and Child Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Na onal Educa on Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs Micro. Efek f dan Menyenangkan (Ac ve.
conducted by the Central Bureau of Sta s cs School-Based Management Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) Survei Demograﬁ dan Kesehatan Indonesia (Indonesian Demography and Health Survey) Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (Household Health Survey) Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) Standar Pelayanan Minimum (Minimun Service Standard) School Par cipa on Rate Success Rate Sexual and Reproduc ve Health Sexually-Transmi ed Infec on Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Na onal Socio-Economic Survey). conducted by Central Bureau of Sta s cs Tuberculosis Tradi onal Birth A endant Total Fer lity Rate Third Interna onal Mathema cs Science Study United Na ons Development Programme United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change United Na ons Childrens’ Fund xvi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Posyandu PPLS PPP PSTN PT Puskesmas RANMAPI RASKIN RBM RDA REDD Riskesdas RPJPN RPJMN Sakernas SBM SD SDKI SKRT SMA SMP SPM SPR SR SRH STI Susenas TB TBA TFR TIMSS UNDP UNFCCC UNICEF Community Empowerment) Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Health Post. conducted by MOH-RI) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Nasional (Na onal Long-Term Development Plan) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan) Survei Tenagakerja Nasional (Na onal Labour Force Survey). a community-based basic health monitoring and services at village level) Pendataan Program Layanan Sosial (Social Service Program Survey) Purchasing Power Parity Public Switched Telephone Network Perguruan Tinggi (Higher Educa on) Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Primary Health Center) Rencana Aksi Nasional untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (Na onal Ac on Plan on Mi ga on and Adapta on to Climate Change) Beras Miskin (Rice for the Poor Program) Roll Back Malaria Recommended Dietary Allowance Reducing Emissions from Deforesta on and Degrada on Riset Kesehatan Dasar (basic health research.
UNSD VCT WAN WB WBG WHO WiMAX WTO
United Na ons Sta s cs Division Voluntary Counseling and Tes ng Wide Area Network World Bank World Bank Group World Health Organiza on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access World Trade Organiza on
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
2 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
189 member states agreed to adopt the Millennium Declara on which was then translated into a prac cal framework. and the resource endowment of Indonesia. The MDGs place human development as the focus of development and establish a set of measurable indicators of progress to be achieved by 2015. the Na onal Development Vision for the years 2005-2025 year has been deﬁned to be: an Indonesia that is self-reliant. taking into account the challenges to be faced over the next 20 years. The MDGs are based on global partnership and developed countries also have stressed their agreement to fully support these eﬀorts. National Development Priorities Based on the current condi on of the Indonesian na on. eight missions related Na onal Development are to be achieved: 1. and based on na onal interests. Enabling Indonesia to play an important role in the interna onal community. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN 2005-2025). 4. 7. cultured. Achievement of an equitable and just pa ern of development. prosperous and just. 6. 3. and 8. Realiza on of Indonesia as an independent island na on. powerful. To achieve this vision. gender equality. reduc on in the prevalence of communicable diseases. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).Introduction In September 2000. Crea on of an Indonesia that is safe. 5. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3 . improving maternal and child health. at the Millennium Summit of the United Na ons (UN). advanced. Realiza on of a society that has strong moral values that are ethical. Crea on of a compe ve na on. and global coopera on. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). Crea on of a green and sustainable Indonesia. There now remain ﬁve years for developing member states of the UN to achieve the eight MDGs related to poverty reduc on. The MDGs have been an important considera on in preparing na onal development planning documents. 2. a ainment of universal basic educa on. peaceful and united. Crea on of a democra c society based on the rule of law. advanced. and based on the philosophy of Pancasila. and Na onal Annual Development Plans (RKP) as well as the State Budget documents. environmental sustainability.
legal. the fourth Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2020-2025) will create a selfreliant Indonesian society. and technological innova on. The Na onal Development Vision during this period has been deﬁned as follows: The realiza on of Indonesia as a prosperous. and prosperous through the accelera on of development in various ﬁelds built on a solid economic structure and based on compe ve advantages in various ﬁelds supported by qualiﬁed and compe ve human resources. (ix) the natural environment and disasters.The strategies to be implemented to accomplish this vision and missions have been translated into stages of ﬁve-year periods that are presented in Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan documents (RPJMN). 4 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 2. The Vision and Missions of Na onal Development 2010-2014 have been formulated and translated into opera onal terms in a number of na onal priori es in the following thema c areas: (i) reform of the bureaucracy and governance. and (iii) improve the jus ce system in all sectors. (vii) energy. the third Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2015-2019) will further strengthen overall development in various ﬁelds by emphasizing the achievement of compe veness of the economy based on compara ve advantages of natural and human resources and the expanding capacity of science and technology. and security areas and in the ﬁelds of the economy and people’s welfare. and the strengthening of economic compe veness. including development of science and technology. (ii) educa on. In addi on to these eleven na onal priori es. The ﬁve-year development phases are summarized as follows: 1. remote areas and post-conﬂict areas. (vii) investment and improving the business climate. democra c. (vi) infrastructure. (ii) strengthen the pillars of democracy. The current Na onal Medium-Term Plan will be implemented during 2010 to 2014. the second Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) aims to consolidate the restructuring of Indonesia in all ﬁelds with an emphasis on improving the quality of human resources. progressive. 3. eﬀorts to achieve the Vision and Mission of the Na onal Development will also be carried out through achievement of other na onal priori es in the poli cal. the ﬁrst Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2005-2009) was formulated to reorganize and develop all regions of Indonesia and to create Indonesia as a safe and peaceful. (x) border areas. and (xi) culture. and 4. (iv) poverty reduc on. This vision has been translated into three Na onal Development Missions which are to: (i) con nue developing towards a prosperous Indonesia. just and democra c na on while increasing the welfare of the people. (v) food security. and just na on. (iii) health. crea vity. fair.
the current status can be grouped into three categories of achievement: (a) targets which have already been achieved. global climate change and the global ﬁnancial crisis of 2007/2008. The growth rate of GDP dropped to 4 to 5 percent as compared with the growth rate of the economy prior to the crisis. lower middle income households and the poor have been forced to expend a greater share of their incomes on food. Indonesia con nues to organize and develop in all ﬁelds. This has been done to accelerate the achievement of na onal goals. the Government remains determined to fulﬁll the commitment to achieve the MDG targets on me. Indonesia is the third most populous democracy of the world and has been able to strengthen the economy to achieve the status of a middle-income country. Alloca on of funds in na onal and local budgets in Indonesia has increased from year to year to support the achievement of the MDGs. Se ng measurable targets related to the MDGs that can be monitored and evaluated has proven to be eﬀec ve in increasing the eﬃciency of resource alloca on. that is the propor on of people living with per Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 5 . The MDG targets that have already been achieved include: • MDG 1 . Indonesia has faced signiﬁcant global challenges. In turn. Posi ve economic growth and strengthening of democra c ins tu ons during the last ten years have strengthened the posi on of the na on to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. Currently. rising food prices. evalua on of the progress in achievement of the MDGs has been useful in adjus ng plans to be more responsive to the needs of poor and vulnerable groups. high rainfall has resulted in crop failures and damage to crops. The Indonesian na on has also worked consistently over the last decade to achieve the MDG targets. The global economic crisis has resulted in a world economic recession which has inﬂuenced the performance of the domes c economy.The level of extreme poverty. With rising food prices. A na on must be fully prepared in all ﬁelds to address the global crises and challenges. and (c) targets that s ll require great eﬀort to be achieved. The various crises and global challenges men oned above have provided the lesson that globaliza on has two diﬀerent sides which provide both opportuni es and challenges. Extreme weather events have increased. In this unfavorable global environment. (b) targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. while the na on has not yet fully recovered from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. Although there are s ll many challenges and problems in the implementa on of development in Indonesia. which amounted to 7-8 percent. In reviewing trends in the achievement of the MDG targets. ﬁshermen have been unable to go to sea and public health has been nega vely aﬀected.Development of Indonesia After the Global Crisis and Achievement of the MDG Targets During the past ﬁve years. Some of the most important have been the ﬂuctua on of oil prices.
Indonesia has raised its targets for poverty reduc on and will give special a en on to reducing poverty levels as measured against the na onal poverty line from 13.95.0 percent in 2000 to 73.33 percent (2010).16 and 102. The Debt Service Ra o has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. MDG 6 . MDG 3 –The par cipa on ra o of females to males in SMA / MA / Paket C and higher educa on in 2009 was 96. MDG 4 – The number of deaths in children under the age of ﬁve years has decreased from 97 per 1.85 percent.4 percent in 2007.as evidenced by the posi ve trends in indicators related to trade and the na onal banking system.7 percent while at the junior secondary schools including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MTs) and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA) the GPI was 101. It is expected that the target of 32 per 1. • • • • The MDG targets where a posi ve trend has been demonstrated but which s ll require special eﬀorts to achieve the targets by 2015 include the following: • MDG 1 . rule-based. At the same me. 6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .An increase in detec on of tuberculosis cases has been achieved.000 births in 1991 to 44 per 1. It is expected that the MDG target of 15.000 popula on in 1990 to 244 cases per 100.5 percent will be achieved by 2015.0 percent.The prevalence of infant malnutri on has been reduced by nearly half.9 percent in 2009.000 popula on in 2009. from 20.47 percent in 2009.1 percent in 2009 as compared to the MDG target of 70. predictable and non-discriminatory .6 percent in 1990 to 5. MDG 2 – The par cipa on rate for primary educa on is close to 100 percent and the literacy rate of the popula on was more than 99. In 2009.000 births will be achieved by 2015. The ra o of literate women to men in the age group of 15-24 years has reached 99. Thus it is expected that the target of 100 will be achieved by 2015. There has also been a decrease the prevalence of tuberculosis from 443 cases per 100. • MDG 3 . has declined from 20.9 percent in 2008. from 31 percent in 1989 to 18.Indonesia has been successful in developing trade and ﬁnancial systems that are open.The targets for gender equality in all levels of educa on are expected to be achieved.99 percent. MDG 8 .6 percent in 1996 to 10.capita income of less than USD 1 per day. signiﬁcant progress has been made in reducing the foreign debt ra o to GDP from 24. the Gender Parity Index (GPI) at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI) was 99. • The MDG targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been demonstrated include: • MDG 1 .000 births in 2007.
expanding partnerships. In planning to achieve the MDGs. MDG 6 – The number of people living with HIV / AIDS has increased. New Initiatives Moving Forward Success in achieving the MDGs in Indonesia depends on the achievement of good governance. Progress in developing the na onal economy over the past ﬁve years has reduced the gap between Indonesia and the developed countries. At present. but is commi ed to increasing forest cover.Indonesia has high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. elimina ng illegal logging and implemen ng a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years.Maternal mortality has been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. Developed countries who are members of the Organiza on of Economic Coopera on and Development (OECD) recognize and appreciate Indonesia’s development progress. i. and 51. Special eﬀorts are required to achieve the target of 102 per 100. The rate of increase is also high in some areas where awareness about this disease is low. The success of Indonesia’s development has been recognized globally and has received various awards. having more than doubled since 1971. improving coordina on among stakeholders. the size. MDG 7 .Preliminary results. Indonesia has also joined the G-20. par cularly in high risk groups. Brazil and South Africa were invited to enter the group of ‘enhanced engagement countries’ or states with an increasingly enhanced engagement with developed countries.000 live births in 2007.19 percent of households have access to improved sanita on. and developing decentralized approaches to reducing dispari es while empowering communi es in all regions of Indonesia. India. produc ve partnerships at all levels of society and the implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieving pro-poor growth. improving public services. Therefore.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved water supply. Although Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 7 .000 live births by 2015. The Indonesian popula on is 237.• • • MDG 5 . including injec ng drug users and sex workers. only 47. including expanding access to reproduc ve health services and family planning while protec ng reproduc ve rights. the twenty countries that control 85 percent of Gross Domes c Product (GDP) of the world.5 million people (2010 Popula on Census . BPS). increasing the alloca on of resources. Indonesia along with China. which has a very important and decisive role in shaping global economic policy. Accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs and all related targets requires that popula on problems are addressed in a comprehensive and integrated approach. growth and distribu on of the popula on is one important considera on. Special a en on is required to achieve the MDG targets for Goal 7 by 2015.e.
to expand sources of funding to support achievement of the MDGs. • Enhanced coopera on with creditor countries will be sought for the conversion of debt (debt swap) for achieving the MDGs. the total popula on of Indonesia in 2015 is expected to be approximately 247. and to a 1. including community organiza ons. In the future. civil society organiza ons and the private sector can par cipate produc vely in improving the welfare of all Indonesians. and especially women’s groups. health. • Provincial governments will prepare “Regional Ac on Plans to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs” and these will be used is used as a reference in improving planning and coordina on of eﬀorts to reduce poverty and improve people’s welfare. • Alloca on of funds by the central. especially in educa on. 3 of 2010 concerning Equitable Development Programming include the following: • The Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs will be distributed as a reference for stakeholders in working to speed up a ainment of the MDGs throughout Indonesia. Steps to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs during the next ﬁve years as mandated by Presiden al Instruc on No. • Support for the expansion of social services in disadvantaged areas and remote areas will be increased.30 per cent per annum rate in 2005.97 per cent per annum during 1980-1990 to 1. approximately 60. provincial and district governments will con nue to be increased to support the intensiﬁca on and expansion of programs to achieve the MDGs. The Government is commi ed to maintaining a socio-economic environment and culture where all ci zens. no less than 80 percent of industries are concentrated in Java.2 percent will be in Java which has an area of only 7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. • Partnerships between the Government and private enterprises (Public . have contributed signiﬁcantly. In eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. • Mechanisms to expand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ini a ves will be strengthened to support the achievement of the MDGs. especially educa on and health. A funding mechanism will be prepared to provide incen ves to local governments that perform well in achieving the MDGs. In addi on.Private Partnerships or PPP) will be developed in the social sectors. Of this amount. the supply of clean water and the living environment.the popula on growth rate decreased from 1.6 million people (Indonesian Popula on Projec on 2005-2025). 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the role of communi es. grass-roots organiza ons will con nue to be given a en on to speed up achievement of the MDGs and increase the welfare of the people on a sustainable basis.49 per cent per annum in the period 1990-2000.
Summary by Goal .
(iii) improving access of the poor to social services.4 percent in 2007 and Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.1 percent in 1989 to 18. The policy to allocate minimal 20 percent of government budget to the educa on sector will be con nued to accelerate the achievement of universal junior secondary educa on by 2015. Government policies and programs to address this challenge: (i) expansion of equitable access to basic educa on par cularly for the poor. (ii) empowering disadvantaged communi es in all regions of the na on to be er access and use resources to improve their welfare. Priori es for the future to reduce poverty are to expand employment opportuni es. At primary educa on level. girls and boys. (ii) improvement of the quality. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 11 .33 percent (2010) to the targeted rate of 8-10 percent by 2014. eﬃciency.77 percent and the ne enrolment rate (NER) was 95. Special a en on will be given to: (i) expanding credit facili es for micro. improve suppor ng infrastructure and strengthen the agricultural sector. small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).Summary of the Status of Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia MDG 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Indonesia has achieved the target of halving the incidence of extreme poverty as measured by the indicator of USD 1. and (iv) improving the provision of social protec on to the poorest of the poor. and (iii) strengthening governance and accountability of educa on services. The country aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. to quality basic educa on. grades 7 to 9) to the universal basic educa on targets. disparity in educa on par cipa on among provinces has been signiﬁcantly reduced with NER above 90 percent in almost all provinces.23 percent. MDG 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target for primary educa on and literacy.50 percent in 2015. Progress is also being made to further reduce poverty as measured against the na onal poverty line from the current rate of 13. In 2008/09 gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary educa on level (SD/MI) was 116. The prevalence of undernourished children under ﬁve years of age decreased from 31. The main challenge in acelera ng the achievment of MDG educa on target is improving equal access of children.00 per capita per day. and eﬀec veness of educa on.
the target of 23 per 1.73 and 101. Extra hard work will be needed to achieve the MDG target by 2015 of 102 per 100. the maternal mortality ra o (MMR) has gradually been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100.35. MDG 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has shown a signiﬁcant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1. In the workforce.000 live births in 2015 is expected to be achieved. regional dispari es remain as constraints to achieve the targets. (ii) improve protec on for women against all forms of abuse. Cri cal measures to reduce maternal mortality are improving the contracep ve prevalence rate 12 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Priori es for the future are to: (i) improve the role of women in development.MDG 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Progress has been achieved in increasing the propor on of females in primary. and literacy among females aged 15-24 years has already reached 99. In Indonesia. The future priori es are to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services especially for the poor and remote areas. As a result. Even though the rates for antenatal care and births a ended by skilled health personnel are rela vely high.000 live births. the number of women in the Indonesian parliament increased to 17. Likewise. reﬂec ng the discrepancy in accessing health services. However. the child mortality target is expected to be achieved.99 respec vely.000 live births in 2007. Indonesia is on track to achieve the educa on-related targets for gender equality by 2015. MDG 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of all the MDGs.000 live births in 2007. In poli cs. the lowest rate of global achievement has been recorded in the improvement of maternal health. several factors such as high risk pregnancy and abor on are considered to be constraints that require special a en on. par cularly in underserved and remote areas. With this rate. senior high schools and ins tu ons of higher educa on. and (iii) mainstream gender equality in all policies and programs while building greater public awareness on issues of gender.9 percent in 2009. the share of female wage employment in the nonagricultural sector has increased. The ra o of NER for women to men at primary educa on and junior secondary educa on levels was 99. junior secondary schools.
000 popula on decreased from 4. MDG 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS. in TB control. A en on will be given to investments on water and sanita on systems to serve growing urban popula ons. educa on and communica on (IEC) messages to the community. The communicable disease control approaches are focusing on preven ve measures and mainstreaming into the na onal health system. Beyond that. improving family planning services and provision of informa on. especially among high risk groups.and reducing the unmet need through expanding access and improving quality of family planning and reproduc ve health services.e. The propor on of households with access to improved sources of drinking water increased from 37.81 percent in 1993 to 51. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 13 . The role and detailed responsibili es of local governments in natural resource management and water supply /sanita on will be be er delineated and their skills enhanced. communi es are expected to play a larger role. the case detec on rate and successfully treated TB cases have already reached the 2015 targets. For the future. Meanwhile. with communi es taking responsibility for opera on and management of infrastructure with advisory support from local authori es. In rural areas. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES In Indonesia. but has worked to increase forest cover. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Indonesia more than doubled between 2004 and 2005.73 percent in 1993 to 47.68 in 1990 to 1. At the same me. priori es to improve maternal health will be focused on expanding be er quality health care and comprehensive obstetric care.71 percent in 2009. The incidence of malaria per 1.19 percent in 2009. Accelera on of achievement of the targets for improving access to improved water and sanita on facili es will be con nued with increased support. the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has increased. eliminate illegal logging and is commi ed to implemen ng a comprehensive policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions over the next 20 years. i. the propor on of households with access to improved sanita on facili es increased from 24. MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Indonesia has a high rate of greenhouse gas emission. communicable disease control eﬀorts must involve all stakeholders and strengthen health promo on ac vi es to increase public awareness.85 in 2009. injec ng drug users and sex workers.
bilateral partners and representa ves of the private sector to achieve a pro-poor pa ern of economic growth. telephone land lines and internet communica ons has increased drama cally over the past ﬁve years.41 percent of the popula on had access to cellular telephones. Indonesia has beneﬁted from close collabora on with the interna onal donor community and interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons. Indonesia’s debt service ra o has also con nued to decline from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. In 2009 some 82. The Jakarta Commitment was signed with 26 development partners in 2009 to provide a roadmap for all concerned to improve coopera on and management of development assistance in Indonesia. Indonesia has commited to reducing interna onal borrowing as a percentage of GDP and this is demonstrated by the reduc on of foreign debt to GDP from 24.6 percent in 1996 to 10. The private sector has made major investments in informa on and communica ons technology and access to cellular telephones. 14 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .MDG 8: BUILDING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is an ac ve par cipant in a wide variety of interna onal forums and is commi ed to con nuing to build successful partnerships with mul lateral organiza ons.9 percent in 2009.
9% ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 15 . including women and young people 1. between 1990 and 2015.4% (2007)** 15.8% (1989)* 13.8 31. 2007 1.7 71% (1990) 64% (2009) ► Target 1C: Halve.21% (2010) Reduce Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all.60% (1990) 2.Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 1.8b 23. the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger 1.8a 7.2% (1989)* 5. Sakernas Decrease PDB Na onal and Sakernas 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed Employment-topopula on (over 15 years of age) Propor on of own-account and contribu ng family workers in total employment Prevalence of underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of severe underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of moderate underweight children under-ﬁve years of age 3.30% • ► World Bank and BPS BPS.24% (2009) 62% (2009) BPS.4% (2007)** 3.1 Propor on of popula on below USD 1.6% ► 1.0 (PPP) a day 1.52% (1990) 65% (1990) 2. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.0% (2007)** 11. Susenas ** Ministry of Health Riskesdas.5 1.90% (2008) 10. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1. between 1990 and 2015.00 (PPP) per day Poverty gap ra o (incidence x depth of poverty) 20. Susenas 1.70% (1990) 5.5% ► * BPS.2 2.0% (1989)* 18.
44 (1993) 99.85 (2009) 100.00 ● ● ► ► BPS.00% (1990) 64.99 (2009) 96. Literacy rate of populaon aged 15-24 year.00% ► 2.Ra o of girls to boys in junior high schools .00 100. secondary and ter ary educa on .00% ► * MONE **BPS.23% (2009)* 93. MONE ** BPS.55% 100. women and men 88.70% (1992)** 62. Susenas * BPS.73 (2009) 101. Susenas Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on.16 (2009) 102.9 1400 kcal/capita/day 2000 kcal/capita/day Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source ▼ 17. Susenas 2. will be able to complete full course of primary schooling 2.06 (1993) 98.95 (2009) 99.1a Literacy ra o of women to men in the 15-24 year age group 100.00 100.47% (2009) Female: 99.1 Net Enrolment Ra o (NER) in primary educa on Propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school. preferably by 2005.86 (1993) 93.00% (1990)* 95.67 (1993) 74.Ra o of girls to boys in primary schools . by 2015.60% (1990) 100.27 (1993) 99.47% (2009) 61. Susenas Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Educa on Target 2A: Ensure that. boys and girls alike. children everywhere.2 100.50% 35.21% (1990) 14.00% ► BPS.00 100.00% (2008)** 99. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015 3.Ra o of girls to boys in higher educa on 3.86% (2009) 8.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Propor on of populaon below minimum level of dietary energy consump on: 1.00 100.3 96.40% Male: 99. Sakernas ● Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 16 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1 Ra os of girls to boys in primary.Ra o of girls to boys in senior high schools .32% BPS.
IDHS 1991.2 Increase Target 5B: Achieve.4% (2007) Increase ► BPS. 2007 4.7% (1991) 61.1% (1991) 57.90% (2009) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source BPS.000 live births Neonatal mortality rate per 1.4% (2007) Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 17 . modern method 390 (1991) 40. IDHS 1991.3 Decrease ► KPU Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.000 live births Propor on of oneyear-old children immunized against measles 97 (1991) 68 (1991) 32 (1991) 44. any method Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.24% (1990) 12. between 1990 and 2015.Indicator Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Propor on of seats held by women in na onal parliament Baseline 29.2 4.50% (1990) Current 33.3 Decrease ► Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.3 49.70% (1992) 228 (2007) 77.3a 47. the Maternal Mortality Ra o 5. the under-ﬁve mortality rate 4. by 2015. between 1990 and 2015. Sakernas Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 3. universal access to reproduc ve health 5.2 ► 3.1 4. 2007 5. 2007 BPS. IDHS 1991.5% (1991) 44 (2007) 34 (2007) 19 (2007) 67.45% (2009) 17.0% (2007) 32 23 Decrease ► ► ► BPS.000 live births Infant mortality rate per 1.1 Maternal Mortality Ra o (per 100.000 live births) Propor on of births a ended by skilled health personnel (%) Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old. Susenas 1992-2009 ▼ ► 5.2a Under-ﬁve mortality rate per 1.34% (2009) 102 BPS.
5% Male: 14.8% (2002/3) Increase ▼ .0% 56.Unmarried - Increase ▼ BPS.3 Female: 9. by 2010.4 visits: 5. 2007 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.1 HIV/AIDS Prevalence among total popula on (percent) Condom use at last high-risk sex Propor on of popula on aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.5% (2007) 9.1% (2007) Decrease ► ► ▼ BPS.7% (1991) 93. SKRRI 2007 Target 6B: Achieve. IDHS 1991. IDHS 2007 .Married - Increase ▼ BPS.1 visit: .5 - Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 18 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2% (2009) Female: 10.6% Male: 1.4% (2007) 0. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Propor on of popula on with advanced HIV infec on with access to an retroviral drugs 38.7% (2007) Female: 2. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.2 12.3% Male: 18.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator 5.5 75.3% Increase 81. IYARHS 2002/2003 & 2007 ▼ ▼ 6.4% (2009) MOH.0% (1991) 12. 2010 as per 30 November 2009 6.4% (2007) Decrease MOH es mated 2006 BPS.6 Unmet need for family planning Baseline 67 (1991) Current 35 (2007) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source ► 5.4 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15-19) Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visists) .
3% Rural: 4.9 6.68 (1990) 0.000): 6.7 Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cidetreated bednets Incidence.Incidence of Malaria outside Jawa & Bali 6.000) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short courses Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS * TB Global WHO Report.10 (1990) 1.000) Death rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.0% (2009)** 85. 2009 6.17 (1990) 24.10 6. IDHS 2007 Increase 6.77 (2008) 3. MOH 2008 AMI.10b 87.1% (2009)** 70.9c 6.5% Urban: 1.6 Incidence and death rates associated with Malaria (per 1.0% ● ● 6. 2009 343 (1990) 228 (2009) Stop.0% (2000)* 73.0% (2000)* 91.9b 443 (1990) 92 (1990) 244 (2009) 39 (2009) 6.85 (2009) 0.6a .10a 20.6% -2007 Decrease Decrease Decrease Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets ► ► ► ▼ MOH 2009 API.incidence of Malaria in Jawa & Bali .0% ** MOH Report-2009 Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 19 .9a ● ● ● TB Global WHO Report.16 (2008) 17. began to reduce 4.000) Incidence rate associated with Malaria (per 1.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 6.000 pop/ year) Prevalence rate of Tuberculosis (per 100. MOH 2008 BPS. prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis Incidence rates associated with Tuberculosis (all cases/100.
5% (2000) 8.40% (2008) Increase ► 7.3 ► 7.7 metric tons (1992) 66.2d Energy Elas city Energy mix for renewable energy Total consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) in metric tons Propor on of ﬁsh stocks within safe biological limits The ra o of terrestrial areas protected to maintain biological diversity to total terrestrial area The ra o of marine protected areas to total territorial marine area Decrease 0 CFCs while reducing HCFCs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries Ministry of Forestry *Ministry of Forestry / **Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries 7. Decrease Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 7.6 (2008) 3.711.43% (2008) Increase ▼ Ministry of Forestry 7.35% (2009)** Increase ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 20 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1 BOE/ USD 1.2 1.000 (1990) 0.28 BOE/ USD 1.4 91.332.83% (2008) not exceed ► 7.000 (2008) 1.2a 7.64 BOE (1991) 5.416.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources The ra o of actual forest cover to total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Primary energy consump on (per capita) Energy Intensity 7.98 (1991) 3.2c 7.70% (1990) 52.074 1.2b.40% (1990) 26.5 26.08% (1998) 4.3 BOE (2008) 2.1 59.45% (2008) 0 CFCs (2009) Reduce at least 26% by 2020 Reduce ▼ Ministry of Environment 7.626 Gg Gg CO2e CO2e (2008) (2000) 2.6 0.14% (1990)* 4.
59% (1996) 51.89% (2009) 22.81% (1993) 53. predictable.87% ▼ 7.82% 55.81% ▼ ▼ BPS.55% ▼ ▼ Target 7D: By 2020.8 37. urban and rural Urban Rural Propor on of households with sustainable access to basic sanita on.75% (1993) 20.71% (2009) 68. by 2015.82% (2009) 45.9a 7.12 8. Susenas Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open.10% (1993) 49. rule-based.75% (1993) 12.00% (2009) en on Reduce Reduce ► ► Ministry of Finance BI Annual Report 2009 ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 21 .72% (2009) 51.61% (1993) 24.75% (1993) 20.64% (1993) 11. 2009 7.29% 65.12% (2009) 12.41% ▼ 7. Susenas 7.73% (1993) 47.12a Status: Ra o of Interna onal Debt to GDP Debt Service Ra o (DSR) 24.1 - Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 8.9 62. non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems 7.9b 76.58% (1993) 31.12% (2009) - ► ► ► BPS & The World Bank 7. 19% (2009) 69.75% (1993) 12. to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7.8a 7.96% (2009) 75.12% (2009) BPS.1 - BI Economic Report 2008.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20. urban and rural Urban Rural Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 7.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 7C: Halve.00% (1996) 10.51% (2009) 33.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20. the propor on of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on Propor on of households with sustainable access to an improved water source.12% (2009) 12.8b 50.
79% (2004) - 82. make available the beneﬁts of new technologies.16a - Increase Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 22 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .16 50. especially informa on and communica ons Propor on of popula on with ﬁxed-line telephones (teledensity in popula on) Propor on of popula on with cellular phones Propor on of households with access to internet Propor on of households with personal computers 4.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.41% (2009) 11.32% (2009) 100.51% (2009) 8.00% ► ▼ ▼ BPS.15 14.65% (2009) Increase ► Minister of Communica on and Informa cs 2010 8.14 3.02% (2004) 8. Susenas 2009 8. Susenas 2009 BPS.00% 8.
Coming Home from the Field Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger .
24 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
The declining trend is expected to be sustained to 2015 and beyond.7 2006 2007 6.00 (PPP) a day Current Status The incidence of extreme poverty (using the measurement of USD 1.0 Percentage 15 9.6 5. between 1990 and 2015.9 2008 2009 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.0 6.1: Progress in Reducing Extreme Poverty (USD1.1 presents the trend for the declining percentages of the popula on es mated to have levels of consump on below USD 1.3 7.2 Target: 10.9 9. and Indonesia has already achieved and exceeded Target 1 for reduc on of extreme poverty.6 9.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve. 25 20 Figure 1. the proportion of people whose income is less than USD 1. Susenas. Figure 1.8 20. The World Bank 2008.00 purchasing power parity per capita per day) has been reduced in Indonesia from 20. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 25 .6 percent in 1990 to 5.9 percent in 2008.2 7.9 7.8 12.5 6.4 8.00/capita/day) as Compared to the MDG Target 14.00 (PPP) per capita per day as measured by World Bank/BPS annually from 1990 to 2008.
2).2 48.0 38.1 37.26). the total number of people living below the na onal poverty line was s ll high.3 40.4 16. At the same me it is important to note that the decline of the poverty rate from March 2009 to March 2010 is only 0. the na onal poverty rate had been reduced to 13.2 17.52).9 22. amoun ng to 31.7 37.8 16.94).2.6 15. Figure 1.0 16.0 .5. During the period 2002-2010 the trend for this indicator was generally downward. although there was a signiﬁcant increase in 2006 reﬂec ng increases in the na onal price of fuel and other basic consumer goods.33 percent (2010) as the na onal economy has recovered and as ini a ves to reduce the incidence of poverty proved to be eﬀec ve in beneﬁ ng the poor. Gorontalo (6.2 30. the largest share (55. and Nusa Tenggara Timur (4.0 35.02 million people. Of the 31. As a result it is necessary to take steps to increase the rate of poverty reduc on.1 18.74).3).2 percent in 1998 when a nega ve GDP growth rate was recorded and prices increased drama cally.2: Long-Term Trends in Poverty Reduc on in Indonesia Measured Using the Na onal Poverty Line 60 50 40 40.5 30 25.7 15.2 35.7 17.51). Number of poor popula on (milliions) Na onal Poverty Line (percentage) The Poverty Gap Index is an indicator which measures the gap between the average income of the poor and the na onal poverty line. Although the percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line in 2010 had been reduced.9 19. The Poverty Gap Index measured for rural areas (3. several years.4 37.6 23.0 27.5 14. and in 2010 there was a further decline to 2.6 24.3 1998* 1976 1978 1980 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: BPS.02 million people living below the na onal poverty line in 2010. Sulawesi Tengah (4.1 35.5 42. The incidence of poverty more than doubled to 24.9 38.47).4 18. Since 1999.4 11.87).2 21. Papua (11.1 33.3 31. The total number of poor is large and the distribu on of the poor among the provinces and islands of Indonesia is uneven.82 percent and that was less than during the previous year (2008/2009) when the decline of the poverty rate was 1.05) was signiﬁcantly higher than for urban areas (1. A er 2006 there has been a posi ve downward trend reﬂec ng the impact of the measures to stablize prices and mi gate the impact of price increases on the poor (see Figure 1.1 13.2 28. Sumatera 26 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2010 13.4 17.3 39.3 36.8). Yogyakarta (4.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Using the prevailing na onal poverty line.0 32.6 47.3 54. The economic crisis in 1997/8 resulted in a drama c increase in the number of Indonesians below the poverty line. Aceh (4.4 20 10 0 26. Susenas. In 2009 the average Poverty Gap Index for all areas was 2.2 49. Maluku (6.91) and the highest levels were found in the rural areas of the provinces of Papua Barat (12.27 percent.83 percent) are resident on the island of Jawa. the incidence of poverty has generally trended downwards during the period 1976 to 1996 (Figure 1.
Sumatera Selatan. The Na onal Trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.3.1% Maluku 1.4). There remain signiﬁcant dispari es in the incidence of poverty among the 33 provinces of Indonesia.2 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: BPS. Yogyakarta and Jawa Timur also have an incidence of poverty that is higher than the na onal average.6% Kalimantan 3.0 2. On the island Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 27 .4.0 2. Figure 1.33 percent include Papua (36. On the islands of Jawa and Bali.ranks second in terms of percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line (21.4 Poverty Gap Ra o 3.1 3.88 percent) and Maluku (27. The provinces where the incidence of poverty is more than double the na onal average of 13. Bengkulu and Lampung.9 3. Sulawesi 7.74 percent).8% Source: BPS.80 percent).5 2.9 2. The Percentages of the Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Major Geographical Region of Indonesia (2010) Jawa 55.5). Papua Barat (34.3% Sumatera 21. In Sumatera the incidence of poverty is s ll higher than the na onal average in the provinces of Aceh.5% Papua 3. while in 16 provinces they are above the na onal average (see Figure 1. 2002 to 2010 3. Susenas.3% Bali & Nusa Tenggara 7. Susenas 2010.8 2. Poverty rates in 17 provinces are below the na onal average.44 percent) while Bali/ Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi are the geographical regions with the third and fourth largest shares of people living below the poverty line (Figure 1. the provinces of Jawa Tengah.4% Figure 1.
7 .3 11.56 percent in 2010 compared to 9.1 8. Figure 1.0 23.5 11.2 7.6 23.88 percent). Susenas 2010. Susenas 2010.6 15.21 percent) and Bali (4.48 percent). The three provinces with the lowest incidence of poverty in 2010 were Jakarta (3.1 18. Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.9 36.6).9 21.9 5. Sulawesi Tenggara and Gorontalo also have poverty rates higher than the na onal rate while the same is true for the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).3 18.3 11.4 9.87 percent in urban areas (Figure 1.5 Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia. The geographical distribu on of the incidence of poverty by province is presented in Map 1. The poverty rate is signiﬁcantly higher in rural areas than in urban centers in Indonesia.6 16.3 13.3 15.3 8.7 9.8 DKI Jakarta Bali Kalimantan Selatan Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Banten Kalimantan Timur Kepulauan Riau Jambi Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat Jawa Barat Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur Sumatera Selatan Jawa Tengah DI Yogyakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Lampung Aceh Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Gorontalo Maluku Papua Barat Papua Na onal Average 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 - Source: BPS.8 17.1 9. 28 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3.5 16.1.5 4.2 27. 2010 Percentage 34. Kalimantan Selatan (5.0 21.0 9.5 6.2 6.1 18.1. The poverty rate in rural areas of Indonesia was 16.6 13. the provinces of Sulawesi Tengah. Map 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger of Sulawesi.7 8.8 7. 2010 Source: BPS.
Figure 1.6. Percentages of Urban and Rural Popula ons below the Na onal Poverty Line (1990-2010)
18.9 17.4 10.7 2009 16.6 2010 9.9
1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: BPS, Susenas Several Years
A major challenge is to reduce the propor on of the na onal popula on living below the na onal poverty line while also reducing dispari es in the incidence of poverty among provinces and districts. The government is faced with the challenge of maintaining a high growth rate of GDP in order to expand employment opportuni es for the poor. To break the cycle of poverty there is a need to further strengthen the provision of educa on and health services and social protec on. Decentraliza on has brought new challenges to both central and local government authori es in Indonesia to coordinate programs to reduce poverty and to u lize ﬁscal resources eﬀec vely to promote inclusive growth, empower the poor and improve public services.
Policies and Strategies
Indonesia is commi ed to reducing poverty in all regions, districts and villages. A mul dimensional approach will con nue to be applied, one that includes ac ons to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth, to create employment opportuni es, to empower communi es and to improve delivery of basic social services to all communi es. The government is commi ed to establishing a more conducive environment for all stakeholders to work to reduce poverty and achieve the na onal goals of development. It is expected that
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
the incidence of poverty as measured by the na onal poverty line will be reduced to 8 to 10 percent by 2014 in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (20102014). The Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on, led by the Vice President and senior cabinet oﬃcials, will take the lead in improving coordina on of implementa on of all policies and programs to reduce the incidence of poverty. Cabinet members to be directly involved include the Coordina ng Minister for People’s Welfare, the Coordina ng Minister for Economic Aﬀairs, the Minister of Health, the Minister of Na onal Educa on, the Minister of Social Aﬀairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister for Coopera ves and SMEs and the Minister of Na onal Development Planning (BAPPENAS). The na onal priori es iden ﬁed to reduce poverty and achieve the target for poverty are grouped into three policy areas: 1. Policies to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth will provide the founda on to provide produc ve employment for the poor. It is expected that growth of GDP will reach 6.3 to 6.8 percent during 2011 to 2013 and increase to 7 percent in 2014. 2. Aﬃrma ve ac ons to empower the poor and break the cycle of poverty will be implemented in three clusters of programs: First - Strengthening Social Services and Social Protec on (Cluster 1). Government support to strengthen the provision of health and educa on services will be expanded through the Na onal Health Security Program (Jamkesmas), the Family Hope Program (PKH) and provision of Scholarships for the Children from Poor Households. Second - Support will be expanded to empower communi es to reduce their poverty through PNPM Mandiri (Cluster 2). The government will increase support for the PNPM Mandiri Program to Rupiah 12.1 trillion per year and coverage will be expanded to include all 78,000 villages in Indonesia. Third - Facili es to increase the capacity of MSMEs and coopera ves will be expanded through (i.) entrepreneurship and capacity building on business management; (ii.) provision of informa on services and business consultancy; and through expansion of the PeopleBased Small Business Loan Program (KUR) (Cluster 3). KUR will be expanded to channel funds through local microﬁnance ins tu ons to increase access of medium and small scale enterprises and coopera ves to credit. Bank guarantees will con nue to be provided in the form of Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) by Perum Jamkrindo and PT Askrindo. 3. Increasing eﬀec veness of poverty reduc on programs: a. Priority will be given to improving coordina on of policies and programs to reduce poverty. Increased coordina on across programs within the three clusters is key for eﬀec ve poverty reduc on. Therefore, coordina on of all poverty allevia on policies will be intensiﬁed through the establishment of the Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on under the oﬃce of the Vice President in accordance with Presiden al Decree 15/2010 concerning the Accelera on of Poverty Reduc on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
This eﬀort will be supported by enhancing capacity and func ons of various technical ministries and government oﬃces at the na onal, provincial and district levels. The coordina on of poverty reduc on will also be conducted at provincial and district levels by the Provincial and District Coordina ng Teams for Poverty Reduc on. Concerted eﬀorts for poverty allevia on will also involve private sector partnerships through CSR and other types of funding such as “zikat, infaq and sodaqoh”. The above eﬀorts will be supported by implementa on of an accurate monitoring and evalua on system to achieve greater eﬀec veness in programming to alleviate poverty. Building local capacity to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate poverty reduc on programs, will be given special a en on in those provinces and districts with the highest incidence of poverty. Fiscal policies and instruments will be adjusted to be er support local government in ﬁgh ng poverty and providing services at the community level. Targe ng of the poor and near poor in poverty reduc on programs will be carried out in a systema c manner at the local level using the latest database on the poor. To maintain the accuracy of targe ng of these groups, it is planned that the Survey for Social Protec on Program will be implemented every three years.
In order to implement the policies to reduce poverty as presented above and to achieve the targets for poverty reduc on in 2015, the government has prepared and will implement the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) which deﬁnes programs and ac vi es with speciﬁc targets as presented below in Table 1.1.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
000 44.40% 94.000 66.8 13.868 9. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty Prioritas Guidance and Development of Health Security Output/Indicator Percentage of the popula on (including all the poor people) who have health security The number of primary health centers providing basic health services for the poor The percentage of hospitals that serve poor pa ents / JAMKESMAS program par cipants 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Formulated ﬁnancing and health insurance policy 59% 70.1 Increased guidance and self reliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 22.000 Increased referral of the poor for health services at hospitals Health Referral Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 75 80 85 90 95 Increased guidance.05 Development of policy and guidance to family planning equality 11.000 88.89 3.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.608 8.737 8.30% 84. par cipa on and self-reliance of family planning acceptors Number of new family planning acceptors (KPS and KS-I) (poor and other vulnerable groups) to receive coaching and free contracep ves through 23.000 Source: RPJMN 2010-2014 32 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .75 3.97 4.2 12.000 110.80 3.5 12.1.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) Total number of PUS group members of produc ve age who become members of KB Mandiri Groups 3.50% 100% Increased basic health services for the poor (JAMKESMAS) Basic Health Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 8.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) The number of ac ve poor family planning par cipants (KPS and KS-I) and other vulnerable groups to receive coaching and contracep ves free through the 23.481 8.9 12.
MTs.220 3.767.000 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 33 .000 640.000 320.783 501.000 640.020 1.000 540.1 Con nued Increasing selfreliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 34 34 34 34 34 3 3 3 3 3 Provision of educa on subsidies/ scholarships for students from elementary schools Provision of lementary School Scholarships 2.000 540.103.100 1.000 67.000 320.700 Provision of High School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality high school educa on in all districts and ci es The number of high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 378.282 3.210 Provision of Junior Secondary School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to junior high schools in all districts and ci es 966.000 320.195. and MA) Number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MI) The number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MT) The number of students from poor households receive scholarships (MA) 640.916.000 Provision of Voca onal Educa on Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality voca onal educa on in all districts and ci es The number of vocaonal school students from poor households to receive scholarships 305.000 Providing Scholarships for Qualiﬁed Madrasah Educa on 540.Prioritas Output/Indicator Total number of working partners who provide capital assistance and business guidance to economic working groups Total number of working partners to become facilitators for working groups Number of primary school students from poor households to receive scholarships Number of junior high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.000 540.000 Provision of scholarships for students from poor households (MI.640.000 69.476 475.840 1.200 3.000 640.396 714.653 800.780 3.000 67.395.417 560.898 614.370.000 320.000 320.346.064 1.358 645.298 Ins tu onal Service Delivery Ac vi es Expanding the availability and equitable access and quality of PT interna onal compe The number of poor students receiving scholarships 65.000 veness 70 .000 640.275.535 390.000 540.
400 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 34 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 1.Reduc on of the number of children working in worst forms of child labor The number of child workers withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.404.538 59.000 people 90.538 59.538 59.300 5.900 8.000 Increasing the availability of temporary employment for the unemployed and development of community infrastructure Development and Expansion of Employment Opportuni es The number of unemployed people to have temporary jobs Number of districts / ci es to implement temporary employment crea on for the unemployed 24.000 people 231 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es - Facilita on of child workers to return to school or receive skills training .600 6.000 people 90. Con nued Prioritas Provision of Scholarships for Islamic Higher Educa on Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased availability of scholarships for students from poor households The number of students from poor households targetd to receive scholarships (PTA ) Total number of the poorest households to receive condi onal cash assistance (PKH) Total recipient households (15 kg per household per 12 months) Implementa on of the redistribu on of land (hectares) 59. Condi onal Cash Transfers (PKH) 816.5 million The realiza on of the land redistribu on Provincial Land Management 210.000 1.000 210. The percentage of child workers withdrawn from the worst form of child labor who return to school and / or acquire skills training.000 The provision of rice to poor households Provision of Subsidized Rice for the Poor (RASKIN) Annual targets will be determined based on surveys of need.116.538 Implementa on of condi onal cash aid to beneﬁt the poorest households (PKH). 17.000 people 90.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 18.104.22.1686.000 210.000 210.000 1.538 59.000 210.000 people 90.000 1. Increased Worker Protec on for Women and the Elimina on of Child Labour 3.000 4.
946 subdistricts 4.943 subdistricts 4. The target areas of applica on of PNPMMP and strengthening PNPM Coverage areas of post-disaster reconstruc on and rehabilita on in crisis districts: Nias and Nias Selatan 4. Control. Control and Opera on of Se lement Development (RISE) Number of subdistricts served by the suppor ng infrastructure and socio-economic ac vi es.949 subdistricts Improving Rural Community Self-Reliance (PNPM-MP) 2 districts / 9 subdistricts Regula ons. and Management of Sanita on Improvement Supervision. The number of eighborhoods/ villages which beneﬁt from facilita on to empower 8.482 villages in 805 subdistricts 4. 237 237 237 237 237 Accelera ng poverty reduc on through infrastructure development and community empowerment (RIS PNPM + PPIP) Number of villages improved through development of infrastructure 3. Financing and Development of Water Supply Systema 210 districts/ ci es (SANIMAS) Target areas for infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site systems (district / city) Number of villages facilitated 30 districts/ ci es system on-site 35 districts/ ci es system on-site 40 districts/ ci es system on-site 45 districts/ ci es system on-site 50 districts/ ci es system on-site 4. Guidance.226 Regula ons.940 subdistricts 4. Con nued Empowering communi es and accelera ng reduc on of poverty and unemployment in urban neighborhoods / sub-districts (PNPM Urban).237 1.9 2.237 1.791 subdistricts 4.Prioritas Improving Urban Community SelfReliance (PNPM Urban) Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.968 villages in 460 subdistricts 552 villages in 460 subdistricts 482 villages in 460 subdistricts Empowering communi es to accelerate reduc on of poverty and unemployment in districts and rural villages / (PNPM Perdesaan).500 villages in 1.650 villages (PAMSIMAS) 1.45 1. Guidance. Financing.165 500 700 813 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 35 .094 ubdistricts 7.472 1.1.
subdistricts and villages targeted in less developed regions 51 districts.5 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2. and KUR) Realiza on of distribu on of Sharia ﬁnancing and commercial ﬁnancing for agricultural sector Total number of agricultural business centers in rural areas Total number of farmer groups PUAP (units) Policy Development. and development of farmer groups PUAP Realiza on of lending for agriculture (CTF-E.000 10.2 Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased empowerment and self reliance of two million micro enterprises in coastal se lements.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. Islamic ﬁnancing. Ins tu onal Strengthening. development of rural agricultural business centers.000 Increasing socio-economic recovery and growth in less developed regions The number of districts.000 10.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.596 villages 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) Increased number of tourist villages through PNPM tourism ini a ves Number of tourism villages 200 450 550 450 350 Budget available to guarantee People’s Business Credit (KUR) Percentage of budget available to guarantee KUR 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 businesses Increasing realiza on of the lending program (KKP-E and KUR) commercial ﬁnancing. Coordina on and Facilita on of Local Governments in Less Developed Regions (P2DTK/SPADA) – PNPM Improvement of Tourism Sector PNPM Mandiri Support the People’s Business Credit Guarantee Cooperaon (KUR) 1. 4.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. opera ng in 300 districts/ ci es supported by one unit BLU The number of groups of micro-enterprises in coastal areas and small islands are bankable Business Services and Community Empowerment Development of micro tools LKM Rural Community Empowerment Funding / PNPM MK Facilitators Micro Business Groups 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. 186 subdistricts.000 10.000 10.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.5 trillion Rupiah Rural Agribusiness Development (PUAP) and Strengthening of Rural Economic Ins tu ons through LM3 4 trillion Rupiah 5 trillion Rupiah 6 trillion Rupiah 7 trillion Rupiah 8 trillion Rupiah 200 200 200 200 200 10.
which work closely with the bank ﬁnancing Number of Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons Increasing the role of nonbank ﬁnancial ins tu ons. which supported the development of synergies and coopera on with ﬁnancial ins tu ons Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons (LPKD) doing co-guarantee with the na onal insurance agency The number of coopera ves that can access credit / ﬁnancing banks through linkages Number of MFIs (coopera ves and rural banks). a venture capital. leasing companies. coupled with the development of informa on networks 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 7 Prov. 10 Prov. 9 Prov. 10 Prov.1. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2 2 2 3 3 The increased capacity and coverage of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons to provide ﬁnancing to coopera ves and SMEs Number of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on established 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 37 . factoring.Prioritas Policy Coordina on People’s Business Credit (KUR) Output/Indicator Percentage of policy recommenda ons to be implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1. Con nued Increasing people’s business credit policy coordina on (KUR) 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increased coverage of credit / bank ﬁnancing for coopera ves and SMEs Coopera on involving ﬁnancing from banks and ﬁnancial ins tu ons / other ﬁnancing. The expansion of credit services / ﬁnancing banks for coopera ves and SMEs. 8 Prov. pawnshops in support of ﬁnance for coopera ves and SMEs. such as KSP / KJKS.
000 people - 1. Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator The number of MFIs that are registered and accredited in accordance with the law of the MFI The number of MFIs that par cipate in management training Total HR management staﬀ KSP/ KJKS cer ﬁed Total LDP KJK and reinforced TUK Number of managers/ heads of branch KJK which included training and cer ﬁca on of competencies for MFIs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased ins tu onal capacity of MFIs.000 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1. including the accredita on and cer ﬁca on service for MFIs.200 people 2 Unit 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.200 people - 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Revitalizing the educa on system. training and coopera ve educa on for members and managers of coopera ves.000 people 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres of the more eﬀec ve The number of par cipants increase public understanding of coopera ves among the strategic groups.000 managers MFIs 1. The number of par cipants increased understanding of educa on and training of coopera ves and human resources in coopera ves 1.000 people 1. including MFIs incorporated under the law of the oopera ve 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs Increasing the capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs).000 managers MFIs 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.750 people 38 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 managers MFIs 1.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres System of educa on. 1.1.750 people 1.000 people 1.750 people 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1. Improved ins tu onal capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs). training and coopera ve extension for members and managers of coopera ves.
at the me of the economic crisis. The lower growth rate of "post crisis" labor produc vity was partly due to the dwindling capital accumula on per worker during the post crisis period. The strong economic growth during the 19901997 and 2004-2008 period resulted in the employment growth rate exceeding the rate of workforce growth.8). amoun ng to 18. with an average annual growth of about 2. Meanwhile. In the industrial sector the highest growth rate occurred in 1995. The demographic transi on. In the same year (1995). Growth of GDP per worker in the period before the crisis of 1997/1998 (during 1990-1995) was rela vely high. the working age popula on amounted to 63. the agricultural sector also experienced the highest growth rate of 12. A er the crisis.42 percent as compared to the period a er the crisis period (1997/1998 . the growth rate of labor produc vity showed a tendency to decline. including women and young people" is detailed as follows: The growth of gross domes c product (GDP) per worker during the 1990-2009 period has varied signiﬁcantly. The development of various indicators for "the crea on of full and produc ve employment opportuni es and provision of decent jobs for all. but quite dynamic change. The last two decades have seen a diminishing ra o of employment to the working age popula on. amoun ng to 5. and the lowest in 1998 amounted to -12. The employment opportuni es created during this me were able to absorb new members of the workforce entering the labor market.34 million whereas it is es mated to have reached 171. amoun ng to -0.02 million in 2010.68 percent and the lowest in 2001.05 percent.36 percent per year during the past 10 years.15 per cent. from a popula on structure dominated by the younger genera on in the 1970s to the current structure dominated by those of middle age. The growth of the working age popula on has been higher than the growth of the workforce.2008). job opportuni es were s ll created even though they were mainly in the informal sector (Figure 1. from 65 percent to 62 percent. The ra o of the employed to working age popula on in the 1990-2009 period experienced a rela vely small. averaging 3.53 percent.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all. indica ng that there is a higher preference Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 39 . has resulted in a rapid increase in the working popula on. including women and young people Current Status Since the 1970s employment condi ons in Indonesia have been inﬂuenced by the demographic transi on of the popula on structure and two economic crises that occurred in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008. In 1971.8).91 percent (see Figure 1.
7. Sakernas. 1999-2009 Agriculture Industry Services Total Improvements in the quality of job opportuni es have resulted in a reduc on in the propor on of self-employed workers and family workers (generally in the informal sector) to total employment. The employment ra o in the sector has decreased from 71 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2009 (Figure 1. Extracted from Sakernas and Indonesia Sta s cs in years 1990. 1996. This source of 40 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . 1993. 1990-2009 25% The growth rate of labor produc vity (%) 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15% -20% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: BPS. 1990-2009 EPR Urban EPR Rural EPR Total The declining ra o of workers who work in the informal sector is made possible by the growth of wage employment and increasing worker produc vity. The Growth Rate of Labor Produc vity (in Percentages) for the Agriculture. Employment to Popula on Ra o for Urban and Rural Areas and for the Na onal Level 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: BPS.9). 80% Figure 1. Industry and the Service Sector.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger among students to con nue their schooling to higher levels of educa on rather than to ﬁnd a job.8. Figure 1.
employment grew by 1.9 percent per annum during the period 2008-2009. Produc vity of workers has increased signiﬁcantly over the last several years.
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nop-05 Agust-06 Agust-07 Agust-08 Agust-09
Figure 1.9. The Propor on of Vulnerable Workers to Total Workers, 1990-2009
Source: BPS, Sakernas (1990-2009).
First: Expanding formal employment opportuni es. Investment recovery that has not met expecta ons may well be a constraint to achievement of a higher economic growth rate. Contribu ng factors to the weak investment climate have been well documented and include, among others, slow investment recovery in infrastructure provision, legal and bureaucra c issues as well as uncertainty in property ownership. Uncertainty in industrial rela ons, including the provisions of severance payment due to layoﬀ as well as on contract and outsourced workers, has aﬀected the compe veness of several key labor-intensive industries, although this is not the sole, deciding factor. Second: Narrowing the wage gap between workers at the same level. Current changes in wages are determined by the increasing price level rather than improvements in produc vity. Produc vity has not yet become the main determinant in wage calcula on. Ideally, the components for determining the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR) should not only include inﬂa on factors, but also produc vity and achievement of job outputs. Third: Accelera ng workers transi on from lower produc vity jobs to higher produc vity jobs. This entails moving “labor surplus” out of the tradi onal or informal sector into more produc ve jobs which provide higher wages. Worker transi on from tradi onal sectors with low produc vity encourages wage increment, improves workers’ output as well as narrows the gap in wage and labor produc vity. Should the growth in the formal sector slow down, it will result in more workers entering the informal sector so that workers in the informal sector (including their families) will be in a state of greater uncertainty.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Policies and Strategis
Crea ng as many employment opportuni es as possible by promo ng investment and business expansion. The government will con nue to promote the crea on of job opportuni es in the formal sector by promo ng investment growth and business expansion. This policy con nues to be implemented so that the economy will grow and develop. Improving the investment climate is one of the government’s na onal priori es, both for urban and rural areas. Improving the environment and mechanisms of industrial rela ons to promote employment and business opportuni es. Through a process of nego a on and delibera on and bipar te discussions, workers and employers can resolve issues rela ng to their respec ve needs and interests. The government will be more ac ve in working to create more conducive industrial rela ons and to encourage collec ve bargaining between workers and employers. Crea ng employment opportuni es through government programs. This policy aims to assist the unemployed who do not have access to economic ac vi es. Unemployment is not only found in urban areas, but also in areas that have been le behind in terms of economic development. Improving the quality of workers. The competence of Indonesian workers is s ll perceived as an obstacle for business development. The low level of competence is a constraint to the improvement of na onal economic security. Indonesia's compe veness and produc vity s ll lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. One eﬀort to be taken to improve labor produc vity will be to improve worker skills. Improving the produc vity of agricultural workers. The government will give a en on to workers in the agricultural sector through improving agricultural sector produc vity. This will be done through various ac vi es, including: (a) extending the scope of agricultural sector management by intensifying research to expand agricultural ac vi es, thus increasing agricultural output and added value; and (b) providing workers with knowledge and skills, through educa on, training and agricultural extension. In me, knowledge and skills improvement will have an impact on the enhancement of agricultural produc vity. Developing social security and empowering workers. Strategies for providing workers with social security will be implemented, including development of social security programs that provide workers with the greatest possible beneﬁts. For informal workers, there is a need to protect workers from their working environment and the dispropor onate use of their labor. Assistance will also be provided to workers in the form of training to improve skills to help them increase their produc vity and, thus, their welfare.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Implemen ng key employment regula ons. The ILO Declara on on the Principles and Fundamental Rights in the Workplace mandates the implementa on and enforcement of basic labor standards.
Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
The nutri onal level of the popula on has improved over me, as indicated by the decline in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age. Indonesia has made good progress in improving nutri on outcomes over the past two decades. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age, who are moderately and severely underweight, decreased from 31.0 percent in 1989 to 21.6 percent in 2000. A slight rise was seen between 2000 and 2005, reaching 24.5 percent in 2005. However in 2007 it decreased to 18.4 percent (Riskesdas 2007) and progress on this indicator is considered to be on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.5 percent by 2015 (Figure 1.10). In the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) the Government has set the new target for this indicator to be less than 15.0 percent in 2014.
29.8 27.7 26.1 22.8 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.2 24.5 18.4
Target MDG 2015
Figure 1.10. Trend in the Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age (1989-2007) Using the WHO 2005 Standard and the MDG Target for this Indicator in 2015
23.8 7.2 21.7 8.1 15.4 12.3 14.8 11.3 13.9 8,9 13.2 8.4 15.0 6.8 14.6 8.6 14.5 8.7 14.8 9.7 13.0 5.4
1989 1992 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2007 2015
Source: BPS, Susenas 1989 to 2005 and MOH, Riskesdas 2007.
Dispari es in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age remain a problem. Even though the na onal MDG target for the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age is expected to be achieved, dispari es exist in nutri onal
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Riskesdas 2007 indicated that the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age ranged from 10.2 24.2 21.2 percent.8 percent). Sulawesi Tengah (27.4 percent. provinces with the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve above 25 percent include: Maluku (27. and Aceh (26.5 percent) (Figure 1.6 27. Riskesdas 2007 Region Rural Urban Indonesia Severely Underweight 6.4 22.7 22.4 The propor on of the popula on with a daily kcal intake of less than 2.11).6 16. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age in rural areas in 2007 was 20.2 21. The data indicates that the MDG target of 3. which indicates achievement of the MDG target (Table 1.4 percent na onally while in rural areas it was 6.9 3.8 25. The Susenas 2002-2008 data showed that the average dietary calorie intake in 2002 was 44 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .3 percent is not yet achieved in rural and urban areas.7 17.2 5.3 20.000 calories is s ll high.0 16. Figure 1.5 17.9 11.5 22.6 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur).4 17. between rural and urban areas. Table 1.6 18.8 16.4 15.2).4 percent and in urban areas 4. In addi on to Nusa Tenggara Timur.6 percent).7 22. Riskesdas 2007 Severely Underweight Moderately Underweight Total Underweight Moreover. there has been a signiﬁcant improvement in reducing undernourishment in Indonesia.8 23. Based on the average daily dietary energy consump on intake per capita.0 15.4 4.6 27.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger status among provinces.4 18.2 also indicates that the prevalence of severely underweight children under ﬁve years of age was 5.6 DI Yogyakarta Bali Kepulauan Riau DKI Jakarta Jawa Barat Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Banten Bengkulu Jawa Timur Lampung Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung INDONESIA Jambi Kalimantan Timur Sumatera Barat Papua Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Sumatera Utara Maluku Utara Papua Barat Kalimantan Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Aceh Kalimantan Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Maluku Nusa Tenggara Timur Source: MOH. 15. Riskesdas 2007 showed that the lower the household income the higher the prevalence of underweight of children under ﬁve years of age.9 percent. Data in Table 1.5 11.4 Moderately Underweight 14 11.2 18.9 19. disparity between rural and urban areas remains.8 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TARGET 2015 .4 12.5 26.3 18.4 12. The Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age by Province (2007) Percentage 33.7 13 Total Underweight 20.4 25. Kalimantan Selatan (26.2.6 40 10.9 15.9 18. Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007) Source: MOH. and among socio-economic groups.11. while in urban areas it was 15.9 percent (DI Yogyakarta) to 33.4 26.6 percent).2 24.
and (iv) improvement of food for ﬁca on. water and sanita on services. poor people in par cular consume unsafe food which adversely aﬀects their health and nutri onal status. and (iii) inadequate access to health. In 2008. Moreover.007 2. tuberculosis. and HIV/AIDS. In its eﬀorts to fulﬁll the global accord.040 2. several years.038 Figure 1. (iii) promo on of healthy lifestyle behavior. with the following immediate objec ves: (i) improvement of family nutri on awareness (kadarzi) through community-based growth monitoring and counseling. Challenges Economic and socio-cultural factors aﬀec ng low nutri onal status among children under ﬁve years of age include: (i) lack of access to quality food. the government set up health sector policies in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2009 which cover the community nutri on improvement program. par cularly due to poverty.950 2002 1.038 kcal per capita per day (Figure 1. the government has implemented the Food and Nutri on Ac on Plan 2006-2010.986 Source: BPS.020 Kcal/capita/day 2.12). The data conﬁrm that food consump on improvement par cularly among the poor is urgently needed.990 1. it increased to 2.050 2. Lack of access of the poor with low educa on to quality and safe food. Moreover.1.986 kcal per capita per day which was below the minimum requirement of 2.015 2. Susenas.970 1.030 2. 2. (ii) inappropriate child care due to low levels of educa on among mothers. To address the high prevalence of malnutri on among children.010 2. (ii) preven on of nutri on-related diseases such as diarrhea.960 1.12. The poor have low Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 45 . lack of awareness and commitment of the government contributes to the existence of the malnutri on problem. par cularly the poor. malaria. 2005 2007 2008 The Government of Indonesia is commi ed to improving the nutri onal status of the popula on.000 kcal per capita per day.980 1.000 1. Trends in the Average Calorie Consump on for Rural and Urban Households (2002-2008) 2.
13.0 2002 2005 2007 Rural Urban Indonesia The prac ce of exclusive breast feeding has declined.6 in 2007. several years.6 81. the na onwide system of Posyandus was the main mechanism for nutri on service delivery at the community level.0 77.9 83.0 76.0 86. the unbalanced food consump on pa ern of Indonesians can lead to serious disease problems and even death. and only 41 percent of children under four months old were exclusively breas ed. The role of the community in dealing with malnutri on has been declining. To minimize morbidity and mortality of children.0 72. par c ularly among children under ﬁve.2 68.5 75.0 70. 2002-2007 PPH Score 88. Un l the early 1990s.0 80. However. in terms of quan ty as well as quality. During the period 2002-2007. the United Na ons Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organiza on (WHO) recommend that children be exclusively breas ed for at least six months a er birth.8 79. Trend in the Desirable Dietary Pa ern (PPH) Score of Food Consump on for Rural and Urban Households. Lack of ins tu ons dealing with hunger eradica on programs.0 84.1 77. A strong na onal intersectoral body for coordina ng and enforcing nutri on policies across sectors and across the levels of administra on does not exist.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger capacity to acquire the required food intake. Lack of food intake and inappropriate caring pa ern result in malnutri on among chidren under ﬁve years of age. 46 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .0 78. Community par cipa on in dealing with malnutri on.9 80.6 81. The quality of food consump on is s ll low.0 Source: BPS. 85. Figure 1. this ﬁgure is s ll far from the ideal PPH score of 100 in both rural and urban popula ons. has been undertaken in Integrated Health Posts (Posyandu). the quality of food consump on improved as indicated by an increase in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score from 77. However.0 82. Susenas. In 2007 only about 32 percent of children under six months were exclusively breas ed in Indonesia. Moreover. the Posyandu ac vi es deteriorated under decentraliza on as indicated by huge varia ons of malnutri on rates among provinces.0 74. Nutri on policy development and program planning and management are inadequate in both capacity and ins tu onal linkages.5 in 2002 to 83.
par cularly in rural and urban slum areas. Develop speciﬁc pro-poor assistance interven ons to provinces and districts with high prevalence of malnutri on. Ensure food security at the local level by: (i) increasing agricultural produc vity. par cularly to promote exclusive breast-feeding and infant feeding prac ces. Strengthen community empowerment and revitalize Posyandus. Strengthen food and nutri on service delivery at the grassroots level through the following: (i) revitalize Posyandu to expand coverage of service delivery for food and nutri on. (ii) provide linkages of nutri on to early child educa on program (PAUD). Policies and programs should be formulated holis cally and require an ins tu onal framework with a strong authority and capacity in synchronizing and coordina ng ac vi es in food and nutri on. Other strategies that will be developed include: (i) socializa on and advocacy on social and cultural behavior for healthy lifestyle. (ii) improving the eﬃciency of food distribu on and handling systems. water. 3. and (iii) developing a local-based food diversiﬁca on program through improvement of food produc on and post-harvest technology and advocacy of balanced diets.Na onal food security ins tu ons are not eﬀec ve in solving problems related to hunger and malnutri on. 2. and (iii) develop nutri on programs through community-based ac vi es by empowering local community-based ins tu ons such as religious gatherings (kelompok pengajian) and women’s organiza ons.0 percent. sanita on). In the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. par cularly children under ﬁve years of age and pregnant women. Improve food security at the local level par cularly to reduce disparity among regions. and poli cal issues. the ins tu onal framework for nutri on and food security at central and district levels will be strengthened. to adequate nutri ous and safe food and other interven ons such as nutrient supplementa on. including reac va on of growth monitoring prac ce (GMP). Therefore.5 percent in 2015 and to improve the propor on of the popula on consuming at least the minimum level of dietary energy consump on are as follows: 1. related to socio-cultural. and (ii) investments in basic infrastructure (health. economic. The problem of malnutri on and food insecurity is mul sectoral in nature. Policies and Strategis Policies and strategies to reduce the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age to 15. Strengthen ins tu ons at the central and dictrict levels that have a strong authority in formula ng policy and programs in food and nutri on. Ac ons to be carried out include: (i) expansion of exclusive breast- Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47 . 4. the Government set the new target of reducing undernourishment of children under ﬁve years of age to be less than 15. Increase access of the poor.
(vi) strengthening malnutri on mi ga on management in primary health centers (Puskesmas) and hospitals. MPASI buﬀer stock for disaster areas Percentage of households with nutri onal awareness (keluarga sadar gizi) 48 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and (v) strengthening the food and nutri on surveillance system. Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2010-2014 and Presiden al Instruc on No. (v) nutri on educa on and kadarzi. Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) Outputs/Indicators Percentage of severe undernourished children under 5 years ﬁve years old receiving care Percentage of severe undernourished children 6-24 months old from poor households receiving MPASI (food supplement) Percentage 0-6 months old babies with exclusive breast feeding Coverage of Iodized salt Percentage of 6-59 month old children receiving vitamin A supplement Percentage of Puskemas implemen ng nutri onal status monitoring and providing care for the severely undernourished Percentage of districts implemen ng nutri on surveillance Percentage of children under 5 years old weighed for growth monitoring Percentage of children under 5 years old of poor households (GAKIN) receiving recovery food supplements (PMT pemulihan) 2010 100 2011 100 2012 100 2013 100 2014 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 75 75 67 78 78 70 80 80 75 83 83 100 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 100 70 100 75 100 80 100 85 100 100 60 100 100 65 100 100 70 100 100 75 100 100 80 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014). (iv) strengthening communitybased nutri on programs through Posyandu. 3/2010.3. In line with the above policies and strategies. (ii) complementary and supplementary feeding for children 6-24 months old.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger feeding. (iii) supplementary feeding for pregnant and lacta ng mothers. the Na onal Medium-Term Developement Plan 20102014 set up programs and targets to address malnutri on par cularly among children under ﬁve years of age as listed in Table 1.3. Table 1.
Kindergarten and primary school students Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education .
Access to Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on. the GER was 116. The Susenas 2009 indicated the NER of all other provinces were above 90 percent.52 percent (Figure 2. by 2015. boys and girls alike.09 percent (Figure 2. The school drop-out rate has been decreasing.2). except for Papua where the NER was measured to be 76. At the primary school level.0 percent in 2008.77 percent while the net enrolment ra o (NER) was 95. children everywhere.1).Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2A: Ensure that. This ﬁgure indicates the decreasing trend in the dropout rate at primary schools. Susenas data indicates that the percentage of children aged 16-18 years who completed primary educa on increased from 87. In 2008/2009. The primary school (SD/MI) gross enrolment ra o (GER) achieved universal coverage by the early 1980s.11 percent and the NER was 74. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 51 . and stayed high despite the ﬁnancial crisis of the late 1990s. the GER was 98. disparity in educa on par cipa on has been reduced. The propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school shows an increasing trend. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Current Status Indonesia aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to include junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs.8 percent in 1995 to 93. At the junior secondary level (SMP/MT).23 percent. including madrasah. grades 7 to 9) in the universal basic educa on target.
2 92.6 96.1 107.5 88.71 percent in 1992 to 99.7 2003 63.4 107.6 107.8 Nusa Te enggara Timur Jambi Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Maluku Papua Barat INDONESIA Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Lampung S Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Kalim mantan Selatan Kalim mantan Tengah Kalim mantan Timur Sul lawesi Tengah Ba angka Belitung Su umatera Utara Su umatera Barat DI Yogyakarta Ke epulauan Riau S Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur wesi Sulaw Tenggara Source: BPS.6 92. The literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years is increasing.6 1997 1998 57.9 110.Junior Secondary School/MTs GER .2 98.2 2005 65.2 73.2 2000 60.0 1996 54.2. the quality of educa on has been a concern of the government.5 95.7 92.2009 116.2 91.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Percentage 74.5 94.8 percent in 2006 for the 15-24 years age group (UNESCO.1 108.0 115.2 2001 60.1 108.3 93.6 2002 61.5 Figure 2.1 76.7 92.5 2004 65.7 92.0 105. 1992 .23 Bali Banten Aceh Riau Kali imantan Barat 2009 74.0 120 106.4 61. Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os (NER) for Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on Levels (Including Madrasah). Susenas 2009 and MoNE Sta s cs 2008/2009.0 77.6 57.1 116.6 93.4 2006 66.6 91.3 79.5 60 65.3 88.8 40 1994 50.9 20 0 1992 42.Primary School/MI GER .2 107. Susenas and MoNE Sta s cs.0 102.47 percent in 2009.5 92. Based on the Third Interna onal 52 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sum matera Selatan Sul lawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Gorontalo Papua .2 95.3 80 70. 2006).3 107.7 100 92.Junior Secondary School/MTs Figure 2. The Susenas data of 1992 to 2009 indicated that the literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years increased from 96.2 82.1 82.9 64.9 91.3 Source: BPS. The nine-year basic educa on graduates do not always have adequate skills relevant to the needs of the community or the labor market.0 1993 46. Beyond access.5 78. Progress in increasing the literacy rate has occurred largely due to improvements in the par cipa on rate of educa on and the propor on of students who have been able to complete their educa on at the primary level.9 81.0 93. Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School Including Madrasah by Province.3 107.3 106. Indonesia’s educa onal quality is low compared to neighboring countries. The literacy rate of the poorest group in the popula on rose signiﬁcantly from 92.7 92.1 55.1.1 1995 51.7 2007 71. NER . 2009 Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 95.1 107.3 92.6 2008 72. Measured by interna onal standards.0 1999 59.Primary School/MI NER .1 106.9 percent in 1995 to 97.
books and teaching learning equipments for basic educa on. On the supply side. the low quality of governance in educa on management contributes to low equitable access of all children to quality basic educa on. only 31 percent of children could complete more than the most basic reading tasks. there is a need to expand provision of an adequate infrastructure. par cularly in remote. overall school eﬀec veness. boys and girls. (iii) lack of relevant curriculum and the low quality of teaching learning process. and (iv) lack of funding for school opera ons. and improved learning outcomes. poverty is considered to be a major factor contribu ng to the low access to schooling. However. par cularly for daily travel. However. On the demand side. especially in the poorest urban and rural areas. There is a strong correla on between teachers’ academic qualiﬁca ons. Indonesian student performance ranked 34 out of 45 countries. This was due to lack of access to books and other reading materials. boys and girls. it includes: (i) insuﬃcient educa onal infrastructure.Mathema cs Science Study (TIMSS 2003). Reaching the unreached in improving equitable access of all children. underserved areas. In the 2006 Program for Interna onal Student Assessment (PISA). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 53 . which was below the average of OECD countries (492). In addi on. costs are s ll signiﬁcant and o en unaﬀordable for poor parents. Several cri cal factors have prevented Indonesia from achieving universal basic educa on. lunches. Improving the quality and equal distribu on of teachers in all regions to improve the quality of basic educa on. Challenges Improving equitable access of all children. Poverty is a major factor contribu ng to low enrollment in basic educa on with lack of aﬀordability being the reason for 70 percent of non-a endance at school (AIBEP 2008). Moreover. In addi on. lack of qualiﬁed teachers. there is a challenge to develop the holis c and integrated ECED program and to improve the quality of non-formal educa on (NFE) programs par cularly to poor communi es. The na onwide implementa on of the BOS program which was intended to support the government policy of free basic educa on contributed to improvement of school par cipa on by elimina ng cost barriers. and Indonesia ranked 44 among 57 countries. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge to the achievement of the MDG educa on targets. including teaching-learning materials and equipment. Moreover. which examines how well students aged 15 years are prepared for life. (ii) lack of highly qualiﬁed teachers. in reality. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge in achieving the educa on MDG target. par cularly in remote and underserved areas.1). uniforms and books. is a major challenge in improving equitable access to quality basic educa on in Indonesia (Table 2. the average score of reading ability of Indonesian students was 393.
659 502.972 ≤ Diploma ≥ Dipl.601 29.13 46.81 50. madrasah and pesantren.497.4 percent to 20 percent.294 101. 2010.70 25.378 364.917 2. including in educa on.88 89.02 5. 11.49 24. accountability. transfer of resources from central government to district and to schools resulted in reduc on of local budget for educa on (subs tu on eﬀect).96 Total 100 100 100 PrePrimary (TK) Primary School (SD/MI) Junior Secondary School (SMP/ MT) Senior Secondary School (SMA/SMK/MA) TOTAL Source: Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Educa on Personnel.78 31.890 ≥ Dipl. Formulate and implement policy at na onal and local levels to accelerate provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facili es.806 535.08 20. Improving educa on management accountability and eﬃciency in the decentralized system. par cularly in poor.728 29. 4 / S1 32.633 1.915 Diploma 1-3 71.083 Propor on (%) Total 223.83 20.7 percent and as a propor on of public expenditures from 11. and equity in funding and to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Table 2. Therefore.26 14. underserved and remote areas.60 100 100 Developing be er ﬁnancing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve eﬃciency. a challenge is to further develop be er ﬁnancing. MONE. decentraliza on of educa on policy has not been fully implemented as intended. Priori es to Improve Equitable Access: a. Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* Number of Teachers Educa on Level ≤ Senior SS 119.54 7.984 374.110. educa on spending as a propor on of GDP increased from 2. From 2001 to 2009. In line with educa on reform plans to accelerate the pace of achieving MDG educa on targets. Indonesia’s decision to decentralize government is transforming the nature and level of public service delivery. and fund transfer mechanisms to improve eﬃciency.1.311 3.8 percent to 3. The transi on to decentraliza on has not yet included guidelines for monitoring and evalua on as well benchmarking on progress achieved by ins tu ons at all levels of government.120 341. A en on will be given to concurrently ra onalizing and accelera ng provision of adequate school infrastructure 54 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . accountability.080 758.422 1. However. Policies and Strategies 1. *not including madrasah teachers.35 73. However.79 36.590 475. the government has drama cally increased public funding alloca ons for educa on.607. Senior 1-3 4 / S1 SS 53.876 961. and equity in funding to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.637 341.
Priori es to Improve Quality and Relevance: a. and social capaci es. provincial. Improvement of training on school-based management (SBM) targeted to school principals and supervisors. and central levels to improve planning and monitoring on program performance will be strengthened e. c. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for school dropouts. monitoring. emo onal. eﬃciency. Strengthen the eﬀec veness. Strategies may include: (i) increasing the eﬃcient u liza on of formal school human resources. d. eﬃciency. 2. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training provision. Ins tu onal capacity at district. Curriculum reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and teaching-learning process to enable students to develop their intellectual. An aﬃrma ve policy for the poor is essen al to accelerate access to quality educa on services. The training will cover teacher support and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 55 . This should include increasing the number of cost-based scholarships for poor students in primary and junior secondary schools in targeted areas with the lowest enrolment rates. Capacity of local government and schools in managing the implementa on of BOS will be strengthened in order to raise the eﬀec veness. spiritual. community par cipa on will be increased in planning. and ensuring matching funds from revenue-rich districts. and evalua on of BOS by enhancing the capacity of school commi ees. and (iii) improving coordina on of educa on equivalency programs between MoNE and the Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs (MoRA). Districts will be encouraged or mandated to allocate a share of their budget to support an increase in holis c and integrated ECED services in underserved areas. Moreover. and accountability of BOS. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. c. Accelerate provision of holis c and integrated ECED services in rural and underserved areas. b. Equivalency program (Packets A and B) will be be er targeted to reach poor and dropout students.and teaching learning resources that meet minimum service standards (MSS). the curriculum and teaching-learning process will be enhanced to build moral values and character. b. In order to increase learning quality. Ensure educa on ﬁnancing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address inequitable alloca on of funds and educa on resources. facili es and infrastructure for informal educa on. (ii) improving eﬃciency and quality of services through enhancement of the curriculum and quality assurance of program implementa on to ensure equivalency to formal educa on. More speciﬁcally. and accountability in the implementa on of BOS. all teacher training ins tutes (Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTKs) will review their courses with a view to improve prac cal classroom performance and apply best prac ces in linking teaching to improved student learning.
(v) developing governance and accountability indicators and informa on systems at the district level. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 sets up program priori es as listed in Table 2. ﬁnancial planning and management. District ins tu onal capacity will be strengthened through expanding coverage of capacity development programs in educa on management including analysis. c. and between schools and parents. monitoring and evalua on. (iii) recogni on of civil society organiza ons as legi mate par cipants in the direc on of the educa on system through strengthening Provincial Educa on Councils and District Educa on Councils. alongside eﬀec ve mechanisms for ensuring mutual accountability between central and districts. Priori es to Strengthen Governance and Accountability: a. Strengthen accountability in educa on resource management. The strategies will include: (i) evalua ng budget eﬃciency and funding mechanisms. Improvement of community par cipa on in educa on management will be conducted through: (i) advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobiliza on. b. (ii) developing performance-based budge ng ed to quality standards and incen ve mechanisms.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education staﬀ performance appraisal. (iv) strengthening management informa on systems. (iv) strengthening ﬁnancial repor ng systems. (iii) strengthening performance evalua on and quality assurance systems. and (vi) improving the quality of informa on for educa on sector performance to ensure adherence to standards. Improve local government capacity in managing basic educa on programs. monitoring and supervision. In line with the above policies and strategies. and community par cipa on. Increase community par cipa on. as well as ﬁnancial management. (ii) promo on of public-private partnerships with explicit roles for parents and the community in school performance and school-based management. and establishment of the Na onal Educa on Council to improve governance. 3.2: 56 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . planning and budge ng.
and ﬁnance through Educa on Council 10% 15% 25% 65% 100% Improving quality and welfare of teacher and educa on personnel for primary educa on 15% 25% 45% 70% 90% Improving Management Capacity for basic educa on Improved improved Improved Improved Improved Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. implementa on.681.085.000 28.791.7% 95.3% 95. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 57 .672.820 27. control. Program Priori es.2% 95.000 Provision of educa on subsidy for MI 3.000 28.8% 96.2.322 3.919 3.803 3. 2010-2014 95.006.0% Provision of educa on subsidy for SD/SDLB 27.211.Priori es Improving access and quality of primary educa o n (SD/MI) Outputs/ Indicators Equitable access to quality primary educa on in all districts achieved/ NER of primary educa on Subsidy for students in SD/SDLB allocated and distributed/ Number of students in SD/SLB received BOS Subsidy for students in MI/Diniyah Ula allocated and distributed/ Number of students in MI/ Diniyah Ula received BOS Availability of curriculum and teachinglearning models/ Percentage of improved curriculum implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 2.736.543 3.626. Outputs and Indicators of the Educa on Sector.000 28.591 Provision of quality and aﬀordable text books 100% - - - - Availability of qualiﬁed teachers Provision of and educa on teaching-learning personnel of SD/MI system and that equitable in all curriculum districts/ Percentage of SD/MI principals a ending the training Management and quality assurance system at DG of Primary and Secondary Management improved/ Involvement of community in duca on planning.555.973.
58 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
This supernets event was held to commemorate Kar ni Day.SUPERNETS. Na onal Educa on Day and the 716th Anniversary of Surabaya Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women . May 11. 2009 using the internet. One thousand women in the Atrium TP3 Surabaya.
Meanwhile. while at the junior secondary educa on level (SMP/MT/Package B) it was 101. the NER at the junior secondary level including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MT/Package B). gender equality in educa on has shown signiﬁcant progress. Using this indicator. and at all levels of higher educa on it was 102.54 (Papua) to 116. the MDG target to achieve gender equality at all levels of educa on will be met. preferably by 2005.16. at the senior secondary educa on level (SM/MA/Package C) it was 96.1).99. the GPI at primary schools (SD/MI/Package A) was 99. Much eﬀort has been undertaken to improve the quality of life and the role of women to enable them to be equal partners with men in development. gender equality has improved signiﬁcantly.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. Measured by the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) or the ra o of NER of females to males. Susenas data from 1993 to 2009 shows that the NER of both girls and boys at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI/Package A) was more than 90. and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA/Package C) increased signiﬁcantly. In 2009. the GPI of NER for higher educa on ﬂuctuates with a tendency to rise signiﬁcantly. Susenas 2009 indicated that the NER of females to males was close to homogenous among provinces with the GPI ranging from 96. During the same period.5 (Kepulauan Riau).17 (Gorontalo) and at the senior secondary level Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 61 . However. In educa on.95 (Susenas 2009).39 (Papua Barat) to 102.73. dispari es s ll exist at the post pimary educa on level (Figure 3. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Current Status One of the human development goals of Indonesia is to achieve gender equality by building human resources without diﬀeren a ng between men and women. where at the junior secondary level the GPI ranged from 89.
1. the female labor force par cipa on rate has shown no signiﬁcant increase from 2004 to 2009. In several provinces the GPI exceeded 110 which indicates that the NER of female students is much higher than that of males.22 (Kepulauan Riau).29 percent to 7. the female labor force par cipa on rate is lower than that of males. and Papua Barat (6 provinces). Sumatera Selatan. The ﬁgures indicate that disparity among provinces is s ll a major problem par cularly for senior and higher educa on levels. and Sulawesi Barat (7 provinces). However. Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) Senior Secondary Schools by Province.5 percent.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women it ranged from 68. Jawa Timur. At the junior secondary level. from 14. with female literacy rates at 99.47 percent. In 2009 the GPI was almost 100.6 percent. declining by 6 percent during 2005 to 2009.71 percent to 8. and Gorontalo. Kepulauan Riau. Riau. Morover. the open unemployment rate of females showed signiﬁcant progress. For example in August 2009 around 31. Nusa Tenggara Timur. Based on the Na onal Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). Progress in educa on par cipa on of both male and female contributed to improvement of the na onal GPI for literacy of the 15-24 year age group. This rate is signiﬁcantly lower than that of their male counterparts which averaged around 84 percent during the same period. Nusa Tenggara Timur. In the employment sector. while the open unemployment rate for males declined by only 1. while provinces with GPI less than 90 include DKI Jakarta. with an average rate of around 50 percent. Figure 3.5 million males were recorded to be in this category. Nusa Tenggara Barat. provinces with GPI higher than 110 include DI Yogyakarta. the percentage of waged 62 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The low labor par cipa on rate of females was due to most females chosing to work domes cally as housewives. Bangka Belitung. Susenas 2009. The MDG target on the literacy ra o of females to males aged 15-24 years has been achieved. Papua. from 9.51 percent during the same period. At the senior secondary level.60 (Papua Barat) to 143.4 percent and male literacy rates at 99. Jawa Barat. provinces with GPI of more than 110 include Sumatera Barat.8 million females chose to work as housewives while only 1. 2009 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Papua Barat DKI Jakarta Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Jawa Timur Papua Bali Banten Lampung Maluku Utara DI Yogyakarta INDONESIA Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sumatera Utara Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Aceh Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Maluku Gorontalo Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Utara Jambi Riau Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau 0 Source: BPS.
000 800 600 400 200 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 915 677 540 930 689 609 824 715 593 633 396 732 1. an increase from 11. The quota for women legisla ve candidates as mandated by law was met by all poli cal par es in the 2009 general elec on.611 to Rp 1. In poli cs. white collars Male casual employee in non-agricultural sector Female casual employee in non-agricultural sector Source: BPS. wage discrimina on is s ll prevalent. The biggest gap was in casual employees in non-agriculture sectors where women receive only 54 percent of males’ wage. Sakernas 2004-2009. Average Monthly Wages (Rp ‘000) of Male and Female Workers in Non-Agricultural Sectors 277 267 294 337 355 Male labour workers. In non-agricultural sectors. the average wage of female casual employees also increased from Rp 277. In Sulawesi Utara the average wage of women is higher than that of males (Map 3. A quan ﬁable improvement has been recorded in the propor on of women in public ins tu ons (legisla ve.9 percent of seats in the legisla ve branch. white collars Female labour workers. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 63 . the average monthly wage of female workers categorized as employees increased from Rp 676.45 percent in 2009 (Sakernas 2004-2009).02 percent in 2004 to 3.8 percent in 2004 to 27. While the wage levels of female workers have increased.2). The propor on of women in DPD has also increased from 19.255 1. (Figure 3. Although the average wage of female workers has increased.098.098 Figure 3. 1. the data shows that there is a wide wage disparity between females and males.1). In Nusa Tenggara Barat.2. Disparity in the average wage of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers exists among provinces. execu ve and judica ve).166 1.200 1.) 1.115. Sakernas data showed that from 2004 to 2009. the wage of female worker was only 58 percent of the average male worker’s wage in 2009.364.083 974 893 1.400 1.448 Average monthly wages (thousand Rp. The result of the 2009 general elec on were that women have 17.183 to Rp 396. progress has been achieved as indicated by the issuance of a law that mandates a quota of 30 percent women’s representa on in parliament.women in non-agricultural sectors increased from 29.3 percent in 2009.3 percent in the period 2004-2009.600 1.
2 Challenges At the na onal level. 2008.id 64 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The primary focus is to target children from poor families. Ministry of Home Aﬀairs. there is only one female Vice Governor while. The propor on of women out of the total number of state civil servants was 44. 2009. Sta s cal Yearbook of Indonesia.depdagri. therefore. the challenge is not only improving the NER of females but also the NER of males depending on the situa on.7 percent of senior (Echelon 1) posi ons and 7. Special a en on is.1 percent of Echelon 2 posi ons were ﬁlled by women. gender equality and empowerment showed signiﬁcant progress.1. women’s par cipa on in senior management posi ons of execu ve and judica ve ins tu ons is s ll low. Moreover. In employment. However.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Map 3. In educa on. at the district level. less than 10 women ﬁll the posi on of Mayor or district head (Bupa ). needed to achieve gender parity among geographically dis nct provinces which have diﬀering characteris cs and cultural values.5 percent. In 2008. www. par cularly in par cipa on in educa on. dispari es among provinces at senior secondary and hgher educa on as well as in employment and poli cs are s ll a major challenge. and also to implement comprehensive 1 2 State Civil Service Agency. par cularly those in remote and rural areas. Sakernas In decision making.1 At the provincial level.go. strong coordina on among government ins tu ons at the central and provincial levels is required to ensure a synergy between na onal and regional laws. The Average Wages of Female Workers as Percentages of the Average Wages of Male Workers by Province in August 2009 Source: BPS. enforcing laws to ensure equal opportuni es without discrimina on for women and men in employment and in the job place is a major challenge. only 8.
and district levels. policies on improving gender equality and women’s empowerment will be carried out in all sectors and ins tu ons at both the na onal and local levels. b) Strengthen coordina on between central and local government to ensure the enforcement of labor laws and regula ons. The strategy will include provision of subsidies for the poor to join social insurance programs under the na onal social insurance scheme to the poor. The priori es iden ﬁed to enhance gender equality are grouped into four areas: (i) educa on. provincial. e) Improve the quality of female workers and job seekers. b) Improve access and quality of gender responsive non-formal educa on. capacity and competency of labor inspectors to ensure be er enforcement of core labor standards. Strategies to address the challenges in employment are as follows: a) Priori ze the enforcement of exis ng laws. and (iv) local governance processes. 3.coordina on and monitoring to ensure enforcement of laws and regula ons on employment at the provincial and district levels. Strategic steps to be carried out in educa on are as follows: a) Improve access and quality of educa on to reduce gender inequality among regions and among socio-economic groups. 1. as well as company/ employers. (ii) employment. In poli cal ins tu ons. d) Provide social protec on to women who work in the informal sector. to ensure that men and women are able to equally par cipate without discrimina on in the labor force. to improve capacity and skills of women workers in the ﬁelds where there is a need for workers. there is a need to ensure greater par cipa on of women in decisionmaking posi ons at the na onal. Strategies to ensure gender equality in poli cs include the followings: a) Improve partnerships with civil society organiza ons (CSO) to improve women’s 2. including synchronizing policies and employment regula ons at the na onal and regional levels. (iii) poli cs. This is due to lack of planning related to gender issues. Focus will be given to improve knowledge and life skills par culary in income genera ng ac vi es targeted to those who are unable to enroll in formal schooling. c) Strengthen labor inspec on through improving the number. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 65 . Lack of adequate legal and poli cal literacy training contributes to the low par cipa on of women in poli cal ins tu ons. The ac vi es will include improving the access of women to educa on and skills training. Policies and Strategies To address the above challenges.
and elderly. implementa on.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women b) c) d) 4. MORA. 66 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and evalua on processes of development policies. To ensure achievement of the MDG targets for gender par cularly in educa on. and MOLT. disabled. the poor. Improve poli cal educa on for female members of poli cal par es. and ac vi es at the local levels. budge ng. employment. Design modules on voter educa on for women’s groups. Improve voter educa on concerning women legisla ve candidates. General Elec on Commission. and poli cs. under the responsibilty of MONE. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 has set the following targets. both provincial and district levels. MOHA. A strategy to implement gender mainstreaming in local governance processes will be carried out through developing a general guideline for local governments agencies to integrate a gender perspec ve into planning. monitoring. programs. par cipa on in poli cs.
1.05 1.90 > 0. Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.85 > 0.98 > 0.8 68% 60% 1.08 1.98 > 0. and elderly women Number of elec on educa on for women legisla ve candidates Number of women cadre of poli cal party trained in poli c educa on Labor Percentage of Improve protec on company that fulﬁlled work norm of of women against women and children abuse Number of labor controlers for women and children that improved their capacity > 0. Strategic Planning of MOHA 2010-2014.98 > 0.97 > 0.12 97.98 > 0.98 > 0. Poli cs and Labor.04 98.0 85% 80% 1.98 > 0. Source: MTDP 2010-2014.12 97.12 98.85 > 0.80 > 0. Strategic Planning of General Elec on Comission 2010-2014. and Strategic Planning of Ministry of Labor antdTransmigra on 2010-2014.80 > 0.0 75% 70% 1.12 1. 2010-2014 NER Ra o of female to male at general primary educa on (SD) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic primary educa on (MI) Improve quality of life and role of women in development NER Ra o of female to male at general junior educa on (SMP) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic junior educa on (MTs) GER Ra o of female to male at general senior educa on GER Ra o of female to male at Islamic general senior educa on (MA) GER Ra o of female to male at general higher educa on GER Ra o of female to male at general Islamic higher educa on Literacy ra o of female to male age 15-24 years Ra o of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher in public school Ra on of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher at madrasah Poli cs Number of partnership with NGO on par cipa on of women in poli cs Number of elec on educa on modules for poor. Priori es.97 > 0.98 > 0.05 1.6 60% 50% 1.0 95% 85% 5 - 100 5 10 100 100 5 10 150 100 5 10 200 400 k) 25 k) 40 k) 500 k) Note: k) cumula ve. Strategic Planning of MORA 2010-2014.97 > 0. disabled.85 1 1 1 1 > 0.95 1 1. 10% 20% 25% 30% 40% 120 150 180 240 990 k) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 67 .12 98.98 > 0.97 > 0. Strategic Planning of MONE 2010-2014.Prioritas Educa on Output Target 2010-2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 3.04 1.90 1 1 1 1 1 > 0.
68 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Lining up to get Vitamin A Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate .
In 1991. This trend shows that the decline of child mortality is faster than the decline in the rate of infant mortality. neonatal mortality has fallen more gradually from 32 in 1991 to 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2007 (Figure 4. The decline of child mortality has been accompanied by a reduc on in infant mortality. between 1990 and 2015. the under-ﬁve mortality rate was 97 deaths per 1. Neonatal.e. nutri on. Signiﬁcant diﬀerences in child mortality among provinces are recorded. i.000 live births in 1991 to 34 in 2007 (IDHS). the highest rate was recorded in Sulawesi Barat (96). by 2002/2003 it had dropped to 46. Children of less educated mothers generally have higher mortality rates than those born to more educated mothers. from 68 deaths per 1. the under-five mortality rate Current Status The health of children in Indonesia has been improving steadily over me in response to be er health care.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. infant and under-ﬁve mortality rates vary widely by region. DI Yogayakarta (22). especially at the community level. antenatal care. as well as by social and economic status.1). The signiﬁcant progress that has been achieved in reducing child mortality reﬂects the con nuous expansion of coverage and improvements in the quality of health services. This is shown by the declining rates of infant and child mortality over the past two decades. and it had fallen to 44 in 2007 (IDHS 2007). simple medical care. and promo on of clean and healthy behavior (PHBS).000 live births. as well as increased community awareness. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 71 . water and sanita on access and improved environmental condi ons. However. a rate that is more than four mes higher than the province with the lowest rate. including immuniza on.
It is proven that increasing the immuniza on rate can reduce the number of child deaths. and malaria.9 percent).000 live birth 120 100 97 81 80 68 60 57 58 46 40 32 30 46 35 26 20 19 44 34 RPJMN Target 2014 IMR: 24 Target MDGs 2015 IMR: 32 USMR: 23 20 0 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Source: BPS. skilled a endance at birth. access to. pneumonia. IDHS several years. and Papua (49.6 percent). Two eﬀec ve preven ve measures to ﬁght child. appropriate feeding prac ces. 72 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1.8 percent coverage (Figure 4. with 94. access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC/CEONC). (Infant Mortality) Expon. transporta on.2).Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate while children in richer households have lower mortality rates than those in poorer households. infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality are immediate and exclusive breas eeding and immuniza on. In addi on to the constraints of geography. The provinces with the lowest coverage were North Sumatra (36. availability of clean water and sanita on. Aceh (40. Figure 4. Infant Mortality Neonatal Mortality Expon. 1991-2015 Per 1. while the province with the highest coverage was DIY. ADB)1. and access to care could signiﬁcantly reduce child mortality. Immuniza on against measles has a direct impact on child mortality. infant and neonatal mortality causes are preventable.9 percent). 2009. Na onal Trend and Projec on of Child. Data from the IDHS 2007 indicates that there are 18 provinces with lower coverage of immuniza on against measles than the na onal average (67 percent).000 Live Births. (Under-5 Mortality) Under-5 Mortality Expon. safe water and good sanita on. and it is proven that an increase of three percentage points in the immuniza on rate reduces the number of deaths of children under-ﬁve years of age caused by measles by one per thousand live births (UNSD 2009. and infrastructure contribute signiﬁcantly to decreasing child mortality. management of diarrhea. Infant and Neonatal Mortality per 1. In addi on to these. In order to achieve universal coverage of immuniza on against measles in areas that have 1 Based on sta s c regression of immuniza on against measles by UNSD-ADB. (Neonatal Mortality) Most of child. informa on access.
Another interven on.8 Figure 4.3 74.8 59.9 64. respec vely.100 80 Percent coverage 60 40 20 0 Sumatera Utara Aceh Papua Maluku Maluku Utara Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Jambi Sulawesi Barat Sumatera Selatan Lampung Nusa Tenggara Timur Riau Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sumatera Barat DKI Jakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Tengah Jawa Timur Jawa Barat Banten Kepulauan Riau Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Timur Bengkulu Sulawesi Utara Bali DI Yogyakarta 36. These include: maintaining and scaling-up eﬀorts in immuniza on coverage.0 58.6 40. not achieved the coverage target.6 64.8 51.2 74.9 49. Coverage of immuniza on against measles for children aged 12-23 months will be surveyed to assess coverage of measles immuniza on for infants (<12 months) from previous years’ programs. coverage for some other types of immuniza on has regressed. 88 percent and 72 percent of children.6 76.0 74.5 61. will carry out a vaccina on campaign covering all children aged 6-59 months. In 2008. . to 70 percent.0 51. Pertusis and Tetanus and Hepa s – has increased by 6. providing a second measles vaccina on to children in school.6 67.8 77.1 77.8 71.3 79. Indonesia started a campaign to immunize all one-year-old children against measles.0 50. reaching 82 percent.2 80. That is. Challenges While progress in improving child (and infant) mortality has been good. Back Log Figh ng (BLF) ac ons. IDHS 2007. coverage by some key immuniza on programs against Tuberculosis.8 72. called the ‘Measles Crash Program’. counterbalanced by drops in polio and measles immuniza ons from 74 and 76 percent respec vely. Propor on of One-Year-Old Children Immunized Against Measles.9 85.9 66.8 58. 17 and 7 percent.2 60. by Province 2007 Source: BPS.9 65. in the areas where coverage targets have not been reached during three consecu ve years. irrespec ve of their vaccina on status. While immuniza on coverage has increased.2 50.5 57. Over the 2002-2005 period.4 69. Full immuniza on coverage is s ll below 50 percent. Indonesia s ll faces important challenges in all key policy and program areas aﬀec ng child health.0 67.5 94.that is increased coverage of unvaccinated children aged 12-36 months – will be conducted for those who have not been vaccinated un l they reach their ﬁrst birthday.2.0 58.6 78. ensuring early detec on and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 73 . Diphtheria. however.
60 percent of children have no access to proper health services when ill and 40 percent were unprotected from preventable diseases. ensuring adequate resources availability and defining clear roles between central and local government are crucially needed in program implementation. feasible and adaptable nutri on interven ons. (ii) management. It is reported also that 35 . To achieve the national target for immunization against measles of 93 percent by 2014. funding and grassroots promo on of IMCI.45 percent live in high risk environments. (iii) cost-eﬀec ve. synchroniza on of eﬀec ve evidence-based interven ons with universal coverage.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate prompt treatment of sick children (IMCI2). strengthening the role of the family. early ini a on of breas eeding. setting norms and standards. To maintain the necessary momentum in pursuing key interven ons.e. 2 IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 74 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . integra on of such interven ons into results-based sector planning and budge ng. child nutri on program. without which expansion and even maintenance of achievements in immuniza on coverage will slow down. only about 30 percent of mothers apply good health prac ces. Central government will strengthen its roles in policy making. Some 54 percent of households use pollu ng solid fuels in the household. and controlling for environmental risk factors (access to clean water and sanita on) About 20 percent of births had no access to proper health services. promo ng family ac on and community prac ces. etc). and (iv) designing informa on and behavior change programs that promote the role of the family (i. The 2007 Riskesdas report found that 65 percent of infants and children have access to clean water and 71 percent to basic sanita on. implemented by well-trained and properly resourced health care providers. basic sanita on and low levels of indoor pollu on. IMCI. The risk factors of child and infant mortality are highly correlated with environmental health. while about 30 . enhancing access to health facili es. staﬀ training. par cular emphasis needs to be placed on the following policy areas: immuniza on. procurement of vaccines and equipment. and the design of disease surveillance. Policies and Strategies While current policy correctly focuses on building up and expanding core interven ons. while at the same me most babies born in Indonesia are at high risk (Riskesdas 2007). improving nutri on outcomes. Risk factors for infant and child mortality are strongly related to environmental health – clean water. hand washing. key challenges lie in the areas of: (i) program monitoring.
and measles) before their ﬁrst birthday. and (iv) vaccina ons and support for iron supplementa on to prevent anemia during pregnancy. (iv) pursue micronutrient interventions. follow-up. (v) give sick children appropriate home treatment for infec on. infec on detec on and treatment. and (v) pursue food supplementation strategies. reduce staﬀ turnover. and (vi) follow health workers’ advice about treatment. delivery and the newborn period. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 75 . oral polio vaccine. and special care for low birth weight newborns. through: (i) support for implementa on of the newborn and child survival strategy emphasizing focused pregnancy and delivery care. diphtheria. (ii) support focusing on the ‘essen al obstetric and neonatal care’ approach to preven on/early treatment of complica ons during pregnancy. BCG. increased dietary intake. (iv) feed and oﬀer more ﬂuids. (iii) ensure that essen al drugs are available for IMCI. to children when they are sick. increase funding for IMCI. and (v) provision of counseling for mothers and caregivers on how to care for child and infants. tetanus. . (ii) ensure that children complete a full course of immuniza ons (hepa s. Strengthening Newborn care and Maternal Health. (ii) strengthen management structures at the central and district levels. (iii) recognize when sick children need treatment outside the home and then seek care from appropriate providers. including breast milk. and clean cord care). food for ﬁca on and direct supplementa on. warmth. childcare and health care seeking. (iv) implement IMCI at the household and community levels to improve care-seeking prac ces and health services u liza on. 3 The Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. pertussis.8 percent to 32 percent by 20143 are as follows: (i) emphasize exclusive breast-feeding and appropriate complementary feeding. and adequate micronutrient intake. and improve supervision at facility levels. Strategies at the family level relate to the following: (i) protec on of children in malariaendemic areas with insec cide-treated nets. coordinate with other child health programs and eliminate conﬂic ng regula ons. Strategies to address the key nutritional concerns so as to achieve the national target to reduce stunting in under-five children from 36. (iii) quality improvement to promote hygiene and training for community health workers in clean delivery prac ces. (ii) promote child growth aimed at providing basic informa on for households and communi es about feeding. through BCC and IEC. Strategy at the community and household levels includes: increasing clean and healthy life behavior (PHBS) prac ces at the household level from 50 percent to 70 percent by 2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014).Strategies to address the key IMCI concerns are as follows: (i ) focus on IMCI training for health workers. essen al care for all newborns (including immediate and exclusive breas eeding. adequate nutri onal care during illness and severe malnutri on. (iii) introduce communication for behavior change (BCC). and referral.
educa on. na onal targets for newborn. infant and child care have been set out in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan as presented in the following table: Table 4. and social protec on programs. environmental pollu on. (ii) increased provision of public funding for health in order to reduce ﬁnancial risks. To support the aforemen oned strategies and leverage their impact. underserved. especially for the poor.1. through BOK (Biaya Operasional Kesehatan). surveillance and IEC technologies with ac ons in water and sanita on. cross sectoral approaches will be considered. Policy advocacy will be targeted to provinces with lower levels of achievement on the indicators for MDG 4. complete basic immuniza on and other health services that are provided at the Posyandu. Mobiliza on of community par cipa on through Posyandu ac vi es that include: monitoring the nutri onal status of infants and toddlers each month through observa on of their body weight. gender and women empowerment. 3/2010. enable Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC and CEONC).Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Strengthening and improving health facili es. border and island areas. To ensure progress. ensure adequate opera ng costs for hospitals and primary health centers. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services. Outputs. (iii) development of monitoring instruments. 2010—2014 Priority Outputs Coverage of Neonatal ﬁrst visit Coverage of Complete Neonatal Visits Coverage of Treatment on Neonatal Complica on 2010 84% 80% 60% 84% 78% 80% 80% 2011 86% 82% 65% 85% 80% 82% 85% 2012 88% 84% 70% 86% 81% 85% 88% 2013 89% 86% 75% 87% 83% 88% 90% 2014 90% 88% 80% 90% 85% 90% 92% Improve the quality of child health care: Coverage of Health Services for Infants Coverage of Health Services for Under-ﬁve Children Coverage of one-year-old children fully immunized Coverage of one-year-old children immunized against measles Source: The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 and Inpres no. 76 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . communicable diseases control. through: (i) improved resource alloca on taking into account absorp ve capacity. by introducing strategies to promote primary health care and revitalize Posyandus. (iv) improved advocacy and capacity building of health personnel. distribu on mechanisms. Priori es. and (v) addressing strategic needs of health workers in remote areas. linking service delivery.
“Antenatal care at Puskesmas (primary health center) in Praya. NTT” Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .
between 1990 and 2015. high risk abortions and post abortion care. universal access to reproductive health Current Status Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) remains high. family planning to avoid early pregnancies. proper care of high-risk pregnancies. by 2015. the MMR has been falling gradually.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters. the number reﬂects a gradual decline of MMR (Figure 5.34 percent of births are assisted by a skilled health provider Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 79 .000 live births for the period 1998–2002 and 390 deaths per 100. Currently.000 live births by 2015. the Maternal Mortality Ratio Target 5B: Achieve. Compared to 307 per 100.1). With current trends. The most eﬀec ve way to reduce maternal mortality is to have births a ended by a skilled health provider. 77. It is es mated by WHO that 15-20 percent of pregnant women in both developed and developing countries will experience high risk and/or complica ons during pregnancy or at birth. IDHS 2007 places the MMR at 228 maternal deaths per 100. Key areas of intervention that influence the MMR include appropriate antenatal care. but extra efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 deaths per 100. While maternal mortality ﬁgures tend to vary by source.000 live births for the period 2004-2007. births attendance by skilled health personnel. and programs aimed at behavior change (raising awareness) among women of reproductive age.000 live births in 1991 (IDHS).
5 88. 80 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Maluku Maluku Utara Sulawesi Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur Kalimantan Barat Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Gorontalo Kalimantan Tengah Banten Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Barat Jambi Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Selatan Lampung INDONESIA Sumatera Selatan Riau Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Bangka Belitung Aceh Jawa Timur Kepulauan Riau Sumatera Utara Sumatera Barat Bali DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta 42.0 76. compared with 72.5 70.3).3 85.2 70. Susenas 2009.5 63.5 percent of pregnant women have complied with the recommended schedule of the minimum of four ANC visits. by Provinces.14 percent in DKI Jakarta to 42. The MoH target for 2010 is 90 percent.4 77.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Susenas 2009).3 78. Figure 5.5 47.2 96. IDHS MDG Target NMTDP Linear (IDHS) The disparity of births assisted by skilled health personnel among regions ranges from 98.2 63.7 49.2.4 85.5 percent of pregnant women who have at least four ANC contacts during pregnancy.2 47. but only 65.2 85.3 87. as shown by Figure 5.9 98.7 82. IDHS several years.3 76.8 84. Even with rela vely high coverage. Percentage of Births Assisted by Skilled Provider.4 62.5 percent in 2007 (IDHS 2007) and 66. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a health professional during pregnancy (Figure 5.9 96.2 85.5 48.9 60 59.5 71.7 percent in 2002 (IDHS 2002/03).1 60.9 69.7 88.48 percent in Maluku. There are 81.1.9 86.1 2025 .7 82. Figure 5. 2009 100 90 80 70 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: BPS.1 49.6 68.2. Na onal Trends and Projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025 450 390 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 102 2015 (MDG) 334 307 228 226 118 2014 (NMTDP) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: BPS.
where the rates recorded are 74. level of educa on.1 56.1 percent for all methods and 0.0 63.7 percent for modern methods during the period 2002/03 to 2007. the contracep ve prevalence rate (CPR) is rela vely low. The highest for any and modern methods are in Bengkulu.1 percent). beside an integrated and holis c approach of maternal health. 100 83. but do not use any contracep ves (unmet need1). and wealth quin le. First and Fourth Antenatal Visits.0 percent and 70.5 64. compared to the steady increase recorded in the period of 1991 to 2002/03. Con nuum of care is a cri cal element in the strategy to achieve maternal and child health targets. has increased from 8. IDHS several years.5 percent and 3. Regarding the pre-pregnancy period. respec vely.6 percent (IDHS 2002- 1 14 Unmet need is deﬁned here as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased insigniﬁcantly in the last ﬁve years.3 1997 ≥ 4 visits 2003 ≥ 4 visits as recommended 2007 Source: BPS.ANC s ll needs a en on. especially since MMR remains high. The number of couples of reproduc ve age who want to space pregnancy or limit births. contracep ve and reproduc ve health are the crucial issues to be improved. During the period of 2002/03 to 2007. in Indonesia 1991. The CPR varies among provinces. the average increase in contracep ve use was 3.2 percent for all methods and modern methods.3. but are not using any method of family planning. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased only by 1. respec vely.0 93. Na onally.0 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1994 1 visit 81. contracep ve use did not show signiﬁcant improvement. amenorrheic Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 81 .5 percent).4 percent for any method (IDHS 2007).2007 65. contracep ve use is high when the respondent’s level of educa on and wealth quin le are high. while in the period 1991 to 2002/03. One aspect to be considered is quality of ANC services in ensuring early diagnosis and prompt treatment.4 percent for modern methods and 61.0 86. In general.0 81.4 percent. The lowest CPR for any method is in Maluku (34. while the lowest for modern methods is in Papua (24.7 93.5 75.0 79. Disparity of CPR among provinces indicates the uneven coverage of family planning programs.5 Figure 5. 57. Women with an unmet need for “spacing” include pregnant women whose pregnancy was mis med.
1997.0 8.4 5. 2007. The lowest unmet need is found in Bangka Belitung (3. Higher unmet need was found in rural areas (9.6 6.2 percent) and the highest in Maluku (22. Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children (IDHS 2007). Unmet Needs.3 Source: BPS. and who want no more children. but are not using any contracep ve method. who are not using any method of family planning.3 2.2 4.16). 10.6 4. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth.0 percent (4. This fact indicates that the more educated and prosperous the group. and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. In addi on. 2002/2003. IDHS 1991. These numbers have been nearly stagnant since 1997 (Figure 5. do not want more children.0 4. Indonesia 1991-2007 14. 1991 1994 Spacing 1997 Limi ng Total 2002/3 2007 Unmet need varies greatly among provinces.2 percent) as compared with urban areas (8. who are not using any method of family planning.7 percent).2 8.4). The high unmet need is also caused by the concern about side eﬀects and the inconvenience of using contracep ves. unmet need also tends to be inversely correlated with higher levels of educa on and welfare quin le: it is 11 percent for women with no educa on and 8 percent for women with higher educa on (secondary and above). 1994.0 12. Measures of unmet need for family planning are used to evaluate the extent to which programs are mee ng the demand for services.7 9. which reﬂect the low quality of family planning services. the more informa on and services of family planning and reproduc ve health have been accessed.7 10.1 percent because their husbands forbid them to do so.8 5.6 9.0 10. Figure 5.8 4. while for women in the lowest quin le it is 13 percent and 8 percent for women in the highest quin le (Figure 5.0 6. 75 percent of married women with 3-4 living children.0 % of married women aged 15-49 12.3 percent women aged 15-19 are not willing to use any contracep ve because of side eﬀects.3 percentage points are for spacing and 4.1 percent because of health problems and 3.4 percent). women whose last birth was mis med. amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted.0 4. 82 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .7 percentage points for limi ng) (IDHS 2007). and who want to wait two or more years for their next birth.4.0 4.0 4. IDHS 2007 shows that 60 percent of married women with 2 children. 0 6. and 80 percent of married women with 5 or more live children. and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. regions and socio-economic status. 12. Unmet need for “limi ng” refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health 2003) to 9. Moreover.
Furthermore. 9/2008 Adolescent Birth Rate is counted using the ASFR aged 15-19 (number of birth by married women aged 15-19 years divided by number of married women aged 15-19) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 83 .33 in 1991. The high adolescent birth rate is caused by lack of access to quality reproduc ve health services and reliable informa on on sexual and reproduc ve health Adolescent fer lity raises both health and demographic concerns. 16 provinces s ll have ASFR aged 15-19 above the na onal average. which result in elevated infant and maternal mortality rates.3 in Indonesia (IDHS 2007). while the disparity among provinces and regions and socio-economic is s ll the main challenge. In addi on. 2 3 4 MDGs countdown. and points to the need to promote be er understanding of adolescent reproduc ve health. The highest ASFR aged 15-19 is found in Sulawesi Tengah (92 births).000 married women (IDHS 2007). The Indonesia Youth and Adolescent Reproduc ve Health Survey (IYARHS. Unmet need leads to unwanted and unintended pregnancies. with an es mated 62 -163 per cent caused by unsafe abor on prac ces. while the lowest is in Yogyakarta (7 births). as well as complica ons during pregnancy and childbirth. babies born to teenage mothers are more prone to injury during birth. BPS) in 2007. Demographically. par cularly during the perinatal and neonatal period. Knowledge and awareness of youth and couples in reproduc ve age about family planning and reproduc ve health is s ll low. the risks for both mother and child increase. From a health perspec ve. early child birth raises fer lity rates. The TFR is currently 2. delaying pregnancy broadens opportuni es for pursuing educa on and expanding access to employment opportuni es. especially in rural areas4. TFR is signiﬁcantly higher due to the high Adolescent Birth Rate. The Age Speciﬁc Fer lity Rate for individuals aged 15-19 has decreased from 67 births per 1. Policy Brief. a decrease from 0. and s llbirth. low birth weight.The CPR and unmet need contribute to the Total Fer lity Rate (TFR). in addi on to increasing maternal mortality. Furthermore. which is due to the low median age of the ﬁrst marriage of women. This risks increasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abor ons. Since abor on is illegal in Indonesia. pregnant women seek unsafe abor on services.000 married women (IDHS 1991) to 35 births per 1. Adolescent births risk reproduc ve health system injuries. as well as the provision of family planning and reproduc ve health services for couples in reproduc ve ages. proﬁle Indonesia Abor on in Indonesia Gu macher Ins tute. revealed the presence of teenagers who approved of having intercourse before marriage. 2005. in some provinces. The need for family planning is further underlined by the high adolescent birth rate in Indonesia. which in turn lead to termina on of pregnancies.
or (iv) too young (age of the mother). where risks to pregnancy and child births are par cularly high. 84 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . in addi on to escala ng health risks for pregnant women.6 percent (Riskesdas 2007). medicines and blood supplies that are crucial to handling obstetric emergencies. The low nutri onal status. 4. as well as cultural factors. and cultural factors.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Challenges 1. 5 The educa on and training programs with crash program approaches some mes poorly resulted with insuﬃciently skilled health workers. In addi on. which may constrain demand and contribute to the maternal deaths ﬁgure in Indonesia. 13. infec ous diseases. (iii) too old. especially for the poor in disadvantaged areas. This is exacerbated by geographic and transporta on barriers to access health facili es and health workers. This risk is exacerbated when other underlying condi ons are present (anemia. Low nutri onal and health status of pregnant women. (ii) too close (interval between pregnancies). as well as the lack of medical equipment. The current health care facili es are not preferred loca ons for giving birth due to limited access. especially midwives. Community mo va on and mobiliza on becomes a par cularly important tool in an environment of uncertain service provision. The risk of maternal death is even greater for mothers with the “4 TOOes”: (i) too many (children). 3. 2. Health workers are some mes inadequately trained. cultural issues and lack of necessary facili es and materials. Limited availability of health personnel both in terms of quan ty. are low. which s ll are common problems in most of places in Indonesia. posyandu and blood transfusion units. quality and their distribu on. Due to the inadequate number and distribu on of midwives. Lack of knowledge and awareness on the signiﬁcance of safe motherhood. especially when they have to work in diﬃcult circumstances where in fact they are most needed. remote. The percentage of women of reproduc ve age (15-45 years old) who suﬀer from chronic protein energy malnutri on is rela vely high. border and island areas area (DTPK). especially in remote and poor areas. etc. from community to primary to referral facili es.5 access to trained health personnel.). such as aﬀordability and educa on. Some socio-economic indicators. Limited access to quality health care facili es. especially midwives. the referral system is weak. especially with the diversity of condi ons that exist in Indonesia. is one cause of high prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) among infants. is cri cal for a successful safe motherhood program. such as availability and quality of Basic Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC) and Comprehensive Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEONC). communi es come to depend on tradi onal birth a endants (TBAs) and o en dangerous tradi onal prac ces.
will be cri cal for saving her life in the event of a complica on. that is they are key interven ons that accelerate achievement of the full range of health MDG targets. the following policies will ensure improvements: (a) increasing the frequency of antenatal6 contacts between skilled health personnel and pregnant women. This has been the case since 1994. Therefore. CEONC. and strengthening the community based care through TBA-midwife partnership.000 popula on. high abor on rates. The high IMR and MMR. a complete vital sta s cs model should be compiled through registra on. the respondent’s brothers and sisters). that is 102 per 100. as the system for recording causes of maternal deaths is not robust. mother’s age at child birth (too old. The rate is currently obtained from a survey using a direct es ma on procedure drawing on the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). Low rates of contracep ve use and high unmet need remain major challenges. 2. The Maternal Mortality Ra o remains uncertain. by means of expanding the service network (coverage and access) and integra ng family planning with other reproduc ve health programs with a focus on the poor and underserved areas. Policies and Strategies Considering that the decline in maternal mortality has been slow with complex problems faced in achieving the target for 2015. Mother and Baby Friendly Hospitals (CEONC8) and posyandu revitaliza on. The surveys collect informa on on the survivorship of all live births of the respondent’s natural mother (i.5. To obtain accurate death rates and causes of death. (b) increasing the use of skilled health personnel in deliveries. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 85 . including partnering with TBAs. and (d) increasing the percentage of deliveries in a health facility. BEONC. but are systemic. increasing access to family planning services. 3. or a popula on census with the cause of death recorded needs to be implemented immediately.e. the future policies and strategies to be pursued are:7 1. (c) increasing access to emergency (basic and comprehensive) obstetric care for highrisk deliveries. The eﬀects of these policies are not narrowly focused on maternal health.. and low contracep ve use – are indicators of the weakness of family planning services which are an important driver in reducing maternal mortality. expanding the village midwife func on. too young). UN guidelines recommend a minimum of one comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility and four basic emergency obstetric care facili es per 500. 6. 6 7 8 Antenatal care is a poten ally important way to connect a woman with the health system. village health posts (poskesdes). improving facility-based and outreach services by improving quality and quan ty of puskesmas. integrated health posts (posyandu).000 live births. which. if it is func oning.
in the aforemen oned 23. 7. raising awareness about safe motherhood at the community and household level by strengthening public health educa on. communica on and educa on for popula on control and family planning. χ. the immediate postnatal period. BOK (subsidy for non-salary opera ng cost for primary health facili es). by providing material support for the clinics.500 clinics in order to assist and develop self-reliance in family planning. through pre-service and in-service training of key health personnel and implemen ng the contractual service provider scheme. including: 1. to reduce the “three delays” and to save women’s lives by giving adequate care on me. paramedical staﬀ) in term of quan ty. underserved. and childhood. δ. family planning and reproduc ve health.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Con nuing family planning revitaliza on in order to control the popula on is one of the key features of policies to achieve universal access to reproduc ve health by 2015. and will be pursued through a series of strategies. addic ve drugs use. increasing the availability of health workers (general prac oners. Jamkesmas (social health insurance for the poor). specialists. focusing to fulﬁll needs in remote. Improving promo on and community mobiliza on by: α. β. improve the con nuum of care.500 government and private family planning clinics. promo ng and strengthening partnerships with the private sector. HIV/AIDS. developing media communica ons and intensifying informa on. NGOs. a tudes and behavior related to popula on control. χ. life skills educa on and family life educa on for adolescents. 6. and communi es in family planning program implementa on. that includes integrated service delivery for mothers and children from pregnancy to delivery. 9. improving knowledge. improving human resources capacity in the family planning program at all levels. Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). 4. β. increasing par cipa on and self-reliance training for family planning through 23. 5. 8. strengthening the referral system. quality and distribu on. free contracep ve devices/drugs and free family planning services for the poor. improving knowledge. improving commitment and par cipa on across sectors and local governments in popula on and family planning program implementa on. reducing ﬁnancial barriers through: PKH (condi onal cash transfers). village midwives. 2. Supervising and building self reliance to par cipate in family planning by: α. improving adequate micronutrient intake by pregnant women by ensuring adequate 86 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . border and islands areas. a tudes and behavior of teenagers related to adolescent reproduc ve health.
improving the informa on system. evalua on and ﬁnancing. 12. and (iii) developing models for iden fying eﬀec ve safe motherhood strategies. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled birth a endant (PN) 2010 84% 2011 86% 2012 88% 2013 89% 2014 90% Improve quality of maternal and reproduc ve health services Percentage of pregnant mothers with at least 4 ANC visits (K4) Percentage of health care services that provides standardized family planning services Number of puskesmas that implement standardized midwifery services based on guidelines 84% 86% 90% 93% 95% 10% 40% 75% 90% 100% Improve expansion of nursing and midwifery services 70 140 210 280 350 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 87 . (ii) focusing on groups and areas most at risk of maternal death. Outputs. 13. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set annual targets as follows: Table 5. addressing par cular issues related to decentraliza on and strengthening and sharpening the tasks in achieving health Minimum Services Standards (MSS). In addi on. in par cular by: (i) introducing analy cal methods to measure maternal deaths drawing on diverse sources of varying quality. and promote collabora on among programs and sectors as well as between public and private sector en es. while focusing targe ng of interven ons in poor and underserved areas. 10. In emphasizing the aforemen oned strategies.nutri on intake. 11. provincial and district authori es and introducing be er program oversight and management through surveillance. building eﬀec ve partnerships across programs and sectors to make use of synergies in service provision and advocacy. providing an enabling environment to support management and stakeholders’ par cipa on in policy development and the planning process. to ensure the achievement of health MDGs at all levels. monitoring. strengthening coordina on mechanisms by deﬁning modali es for sharing roles and responsibili es among central. including developing linkages with communi es to achieve synergies in advocacy and service delivery.1. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services. Priori es.
2010-2014 Priori es Outputs Contracep ve Prevalence Rate/CPR (%) a. Percentage of family planning clinic providing family planning services based on the proper Standard Opera ng Procedure (SOP) (from the whole 23.9 25.000 78.5 25.6 51 13. Percentage of current users for long term contracep ve method g. Percentage of trained family planning human resources in 23. and independence in ge ng family planning service from 23.500 public and private clinics 2. Percentage of new male par cipants 1. Number of public and private clinics receiving infrastructure support 2010 57.1 4.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 3. Outputs.8 13. par cipa on.700 75 4.1 24.5 50.4 48.2 27.0 23.6 27.000 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Table 5.5 3.6 23. Number of current users (in millions) c.3 28.4 49.000 76.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Table 5.6 29.75 3.8 3.97 4. Number of new par cipants (in millions) b.5 5.500 Popula on and Family Planning 3.7 12.4 7.500 public and private clinics 11. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.700 90 4.7 4.700 100 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Improving human resources capacity of the family planning providers in 23.2 3.05 Increasing guidance. Number of new poor (KPS/family within below prosperity level and KS-1/ prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.9 12.000 74.2 3.7 3.500 public and private clinics in promo ng guidance.2.700 35 4.500 2013 7. Number of poor current users (KPS/ family within below prosperity level and KS-1/prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.89 3.700 45 4. Number of self-reliant users (in thousands) d.1.9 13.2 26.500 public and private exis ng clinics) 20 35 50 70 85 88 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . par cipa on and independence in family planning 1.4 49.500 2011 7. Percentage of new par cipants for long term contracep ve method f.1 26.3 23.500 2014 65 7. Number of public and private clinic providing family planning service 2.000 72.2 12. Priori es.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 4.6 12. Percentage of current self-reliant users e.5 29 3.500 2012 7.4 12.9 4.0 23.5 12.8 3.1 4. Con nued Priority Improve support for management and implementa on of technical tasks in Nutri on and Health programs for Maternal-Child Outputs Number of func oning Poskesdes (village health posts) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 70.6 23.
018 1. Adolescence reproduc ve health b. Planning family life 2.700 2.065 1.342 2. Refreshing c.373 53 67 15 115 2 12.700 950 50 64 10 1 9.140 62 76 30 30 5 15. Number of adolescence/student Informa on and Counseling Center (PIK) established and guided 1. HIV/AIDS Promo ng adolescence knowledge. Number of center of excellent PKBR (per province) 4.343 2. private sector and community par cipa on in maintaining popula on and family planning program Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 89 .500 3. Percentage of adolescence knowledge about: a.450 2. manner and a tude toward popula on control and family planning 95 95 95 95 95 Improving NGO. Educa on and Communica on (IEC) media and materials produced 2.1. reproduc ve age women and adolescence obtaining informa on on popula on and family planning from printed and electronic media and outdoor media Number of trained family planning ﬁeld worker (Family Planning Field Workers/ PLKB. Technical Training 1.750 3.350 3.157 1. Percentage of reproduc ve age couples.253 56 70 20 30 3 13.300 1.195 59 72 25 30 4 14. General Basic Training (LDU) b. Family Planning Counselors/PKB): a. Number of PKBR trainer receiving training 3. manner and a tude about planning family life among adolescence (PKBR) c. Percentage of Informa on.016 38 65 84 100 100 Promo ng people’s knowledge.
90 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Start Running”. Malaria and Other Diseases .“Stop AIDS. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases 92 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
4 percent among the general popula on aged 15 – 49 (IBBS. During the period 1996 to 2006.828 cases). universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it Current Status The number of new HIV infec ons has been increasing in Indonesia.2). Papua and Papua Barat. by 2010. In 2009 there were 19.).1.000 people are currently living with HIV in Indonesia.17 percent of the popula on.194 cases recorded in 2006 (Figure 6. are shi ing to a generalized epidemic with a prevalence of 2.973 cases. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 93 .598 cases). Cumula vely. but the number of cases varies by province (Figure 6. CDC MoH 2007).615 cases). DKI Jakarta (2. two provinces. Papua (2. the number of HIV cases increased by some 17.808 cases). the number of AIDS cases has tended to increase. although the percentage of HIV-infected individuals in Indonesia is s ll rela vely low at 0. more than double the number compared with the 8. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve. and Bali (1. Although in most parts of Indonesia the AIDS epidemic is generally concentrated among high-risk popula ons with an es mated na onal adult prevalence of 0. Cases of HIV and AIDS are found in all areas of Indonesia.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.227 cases).22% in 2008.5 percent and it is es mated that some 193. East Java (3. The provinces with the greatest number of AIDS cases are West Java (3.
) es mates increasing HIV prevalence in the popula on aged 15-49 years from 0. together with their partners represent most reported new HIV cases (50. About 91 percent of AIDS cases have occurred in the reproduc ve age group (15-49 years of age).000 1.000 10.4 percent in 2014. 19892009 20. about 2.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.500 4.000 2.194 1.3 percent and 3.6 percent are perinatal infec ons resul ng from mother-to-child transmission. 2009.3 percent from homosexuals (men having sex with men – MSM).321 2.3.863 8. and blood transfusion transmission cause about 0.1 percent of cases. At current rates.639 2. 21 Source: MoH. The projec on of this modeling (Figure 6.000 - 19.500 1.969 2. 2009 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Number of AIDS Cases Cumula ve AIDS Cases 3. and the spread of HIV through injec ng drug use accelerates. DG of CDC and EH.828 3.3.227 .808 2.1.000 18.000 3. AIDS Cases per 100.873 2. DG of CDC and EH.682 1.000 4. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.21 percent in 2008 to 0.000 2.195 5.000 8.500 3.615 Figure 6. followed by injec ng drug users (IDUs) at 39. Number of AIDS Cases in Indonesia.000 6.110 11.973 16.000 16. by Province. 2009.500 2.2. Modes of transmission are indicated in Figure 6.141 3.598 4.171 316 Source: MoH.3 percent). which will increase the number of people with AIDS from some 404.000 12.947 4.000 Popula on in Indonesia. Heterosexual groups such as female sex workers (FSW) and transsexuals.600 people by the 94 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sulawesi Barat Gorontalo Maluku Utara Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Selatan Aceh Papua Barat Bengkulu Bangka Belitung Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Jambi Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sumatera Selatan DI Yogyakarta Banten Sumatera Barat Kepulauan Riau Riau Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Bali Papua DKI Jakarta Jawa Timur Jawa Barat 0 3 10 11 12 21 27 43 58 91 117 119 138 144 165 173 192 219 290 318 330 333 475 485 591 717 794 1. HIV infec on in Indonesia would con nue increasing over the next decades as people increasingly engage in unprotected sex.000 500 - 2.000 14.
by Popula on Group.0 10. 60. IDU=injec ng drug user.0 <1 1-4 5-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 Unknown Figure 6.0 50. 2010-2025. 2009 Heterosex.6 3. 2.0 Percentage (%) 40. 2009 Age Group By residence.5 3.5 0. Figure 6.1% Perinatal.800 cases in 2014.6% MSM. Na onal AIDS Programme. Condom use is also posi vely correlated with level of educa on (Figure 6. the percentage of young unmarried people repor ng condom use during their most recent sexual encounter is only about 18.720 by 20141 (). where women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to report condom use in their last high risk intercourse. that in turn will result in the increased need for an retroviral therapy (ART) from 50.2 0.400 cases in 2010 to 86.3% Note : MSM=men who have sex with men. 48.3.end of 2010 to some 813. 4.3 percent of young unmarried women (IDHS 2007). Diﬀerent pa erns are found in women.0 1.1 2.4 percent of young unmarried men and 10. 0.3% IDUs. Another related factor in HIV/AIDS transmission is the failure to use condom.4.4% Distribu on of HIV Infec ons. In total. 50. 3.7 Cumula ve Percentage on AIDS Cases by Age Goup.2 Source: DG of CDC & EH Ministry of Health. 2009 8. Unknown.0 20.3 30.9 1. Ministry of Health. men in urban areas are more likely to use a condom during high-risk sex than men in rural areas.3% Source: Surveillance reports.5) 1 Mathema c modeling of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia. Blood Transfussion. 39. Indonesia.0 30. NAC Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 95 .
less than 50 percent2 (Figure 6. Among youth who are unmarried. While most youth (15-24 years of age) in the country are aware of HIV/AIDS.1 10. IYARHS 2007.4 12. country reports: HIV / AIDS in the South-East Asia Region 2009. only 14.5 percent (married men) and 21.6 13.7). an retroviral therapy (ART) is available at 180 facili es.7 percent (married women).8 21.4 24.7 15.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.6).7.6 11. 2 3 UNGASS.0 20.8 percent. knowledge in the highest wealth quin le was 27.1 percent and 1. In Indonesia.0 28. residence (rural vs. educa on and socio-economic status. respec vely. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. This coverage increased from ART interven on coverage in 2006 by about 24. Knowledge of married men and women in urban areas was higher than in rural areas.0 15.4 10.5.3 20-24 Residence Urban Rural Less than completed primary Men Women Education Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Source: BPS. 96 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 percent of married women have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV. while the number of PLWHA is es mated based on the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). The es mated number of eligible PLWHA for ART per year is based on “cut of point” of the result of CD4 <200/ mm3 is about 10 .2 20.0 4.9 percent for married men and married women. 2007 15-19 Age 15. Percentage of Unmarried Women and Men Age 15-24 Who Have Ever Had Sex. Likewise.4 percent of unmarried men and 2. Total - 5. The higher the level of educa on. urban).20% from the total PLWHA in that period.4 percent3 of the total es mated cohort of eligible people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (calculated from MOH report 2010) as presented in Figure 6.3 8.0 10. The equivalent numbers for the lowest quin le are 3. and is being oﬀered to 38.0 Knowledge about HIV and its preven on is an important prerequisite for adop ng healthy behaviors. with regard to socio-economic status.5 9.6 percent of unmarried women have correct and comprehensive knowledge of AIDS (Figure 6. Who Use Condom at Last Sex.3 18.0 25. only 1. There are also dispari es in knowledge among regions. According to Background Characteris c.0 30. the higher the percentage of correct and comprehensive knowledge about AIDS.7 percent of married men and 9. this falls far short of the 95 percent target set by the United Na ons and is the lowest in the region.0 7.
7 18.0 5.7. except when describing marreid women by age group Total 1.6 0.3 2.0 Source: BPS.0 15.2 1. by Background Characteris c. the need for ART among the 15-49 age group is projected to increase three fold from 30.9 3.7 3. the trend and projected cases of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is es mated to increase uncontrollably.1 1.2 5. 2006–2009 Note: An retroviral treatment (ART) is given to individuals with advanced HIV infec on as per na onal treatment protocols.5 15-19 Age 1.0 Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Lowest Highest 1.6 20-24 15-24 Propor on of Men and Women Aged 15-24 with Correct of Comprehensive Knowledge about AIDS.4 2.NASAP 2010-2014).2 1.9 Quin le 21. Source: Country reports.8 Unmarried Women Educa on 2.1 0.9 8.6. 5.1 2.7 9.6 2.0 25.5 14.9 1.4 2.100 in 2008 to 86. Indonesia 2007 Residence Urban Rural no educa on Some primary 14.0 10. IDHS and IYARHS 2007.1 0.2.6 1.0 30.3 9. except when describing married men by age group.4 0. **) covering age group of 15-49 years old for married women. The number of children needing ART will also increase from 930 in 2008 to 2.0 35.0 20. Figure 6.8 1.2 3.2 10.9 3. Without adequate interven ons.2 2.7 28.1 12.800 in 2014 (Na onal AIDS Strategy Ac on Plan .2 2.8 1.6 0.7 10.9 10. Without eﬀec ve preven on. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 97 .1 Figure 6.5 Note: *) covering age group of 15-54 years old for married man.8 Married Men* Married Women* Unmarried Men 4. Coverage of ART Interven ons in Indonesia.0 2.5 15.660 in 2014 (MoH 2010).2 22.7 27.
as it spreads na onwide. The health-care system needs to be strengthened in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases in preven on. (ii) strengthening the ability to apply preven on. and conserva ve a tudes may serve as a signiﬁcant barrier to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Tackling the disease involves par cipa on by a number of sectors (health. While behavioral change communica ons (BCC) and informa on. the penal system. infec on and disease management protocols. This places the emphasis squarely on preven on strategies and infec on control. preven on. 2. and sociogeographically. The weakness of inter-sectoral coordina on as well as monitoring and evalua on systems. diagnosis. harm reduc on for IDUs. educa on. Some of the crucial challenges in AIDS mi ga on are: 1.4 and (iii) improving coverage of preven on. While much eﬀort has gone into se ng up good governance prac ces at the na onal level.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. coordina on within the Na onal Aids Commission (NAC) itself needs further improvement. treatment. Community values shape a tudes. HIV tes ng 98 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the military. 4. educa on and communica ons (IEC) programs are being pursued as part of the HIV/AIDS strategy. Improving access by strengthening public health services so that they have the necessary skills and resources to an cipate and respond to the epidemic. transporta on. Limited access to health services related to HIV/AIDS. safe blood transfusions and universal precau ons. Strengthening the health-care system is crucial in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases. The limited budget alloca ons and sustainability of funding in controlling HIV and AIDS. Limited facili es and human resources as well as limited availability of ART in term of quan ty and quality. through: (i) improving the number and quality of health-care facili es in providing sustainable promo on. diagnosis. currently. preven ng mother-to-child infec ons. 5. treatment and care. There are some constraints due to s gma and discrimina on of PLWHA in the community as well as the existence of gender inequali es and viola ons of human rights. care. they may not be keeping pace with the spread of the disease. care and 4 Protocols would be for managing STIs. immigra on) and places great demands on eﬀec ve coordina on of strategies and interven ons. Malaria and Other Diseases Challenges The basic challenge in HIV/AIDS is to halt and reverse the upward trend in the incidence/ prevalence of the infec on and the disease. they may not be suﬃciently eﬀec ve nor well-targeted. voluntary counceling and tes ng (VCT) is not yet available in all regions. 3. Policies and Strategies 1. The availability and sustainability of funding remain major obstacles in tackling the HIV/ AIDS epidemic.
In underlining the strategies. second genera on surveillance. (ii) undertaking community outreach that focuses on the most-at-risk popula ons and includes HIV tes ng. including mobile units. and (vi) pursuing an inclusive approach that promotes complementarity among government.2. the Na onal Medium-Term Plan (2010-2014) has set targets to control the spread of HIV/AIDS as follows: and counseling. 5. treatment and care services in drop-in centers and similar loca ons. and (v) crea ng an enabling and conducive environment to reduce s gma za on and discrimina on. (iv) deﬁning the respec ve roles of central. through: (i) integra ng HIV/AIDS into development programs both at the na onal level (ﬁnanced through the na onal budget/APBN) and local level (ﬁnanced through the local budget/ APBD). Enhancing community mobiliza on to improve HIV/AIDS preven on. and (ii) providing informa on to policy makers on the socio-economic costs of HIV/AIDS and on scaling-up interven ons. Mobilizing addi onal ﬁnancial resources for a successful HIV/AIDS strategy. while encouraging community ac on. (iii) strengthening cross-sectoral partnerships by escala ng the role of HIV/AIDS planning and budge ng forums. through: (i) conduc ng health monitoring and analysis including. treatment including ARV coverage. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 99 . by: (i) establishing a concerted system within government that synergizes various levels of organiza on and ins tu ons to contribute towards an integrated strategy. in the community. and (v) adap ng them to speciﬁc situa ons (stage of epidemic. high-risk groups. (v) formula ng na onal guidelines for BCC programs and IEC messages. resources). in par cular. care and treatment interven ons through: (i) providing IEC services on incurring HIV infec ons and preven ng transmission. (ii) strengthening the role of Na onal and Local AIDS Commissions. (vi) human resource planning that recognizes the increasing demands of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (management and provider skills). (iv) assuaging prejudices – among health workers. subsequently tailored to the par cular environment. 4. and (iii ) development of public private partnerships (PPP). gender inequity and human rights viola ons in implementa on of HIV/AIDS programs. nongovernment and private sector organiza ons. 3. (iii) social marke ng of condoms. and among pa ents. (ii) mobiliza on of addi onal ﬁnancial resources in controlling HIV/AIDS. and maintaining an eﬀec ve coordina ng mechanism (NAC). Strengthening informa on and monitoring and evalua on systems. and for the clinical management of treatment and care for people living with HIV. counseling. preven ng the progression of HIV to AIDS. (iv) developing na onal guidelines for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. provincial and district health authori es in tackling the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. capacity. Improving cross-sectoral coordina on and good governance.
5 2013 <0. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Prevalence of HIV Percentage of Popula on above 15 years have correct and comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS The number of people aged ≥15 who received HIV counseling and tes ng 2010 0. Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program.000 400. Priori es. 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Inpres 3/2010 and MOH Strategic Plan 2010-2014.000 700.000 500. Malaria and Other Diseases Table 6.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.5 2012 <0.5 65% 75% 85% 90% 95% 300.5 2014 <0.1.000 Reducing morbidity and mortality rates of communicable diseases (HIV/AIDS) Percentage of districts that implement appropriate guidelines for preven on of HIV transmission Use of condoms in high-risk sex groups (based on the report by the user) Percentage of people living with AIDS(PLWHA) who receive an retroviral therapy (ART) Percentage of public hospitals provide referral service for people with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% - 35% (f) 20% (m) 45% (f) 30% (m) 55% (f) 40% (m) 65% (f) 50% (m) 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.000 600.2 2011 <0.
00 Figure 6. Provinces in Jawa and Bali have the lowest (clinical) prevalence. and drug-resistant plasmodium vivax malaria predominates. The malaria incidence rate during the period of 2000-2009 shows that malaria cases tended to decline: in 2000.68 5.62 3. Sumatera Utara.74 4.66 3. Almost half the popula on lives in endemic areas.000 popula on 3.0 percent).81 2003 2004 2005 4.89 percent (Riskesdas 2007).50 1.00 1. 3.85 2.45 3. where the highest number of malaria cases are reported.63 3.50 3.00 3.7 Posi ve per 1.85 2.23 3.54 3.89 2.4 percent) and NTT (12. about 0. malaria in Jawa and Bali is hypo-endemic. the incidence was at 3.000 popula on. Kalimantan Tengah. The na onal prevalence based on clinical diagnosis5 is 2.36 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria. As a result.1 percent). 4.00 1990 3. Indonesia 1990-2009 2. Nusa Tenggara Timur. In the outer islands.18 3.33 3. Gorontalo.50 5.000 popula on.8. 2010. with the rate varying between 0. by 2009. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 101 .50 4. Nusa Tenggara Barat. Maluku.00 2.Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases Current Status Incidence and death rate associated with Malaria.1 2006 2007 Source: Ministry of Health.85 cases per 1. treatment-suscep ble plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are equally common. Jambi.50 0.50 2. Sulawesi Tengah. and some 35 percent of this popula on is malaria posi ve.83 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 2.1 percent among regions. Maluku Utara.5 percent.53 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 3.2 percent and 26. the highest being in the provinces of Papua Barat (26. Papua Barat and Papua). it had declined to 1. There are 15 provinces where malaria prevalence is above the na onal average (Aceh. Only some 20 percent of pa ents with symptoma c malaria seek treatment at public health facili es.47 2008 2009 1.00 0.62 cases per 1. Bangka Belitung. making it diﬃcult to es mate the actual malaria incidence among the popula on. Papua (18. The highest prevalence rates are to be found in eastern Indonesia. Bengkulu. 5 Based on diagnosis results by health professionals and respondent complaints.
It is mainly through interac ons between well-informed communi es at risk and health authori es that results can be accelerated. Larval control and environmental management measures (for example.6 percent. the use of insec cide treated bed nets is an important interven on. distribu on and monitoring and evalua on of an malarial drugs. The primary preven ve tools are long-las ng insec cidal nets (LLINs).3 percent have legi mate ITNs6. Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cide-treated bed nets. indoor residual spraying with insec cides (IRS). 6 7 8 An insec cide-treated net (ITN) is 1) a factory-treated net that does not require any further treatment. management of salinity in aquaculture and coastal lagoons.5 percent and 1. or 3) a net that has been soaked with insec cide within the past 12 months. geography and socio-economic condi ons. Financial factors become essen al in ensuring availability. Appropriate IEC and BCC messages are a crucial element. and community awareness about mely treatment is important. In general. especially of ACT. or 2) a pretreated net obtained within the past 12 months. However. Insuﬃcient understanding of appropriate preven ve ac ons and the need to seek prompt care pose challenges to eﬀec ve infec on control and disease management at the community level. uses and manages the environment is involved. Challenges 1. but ownership of treated nets is very low– only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net (ITN). larviciding and environmental management) are also used.8 Other constraints may also be due to ineﬀec ve implementa on of epidemiological surveillance. Some 30 percent of households own some type of mosquito net. Case management (diagnosis and treatment) emphasizes prompt interven ons. 4.7 is s ll inadequate on a na onal scale. and intermi ent preven ve treatment for pregnant women (IPTP). and 3.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases Today. and it will have the desired impact if messages are standardized and pay suﬃcient a en on to the local epidemiology. Other vector control measures (for example. 102 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . In preven on eﬀorts. while provision of an malarial medicines by public health services has increased over me. Prompt malaria treatment (that is within 24 hours) occurs in some 48 percent of cases. diagnosed and treated with a combina on of available tools. virtually three mes that of urban households. access to treatment. ACT: Artemisinin-based Combina on Therapy. respec vely. Households in rural areas are more likely to have insec cide treated bed nets. malaria can be prevented. the use of ITN is almost non-existent. Ineﬀec ve malaria preven ve ac ons. vector control and the limited supply of malaria-related informa on systems. Underlining the par cular circumstances that may have led to the posi ve results of the MOH study is the conclusion of the 2007 IDHS study that only 50 percent of communi es na onally were aware of essen al an malarial strategies. rice ﬁeld draining) can work well only if the community that lives in.
(vi) improving vector control that is suitable to local condi ons. Oversight capabili es remain limited. Inadequate monitoring and evalua on system. Expanding malaria preven on and treatment along the lines set out in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program will require addi onal physical. (iv) strengthening monitoring progress at local levels and undertake local situa on analysis.2. entomologists and monitoring and evalua on specialists). In some instances. domes c ﬁnancing–through na onal and sub-na onal budgets–has been rela vely modest. 3. Policies and Strategies To accelerate eﬀorts to achieve the MDG targets related to malaria. Case management may suﬀer from weak logis c planning at the facility level with interrup ons in the availability of drugs and the means to carry out diagnos c tests. 4. improving and strengthening the implementa on of universal coverage RBM strategy are crucially needed. The transfer of responsibility for implemen ng the malaria program may not have paid enough a en on to limited capaci es at local levels. Interna onal ﬁnancial contribu ons need to be balanced with the increment of domes c ﬁnancial resources. a ﬁnancial mobiliza on strategy for both interna onal and domes c funding will be expanded for medium and long term programs. monitoring and evalua on ac vi es are insuﬃcient to allow good planning and budge ng for the na onal malaria program. and ﬁnancial resources. through: 1. (vii) strengthening epidemiological surveillance and outbreak 9 The par cipa on of malaria cadres. Health services may not be suﬃciently equipped and staﬀed to respond promptly to needs. through: (i) developing IEC and BCC messages that are designed with par cipa on by service providers and user representa ves. (v) providing and promo ng the use of insec cide treated bed nets. Developing strategies for social mobiliza on that focus on promo ng community awareness about preven on interven ons and in malaria control. (iii) increasing a en on to a strong malaria informa on system by collec ng adequate malaria-related morbidity and mortality data. and TBAs in malaria control eﬀorts are key parts of the response strategy. Therefore. Limited capacity at local level. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 103 . and there may be shortages of necessary technical exper se (for example. so that they are tailored to speciﬁc regional and community situa ons (that is client orienta on)9. So far. with the program encountering bo lenecks at the service level. (ii) developing social mobiliza on strategies that focus on increasing public awareness about malaria preven on eﬀorts. especially in the high malaria endemic areas. the workforce may not have the appropriate training. human. community health workers.
concerning Equitable Development Programs. malaria detec on and rapid treatment. supply chain management. through: (i) strengthening program oversight with well-designed monitoring and evalua on systems that draw on a good understanding of community dynamics. Some improvements are needed in: (i) promo ng preven on and control in the community. Strengthening health services in preven on. Improving ﬁnancial support. (viii) developing cross-sectoral interven on models such as larvaciding and biological control. and informa on systems that allow monitoring for be er planning and targe ng of malaria interven ons. technical assistance and targeted training programs will be provided to ensure increased capacity at all levels. Improving management structures and governance that include strategies. Malaria and Other Diseases control systems. (ii) ensuring early detec on and care seeking. 104 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Long-term and predictable funding will be needed to maintain the sustainability of the programs. control and treatment. control and treatment. To accelerate reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of emerging communicable diseases. work programs. To be able to carry out the strategies. 5. and (ix) developing a capacity to assess the eﬃcacy of the malaria control eﬀorts. (ii) developing opportuni es for collabora on between public agencies and exploring public-private synergies. and allow the incorpora on of local diﬀerences into strategic planning. 3/2010. To ensure sustainability of control programs. par cularly in remote areas. and (iv) integra ng malaria program with maternal and child health program interven ons. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set out some crucial targets that also are speciﬁed in the Presiden al Instruc on No. especially related to improve malaria case detec on. (iii) ensuring be er use of donor support by placing it in the context of comprehensive na onal strategic planning for malaria. insec cides and preven ve tools. the human resources need to be equipped with the appropriate skills in: advocacy. 2. Health services have a central role in raising awareness. in par cular by strengthening partnerships with research and technical en es to conduct opera onal research on the eﬀec veness of drugs. (iii) responding to the need for case management in a mely manner. 3. 4. (iii) strengthening of village malaria posts (posmaldes) to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with malaria. and entomology.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. through the private sector and the interna onal community. Improving capacity of human resources. and (iv) controlling drug quality and use. especially in awareness raising.
Both exceed the MDG targets of 70 and 85 percent respec vely.50 50 100 2013 1.2. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program. resul ng from inadequate treatment of TB. 85 percent treatment success. The treatment success rate has been above 85 percent since 2000.75 40 100 2012 1. to improve prescrip on prac ces. be er logis cs and a stronger TB monitoring system. more focus needs to be placed on measures that adhere to interna onal standards for TB care. Priori es. This performance reﬂects increased collabora on between sub-na onal oﬃces and private health services.10 and treatment outcomes show a success rate of 91 percent (2006). to ensure that the incidence rate con nues to fall through 2015.000 popula on Percentage of District/Municipality conduct vector mapping Percentage of Outbreak reported and tackled 2010 2 30 100 2011 1. Inpres No. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 105 . 2010-2014 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.7 percent in 2006. ensure drug quality. increased focus on capacity building in human resources in health services.25 60 100 2014 1 70 100 Table 6.Priority Reducing the morbidity rate and the mortality rate of Malaria and other communicable diseases Outputs Malaria case detec on rate per 1. as well as community-based TB care providers. 10 Targets are 70 percent case detec on of smear-posi ve cases under DOTS.9).000 popula on and mortality of 91/100.2008. there remains a need to face the high incidence of Mul drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB). Indonesia has made progress by strengthening of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) program as a na onal policy. The TB case detec on rate has increased rapidly – from 30.6 percent in 2002 to 75. and to reduce incidence rates and halve 1990 prevalence and mortality rates by 2015. MOH Strategic Plan 20102014 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases (Tuberculosis) Current Status The na onal surveillance report on TB prevalence shows that the number of people infected by TB is declining (Figure 6. 3/2010.000 popula on/year. In order to increase the eﬀec veness of TB control. Case detec on now exceeds 70 percent. Although the achievement of TB case detec on and treatment success has been rela vely sa sfactory. and it reached 91 percent in 2005 . With an increasing threat of MDR-TB. Indonesia was the ﬁrst high TB burdened country in the WHO South-East Asia Region to achieve the global targets for case detec on (70 percent) and treatment success (85 percent). Es mates for 1990 are prevalence 443/100. and avoid interrup ons in medica on cycles.
7 68 54 37. A survey of Knowledge. SR CDR Challenges 1. including professional associa ons. DG of CDC&EH.8 54 58 87 89. and (ii) access to services is limited.5 86 86. Involvement of communi es in TB care is essen al.6 7.8 73. Insuﬃcient TB control policies with appropriate local strategies. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.6 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: MoH-RI.6 69. The low household and community awareness and behaviors that increase the risk of infec on. Interven on guidelines and ACSM need to be ﬁ ed to local circumstances. 2.1 1. Advocacy. and only about 2-3 percent of private prac oners. but results are s ll modest and understanding of the issues remains weak. To be successful. Directorate CDC.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. about 13 percent.9. but only some 38 percent of hospitals. 2009. Detec on and treatment services for TB are not yet rou nely delivered in all health services facili es (98 percent of Puskesmas do that rou nely. ﬁeld-level implementa on needs to pay par cular a en on to strengthening of health services and dissemina on of informa on. which will require strong commitments of stakeholders. (iii) most of the community does not know that an -TB drugs are free and provided by local health facili es (only 19 percent knew). Only 16 percent of respondents could correctly iden fy the signs and symptoms of TB. 3. The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 81 73. private health facili es and peniten aries do so. reﬂec ng a combina on of the following factors: (i) ACSM11 coverage is s ll low and messages may not be eﬀec ve. In addi on. partnerships between public and private en es need to be established.8 72. reduce demand for services and consequently lower eﬀec veness of na onal strategies. 106 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 .5 12 19 20 21 30. Moreover.7 91 91 91 91 Percentage 75.4 4. communica on and social mobiliza on (ACSM) are being pursued as part of the TB strategy. The high case detec on rate has not been followed by the availability of adequate health care services. Poor awareness of the TB program. there is signiﬁcant varia on between regions. and a consequently 11 ACSM is s ll a new area in TB program strategy and much more guidance and technical support is necessary.1 86. (ii) s gma za on according to TB (keep TB a secret if a family member had TB) is low. A tudes and Prac ce (KAP) conducted recently reported the following ﬁndings: (i) knowing what is TB (76 percent) and knowing that TB can be totally cured (85 percent).
currently characterize many situa ons at the local level and are reﬂected in insuﬃcient resources being allocated to the TB program. including the produc on of informa on that can be used. family and community as well as work environment in inﬂuencing behavior. for results management. increasing awareness and promo ng passive case ﬁnding. (vi) improving ac ve promo on of TB control.weak commitment to it. Expanding DOTS coverage through health services by: (i) expanding and intensifying ACSM and facilitate access. (iii) intensifying involvement of private and public services. NGOs and the private sector in an integrated movement for na onal TB mi ga on (Gerdunas TB). providers and stakeholders.(ii) improving poli cal support and strengthening decentraliza on programs for eﬀec ve implementa on of DOTS. resource use is neither eﬃcient nor eﬀec ve. Some surveillance has been conducted. including through ini a ves that draw more a en on to TB. because data on the former is limited). and would be used. (v) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 107 . par cipa on of care providers. (iv) ensuring availability of adequate health personnel both in quan ty and quality. In the absence of integrated planning and budge ng for TB ac vi es. 4. (iii) improving partnerships involving government. (vii) improving eﬀec ve communica on to people with TB. implementa on of some components in the TB Strategy–health systems strengthening. informa on is sparse and insuﬃcient to support strong policy making. Beyond distribu ng informa on about TB. and (viii) improving the evalua on and monitoring system and measuring the impact of treatment under DOTS. ACSM. (iv) expanding access to health care and free of charge medicines. the informa on base needs to be improved so that policy making can be based on facts. However. Funding so far has mainly come from donors. Policies and Strategies Mee ng the challenges in TB preven on and control program depends on strengthening some strategies: 1. (v) improving logis c and eﬀec ve drugs management systems. research (is less well understood than DOTS expansion and TB/HIV and MDR-TB rela onships. (ii) implemen ng the Interna onal Standards for TB Care (ISTC) to all services. there is a need to increase mobiliza on of local resources. and by means of eﬃciency improvements in current program spending. There is a shortage of ﬁnancial resources available to combat TB in Indonesia. 5. Improving capacity and quality in the TB program by: (i) strengthening laboratory diagnos c capacity in all health care facili es. however. The situa on may be par cularly challenging in remote areas where the combina on of poverty and TB can be more devasta ng. At the present me. 2.
enforcement of regula ons. as well as cross-sectoral collabora on and a monitoring and evalua on system. vector control and other locally based preven ve interven ons. and (viii) establishing TB control capacity as a district level priority. (vi) drug quality control: (vii) public-private collabora ve arrangements. (vi) improving collabora on in TB/HIV programs. (iv) periodic evalua on at na onal and local levels to increase accountability and mo va on to perform. strong surveillance. It will require: (i) further strengthening the capacity of the health system to prevent and control infec ous disease – reviewing surveillance and case-repor ng systems and se ng up alert and response mechanisms to lower the case fatality rate. reduce delays in diagnosis. The local commitment in alloca ng funds to local government budgets (APBD) to TB as part of MSS (Minimum Services Standards) as well as the MDGs is crucial since both are na onal and local priori es in health development. through promo ng an appropriate alloca on of resources. (iii) implemen ng surveillance to iden fy speciﬁc risks (such as the emergence of MDR TB). (ii) reviewing and adjus ng the design of case detec on. strengthening policies and fostering local ownership are key strategies to ensure the sustainability of the TB Program by reducing dependency of the local level on central transfers and external funds. both at the central level and among local authori es. monitoring and evalua on system. (x) expanding case detec on rate and coverage of TB treatment and care services in all health services. (ix) outreach that applies appropriate remote area strategies. Malaria and Other Diseases ensuring the availability and sustainability of drug supply. and (iv) increasing availability of an eﬀec ve health informa on system. while strengthening partnerships with other sectors and the private sector. through: (i) expanding research related to TB. and implementa on of the DOTS. Enforcing policies and regula ons to build eﬀec ve sector leadership and governance by establishing strong poli cal commitment. Strengthening the health informa on. (iii) suppor ve advisory services that facilitate adop on of correct prac ces. In order to accelerate the achievement of the targets in reducing the incidence and death rate related to TB. and (xi) providing standardized facili es and infrastructure for TB services. 3. Promo ng the alloca on of funds to ﬁnance the Stop TB program. diagnos c. and promo ng evidence-based planning and decision making. (vii) strengthening public health services in providing eﬀec ve responses to the Stop TB program. Therefore. and treatment delivery schemes to local condi ons and resources. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) sets targets for the following ac vi es and indicators as described in the table below: 108 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. (viii) promo ng community-based treatment. (ii) improving coverage of laboratory services. through periodic studies about eﬀorts to improve provision of services. 4. 5. (v) periodic surveys to iden fy special risks (emergence of MRD-TB or outbreaks in prisons or health facili es).
Priori es.3.Priority Indicators Prevalence of TB per 100.000 popula on Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) 2010 235 73 2011 231 75 2012 228 80 2013 226 85 2014 224 90 Table 6. Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 109 . 2010-2014 Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of TB 85 86 87 87 88 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. 3/2010. Inpres No.
110 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Maintaining replanted mangrove trees Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .
The Percentage of Forest Cover of the Total Land Area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 Source: Ministry of Forestry (1990-2008).97 percent. Figure 7.43 percent in 2008. illegal logging.1. Degrada on of Indonesia’s forests and reduc on in biodiversity occurred on a large scale prior to 2002 due to unsustainable forest management prac ces. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 113 .Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrating the principles of sustainable development in national policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources Current Status The ra o of actual forest cover to the total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys was 52. a reduc on of forest cover as compared with the baseline year of 1990 when forest cover was 59. forest ﬁres.
a reduc on as compared to 1.000 5.000 6.3.6 million hectares per year during 1985 . Nevertheless.000 3. the availability of non-renewable energy is becoming more limited. The consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) has been signiﬁcantly reduced in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.000 9.2. This reﬂects the increasing eﬃciency in the use of energy.089 million hectares per year. ODS was phased out (CFC.000 7.000 Consump on in ODP tonnes 8. Halon.1 million hectares between 1997 and 2001. MBr) HCFCs 114 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The Indonesian government ra ﬁed the Montreal Protocol through Presiden al Decree No.000 2. The rate of forest degrada on between 2000 and 2005 was es mated to be 1. Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 10. the use of nonrenewable energy in Indonesia more than doubled between 1990 and 2008. 23 of 1992 on the Elimina on of the Consump on of Figure 7. Figure 7.1997 and 2. Total Energy Use of Various Types for the Years 1990-2008 (Equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in Millions) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.000 4. TCA. This in turn increases the threat of an energy crisis in the future.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and conversion of forest lands to other uses.000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Ministry of Environment.000 1. The ra o of energy use per GDP in Indonesia has tended to decline. Besides causing emissions that aﬀect climate change. CTC.
control over the smuggling. building capacity for these ins tu ons at all levels. there are s ll indica ons of illegal importa on and trade in ODS. more variable rainfall pa erns that can cause ﬂoods and droughts. ini a ves are being taken to reduce deforesta on and forest degrada on through preven on of illegal logging. and a regula on prohibi ng the importa on of ozone deple ng substances was enacted in 1998 and revised in 2006 by the Ministry of Trade. The steps that the government has already implemented include the following: To overcome Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 115 . In addi on. Reduc on of global warming requires interna onal partnerships. and strengthening the enforcement of laws and regula ons governing environmental management in Indonesia. Although since 1998 the import of CFCs and goods related to the CFC has been oﬃcially banned. Indonesia is vulnerable to the nega ve impacts of climate change. The target will be increased up to 41 percent with interna onal assistance.Ozone Deple ng Substances. including sea level rise. If appropriate steps are not taken. Challenges Global warming is leading to climate change and having nega ve impacts on the environment. development policies will be directed to achieve a sustainable pa ern of natural resource use and environmental management. both to mi gate global climate change and implement steps to empower the people of Indonesia to adapt to the nega ve impacts of climate change. and na onal ac ons are needed. Indonesia announced the target to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 percent from Business as Usual (BAU) condi ons in 2020 in the forum of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009. many regions in Indonesia will experience water supply shortages. declining crop yields. Policies and Strategies In accordance with the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (2005-2025) and the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). forest ﬁres and encroachment on forest lands. As the largest archipelagic country in the world. The government is working to increase forest cover through rehabilita on of 2.5 million hectares during 2010-2014. illegal importa on and use of ODS is very diﬃcult. and Indonesia is commi ed to cooperate ac vely with the world community in dealing with the important issues related to climate change. Na onal plans and policies will be focused on improving coordina on among the ins tu ons directly involved in environmental management. and reduced produc vity of coastal ecosystems. and other environmental changes.
The policy framework and strategy have been translated into programs and ac vi es in the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) as follows: Table 7.000 Ha 60.000 Ha 116 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The government.000 Ha 240.000 Ha 3.000 Ha 640. Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rehabilita on of cri cal lands and forest reclama on Implementa on of Forest and Land Rehabilita on Facilitate the rehabilita on of mangrove forests. Comba ng illegal logging is being carried out in various areas to maintain the forest cover and protect conserva on areas. especially geothermal energy which comprises 39 percent.000 Ha 120. peat and swamp areas 160. in 2008 the government increased the total area of protected forests and protected aqua c waters signiﬁcantly.000 MW electricity program Phase II which has renewable energy as its main energy source.000 Ha 120.000 Ha 100. for example.000 Ha 500.000 Ha 180.000 Ha 4.000 Ha 200. the government has and will con nue to maintain the ban on the use of materials that have been legally banned.000 Ha 5.000 Ha 295.000 Ha 295. Law Number 30/2007 has mandated increased use of New and Renewable Energy as an eﬀort to diversify. and implementa on of this law will become the responsibility of central and local governments.000 Ha 240.000 Ha 400. the government is socializing and providing ﬁscal and non-ﬁscal incen vies to promote energy saving measures and use of more eﬃcient. has already launched a 10. The government has also launched a na onal movement of rehabilia on of forests and cri cal lands. environmentally friendly and renewable alterna ve energy sources.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability the rate of deforesta on.000 Ha 800. peat and swamp areas (295 000 ha) 60.000 Ha Reduced area of cri cal lands through rehabilita on and reclama on of forests Facilitate and implement forest rehabilita on in priority catchment areas Implementa on of Land Reclamaon and Forest Rehabilita on in Priority Watersheds Facilitate land rehabilita on in the priority catchment areas Facilitate development of the urban forest areas Facilitate rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 320.000 Ha 1.000 Ha 180. In addi on.1.000 Ha 300.000 Ha 2.000 Ha 480. Through the ozone layer protec on program.
1.600.000 ha 800. with the Ministry of Forestry.000 ha 100.000 ha Increased quality of conserva on policies and forest damage control and integrated land management with various ministries and ins tu ons including. covering 2 million ha.000 ha 200. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Improved forest management through community empowerment Facilitate establishment of community forest management areas (HKM).000 ha 100 groups 200 groups 300 groups 400 groups 500 groups 10 Unit 20 Unit 30 Unit 40 Unit 50 Unit 4 Prov 8 Prov 16 Prov 22 Prov 32 Prov 50.000 ha 200.000 ha 1.Con nued Table 7.000 ha 6 Districts 12 Districts 18 Districts 24 Districts 30 Districts 100.000 ha 150. Facilitate 500 group / unit management business license HKM Facilitate 50 partnership units HKM Social Forestry Development Facilitate ins tu onal support food security in 32 provinces Facilitate community forest development partnership for industrial wood raw materials covering 250 000 ha Facilitate establishment and func oning of the center at 30 HHBK districts Targeted working area of 500.000.000 ha 250.000 ha 2. BPN and Local Governments Number of conserva on policies ﬁnalized to control forest destruc on and land use issued (the criteria and guidelines) are coordinated among the concerned ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Control of Forest and Land Degrada on Data on hotspots in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres that are desseminated to the concerned ministries and ins tu ons An implementa on mechanism for land and forest ﬁre preven on in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons 3 3 3 3 3 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 8 8 8 8 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 117 .000 ha 1.000 ha 400.000 ha 300.000 ha of village forests 400.200.000 ha 500.
mangrove and 15 species of endangered aqua c biota Sea and freshwater conservaon areas and sustainably managed brackish areas Number of conserva on areas and protected aqua c biota species iden ﬁed and mapped accurately 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha Management and Conserva on Development Areas 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types Improved system blackout preven on. Priori es Output / Indicators Detailed data on land and forest damage in 11 priority watersheds and and areas poten ally prone to landslides are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons The data of land cover and land use change (landuse change) compiled through the Program Go Green Indonesia Number of provinces (ecosystem approach) that are monitored according to the data and the poten al for disaster % of conserva on policy recommenda ons and control of forest destruc on and land area of the provinces implemented are monitored each year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 10 15 20 25 30 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Management of the 20% area of coral reefs. and Sulawesi reduced by 20% each year The area of forest ﬁre is reduced compared to 2008 condi ons 20% 36% 48.2% 67. impacts to land and forest ﬁres Hotspots on the islands of Borneo. mi ga on.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Con nued Table 7. seagrass. Sumatera.1.2% Forest Fire Control 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Adequacy of policies. to monitor the success of the implementa on mechanisms for the preven on of forest ﬁres 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% Implementa on of integrated watershed management in priority watersheds Integrated watershed management plan in 108 priority watersheds (DAS) Build a base line data on the 36 watershed management BPDAS Provision of data and maps of cri cal land in 36 BPDAS 22 DAS 44 DAS 66 DAS 88 DAS 100 DAS Development of Watershed Management 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 118 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .8% 59. data and informa on to control land and forest ﬁres is integrated and coordinated with the concerned ministries and ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Forest and Control of Land Degrada on Data on the distribu on of hotspots/ forest ﬁres in eight Provinces disseminated to the ministries/ departments.
Amoun ng to 5795 MW in year 2014 1.42 5.PLT Wind (kW) Managing the provision of EBT and Implementa on of Energy Conserva on .Biomass (MW) .59 10. ins tu ons and local governments Management of Water Quality and Peat Areas Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons 25% 25% 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% The physical model for CO2 absorb on.1 1 24.94 5.Con nued Table 7.2.260 3.Number of Pilot Projects genera ng electricity from ocean energy resources DME 3.1 1 27. with coordina on across the concerned ministries.1 1 24.PLTS 50 Wp .16 0.The number of ocean energy feasibility studies .64 0.38 5.78 11.419 2.55 1.53 0 0 1 24.49 10.55 0.9 5.795 The realiza on of new renewable energy and energy conserva on op ons Lisdes (EBT) .PLTMH (kW) .69 11.32 0.000 5. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Availability of integrated water quality management policy tools among the concerned ministries and ins tuons % Se ng classiﬁca on of water at the district/ municipality level for 13 rivers in 119 priority districts and ci es.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 50 50 50 50 50 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 119 . Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources Contribu on to achieving the target of 10.261 1.1. perfec ng and tes ng produc on Technology for Control and Mi ga on of the Impacts of Global Warming Policy recommenda ons to reduce emissions and increase carbon sinks and pilot plant photobioreactor for CO2 absorb on 1 1 1 1 1 Priori es Increased use of renewable energy including geothermal energy to reach 2000 MW in 2012 and 5000 MW by 2014 the commencement of coal bed methane produc on to generate electricity in 2011 accompanied by the u liza on of solar energy poten al Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 7.000 MW geothermal power plants in the phase II program Total installed capacity of geothermal power plants.
a significant reduction in the rate of loss Current Status Indonesian biodiversity is threatened due to the u liza on of natural resources in unsustainable ways. BAPI aimed to preserve biodiversity through reduced degrada on of ecosystems. During the last 50 years. 120 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Challenges Deprecia on of gene c diversity. 5 / 1994. Policies and Strategies The Indonesian government launched the Indonesian Biodiversity Ac on Plan (BAPI) in 1993 as a document to set priori es and investment in biodiversity conserva on and this plan was used in preparing the ﬁ h and sixth Five Year Development Plans (un l 1999). damage to coral reefs has increased from 10 percent to 50 percent. This document was published before the ra ﬁca on of the United Na ons Conven on on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) through Law No. transporta on and other uses has had a nega ve impact on biodiversity. Transfer of some ecosystems into areas to be used for industry. Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature (IUCN) Red List data reports that 772 species of ﬂora and fauna are threatened with ex nc on. Meanwhile. Discussions on gene c erosion in the ﬁeld of agro-ecosystems may also be true for wild species. Reduc on of biodiversity has occurred.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. Between 1989 and 2000.09 million hectares per year. Since not all gene c erosion occurring in wild species is known. development of the database. but also at the level of species and gene c diversity. residences. by 2010. the percentage with 50 percent live coral reef popula ons has declined from 36 percent to 29 percent. par cularly species of wild animals and plants. The average rate of degrada on of forest ecosystems in the period 2000-2005 reached 1. not only at the level of ecosystems. Indonesia may have lost "pearls" without a chance to know the value and beneﬁt lost. achieving. is not well documented. and providing support to the management of sustainable natural resources. approximately 240 rare plant species have been declared endangered and some ﬁsh species are also threatened with ex nc on.
etc. new challenges and obstacles in implemen ng biodiversity conserva on. Development and conserva on of essen al ecosystems a) Reduce conﬂict and pressure on na onal parks and other conserva on areas b) Improving the management of essen al ecosystem c) Improved management of problems resul ng from encroachment of conserva on areas d) Recovery of conserva on areas 3. opportuni es. In order to address the various issues speciﬁed in the UNCBD and learning from the BAPI experience. Development of species and biodiversity conserva on gene cs a) Enhance biodiversity and endangered species popula ons b) Cap ve c) Interna onal and regional coopera on 5. Eﬀorts to conserve biodiversity and expand protec on of endangered species is illustrated with clear indicators and targets to be achieved. Improving biodiversity conserva on a) Biodiversity conserva on policy b) Monitor the implementa on of biodiversity conserva on c) Facilitate the development of Biodiversity Parks 2.Ten years later. BAPI was updated into the "Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Ac on Plan (IBSAP)". IBSAP was built through a par cipatory process and addressed more current environmental problems. Management and development of ecosystem and species conserva on in coastal zones and marine areas a) Improved management of ecosystems of coral reefs. mangroves. sea grass. Forest ﬁre control a) Reduce the number of hot spots b) Reduce the burned area c) Improving human resource capacity in controlling forest ﬁres 6. Environmental services and ecotourism development 7. IBSAP iden ﬁed a number of needs. ac ons. Conserving biodiversity is one of the priori es in natural resources management as contained in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). Inves ga on and security protec on forest a) Reduce forest crime b) Finaliza on of cases of crime in conserva on areas 4. b) Iden ﬁca on and mapping of marine conserva on areas and protected species Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 121 . namely: 1.
Urban and all Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources in Indonesia (1993-2009) 80 Urban+Rural: 59.4). Access to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37.5 51.2 Notes: Data does not include Timor Timur. 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.0 41.7 31. Susenas.7 42. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Current Status The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and sanita on has con nuously increased. Therefore. Figure 7.7 50. Access to improved sources of drinking water tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas.4 40.7 49.8 48.9 40. To achieve the MDG target by 2015.71 percent and 51. TOTAL URBAN RURAL 122 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47.0 41.8 % TARGET MDG 35. The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reﬂects the slow rate of development of drinking water infrastructure.3 % 68.8 55.7 48.9 % 58.3 41.8 54. Propor ons of Rural.8 47.0 42.9 42.8 20 10 37.73 percent of households in 1993 to 47.7 43. many water supply facili es are not operated and maintained well.3 56.7 37.6 31. several years.5 30.7 53.5 30.3 42.3 30 35.2 57.5 75.19 percent respec vely.5 48.2 37.6 47.2 Percentage 50 40 46.9 52.9 35.87 percent) and sanita on (62.71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.7 38.0 45.7 . In addi on. par cularly in urban areas where development has not matched the growth rate of popula on.3 47.8 60 65.41 percent) in 2015. both in rural and urban areas.6 54. by 2015. However. priority should be given to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies.5 42.6 51.0 43. the number of households who have sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47. greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets for access to improved drinking water (68.0 50.4.6 34. DRINKING WATER Improved drinking water is deﬁned as water from a protected water source located more than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina on.1 70 53.6 54.7 48.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7C: Halve.3 46.
As shown in Figure 7.6 31. Banten.99 60.3 18.2 49.Signiﬁcant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.51 40. The propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than doubled.8 62. and comfortable and that can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces.9 25.02 55.81 percent in 1993 to 51.92 43.1 64.29 40.45 46. urban and total rural and urban. from 24. progress has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic development. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 7.97 54. 100 90 66.6 53.50 55.5 MDGs TARGET 80 57.7 22.13 51.62 47. Percentages of Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources by Urban and Rural Popula ons by Province (2009) 27. Susenas 1993 – 2009.96 45.49 44.85 44.81 35.12 59.3 35.7 56.5.7 34.6 60 51.7 59.1 50 27.3 17.70 55.0 35. Bali and Southeast Sulawesi.19 51.84 36.9 40 32. 1993-2009 51.2 Note: Data does not include Timor Timur Source: BPS.0 30 21.6 10 0 17.6).7 69.38 Percentage Banten Aceh Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Papua Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Kepulauan Riau Lampung Jawa Barat Riau Sulawesi Barat Maluku Utara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Gorontalo Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Barat INDONESIA Papua Barat Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Maluku Jawa Timur Kalimantan Timur Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Bali DI Yogyakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL Source: BPS.04 51.71 58.1 51.4 34.9 57. Aceh.60 33. Figure 7.53 50.4 45.5 24.89 37.30 59.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.3 56.8 20.2 27.2 48.6 32.7 76.0 20.4 12.1 14.71 48. However.08 48.6 35. URBAN RURAL TOTAL Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 123 .6 38.6 56.0 44. Susenas 2009. and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources. SANITATION Improved sanita on is deﬁned as facili es that are safe.36 44.44 36.6 28.4 55.5 20 17.2 15.02 34.2 70 53.74 40.6.96 42. the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta.6 12.6 The propor on of households with access to adequate sanita on in rural.5 28. hygienic.7 54.1 9.2 11.5.47 30.75 44.
92 52.16 41. Figure 7.78 45.17 52. Na onwide. Susenas 2009.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on. 2. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised. especially in urban areas where the popula on growth rate is higher than the na onal popula on growth rate. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and sanita on. Challenges The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include the following: 1.35 45.93 41. and this gap varies among provinces. There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on.37 20 .18 43. for example.03 43.7.58 58.75 54.51 percent of urban popula ons have access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33.06 57.43 38. Propor ons of Households with Access to Improved Sanita on Facili es by Rural/ urban Areas by Province (2009) 100 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 14. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over the years.48 42. Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to achieve the MDG target in 2015.84 45.12 40.69 39.98 21.21 39. 69. there are 21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average.78 32.19 51.66 38. with the largest gap found in the provinces of Kepulauan Riau.95 10 - Source: BPS.91 51.65 28.66 63. making it diﬃcult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate.48 58.59 75.83 40. Act No.07 51.35 75.63 34.96 percent in rural areas.02 42.82 60. In terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas. Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved 124 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur Papua Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Bengkulu Lampung Maluku Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Aceh Maluku Utara Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Timur INDONESIA Sumatera Utara Jawa Barat Riau Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Selatan Kalimantan Timur Banten Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara DI Yogyakarta Bali DKI Jakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL 80.
4. including both Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional). some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas. The low ﬁnancial performance of the municipal water Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 125 . especially at the level of program implementa on. 6. The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector is limited. and this increases the likelihood of contamina on of water sources. Planning and budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a priority of local governments. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low. This results from a tendency to rely on central government funding. although the provision and management of improved drinking water and sanita on has become the responsibility of the local governments. is not in balance with the rate of urban popula on growth.51 percent of the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariﬀ below the cost of water produc on.drinking water and sanita on. centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems have been less than adequate. especially in urban areas. Unsanitary behavior is reﬂected in the high incidence of diarrhea. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for development of drinking water and sanita on. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water. 5. There are s ll many households that rely on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality.000 inhabitants (MOH. which reached 411 per 1. Similarly. An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly owned water companies are func oning properly. The level of investment in the provision of piped water connec ons.coli bacteria. At the same me there are many on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment in infrastructure. 2010). especially in urban areas. Determina on and se ng of tariﬀs does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery). Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate. some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E. storage. and this is reﬂected in the low budget alloca ons of regional governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking water and sanita on. especially in urban areas with development of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita on. processing. and disposal of fecal waste. 8. and about 55. 3. investments in the provision of water service connec ons. Hand washing with soap is s ll not common. Diarrhea Morbidity Survey. and although almost all households boil water for drinking. Lack of balance between popula on growth. 7. and there is a need for more intensive coordina on. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water. both from the government and the private sector.
the future policy of investment is aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water and sanita on are as follows: 1. especially in urban areas. remote. 126 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . To increase access of households to improved sanita on. the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK) for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns. and deregula on of the laws. the private sector.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve ﬁnancing. Alloca on of funding from Central Government will give priority to the poor. At the same me. development and improvement of transmission and distribu on networks. coastal and rural areas. through the addi on. the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of all par es. and the community. maintenance. Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support provision of improved drinking water and sanita on. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement of water systems. 2. In rural areas. either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale. 3. The central government will also encourage and facilitate the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance and ﬁnancing. To increase the pace in the provision of sanita on services. including the government. Investment will be focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale basis (oﬀ-site). donors. and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014. Eﬀorts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved drinking water and sanita on. revision. In addi on. the development of drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Health. DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS). Funding from the private sector.
The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on. between government and society. and among government. through communica on. and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems. and (d) op mizing the u liza on of ﬁnancial resources. through the control of ground water use by domes c and industrial users. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior. through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM) based on community based ini a ves. 6. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and basic sanita on that is focused on services for urban popula ons. 7. between government and the private sector. (b) increasing coopera on among government agencies. especially the poor. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on systems. Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private sector and the community through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of business plans. 8. aligned with the RIS-SPAM. (c) improving the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the government. prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK). 5. informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water and sanita on facili es in schools as part of eﬀorts to improve the hygienic behavior of students and communi es. as well as the applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water reclama on. the private sector and the public. especially regarding the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has been deﬁned in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan. Ensuring the availability of drinking water. asset management and human resource capacity building.4. as presented in the following table: Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 127 . 9. both for ins tu ons and communi es. protec on of ground and surface water from sources of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services. implementa on of corpora za on.
500 5.000 16. Priori es Outputs Percentage of households with access to improved drinking water source Percentage of drinking water quality that meets the requirements 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 62 62. Annual Implementa on Targets to Improve Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources and Basic Sanita on 2010-2014.472 villages 9 districts/ ci es 244 areas 30 areas and 1.500 11.000 218 area 31 areas and 1.3.3/2010 Improve the development of sanita on infrastructure 30 districts/ ci es 35 districts/ ci es 40 districts/ ci es 50 55 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es 128 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 63 63.5 67 85 90 95 100 100 Improving surveillance and monitoring of environmental quality Percentage of popula on that have access to basic sanita on 64 67 69 72 75 Number of villages where Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) will be implemented Number of urban areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of rural areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of areas with improved infrastructure developed for syistem oﬀ-site sewerage Number of areas with infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site sewerage systems 2.165 villages 11 districts/ ci es Improve the development of drinkig water supply systems 260 areas 30 areas and 500 villages 315 areas 30 areas and 1.000 villages 360 areas 32 areas and 700 villages 11 districts/ ci es 11 11 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan ( RPJMN 20102014) and Inpres no.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Table 7.000 20.
Source: BPS. Susenas. Signiﬁcant disparites are found among provinces in the propor on of the urban popula ons categorized as slum households. As seen in Figure 7. several ini a ves to empower those who live in urban slums are being implemented.85 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). In addi on.63 percentage points from 1993. the Urban Poverty Project (UPP). and the Neighborhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Program (NUSSP).10 percent (DI Yogyakarta) while the highest propor on is 28.8). including the Na onal Community Empowerment Program (PNPM Mandiri) with technical support from various na onal ministries.9. The Government of Indonesia has implemented many programs to improve the lives of slum dwellers. the Community-Based Ini a ves for Housing and Local Development (CoBILD). by 8. urban renewal. the provinces where with the highest percentage of slum households are found are Nusa Tenggara Timur. urban slums in Indonesia has declined The Propor on of Urban Households Living in Slums. Papua and DKI Jakarta.8. Jawa Tengah and Kalimantan Barat. including: the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP).Target 7D: By 2020.12 percent of urban households are s ll found to be living in slums (see Figure 7. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Current Status The propor on of households living in Figure 7. The provinces with the lowest propor ons of slum households are DI Yogyakarta. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 129 . but 12. The lowest propor on of slum households for a province is 5. 1993 and 2009 Many ini a ves have been carried out to improve the welfare of urban households.
the major challenges in reducing the propor on of urban slum households in Indonesia are as follows: 1. Several steps have been taken to improve the provision of decent and aﬀordable housing for low-income communi es through development of public housing for rent.1 21.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Figure 7.5 8. 130 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 28. integrated with real estate development to realize ci es without slums. as well as facilita ng the provision of land.3 13. Other priori es are to improve the quality of residen al environments through the provision of infrastructure.9 12.4 24. Addi onal ini a ves will increase access of low income households to decent and aﬀordable housing through a liquidity facility. 3. and adequate public u li es. 2. Limited provision of basic facili es for urban se lements.5 13. Limited access of low-income households to land for housing in urban areas.1 25.6 9. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies is to fulﬁll the needs of the urban poor for adequate. Limited capacity of the government and the private sector to build aﬀordable houses.0 14.5 8.7 10. Susenas.1 14. Limited access to housing ﬁnance.1 12.8 19. Challenges Aside from the regional dispari es. and microcredit for housing and na onal housing savings.9.8 10.9 .6 15.6 8. Previous programs have produced less than op mal results in improving the lives of slum dwellers. and 5.1 5.7 9.4 DI Yogyakarta Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Maluku Utara Jambi Sumatera Utara Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Timur Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Aceh Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Lampung INDONESIA Gorontalo Bali Kalimantan Tengah Bengkulu Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Kepulauan Riau Jawa Barat Banten Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sulawesi Barat Papua Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat DKI Jakarta Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: BPS.9 8.0 25.6 5.5 10. safe and aﬀordable housing. facilita on of development of new housing and improvement in the quality of selfhelp housing and the provision of infrastructure.7 7.3 13.0 18.3 14.0 9. facili es and u li es for self-help housing.7 17.1 14. 2009 Percentage 35 5. 4.7 7. basic facili es.6 7. The Propor on of Urban Slum Households by Province.
Table 7.500 7.250 16.250 7. 2013 30 30 5. the Ministry of Housing. facili es and u li es Number of mul -story low rent housing units built (Rusunawa) 100 150 175 180 95 95 3.4.500 12.960 104 2011 30 30 7. Eﬀorts to achieve these targets will be implemented by the Ministry of Public Works.041 50 7. as shown in Table 7. district / city governments and urban communi es. Control and Opera on in the Development of Se lements Urban slum areas to be improved Units of apartment dwellings built up with suppor ng infrastructure Se lement infrastructure improved in low income residen al areas Facilita on and promo on of environmental planning for slum areas Facilita on and promo on of development of self-help housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp improvement of housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp infrastructure Number of slum areas facilitated 50 Number of self-help new housing construc on ini a ves Number of self-help improvement of exis ng housing ini a ves Number of ini a ves to facilitate and s mulate self-help improvement of infrastructure.500 6.500 16.500 12.041 50 2012 30 30 7. provincial governments.200 15 2014 22 22 3.The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set priori es and targets to reduce the number of households living in urban slums in order to accelerate the achievement of this MDG.500 6.2.250 7.250 7. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 131 . Note: *) Simpliﬁed Rental Housing Development es mated 30 percent for low-income communi es.500 7.500 12.250 Development of mul -story low rent housing units* 100 100 180 0 0 Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. Guidance.500 16.250 6.458 21 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums Targets Priori es Indicators 2010 Prepara on of ac on plans on urban slums at district/ municipality level Regula ons.
132 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
2009 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .G-20 Summit in Pi sburgh. September 24-25.
Indonesia also par cipates with the interna onal community in many interna onal and regional forums including the Group of Twenty (G-20) and the Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum (APEC) to promote collabora on on issues related to economic development and trade between emerging economies and developed economies. To support u liza on of foreign loans. UK. The goal of the government is to seek quality investments that create jobs and reduce social inequality. Liberia and Senegal) have established a Network of Global Leaders for Global Campaign on Health MDGs (NGL 45) with the sole purpose of garnering interna onal support on one of the most neglected and cri cal social MDGs. Indonesia is commi ed to achieving produc ve partnerships with the private sector while maintaining a conducive investment climate to increase domes c and foreign private investment. the Interna onal Monetary Fund (IMF). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 135 . Chile. including the United Na ons. Netherlands. Indonesia works to achieve a more equitable and dynamic pa ern of global partnerships as a member of mul lateral ins tu ons. the Government of Indonesia will con nue to rely on foreign grants and loans. Indonesia. the Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons (ASEAN). Public – private partnerships are encouraged to promote economic growth and improve provision of public services. the government works to strengthen interna onal partnerships and to improve the eﬀec veness and eﬃciency in u liza on of foreign grants and loans to support na onal development. investment and transfer of technology to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. including south-south and triangular coopera on. Australia. the World Trade Organiza on (WTO). Tanzania. Mozambique. Indonesia has built a wide network of strong bilateral partnerships to promote equitable development and trade.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Indonesia is ac vely engaged with the interna onal community in working to improve governance of interna onal trade. the government will proceed with cau on and borrow from interna onal sources that provide the most favourable terms and condi ons while protec ng Indonesia’s interna onal posi on. In ﬁnancing na onal development. To best accomplish this approach. child and maternal mortality. the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Brazil. although funding from interna onal sources is expected to decline as a propor on of the na onal budget. The United Na ons Conference on Trade and Development recently ranked Indonesia as one of the top ten most a rac ve des na ons for foreign direct investment globally. along with other Sherpa’s from ten countries (Norway.
the NAMA 11.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open. The Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) was signed on 20 August 2007 as the ﬁrst Indonesian bilateral trade agreement. trade. Indonesia has also entered into bilateral agreements for free trade with several other countries. Indonesia has also par cipated in various interna onal nego a ng forums related to interna onal trade including: APEC. The objec ve of this agreement is to strengthen bilateral economic rela ons. In addi on. ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the ASEANEuropean Union FTA. rule-based. 136 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and movement of individuals 1 ACFTA creates the world’s largest free-trade area in terms of the popula on of the na ons which are signatories to the agreement (1. Besides regional trade agreements. and W52 Sponsors. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)1 and the ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement (AKFTA) are among the free trade agreements which have been entered into force. especially the rural poor.6 trillion) a er the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area. the CAIRNS Group. the G-33. ASEAN is now in the process of nego a ng other ASEAN FTA such as: the ASEAN-India FTA. ASEAN has also reached out to enter into free trade agreements with other Asian na ons as well as na ons outside of Asia. predictable. At the same me Indonesia supports a Special Safeguard Mechanism to reduce the short term nega ve impacts of trade liberaliza on on those involved in the agricultural sector. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Current Status Star ng in the 1950s Indonesia par cipated in global discussions on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs (GATT) to improve the global trading system and was a founding member of the World Trade Organiza on (WTO) in January 1995. ASEAN is also moving toward the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2015 and the goal of regional economic integra on. covering wide-ranging coopera on in investment. The agreement is expected to reduce threats of rising protec onism and to provide a s mulus to global recovery. and it went into eﬀect on 1 July 2008. Indonesia is one of the founding member states of ASEAN which established the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992.9 billion) and the third largest in terms of GDP (USD 6. Indonesia has par cipated in the Doha Development Round and remains commi ed to reaching an agreement to maintain conﬁdence in the mul lateral trading system.
The LDR for commercial banks has increased steadily from a level of 45.9% 39. The deposits of rural banks also increased from Rp 8. 100% Percentage (level of economic openness) 600 Figure 8. The recent data for the indicator of economic openness reveals a long-term trend to greater openness in the management of the Indonesian economy. GDP Growth and the Ra o of Imports Plus Exports to GDP as the MDG Indicator for Economic Openness 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 400 Billion USD 300 37.8 percent in 2009. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 137 .0 percent in 2009. Trade has increased substan ally since 1980 and has led to growth of the na onal economy and the expansion of employment opportuni es. The Trends for Imports. Exports.3 percent in 2003 to 109. An improved regulatory framework for trade has yielded substan ve economic beneﬁts.Indonesia has been successful in developing greater openness in trading with the global community. 2009.8 percent in 2000 to a rate of 72.5% 200 100 - Level of Economic Openness IMPORTS EXPORTS GDP at Current Price (billion USD) Sources: BPS and the World Bank.868 billion in 2003 to Rp 28.1. The level of nonperforming loans (NPL) at commercial has been improved during the repor ng period while the NPL at rural banks is considered to have been maintained at a safe level. Comprehensive reforms in Indonesia’s banking sector have been ins tuted based on the diﬃcult lessons learned from the economic crisis of 1997/1998.001 billion in 2009 while the LDR for rural banks also increased signiﬁcantly from 101. including strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reduc on of bank vulnerabili es through higher capitaliza on and be er supervision. The indicator for banking for MDG 8 is the Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR) for commercial banks and rural banks.
2 64.2 72.2 107.0 49. • Competence and quality of logis cs services.2. • Ability to track and trace consignments. 2000 .7 64. and • Frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected me.4 120 101.5 109.8 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 45.7 77.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8.8 60 45.7 69. • Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure. The survey iden ﬁed the need to give special a en on to improve customs and especially quality and standards inspec ons agencies. logis cs and freight-forwarding services) and overall logis cs infrastructure.7 109. 138 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . • Ease of arranging compe vely priced shipments.1 53. LDR Rural Banking LDR Commercial Banking Challenges The fragility of the global recovery underlines the importance of s mulus packages and the need to maintain the certainty of open trade and a rule-based mul lateral trading system. especially mari me ports.8 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Bank Indonesia Economic Report 2009.2 2 World Bank. service sector performance (transport.9 111. 2010. Among the factors in determining the logis cal performance of a na on on trade are the following: • Eﬃciency of the customs clearance process and border procedures.0 Percentage 80 61. the challenge now is to conclude an agreement that will provide a strong founda on for global recovery and sustained growth. “Connec ng to Compete in Indonesia”.2009 140 119.3 100 108. The Logis cs Performance Index (LPI) survey highlighted the need for Indonesia to take further ac on to improve border management. A er eight years of nego a ons on the Doha Development Agreement. Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of Commercial and Rural Credit Banks.
BPR) has improved. predictable. Policies and Strategies Various steps will be taken to further develop an open. 5. par cularly of small and medium enterprises. chemical products. Secondly. Encourage exports of crea ve products and services. and high demand. the magnitude of the spread between lending and deposit interest rates is an cipated to be one cause of low investment lending in the banking industry. and a personal approach with a en on to local culture. 2. Increase non oil and gas exports of products that are high value-added. However. 3. Encourage eﬀorts of market diversiﬁca on to reduce export dependency on certain markets. promo on and export facilita on in Africa and Asia. The low composi on of investment credit cannot be separated from the structure of deposits in banks which are short-term funds with a maturity of one to three months so that there is the poten al for funding mismatches in the long term. natural resourcebased. Emphasize eﬀorts on expansion of market access. 7. foods. chemicals. Support u liza on of trade schemes and interna onal trade coopera on that are more beneﬁcial to na onal interests. footwear and leather products. rules-based. the performance of rural banks (Bank Perkreditan Rakyat . Strengthen trade ins tu ons and foreign trade ﬁnancing that can induce eﬀec veness of non-oil export development. development of Indonesian exports will be focused on agriculture and ﬁshery products. 4. Improve trade ac vi es in border regions which are func on as the front gates for economic and trade ac vi es with neighboring countries. 6. machinery. including the following: 1. beverages. tex les. The advantages of rural banks compared to commercial banks are the services they provide to SMEs and low income people who priori ze in macy through direct services (door to door).There is a need to control the intermedia on func on of the banking system. Therefore. mining. due to a lack of informa on about the businesses owned by their customers. nondiscriminatory trading system. electrical equipment. In terms of microﬁnance. there is a tendency for rural banks to focus on clients considered to be more bankable. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 139 .
Enhance eﬀorts to protect the consumer and investors. 3. small and medium enterprises. Strengthen the quality of management and opera onal services of all banking ins tu ons. improve the suppor ng infrastructure of ﬁnancial services ins tu ons. Accelerate strategic intermedia on and distribu on of public funds to increase access to ﬁnancial service ins tu ons (LJK) for low income groups through the following ini a ves: a. develop appropriate banking products and Islamic borrowing arrangements. The strategy to strenghten the performance and stability of the banking sector includes the following ini a ves: 1. c. 4. 140 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . diversiﬁca on of sources of development funding through non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons (LKBB). and d. Strengthen the regulatory framework and further improve supervision of commercial and rural banks. b. 2. stable and eﬃcient banking system to be er support achievement of the goals of na onal development.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The Government of Indonesia will also con ne to work to maintain a healthy. expand the scope of ﬁnancial services. especially ﬁnancial services to support micro.
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
In the decade following the economic crisis of 1997/98 the Government of Indonesia ins tuted a comprehensive set of reforms to strengthen the na on’s economic fundamentals, including a reduc on of interna onal debt and strengthening of the banking sector. These reforms have provided a strong founda on for the Government to implement policies to recover from the crisis and also to achieve growth with equity. Mul lateral and bilateral coopera on has assisted Indonesia to work towards achievement of the MDGs while a decade of sustained economic growth has enabled the Government to reduce dependency on interna onal borrowing to a sustainable level. The success of Indonesia’s economic reforms and improvements in the management of the na onal debt are reﬂected in the reduc on of the debt to GDP ra o which had declined from a peak of 89 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2009. While the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP has been reduced from 24.59 percent in 1996 to only 10.89 percent in 2009 (see Figure 8.3).
(% ) 120%
Debt Service Ra o
The Trend of Foreign Debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) During 1996-2009
6,000 5,000 4,000
Ra o of foreign debt to GDP
3,000 2,000 1,000 0
50.7% 47.3% 37.9% 24.6%
41.1% 39.4% 33.1% 34.1% 39.9% 41.9% 37.2% 40% 27.1% 24.8% 24.2% 21.9% 31.3% 29.0% 27.8% 19.2% 17.3% 22.4% 20% 16.8% 14.8% 14.7% 10.9%
1996 DSR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 GDP Foreign Loans 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Outstanding Debt Ra o of Debt to GDP Ra o of Foreign Debt to GDP
Source: Economic Report Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, 2008, Sta s cs of Foreign Debt, Ministry of Finance and Bank Indonesia, 2010, Ministry of Finance, 2009.
The ra o of debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services or the na on’s Debt Service Ra o (DSR) also declined during the same period, having reached a maximum in the crisis years of 60 percent. A level of 19.4 percent was recorded in 2007 and a level of
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
22 percent was recorded in 2009. Both these rates are about 50 percent of the MDG baseline ﬁgure of 51.0 percent in 1996 and reﬂect the success of the Government in applying improved prac ces of debt management as well as prudent ﬁscal policies. The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the Monterrey Consensus (2002) and the Paris Declara on on Aid Eﬀec veness (2005), and is commi ed to the principles of aid eﬀec veness. Indonesia was also an ac ve par cipant in the regional prepara ons for the Third High Level Forum on Aid Eﬀec veness (2008). In 2009, the Government and 26 key interna onal development partners3 signed the “Jakarta Commitment: Aid for Development Eﬀec veness - Indonesia’s Road Map to 2014”. The Jakarta Commitment supports Indonesia’s eﬀorts to maximize the eﬀec veness of its aid in suppor ng development and deﬁnes the policy direc on to achieve greater development eﬀec veness to 2014 and beyond. The roadmap for aid eﬀec veness sets out the strategic vision to which Indonesia, along with development partners, have commi ed. The agenda is based on the principles of the Paris Declara on and the Accra Agenda for Ac on. The program will work to: (i) increase the u lity of interna onal assistance in support of implementa on of the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan; (ii) increase na onal ownership of development assistance; (iii) encourage and assist development partners to follow regula ons and mechanisms established by the Government; (iv) support inclusion of development assistance in the na onal budget (APBN); and (v) encourage development partners to adopt “un ed” systems.
The main constraint facing Indonesia in addressing the challenges and achieving its planned development outcomes is to strengthen capacity to u lize all resources eﬀec vely. Maintaining the current debt por olio is one of the focuses while working to achieve cost eﬃcient and manageable risks within the dynamic of ﬁnancial markets. The Government has worked to increase eﬀec veness in use of interna onal grants and loans in providing support to achievement of na onal development objec ves, but there is s ll room to improve aid eﬀec veness. Various reviews of programs and projects funded by
Development partners signing the Jakarta Commitment include: the Asian Development Bank; the Government of Australia; the Government of Japan; the Government of the Netherlands; the Government of the Republic of Poland; the World Bank; the Austrian Embassy; l’Agence Française de Développement; the Canadian Interna onal Development Agency; the Department for Interna onal Development of the United Kingdom; the Delega on of the European Commission; the Embassy of Finland; the Embassy of France; the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany; the Embassy of Italy; Japan Interna onal Coopera on Agency; Korea Interna onal Coopera on Agency; the Royal Norwegian Embassy; the New Zealand Agency for Interna onal Development; the Embassy of Sweden; the United States Agency for Interna onal Development/Indonesia; the United Na ons System in Indonesia; the Islamic Development Bank; the Danish Interna onal Development Agency; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons and the donor community have found that common challenges exist in increasing the eﬀec veness of aid in Indonesia. These include the following: a. a low sense of ownership of loan and grant funded programs by those responsible for implementa on; b. procedures of the donors are not always fully aligned with those of the Government; c. programming of loans and grants are not always fully harmonized with Government planning and priori es; d. development programs are not always managed to achieve op mum results and the sense of mutual accountability is some mes less than required; and e. weaknesses exist in suppor ng management informa on systems as well as in the human resources assigned to manage informa on on development programs.
Policies and Strategies
Priori es of the Government in the management of loans and grants from mul lateral and bilateral ins tu ons as well as commercial credit ins tu ons for the coming years are as follows: 1. Foreign loans and grants will be used to support achievement of the na onal priori es, goals and objec ves in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) and in harmony with Indonesia’s commitment to achieve the MDGs; 2. Con nuous eﬀorts will be made to reduce the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP while con nuing to maintain a situa on of nega ve net transfers; 3. Further improvements will be made in the regula ons and laws rela ng to interna onal loans and grants; 4. Increased na onal ownership for programs funded by interna onal loans and grants will be promoted as will applica on of improved na onal procedures for management of interna onal funding; 5. Improvements will be made in the ins tu onal coordina on mechanisms, transparency and accountability at all stages, from planning and implementa on to monitoring and evalua on; and 6. Strengthening na onal capacity to manage programming and u liza on of development funding eﬀec vely will be priori zed. The Jakarta Commitment4 is based on the spirit of mutual respect, support and accountability and will be implemented to achieve greater beneﬁts in the achievement of Indonesia’s development objec ves, including the MDGs. It enjoins upon the Government and development partners to make available appropriate resources, knowledge and capacity to
Jakarta Commitment, Aid for Development Eﬀec veness – Indonesia’s Roadmap to 2014 (January, 2009).
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
32 percent of Indonesian households owned personal computers in 2009. although the use of computers is common in businesses. Figure 8. Building More Eﬀec ve and Inclusive Partnerships for Development. The expansion in the use of personal computers has grown at a slower rate than cellular telephones due to the rela vely high cost of their purchase and the need for a minimum level of competency to u lize them. make available the benefits of new technologies.4 presents the rapid increase in the percentages of the popula on owning cellular telephones in recent years as compared to the rela ve decline in the use of ﬁxed line telephones (Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN).org/ 144 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The Government has established a Secretariat for Aid for Development Eﬀec veness (A4DES) to support implementa on of the Jakarta Commitment and to ensure that government ins tu ons have the capacity to take full ownership and to lead aid coordina on and management processes.a4des. the complete text is available at the website of the Secretariat for Aid Eﬀec veness in Jakarta: h p://www. The three main components of the Jakarta Commitment5 are as follows: • • • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development. Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector. to build capacity of users of ICT. Telecommunica ons in Indonesia have expanded rapidly in the period since the economic crisis. Ongoing ini a ves include those to improve infrastructure for ICT. and to create an enabling regulatory/policy environment to achieve the goals agreed at the World Summit on the Informa on Society.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development implement the Jakarta Commitment. and Delivering and Accoun ng for Development Results. Only 8. civil society 5 The following is a summary adapted from the Jakarta Commitment. especially information and communications Current Status The government is commited to expanding collabora on with the private sector to ensure that all Indonesians are able to beneﬁt from the opportuni es that Informa on Communica on Technologies (ICTs) oﬀer in building an inclusive Informa on Society.
5).4. wireless access and land lines. Most remote areas do not yet have access to modern ICT and the quality of access in many areas is basic. Investment in ICT industries has exceeded expecta ons. there is a need to build a more compe ve environment for the provision of ICT services as well as a more conducive environment for collabora on in all ICT industries. ICT communica ons play a strategic role in trade.51 percent of the na onal households. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 145 . so ware and device applica ons. equipment manufacturers and user solu ons. with the lowest rates of use occurring in the remote eastern provinces (see Figure 8. Awareness and capacity to use ICT eﬀec vely is developing rapidly including among SMEs. while capacity building is s ll required to increase the na onal e-literacy rate. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ministry of Communica ons and Informa on Technology. government and civil society. especially in eastern Indonesia. With the increased investments in ICT industries. By 2009 the number of internet users had risen to 11. As a result. Access to the internet has expanded rapidly since 1998 when it was es mated that only 512. The exis ng na onal infrastructure in support of telecommunica ons has been based on a system of satellites.000 Indonesians were able to u lize the internet. computers and the internet among regions. Infrastructure and internet use is expanding rapidly in the major urban centers.organiza ons. Figure 8. In a na on as large and diverse as Indonesia. government and in community-based organiza ons. Percentage of Popula on in Indonesia Owning FixedLine Telephones or Cellular Telephones During 2004-2009 Fixed Telephone Cellular Phone Challenges One of the primary challenges for the future is to close the gap in access to ICT communica ons by improving the telecommunica ons infrastructure to provide broadband access throughout Indonesia. but suppor ng infrastructure is far weaker in rural areas. 2010. including those providing services for users. there exist major dispari es in the use of telephones.
Computer Internet Policies and Strategies The government is commi ed to the promo on of private sector investment to achieve the objec ves of na onal development. Percentage of Households Owning Personal Computers and Having Access to the Internet by Province (2009) 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Sulawesi Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Maluku Utara Kalimantan Tengah Maluku Jambi Aceh Papua Barat Papua Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jawa Tengah Sumatera Selatan Kalimantan Selatan Gorontalo Jawa Timur Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara INDONESIA Bengkulu Jawa Barat Sumatera Barat Riau Kepulauan Riau Bali Banten Kalimantan Timur DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta Source: BPS. At the same me the government will con nue to cooperate with the private sector and the public in implemen ng four components of a comprehensive ICT blueprint for Indonesia: 1. 146 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Deployment. At present the popula ons of the larger urban centers of Indonesia have far greater access to ICT. Community Access Points (CAP). In order to create a more conducive environment for investors. 3G Implementa on. Susenas 2009. including achievement of the MDGs. The government will also expand direct collabora on with the private sector through public-private partnerships while suppor ng the development of special economic zones for specialized products. Transi on to Digital Television.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. but government policy is to make informa on available to communi es in all areas. It is the government’s objec ve to transform Indonesia into an informa on-based society driven by the free ﬂow of informa on. Improvement of ICT Infrastructure: The Palapa Ring Program. including remote and isolated regions.5. Corporate social responsibility will also be encouraged to contribute to the achievement of community objec ves. the government will work to strengthen the regulatory framework for investors and harmonize the regula ons of na onal and regional government on investment.
4.2. e-procurement and e-licensing services by the end of 2014. to achieve a more eﬃcient alloca on of resources and public goods. 4. prepara on of government regula ons on the dessemina on of informa on and electronic transac ons (RPP PITE). The government is preparing an Electronic System at the central and regional levels of government to support a na onal system of e-government. businesses and communi es. accountability and eﬃciency at all levels of government. in order to enhance transparency. ICT Industry Development which will include: implementa on of the Electronic Informa on and Transac ons Law.Jardiknas. adapted to the needs of ci zens and business. 3. It is planned that: • E-services and e-procurement will be applied by all government agencies. improving eﬃciency and strengthening rela ons with ci zens. It is expected that online public services will be available for e-ci zen. • Support interna onal coopera on ini a ves in the ﬁeld of e-government.net) has been established to integrate ICT in learning. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 147 . • Building capacity for ICT will be accomplished through a public-private partnership model to be developed in such a way that all the par es involved will beneﬁt. • Implement e-government strategies focusing on applica ons aimed at innova ng and promo ng transparency in public administra ons and democra c processes. • The applica on of e-budge ng by government agencies will increase the transparency and eﬃciency of government planning and budge ng. • Develop na onal e-government ini a ves and services. at all levels. The development of human resources for ICT will be focused on the target groups within government. and • The government will formulate a dra Na onal e-Government Master Plan in 2010 and each government ins tu on will be required to prepare a their own e-Government Master Plan. improvement of the ICT Convergence Law. E-Educa on under the Ministry of Na onal Educa on: • The na onal educa on network (www. • At the end of the current Na onal Medium Term Development Plan it is expected that the score of the na onal system of e-government will have reached 3. and crea on of an investment climate to promote private sector investment in ICT. ICT will be used as an instrument to re-engineer the provision of public services to all Indonesians. E-Government: Various decrees and regula ons of the government have been issued to support adop on of innova ve prac ces of e-government through public-private partnerships and coopera on between central and regional governments and private sector service providers. and to make use of ICT in research and development of educa on. to improve the management of educa on. educa onal ins tu ons.