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Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
This Roadmap includes details concerning the present situa on. 2010. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). at the General Assembly of the United Na ons held in New York in September 2000. Based on the na onal development strategy that is pro-growth. Heads of State and representa ves from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declara on to conﬁrm the global concern for the welfare of the people of the world. In addi on. To that end. as well as na onal development policies and strategies. and pro-environment. Each goal has been translated into one or more targets with measurable indicators. from planning and budge ng to implementa on. Economic growth and the strengthening of democracy and social ins tu ons during the past ten years have supported the achievement of the MDGs. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in all phases of development. This approach has been outlined in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025. the propor on of the popula on living on less than USD 1 per day has been reduced from 20. the Government of Indonesia has formulated the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs. For example. civil society organiza ons and the private sector have made a vital contribu on towards accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs. strategies. produc ve partnerships between the Government. Annual Work Plans and budget documents.6 percent in 1990 to 5. In Indonesia and other developing countries. place people as the main focus of development and ar culate a set of interrelated goals as the agenda for development and global partnership. The objec ves of the Declara on. in terms of poverty reduc on. is a very important moment for Indonesia to again make a commitment to the global declara on on the MDGs. Various approaches that need to be implemented to accelerate the achievement of the MDG targets are also iden ﬁed in this Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia iii .Foreword Ten years ago. challenges faced. alloca ons of public funding at the central and regional levels have been increased annually to support the achievement of the MDG targets. pro-poor.9 percent in 2008. including the reduc on of maternal mortality and increasing the ra o of forest cover so that those targets can be achieved by 2015. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans. Indonesia will work harder to con nue to improve the welfare and quality of life of the people of Indonesia and to achieve the MDG targets on me. 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. This year. and we are conﬁdent that other MDG targets will be realized by 2015. and development programs. pro-jobs. Indonesia has already been successful in achieving several MDG targets. A er the economic crisis in 1997/1998 Indonesia implemented a series of reforms in various ﬁelds which provided a strong founda on for the Indonesian people to return to a period of high and sustainable economic growth. the MDGs are used as a reference in formula ng policies. For several other MDG targets signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. Special a en on will be given to several MDG targets.
Armida S. The informa on presented in this publica on is expected to contribute to a be er understanding concerning the challenges faced and the steps that must be taken to achieve all the MDG targets in Indonesia. and the private sector to par cipate produc vely in a community-based. MA Minister for Na onal Development Planning/ Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) iv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . we thank and express gra tude to all those who have contributed to the prepara on of this Roadmap. Success in achieving the MDGs is highly dependent upon good governance. Akhirul kalam. the Government of Indonesia con nues to build an environment that allows all components of society. Alisjahbana. and implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieve an inclusive pa ern of growth while improving public services and empowering communi es in all regions. grass-roots movement to beneﬁt all Indonesians. Prof.Roadmap. Dr. We hope that what we have produced will be useful for the na on. SE. At the same me. produc ve partnerships among all components of society. including civil society organiza ons.
Ir. Rahma Iryan . Ir.Sc. Imam Subek . Prouty. Ir. SE. and to all others who contributed to the prepara on of this document but that cannot be men oned individually. Wendy Hartanto.). ME. SH. MSc. SKM. MSc. Tu Riya . Rahmana Yahya Hidayat. Ec. Dra. Tommy Hermawan. MCP. DR. as the Special Envoy of the President for the MDGs. Wet Hernowo. Ir. Ir. and Dr. Ir. MPIA. Ir.Lic (Econ. Mahatmi Saronto Parwitasari. especially to Alan S. Sanjoyo. ST. MSc. Dra. Dr. Ph. Dr. MA. Sederlof. SE. Endah Murniningtyas. Drs. Dr. MT. Erwin Dimas. MSc. Budi Hidayat. Prof. Wynandin Imawan. Nugroho Tri Utomo. MA. MSc. Randy R. Tauﬁk Hanaﬁ MUP. MA. Ir. Wahyuningsih Daraja . Dr. MIA.. ST.D. Ir. Msi. Ir. Ahmad Tauﬁk. MPM. MM. MARS. Benny Azwir. PhD. Dr. MPH. Dr. Dr. Fithriyah. Maliki.. Edi Eﬀendi Tedjakusuma. Dr. Ph. for their support in the prepara on of this Roadmap. Hjalte S. MSc. MAP. informa on and prepara on of the manuscript. MS.D. M. Emmy Soeparmijatun. MA. Arum Atmawikarta. • Our thanks are also extended to our development partners from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Agency for Interna onal Development (AusAid). Sularsono. MSIE. Sri Yan . MA. S. Ec. To all members of the Prepara on Team we extend our gra tude and thanks for their hard work and dedica on which have contributed to the comple on of the Roadmap. MEM. Nina Sardjunani. SE. MSIE. Dr. Dr. Siliwan . Dr. Yosi Tresna Diani. MPM. Ir. MIDS. and Sap a Novadiana. Ir. Nila Moeloek. Apprecia on and thanks are speciﬁcally extended to: • • Prof. M. ST. Dr. Hygiawa Nur Rahayu. SP. Hadiat. MSc. MPA. Arif Haryana. Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo. Mohammad Sjuhdi Rasjid. Kom. Rr. Rooswan Soeharno. Mon y Girianna. ST. DEA. Dr. MPA. ST. Tri Goddess Virgiyan . Adi Wismana Suryabrata. Ph. SH. Rd. Drs. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia v . MPM. MPS. MA. Wrihatnolo. MSc. Ir. H. M. Woro Srihastu Sulistyaningrum. Ir. Ir.Acknowledgement The Na onal Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Indonesia from 2010 to 2015 has been prepared by a Team consis ng of a Steering Commi ee and a Technical Team / Working Group responsible to the Minister of Na onal Development Planning / Head of BAPPENAS.Eng. Happy Hardjo. MA who have contributed in providing data. ST. The membership of the Team is presented in Appendix 4 of the Roadmap. MA who have coordinated the prepara on while also maintaining quality assurance for the substance of this Roadmap. MSc. MA and Dra. who has guided the formula on process of this document. MPH. MADM.A. Ir. dr. MRPL Hamzah Riza. MSc. Hidayat Syarief. S. Subandi. Ir. Dadang Rizki Ratman.
Armida S. August 2010 Minister for the Na onal Development Planning / Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) Prof. MA vi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .May the Roadmap be used by all interested par es both within government and the concerned stakeholders in eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Alisjahbana. SE. Jakarta. Dr.
...................00 (PPP) a day ................ including women and young people ............................................................................................................. SUMMARY BY GOAL ...................... boys and girls alike......................... INTRODUCTION................... LIST OF MAPS ............. between 1990 and 2015................................................................... iii v vii ix xi xi xiii 1 9 15 23 25 39 43 49 51 59 61 69 71 78 79 79 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia vii ......................................... OVERVIEW OF STATUS OF MDG TARGETS ......... Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on........................................ GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH ..................................................... Target 5B: Achieve..... children everywhere............................................................................. the under-ﬁve mortality rate ... GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION ............. GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER .................................................................... and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015.. Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters............................................................................................ Target 1C: Halve................................................ GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATE ...................................... by 2015................................................... will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ................. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...... TABLE OF CONTENTS .......... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................ the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1... LIST OF TABLES ........................................ the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger ........... by 2015.................................. preferably by 2005........................................................................... Target 1A: Halve.............. universal access to reproduc ve health.........................................................................Table of Contents FOREWORD .. Target 2A: Ensure that............................................ between 1990 and 2015............. GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN ...................... Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all............................................................................................. between 1990 and 2015.................................................. Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds........................................................................................ LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................. between 1990 and 2015............... the Maternal Mortality Ra o ..................
............... make available the beneﬁts of new technologies................ achieving................ 122 Target 7D: By 2020............ by 2010............................. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES ................. 141 Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector......... universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it ... the propor on of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on ... by 2015........ especially informa on and communica ons ... 144 viii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .... 101 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ....... rule-based.................................... 113 Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss...... predictable. a signiﬁcant reduc on in the rate of loss ........ 129 GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT ................... 120 Target 7C: Halve.................................................. non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems ....................... Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS ........... 133 Target 8A: Develop further an open.................................................................... 136 Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term..... 111 Target 7A: Integra ng the principles of sustainable development in na onal policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources .............................. 91 93 93 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases ..... Target 6B: Achieve...................................GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS............ to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers ........................................................ by 2010......................................................................................................................
...............000 live births .............10..................................2. 2010 ..... by provinces ..... Net Enrolment Rate for primary school including Madrasah by province........................... industry and the service sector ... Figure 1.......... Figure 1...........9............ Figure 3................ Percentage of births assisted by skilled provider.......... Na onal trend Infant and Child Mortality per 1............. Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia............2......... Figure 5.... 2009 ........ by province 2007 .....List of Figures Figure 1........... Figure 1........... Figure 1. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age by province (2007) ...... Figure 1..................... Figure 2................... Figure 2................................................................... Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os for primary and junior secondary educa on levels (including Madrasah) ................... Average monthly wages (Rp ‘000) of male and female workers in non-agricultural sectors .......1................... The percentages of the popula on below the na onal poverty line by major geographical region of Indonesia (2010) .................................... 2009 ................................5......................................1..................................................................12........................ Figure 1..........3.... The growth rate of labor produc vity (in percentages) for the agriculture....................................................... 25 26 27 27 28 29 40 41 43 44 45 46 52 52 62 63 72 73 80 80 Figure 1....4.......................... Figure 4....... Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ix ..1........... The propor on of vulnerable workers to total workers...... Figure 5.......... 2002 to 2010........... Figure 1...................... 1990-2009 ....2........ Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) senior secondary schools by province.. Trends in the average calorie consump on for rural and urban households (2002-2009) .................. 2002-2007 ..........1......................8........................................... 2009 ... Figure 1........ Progress in reducing extreme poverty (USD1.................................. Propor on of one-year-old children immunized against measles................ Trend in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age (1989-2007) using the WHO 2005 standard and the MDG Target for this indicator in 2015.................................................................................13......6.... Figure 4.................................7.................00/capita/day) as compared to the MDG target ... Employment to Popula on Ra o for urban and rural areas and for the na onal level .................. Figure 1...............................2.... The na onal trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index. Long-term trends in poverty reduc on in Indonesia measured using the indicator for Na onal Poverty Line and the target for 2015 ...................1..................... Na onal trends and projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025...................................2..................................... The distribu on of Indonesia’s poor by urban and rural se ng (1990-2010) .................. Figure 1.....11.............................. Figure 3........................ Trend in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score of food consump on for rural and urban households.... Figure 1.....................
........... 123 Proporsi households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural........... Figure 5......1........2008 ......4.... 129 The propor on of urban slum households by province.................. by province............................ Figure 7................................................... Figure 7......... 95 Percentage of unmarried women and men age 15-24 who have ever had sex..2.............4.............. year 2009 .................. 1989-2009............................................. 2009 ......... Figure 8.............. 106 The percentage of forest cover of the total land area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 ......... Figure 6.....9.. 138 The trend of foreign debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) during 1996-2009............7..... Figure 8........................ 114 Propor on of households with access to propoer (improved) drinkingwater........1.................................. Figure 7....................... exports.................................3.................. Indonesia 2007 .2.......... Figure 6........... 97 Coverage of ART interven ons in Indonesia.............. 2009 .......................2...4....... Figure 7..1..... according to background characteris c..............3........ Figure 6............. 2006–2009 ........................... GDP growth and the ra o of imports plus exports to GDP as the MDG indicator for economic openness .... 96 Propor on of men and woemn aged 15-24 with correct of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS...5............ 97 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria................6............. who use condom at last sex........ Figure 6. 1993 and 2009 ................ in 1993-2009 ..................... Indonesia 1990-2009 ....... the year 1993-2009 . urban and total rural and urban.....9............ Figure 7..8..... Figure 7........................... Figure 6.... Figure 6............ 2009..............000 popula on in Indonesia............ 141 Percentage of popula on in Indonesia owning ﬁxed-line telephones or cellular telephones during 2004-2009 .... Indonesia 1991-2007 ..... 94 Distribu on of HIV Infec ons......... 137 Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of commercial and rural credit banks.......................5............ Figure 8....... 122 The propor on of households that have access to improved drinking water in urban and rural and total according to the provinces......... 82 AIDS cases per 100........... in Indonesia 1991.. Figure 7......... 2009 ....6.......... Figure 7. Figure 8........................... 81 Unmet needs..........Figure 5.....3............... 95 Cumula ve percentage on AIDS cases by age group........5...... by province.... 146 x Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .......... 114 Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 . 2000 ..................4..... Figure 8...................... Figure 7...................... 145 Percentage of households owning personal computers and having access to the internet by province (2009) ........... urban and rural and urban total...... Figure 6....... First and fourth antenatal visits. 1993-2009................. by popula on group....................... Figure 6....... 123 The propor on of households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural..............................7.. 2007.......... 130 The trends for imports....... by back ground characteris c..3....2009......................................................... 113 Total energy use of various types for the years 1990-2008 (equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in millions) .........8...................... 124 The propor on of urban households living in slums.............. 94 Number of AIDS cases in Indonesia....... 101 The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 ............... Figure 6......
.... 2010-2014........ 116 Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources ......... 88 Priori es.............. 44 Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) .......... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services........... 2010-2014........... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services....... 87 Priori es................................2. Table 6............ Table 7........................................2.. Table 3...... 2010-2014 .. 109 Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management ............................. Table 5.. 2010-2014 ............ Table 7. Map 3.............1....................................2... Table 6.....1.. Table 7.................................3....... 2010-2014 .. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs............. Outputs............................................................1...... 2010-2014.. The average wages of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers by province in August 2009 ............ 76 Priori es..................... Table 5............. 32 Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007).................................. 119 Priori es..... and Labor.......................... Outputs and Indicators 2010-2014 ......... 57 Priority............... 105 Priori es.......... 2010-2014 .... 131 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xi .... Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB.......................... Table 2.... 54 Program Priori es. 28 64 List of Tables Table 1........4....List of Maps Map 1........ Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.............1.............. Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.................................................................. 2010 ... Table 7............................... Table 6............. and Targets for Improvment of the Access to Drinking Water and Improved Sanita on........1..... Outputs.................3.............................1. 67 Priori es......... Table 1... Table 1........... Outputs.1.. Outputs......2............... 2010—2014 .. Table 4.............................. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty ... 48 Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* ......1... 128 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums ....................... Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program...............................3..................................................... 100 Priori es....................................1..............2.. Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia... Poli cs.............................. Table 2.
Communica on and Social Mobiliza on Artemisinin-based combina on therapy Asian Development Bank Annual Development Plan ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Free Trade Area Acquired Immuno-defeciency Syndrome The ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement Antenatal Care The Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum Areal Penggunaan Lain (areas for other uses) An retroviral Therapy The Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons Kementerian Negara Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (The Na onal Development Planning Agency) Behavioral Change Communica on Bacillus Calme e-Guérin Basic Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Assistance Program) Barrels of Oil Equivalent Biaya Operasional Kesehatan (subsidy for opera onal cost for health facili es) Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (School Opera onal Assistance) Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Supreme Audit Authority) Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (Local Environmental Management Agency) Badan Pusat Sta s k (Central Bureau of Sta s cs) Beasiswa Miskin (Scholarship for Poor Children) Board of Na onal Educa on Standards Broadband Wireless Access Coali on of Agricultural Expor ng Na ons Lobbying for Agricultural Trade Liberaliza on Compulsory Basic Educa on Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Development Mechanism Case Detec on Rate Commi ee of Experts on the Applica on of Conven ons and Recommenda ons Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care xii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .List of Abbreviations ACFTA ACSM ACT ADB ADP AEC AFTA AIDS AKFTA ANC APEC APL ART ASEAN BAPPENAS BCC BCG BEONC BLT BOE BOK BOS BPK BPLHD BPS BSM BSNP BWA CAIRNS CBE CCS CDM CDR CEACR CEONC The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement Advocacy.
CEPT CFCs CH4 CITES CLMV CLTS CO2 CPR CSO DAK Desa Siaga DOTS DPD DPR DPRD DPT 3 DRA DSR DSS ECED EFA FMU FSW G-20 G-33 GATT GDP GER GHG GMP GPI HCFC HDR HIS HIV HL HP The Common Eﬀec ve Preferen al Tariﬀ Chloroﬂuorocarbons Methane Conven on on Interna onal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Cambodia. Laos. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus Demand-Responsive Approach Debt Service Ra o Dengue Shock Syndrome Early Childhood Educa on and Development Educa on for All Forest Management Unit Female Sex Worker The group of 20 is a forum for 20 industrialized and developing countries to discuss key issues of the global economy Chair of the coali on of developing countries suppor ng ﬂexibility to undertake limited market openings on agricultural issues General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs Gross Domes c Product Gross Enrolment Rate Green House Gasses Growth Monitoring Prac ce Gender Parity Index Hydrochloroﬂuorocarbon Human Development Report Health Informa on System Human Immuno-deﬁciency Virus Hutan Lindung (Protected Forest) Hutan Produksi (Produc on Forest) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xiii . Myanmar and Vietnam Community-Led Total Sanita on Carbon Dioxide Contracep ve Prevalence Rate Civil Society Organiza on Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Alloca on Funds) Alert Village: a village that has resources capability and readiness to overcome health problems and to reach a healthy village) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representa ve Council) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representa ves) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional House of Representa ves) Trivalent vaccines against three infec ous diseases in humans: diphtheria.
A tudes and Prac ce Kawasan Pelestarian Alam (Nature Conserva on Area) Komisi Pemilihan Umum (General Elec ons Commission) Kawasan Suaka Alam (Nature Reserve Area) Kredit Usaha Rakyat (People-Based Small Business Loan Program) Loan Deposit Ra o Local Government Lembaga Jasa Keuangan (ﬁnancial service ins tu on) Lembaga Keuangan Bukan Bank (non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on) Long-Las ng Insec cidal Nets Lower Middle Income Country Lembaga Modal Ventura Dasar Liquid Petroleum Gas Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (Teacher Training Ins tute) Land Use.HPK HPT ICCSR ICCTF ICT IDHS IDU IEC IJEPA ILO IMCI IMF IMR INHERENT IPCC IPPA IPTP IRS ITN IUCN IUD Jamkesmas KAP KPA KPU KSA KUR LDR LG LJK LKBB LLIN LMIC LMVD LPG LPTK LULUCF MA MARP MDGs MDR-TB Hutan Produksi yang bisa dikonversi (forest areas which can be converted to non-forest uses) Hutan Produksi Terbatas (Limited Produc on Forests) Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Informa on and Communica on Technology Indonesia Demographic Health Survey Injec ng Drug Users Informa on. Educa on and Communica ons Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement Interna onal Labor Organiza on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Interna onal Monetary Fund Infant Mortality Rate Indonesia Higher Educa on Network Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Interna onal Planned Parenthood Associa on Intermi ent Preven ve Treatment for Pregnant women Indoor Residual Spraying Insec cide-Treated Nets Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature Intra-Uterine Device Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Na onal Health Security Program) Knowledge. Land Use Change and Forestry Madrasah Aliyah Most at Risk Popula on Millennium Development Goals Mul drug-Resistant TB xiv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
MDTFs MI MMR MMT MNCH MOH MONE MORA MSME MSS MT MTEF NAMA 11 NCCC NER NFE NGHGI NIN NMTDP NO NPL NTP OBF ODP ODS ORS ORT PAKEM PAUD PFM PHBS PISA PISEW PKH PKK PLHIV PLWHA PMTCT PNC PNPM Mul -Donor Trust Funds Madrasah Ib daiyah Maternal Mortality Ra o Methadone Maintenance Therapy Maternal. Crea ve. Small and Medium Enterprise Minimum Service Standards Madrasah Tsanawiyah Medium-Term Expenditure Framework A coali on of developing countries seeking ﬂexibility to limit market opennings in trade of industrial goods Na onal Council for Climate Change Net Enrollment Rate Non-formal Educa on The Na onal Greenhouse Gases Inventory Na onal Iden ﬁca on Number Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan Nitrogen Oxide Non-Performing Loans Na onal TB Program Oil-Based Fuels Ozone Deple ng Poten al Ozone Deple ng Substances Oral Rehydra on Solu ons Oral Rehydra on Therapy Pembelajaran Ak f. Efek f dan Menyenangkan (Ac ve. Neonatal and Child Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Na onal Educa on Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs Micro. Eﬀec ve and Fun Learning) Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Educa on) Public Finance Management Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat (clean and healthy behavior) Program for Interna onal Student Assessment Program Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah Program Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Program) Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) People Living with HIV People Living with HIV/AIDS Preven ng Mother to Child Transmission Postnatal Care Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (Na onal Program for Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xv . Krea f.
conducted by the Central Bureau of Sta s cs School-Based Management Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) Survei Demograﬁ dan Kesehatan Indonesia (Indonesian Demography and Health Survey) Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (Household Health Survey) Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) Standar Pelayanan Minimum (Minimun Service Standard) School Par cipa on Rate Success Rate Sexual and Reproduc ve Health Sexually-Transmi ed Infec on Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Na onal Socio-Economic Survey). conducted by MOH-RI) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Nasional (Na onal Long-Term Development Plan) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan) Survei Tenagakerja Nasional (Na onal Labour Force Survey).Posyandu PPLS PPP PSTN PT Puskesmas RANMAPI RASKIN RBM RDA REDD Riskesdas RPJPN RPJMN Sakernas SBM SD SDKI SKRT SMA SMP SPM SPR SR SRH STI Susenas TB TBA TFR TIMSS UNDP UNFCCC UNICEF Community Empowerment) Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Health Post. conducted by Central Bureau of Sta s cs Tuberculosis Tradi onal Birth A endant Total Fer lity Rate Third Interna onal Mathema cs Science Study United Na ons Development Programme United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change United Na ons Childrens’ Fund xvi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . a community-based basic health monitoring and services at village level) Pendataan Program Layanan Sosial (Social Service Program Survey) Purchasing Power Parity Public Switched Telephone Network Perguruan Tinggi (Higher Educa on) Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Primary Health Center) Rencana Aksi Nasional untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (Na onal Ac on Plan on Mi ga on and Adapta on to Climate Change) Beras Miskin (Rice for the Poor Program) Roll Back Malaria Recommended Dietary Allowance Reducing Emissions from Deforesta on and Degrada on Riset Kesehatan Dasar (basic health research.
UNSD VCT WAN WB WBG WHO WiMAX WTO
United Na ons Sta s cs Division Voluntary Counseling and Tes ng Wide Area Network World Bank World Bank Group World Health Organiza on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access World Trade Organiza on
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
2 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Crea on of a compe ve na on. and global coopera on. National Development Priorities Based on the current condi on of the Indonesian na on. gender equality. and based on the philosophy of Pancasila. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). Enabling Indonesia to play an important role in the interna onal community. There now remain ﬁve years for developing member states of the UN to achieve the eight MDGs related to poverty reduc on. at the Millennium Summit of the United Na ons (UN). 189 member states agreed to adopt the Millennium Declara on which was then translated into a prac cal framework. To achieve this vision. advanced. 3. and Na onal Annual Development Plans (RKP) as well as the State Budget documents. 6. peaceful and united. The MDGs have been an important considera on in preparing na onal development planning documents. Achievement of an equitable and just pa ern of development. 5. prosperous and just. powerful.Introduction In September 2000. advanced. 7. Realiza on of a society that has strong moral values that are ethical. 2. cultured. the Na onal Development Vision for the years 2005-2025 year has been deﬁned to be: an Indonesia that is self-reliant. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3 . taking into account the challenges to be faced over the next 20 years. Crea on of a democra c society based on the rule of law. Crea on of an Indonesia that is safe. and based on na onal interests. Crea on of a green and sustainable Indonesia. eight missions related Na onal Development are to be achieved: 1. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN 2005-2025). the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). and the resource endowment of Indonesia. a ainment of universal basic educa on. Realiza on of Indonesia as an independent island na on. 4. improving maternal and child health. environmental sustainability. reduc on in the prevalence of communicable diseases. The MDGs place human development as the focus of development and establish a set of measurable indicators of progress to be achieved by 2015. and 8. The MDGs are based on global partnership and developed countries also have stressed their agreement to fully support these eﬀorts.
remote areas and post-conﬂict areas. legal. fair. including development of science and technology. 3. (ii) educa on. 2. eﬀorts to achieve the Vision and Mission of the Na onal Development will also be carried out through achievement of other na onal priori es in the poli cal. (vii) energy. just and democra c na on while increasing the welfare of the people. the fourth Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2020-2025) will create a selfreliant Indonesian society. (v) food security. (iv) poverty reduc on. and 4. and the strengthening of economic compe veness. democra c. and security areas and in the ﬁelds of the economy and people’s welfare. and (iii) improve the jus ce system in all sectors. 4 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (vi) infrastructure. This vision has been translated into three Na onal Development Missions which are to: (i) con nue developing towards a prosperous Indonesia. In addi on to these eleven na onal priori es. the second Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) aims to consolidate the restructuring of Indonesia in all ﬁelds with an emphasis on improving the quality of human resources. (ix) the natural environment and disasters. the third Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2015-2019) will further strengthen overall development in various ﬁelds by emphasizing the achievement of compe veness of the economy based on compara ve advantages of natural and human resources and the expanding capacity of science and technology. and technological innova on. and prosperous through the accelera on of development in various ﬁelds built on a solid economic structure and based on compe ve advantages in various ﬁelds supported by qualiﬁed and compe ve human resources. crea vity. (vii) investment and improving the business climate. The Vision and Missions of Na onal Development 2010-2014 have been formulated and translated into opera onal terms in a number of na onal priori es in the following thema c areas: (i) reform of the bureaucracy and governance. (iii) health. progressive.The strategies to be implemented to accomplish this vision and missions have been translated into stages of ﬁve-year periods that are presented in Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan documents (RPJMN). the ﬁrst Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2005-2009) was formulated to reorganize and develop all regions of Indonesia and to create Indonesia as a safe and peaceful. (x) border areas. and just na on. The current Na onal Medium-Term Plan will be implemented during 2010 to 2014. (ii) strengthen the pillars of democracy. The ﬁve-year development phases are summarized as follows: 1. and (xi) culture. The Na onal Development Vision during this period has been deﬁned as follows: The realiza on of Indonesia as a prosperous.
Indonesia con nues to organize and develop in all ﬁelds. (b) targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. The growth rate of GDP dropped to 4 to 5 percent as compared with the growth rate of the economy prior to the crisis. Se ng measurable targets related to the MDGs that can be monitored and evaluated has proven to be eﬀec ve in increasing the eﬃciency of resource alloca on.Development of Indonesia After the Global Crisis and Achievement of the MDG Targets During the past ﬁve years. and (c) targets that s ll require great eﬀort to be achieved. In reviewing trends in the achievement of the MDG targets. the Government remains determined to fulﬁll the commitment to achieve the MDG targets on me. Some of the most important have been the ﬂuctua on of oil prices. Extreme weather events have increased. A na on must be fully prepared in all ﬁelds to address the global crises and challenges. Indonesia has faced signiﬁcant global challenges. that is the propor on of people living with per Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 5 .The level of extreme poverty. Currently. This has been done to accelerate the achievement of na onal goals. The global economic crisis has resulted in a world economic recession which has inﬂuenced the performance of the domes c economy. while the na on has not yet fully recovered from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. lower middle income households and the poor have been forced to expend a greater share of their incomes on food. The MDG targets that have already been achieved include: • MDG 1 . In turn. Indonesia is the third most populous democracy of the world and has been able to strengthen the economy to achieve the status of a middle-income country. global climate change and the global ﬁnancial crisis of 2007/2008. which amounted to 7-8 percent. ﬁshermen have been unable to go to sea and public health has been nega vely aﬀected. With rising food prices. Although there are s ll many challenges and problems in the implementa on of development in Indonesia. In this unfavorable global environment. evalua on of the progress in achievement of the MDGs has been useful in adjus ng plans to be more responsive to the needs of poor and vulnerable groups. Posi ve economic growth and strengthening of democra c ins tu ons during the last ten years have strengthened the posi on of the na on to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. The Indonesian na on has also worked consistently over the last decade to achieve the MDG targets. Alloca on of funds in na onal and local budgets in Indonesia has increased from year to year to support the achievement of the MDGs. The various crises and global challenges men oned above have provided the lesson that globaliza on has two diﬀerent sides which provide both opportuni es and challenges. the current status can be grouped into three categories of achievement: (a) targets which have already been achieved. high rainfall has resulted in crop failures and damage to crops. rising food prices.
4 percent in 2007. The Debt Service Ra o has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. from 31 percent in 1989 to 18. the Gender Parity Index (GPI) at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI) was 99. has declined from 20. It is expected that the target of 32 per 1. Thus it is expected that the target of 100 will be achieved by 2015.capita income of less than USD 1 per day. rule-based.95.1 percent in 2009 as compared to the MDG target of 70. It is expected that the MDG target of 15.000 births in 1991 to 44 per 1. At the same me.An increase in detec on of tuberculosis cases has been achieved.000 popula on in 1990 to 244 cases per 100. There has also been a decrease the prevalence of tuberculosis from 443 cases per 100.000 births will be achieved by 2015. predictable and non-discriminatory .The prevalence of infant malnutri on has been reduced by nearly half.9 percent in 2009.9 percent in 2008. MDG 8 .85 percent.000 popula on in 2009.99 percent.Indonesia has been successful in developing trade and ﬁnancial systems that are open.The targets for gender equality in all levels of educa on are expected to be achieved.5 percent will be achieved by 2015.6 percent in 1990 to 5. In 2009.0 percent. MDG 4 – The number of deaths in children under the age of ﬁve years has decreased from 97 per 1. • The MDG targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been demonstrated include: • MDG 1 .6 percent in 1996 to 10.000 births in 2007.7 percent while at the junior secondary schools including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MTs) and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA) the GPI was 101. The ra o of literate women to men in the age group of 15-24 years has reached 99. 6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . from 20. MDG 3 –The par cipa on ra o of females to males in SMA / MA / Paket C and higher educa on in 2009 was 96. MDG 6 . • MDG 3 .47 percent in 2009.0 percent in 2000 to 73.as evidenced by the posi ve trends in indicators related to trade and the na onal banking system.33 percent (2010).Indonesia has raised its targets for poverty reduc on and will give special a en on to reducing poverty levels as measured against the na onal poverty line from 13. • • • • The MDG targets where a posi ve trend has been demonstrated but which s ll require special eﬀorts to achieve the targets by 2015 include the following: • MDG 1 .16 and 102. MDG 2 – The par cipa on rate for primary educa on is close to 100 percent and the literacy rate of the popula on was more than 99. signiﬁcant progress has been made in reducing the foreign debt ra o to GDP from 24.
and 51. and developing decentralized approaches to reducing dispari es while empowering communi es in all regions of Indonesia. including injec ng drug users and sex workers. New Initiatives Moving Forward Success in achieving the MDGs in Indonesia depends on the achievement of good governance. The success of Indonesia’s development has been recognized globally and has received various awards. but is commi ed to increasing forest cover. Developed countries who are members of the Organiza on of Economic Coopera on and Development (OECD) recognize and appreciate Indonesia’s development progress. improving coordina on among stakeholders. Progress in developing the na onal economy over the past ﬁve years has reduced the gap between Indonesia and the developed countries. Indonesia has also joined the G-20. Accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs and all related targets requires that popula on problems are addressed in a comprehensive and integrated approach. the size. produc ve partnerships at all levels of society and the implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieving pro-poor growth. MDG 6 – The number of people living with HIV / AIDS has increased. India.e. MDG 7 . The Indonesian popula on is 237. Indonesia along with China. improving public services. Brazil and South Africa were invited to enter the group of ‘enhanced engagement countries’ or states with an increasingly enhanced engagement with developed countries. In planning to achieve the MDGs.• • • MDG 5 . having more than doubled since 1971. i. Special a en on is required to achieve the MDG targets for Goal 7 by 2015. elimina ng illegal logging and implemen ng a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years.000 live births by 2015. Although Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 7 . which has a very important and decisive role in shaping global economic policy. Special eﬀorts are required to achieve the target of 102 per 100.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved water supply. par cularly in high risk groups. expanding partnerships. BPS).000 live births in 2007. The rate of increase is also high in some areas where awareness about this disease is low. growth and distribu on of the popula on is one important considera on. only 47. At present.Indonesia has high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. the twenty countries that control 85 percent of Gross Domes c Product (GDP) of the world.19 percent of households have access to improved sanita on.5 million people (2010 Popula on Census . including expanding access to reproduc ve health services and family planning while protec ng reproduc ve rights.Maternal mortality has been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100.Preliminary results. Therefore. increasing the alloca on of resources.
97 per cent per annum during 1980-1990 to 1. and especially women’s groups.30 per cent per annum rate in 2005.6 million people (Indonesian Popula on Projec on 2005-2025). • Alloca on of funds by the central. • Support for the expansion of social services in disadvantaged areas and remote areas will be increased. In the future. no less than 80 percent of industries are concentrated in Java. 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 3 of 2010 concerning Equitable Development Programming include the following: • The Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs will be distributed as a reference for stakeholders in working to speed up a ainment of the MDGs throughout Indonesia. have contributed signiﬁcantly. and to a 1. In eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. A funding mechanism will be prepared to provide incen ves to local governments that perform well in achieving the MDGs. provincial and district governments will con nue to be increased to support the intensiﬁca on and expansion of programs to achieve the MDGs. • Enhanced coopera on with creditor countries will be sought for the conversion of debt (debt swap) for achieving the MDGs. The Government is commi ed to maintaining a socio-economic environment and culture where all ci zens.Private Partnerships or PPP) will be developed in the social sectors. the role of communi es. especially in educa on. • Partnerships between the Government and private enterprises (Public . the supply of clean water and the living environment. Steps to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs during the next ﬁve years as mandated by Presiden al Instruc on No. grass-roots organiza ons will con nue to be given a en on to speed up achievement of the MDGs and increase the welfare of the people on a sustainable basis. In addi on. including community organiza ons. approximately 60. Of this amount. • Mechanisms to expand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ini a ves will be strengthened to support the achievement of the MDGs. the total popula on of Indonesia in 2015 is expected to be approximately 247. to expand sources of funding to support achievement of the MDGs. civil society organiza ons and the private sector can par cipate produc vely in improving the welfare of all Indonesians. • Provincial governments will prepare “Regional Ac on Plans to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs” and these will be used is used as a reference in improving planning and coordina on of eﬀorts to reduce poverty and improve people’s welfare. especially educa on and health.2 percent will be in Java which has an area of only 7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia.the popula on growth rate decreased from 1. health.49 per cent per annum in the period 1990-2000.
Summary by Goal .
Progress is also being made to further reduce poverty as measured against the na onal poverty line from the current rate of 13. disparity in educa on par cipa on among provinces has been signiﬁcantly reduced with NER above 90 percent in almost all provinces. improve suppor ng infrastructure and strengthen the agricultural sector. small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).00 per capita per day.4 percent in 2007 and Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.23 percent. Priori es for the future to reduce poverty are to expand employment opportuni es.1 percent in 1989 to 18. At primary educa on level. (ii) improvement of the quality. (ii) empowering disadvantaged communi es in all regions of the na on to be er access and use resources to improve their welfare. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 11 . (iii) improving access of the poor to social services. girls and boys. Special a en on will be given to: (i) expanding credit facili es for micro.50 percent in 2015.Summary of the Status of Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia MDG 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Indonesia has achieved the target of halving the incidence of extreme poverty as measured by the indicator of USD 1. and (iv) improving the provision of social protec on to the poorest of the poor. The main challenge in acelera ng the achievment of MDG educa on target is improving equal access of children. The country aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. and eﬀec veness of educa on.77 percent and the ne enrolment rate (NER) was 95. The prevalence of undernourished children under ﬁve years of age decreased from 31. to quality basic educa on. Government policies and programs to address this challenge: (i) expansion of equitable access to basic educa on par cularly for the poor.33 percent (2010) to the targeted rate of 8-10 percent by 2014. grades 7 to 9) to the universal basic educa on targets. and (iii) strengthening governance and accountability of educa on services. The policy to allocate minimal 20 percent of government budget to the educa on sector will be con nued to accelerate the achievement of universal junior secondary educa on by 2015. MDG 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target for primary educa on and literacy. In 2008/09 gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary educa on level (SD/MI) was 116. eﬃciency.
(ii) improve protec on for women against all forms of abuse.99 respec vely.MDG 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Progress has been achieved in increasing the propor on of females in primary. With this rate.000 live births. the number of women in the Indonesian parliament increased to 17. As a result. the target of 23 per 1. junior secondary schools. Extra hard work will be needed to achieve the MDG target by 2015 of 102 per 100. senior high schools and ins tu ons of higher educa on. Even though the rates for antenatal care and births a ended by skilled health personnel are rela vely high.000 live births in 2015 is expected to be achieved. MDG 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of all the MDGs. In poli cs.9 percent in 2009. In Indonesia. the child mortality target is expected to be achieved. regional dispari es remain as constraints to achieve the targets. reﬂec ng the discrepancy in accessing health services. the share of female wage employment in the nonagricultural sector has increased. The ra o of NER for women to men at primary educa on and junior secondary educa on levels was 99. Cri cal measures to reduce maternal mortality are improving the contracep ve prevalence rate 12 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 live births in 2007. Likewise. Indonesia is on track to achieve the educa on-related targets for gender equality by 2015.35. the lowest rate of global achievement has been recorded in the improvement of maternal health. MDG 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has shown a signiﬁcant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1. par cularly in underserved and remote areas. The future priori es are to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services especially for the poor and remote areas. Priori es for the future are to: (i) improve the role of women in development. In the workforce. several factors such as high risk pregnancy and abor on are considered to be constraints that require special a en on. However.73 and 101. the maternal mortality ra o (MMR) has gradually been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100.000 live births in 2007. and literacy among females aged 15-24 years has already reached 99. and (iii) mainstream gender equality in all policies and programs while building greater public awareness on issues of gender.
At the same me. but has worked to increase forest cover. Accelera on of achievement of the targets for improving access to improved water and sanita on facili es will be con nued with increased support. the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has increased. For the future. MDG 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES In Indonesia.e. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 13 .73 percent in 1993 to 47. Meanwhile. i. In rural areas. MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Indonesia has a high rate of greenhouse gas emission. Beyond that.85 in 2009. the case detec on rate and successfully treated TB cases have already reached the 2015 targets.68 in 1990 to 1. the propor on of households with access to improved sanita on facili es increased from 24. communicable disease control eﬀorts must involve all stakeholders and strengthen health promo on ac vi es to increase public awareness. The incidence of malaria per 1. injec ng drug users and sex workers.and reducing the unmet need through expanding access and improving quality of family planning and reproduc ve health services. The propor on of households with access to improved sources of drinking water increased from 37. eliminate illegal logging and is commi ed to implemen ng a comprehensive policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions over the next 20 years. The role and detailed responsibili es of local governments in natural resource management and water supply /sanita on will be be er delineated and their skills enhanced. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Indonesia more than doubled between 2004 and 2005. A en on will be given to investments on water and sanita on systems to serve growing urban popula ons. with communi es taking responsibility for opera on and management of infrastructure with advisory support from local authori es.81 percent in 1993 to 51.000 popula on decreased from 4.71 percent in 2009. communi es are expected to play a larger role. in TB control. The communicable disease control approaches are focusing on preven ve measures and mainstreaming into the na onal health system. educa on and communica on (IEC) messages to the community. priori es to improve maternal health will be focused on expanding be er quality health care and comprehensive obstetric care. especially among high risk groups. improving family planning services and provision of informa on.19 percent in 2009.
In 2009 some 82. Indonesia has commited to reducing interna onal borrowing as a percentage of GDP and this is demonstrated by the reduc on of foreign debt to GDP from 24. telephone land lines and internet communica ons has increased drama cally over the past ﬁve years.9 percent in 2009.41 percent of the popula on had access to cellular telephones. bilateral partners and representa ves of the private sector to achieve a pro-poor pa ern of economic growth. Indonesia has beneﬁted from close collabora on with the interna onal donor community and interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons. Indonesia’s debt service ra o has also con nued to decline from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. 14 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The private sector has made major investments in informa on and communica ons technology and access to cellular telephones.MDG 8: BUILDING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is an ac ve par cipant in a wide variety of interna onal forums and is commi ed to con nuing to build successful partnerships with mul lateral organiza ons. The Jakarta Commitment was signed with 26 development partners in 2009 to provide a roadmap for all concerned to improve coopera on and management of development assistance in Indonesia.6 percent in 1996 to 10.
the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger 1.2 2. including women and young people 1.52% (1990) 65% (1990) 2.24% (2009) 62% (2009) BPS.0 (PPP) a day 1.8% (1989)* 13.6% ► 1.4% (2007)** 3.5 1.70% (1990) 5. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve. Sakernas Decrease PDB Na onal and Sakernas 1. between 1990 and 2015.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed Employment-topopula on (over 15 years of age) Propor on of own-account and contribu ng family workers in total employment Prevalence of underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of severe underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of moderate underweight children under-ﬁve years of age 3.9% ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 15 . the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1.21% (2010) Reduce Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all.0% (1989)* 18.1 Propor on of popula on below USD 1.90% (2008) 10.8b 23. Susenas ** Ministry of Health Riskesdas. Susenas 1.8a 7.4% (2007)** 15.2% (1989)* 5.Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 1. 2007 1.30% • ► World Bank and BPS BPS.5% ► * BPS.0% (2007)** 11.7 71% (1990) 64% (2009) ► Target 1C: Halve. between 1990 and 2015.00 (PPP) per day Poverty gap ra o (incidence x depth of poverty) 20.60% (1990) 2.8 31.
47% (2009) Female: 99. Literacy rate of populaon aged 15-24 year. children everywhere.00 100.21% (1990) 14.86 (1993) 93.44 (1993) 99.27 (1993) 99.73 (2009) 101. Susenas 2.00% ► 2.16 (2009) 102.00% ► BPS.60% (1990) 100.Ra o of girls to boys in higher educa on 3.85 (2009) 100.55% 100. preferably by 2005.00% (1990) 64. Susenas * BPS.Ra o of girls to boys in primary schools . Sakernas ● Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 16 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1 Net Enrolment Ra o (NER) in primary educa on Propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school.70% (1992)** 62.00% (2008)** 99. Susenas Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Educa on Target 2A: Ensure that. Susenas Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on.47% (2009) 61.00 100.50% 35. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015 3. boys and girls alike.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Propor on of populaon below minimum level of dietary energy consump on: 1.Ra o of girls to boys in junior high schools .00 ● ● ► ► BPS.99 (2009) 96.9 1400 kcal/capita/day 2000 kcal/capita/day Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source ▼ 17.00 100.06 (1993) 98. will be able to complete full course of primary schooling 2.86% (2009) 8.3 96. MONE ** BPS.00% ► * MONE **BPS.1a Literacy ra o of women to men in the 15-24 year age group 100. by 2015.40% Male: 99.95 (2009) 99.1 Ra os of girls to boys in primary. women and men 88.00% (1990)* 95.2 100.00 100.23% (2009)* 93.67 (1993) 74.32% BPS.Ra o of girls to boys in senior high schools . secondary and ter ary educa on .
1 4.000 live births) Propor on of births a ended by skilled health personnel (%) Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.1% (1991) 57. the Maternal Mortality Ra o 5.0% (2007) 32 23 Decrease ► ► ► BPS.2a Under-ﬁve mortality rate per 1. by 2015. IDHS 1991. Sakernas Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 3. between 1990 and 2015. Susenas 1992-2009 ▼ ► 5. between 1990 and 2015.3a 47. IDHS 1991.Indicator Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Propor on of seats held by women in na onal parliament Baseline 29.24% (1990) 12.3 Decrease ► KPU Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.000 live births Infant mortality rate per 1.45% (2009) 17. universal access to reproduc ve health 5.4% (2007) Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 17 .3 Decrease ► Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.4% (2007) Increase ► BPS. 2007 5.50% (1990) Current 33. modern method 390 (1991) 40. the under-ﬁve mortality rate 4.70% (1992) 228 (2007) 77.2 Increase Target 5B: Achieve.3 49.2 ► 3.000 live births Propor on of oneyear-old children immunized against measles 97 (1991) 68 (1991) 32 (1991) 44.7% (1991) 61. 2007 BPS.34% (2009) 102 BPS.1 Maternal Mortality Ra o (per 100. IDHS 1991. any method Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old. 2007 4.90% (2009) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source BPS.000 live births Neonatal mortality rate per 1.2 4.5% (1991) 44 (2007) 34 (2007) 19 (2007) 67.
Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator 5.1% (2007) Decrease ► ► ▼ BPS.4 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15-19) Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visists) .2% (2009) Female: 10.Unmarried - Increase ▼ BPS.6% Male: 1. IDHS 1991. IDHS 2007 .6 Unmet need for family planning Baseline 67 (1991) Current 35 (2007) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source ► 5.5% (2007) 9. IYARHS 2002/2003 & 2007 ▼ ▼ 6.2 12.3 Female: 9. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Propor on of popula on with advanced HIV infec on with access to an retroviral drugs 38.4 visits: 5.4% (2007) Decrease MOH es mated 2006 BPS. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.4% (2007) 0.7% (2007) Female: 2.3% Increase 81.1 HIV/AIDS Prevalence among total popula on (percent) Condom use at last high-risk sex Propor on of popula on aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.4% (2009) MOH.0% 56.5 - Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 18 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1 visit: . SKRRI 2007 Target 6B: Achieve.Married - Increase ▼ BPS. 2010 as per 30 November 2009 6.7% (1991) 93. by 2010.8% (2002/3) Increase ▼ . 2007 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.5% Male: 14.5 75.0% (1991) 12.3% Male: 18.
incidence of Malaria in Jawa & Bali . began to reduce 4.9 6.7 Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cidetreated bednets Incidence. MOH 2008 AMI. 2009 6.0% ** MOH Report-2009 Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 19 .9b 443 (1990) 92 (1990) 244 (2009) 39 (2009) 6.0% (2000)* 91.3% Rural: 4.17 (1990) 24.77 (2008) 3. IDHS 2007 Increase 6.000) Incidence rate associated with Malaria (per 1.85 (2009) 0.10 (1990) 1.000): 6.0% ● ● 6.9c 6.16 (2008) 17. MOH 2008 BPS. 2009 343 (1990) 228 (2009) Stop.10b 87.1% (2009)** 70.000) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short courses Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS * TB Global WHO Report.6a .000) Death rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.10 6.6% -2007 Decrease Decrease Decrease Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets ► ► ► ▼ MOH 2009 API.Incidence of Malaria outside Jawa & Bali 6.5% Urban: 1.9a ● ● ● TB Global WHO Report.0% (2009)** 85.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with Malaria (per 1. prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis Incidence rates associated with Tuberculosis (all cases/100.10a 20.000 pop/ year) Prevalence rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.68 (1990) 0.0% (2000)* 73.
5% (2000) 8.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources The ra o of actual forest cover to total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Primary energy consump on (per capita) Energy Intensity 7.000 (2008) 1.2a 7.14% (1990)* 4.6 (2008) 3.3 ► 7.5 26. Decrease Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 7.626 Gg Gg CO2e CO2e (2008) (2000) 2.40% (2008) Increase ► 7.43% (2008) Increase ▼ Ministry of Forestry 7.2 1.2b.35% (2009)** Increase ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 20 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .074 1.70% (1990) 52.45% (2008) 0 CFCs (2009) Reduce at least 26% by 2020 Reduce ▼ Ministry of Environment 7.08% (1998) 4.28 BOE/ USD 1.83% (2008) not exceed ► 7.000 (1990) 0.6 0.3 BOE (2008) 2.4 91.7 metric tons (1992) 66.2c 7.1 BOE/ USD 1.1 59.416.332.711.2d Energy Elas city Energy mix for renewable energy Total consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) in metric tons Propor on of ﬁsh stocks within safe biological limits The ra o of terrestrial areas protected to maintain biological diversity to total terrestrial area The ra o of marine protected areas to total territorial marine area Decrease 0 CFCs while reducing HCFCs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries Ministry of Forestry *Ministry of Forestry / **Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries 7.40% (1990) 26.64 BOE (1991) 5.98 (1991) 3.
75% (1993) 12.8 37.55% ▼ ▼ Target 7D: By 2020.75% (1993) 12. urban and rural Urban Rural Propor on of households with sustainable access to basic sanita on.10% (1993) 49. 19% (2009) 69.71% (2009) 68.12 8.96% (2009) 75. the propor on of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on Propor on of households with sustainable access to an improved water source.81% (1993) 53. predictable.29% 65. 2009 7.12% (2009) 12.58% (1993) 31.75% (1993) 20.59% (1996) 51.51% (2009) 33. urban and rural Urban Rural Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 7.9b 76. to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7. Susenas 7.61% (1993) 24. rule-based.00% (1996) 10.82% 55. by 2015.82% (2009) 45.75% (1993) 20.87% ▼ 7.9 62.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.12% (2009) BPS.8a 7.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 7C: Halve.72% (2009) 51.81% ▼ ▼ BPS.1 - BI Economic Report 2008.12a Status: Ra o of Interna onal Debt to GDP Debt Service Ra o (DSR) 24.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.41% ▼ 7.1 - Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 8. non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems 7.8b 50.89% (2009) 22.73% (1993) 47. Susenas Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open.12% (2009) 12.12% (2009) - ► ► ► BPS & The World Bank 7.9a 7.64% (1993) 11.00% (2009) en on Reduce Reduce ► ► Ministry of Finance BI Annual Report 2009 ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 21 .
41% (2009) 11.51% (2009) 8. especially informa on and communica ons Propor on of popula on with ﬁxed-line telephones (teledensity in popula on) Propor on of popula on with cellular phones Propor on of households with access to internet Propor on of households with personal computers 4.65% (2009) Increase ► Minister of Communica on and Informa cs 2010 8.00% 8. Susenas 2009 BPS.15 14.16a - Increase Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 22 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .02% (2004) 8. Susenas 2009 8.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.79% (2004) - 82.32% (2009) 100.16 50. make available the beneﬁts of new technologies.14 3.00% ► ▼ ▼ BPS.
Coming Home from the Field Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger .
24 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
8 20.9 percent in 2008.7 2006 2007 6. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 25 .00 (PPP) per capita per day as measured by World Bank/BPS annually from 1990 to 2008. and Indonesia has already achieved and exceeded Target 1 for reduc on of extreme poverty.1 presents the trend for the declining percentages of the popula on es mated to have levels of consump on below USD 1.3 7.9 9. Susenas.2 Target: 10. The declining trend is expected to be sustained to 2015 and beyond.6 9.9 7. 25 20 Figure 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.8 12. the proportion of people whose income is less than USD 1.4 8.6 percent in 1990 to 5.0 6.1: Progress in Reducing Extreme Poverty (USD1.00/capita/day) as Compared to the MDG Target 14. The World Bank 2008.9 2008 2009 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.0 Percentage 15 9. Figure 1. between 1990 and 2015.6 5.2 7.5 6.00 (PPP) a day Current Status The incidence of extreme poverty (using the measurement of USD 1.00 purchasing power parity per capita per day) has been reduced in Indonesia from 20.
As a result it is necessary to take steps to increase the rate of poverty reduc on.9 19. Gorontalo (6.4 18.4 17. the total number of people living below the na onal poverty line was s ll high.33 percent (2010) as the na onal economy has recovered and as ini a ves to reduce the incidence of poverty proved to be eﬀec ve in beneﬁ ng the poor.7 15.6 24.4 16.6 23. The Poverty Gap Index measured for rural areas (3.83 percent) are resident on the island of Jawa.74).9 22.3).02 million people living below the na onal poverty line in 2010.4 11.05) was signiﬁcantly higher than for urban areas (1.51). Since 1999. Figure 1.3 31.1 13.2).0 27.5. At the same me it is important to note that the decline of the poverty rate from March 2009 to March 2010 is only 0.0 35. the incidence of poverty has generally trended downwards during the period 1976 to 1996 (Figure 1.0 38. Aceh (4.6 15.1 18.2: Long-Term Trends in Poverty Reduc on in Indonesia Measured Using the Na onal Poverty Line 60 50 40 40.27 percent. Maluku (6.5 14.9 38. In 2009 the average Poverty Gap Index for all areas was 2.47). and in 2010 there was a further decline to 2.8 16.2 35. Sulawesi Tengah (4.0 32.4 37.2 30.2.2 28.2 49.3 54.5 42.4 20 10 0 26. Papua (11. The economic crisis in 1997/8 resulted in a drama c increase in the number of Indonesians below the poverty line.1 33. Susenas.2 17.2 21.8). A er 2006 there has been a posi ve downward trend reﬂec ng the impact of the measures to stablize prices and mi gate the impact of price increases on the poor (see Figure 1. The incidence of poverty more than doubled to 24.3 40. Although the percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line in 2010 had been reduced.1 35.0 16.0 .2 percent in 1998 when a nega ve GDP growth rate was recorded and prices increased drama cally.82 percent and that was less than during the previous year (2008/2009) when the decline of the poverty rate was 1. and Nusa Tenggara Timur (4.2 48.94).02 million people. amoun ng to 31.5 30 25. During the period 2002-2010 the trend for this indicator was generally downward.3 39.91) and the highest levels were found in the rural areas of the provinces of Papua Barat (12.52).7 17. Sumatera 26 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2010 13.87). Of the 31. Number of poor popula on (milliions) Na onal Poverty Line (percentage) The Poverty Gap Index is an indicator which measures the gap between the average income of the poor and the na onal poverty line. The total number of poor is large and the distribu on of the poor among the provinces and islands of Indonesia is uneven.26). the largest share (55.1 37.3 36.7 37. although there was a signiﬁcant increase in 2006 reﬂec ng increases in the na onal price of fuel and other basic consumer goods. several years. the na onal poverty rate had been reduced to 13.6 47.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Using the prevailing na onal poverty line.3 1998* 1976 1978 1980 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: BPS. Yogyakarta (4.
0 2.1 3. On the island Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 27 . Sumatera Selatan. In Sumatera the incidence of poverty is s ll higher than the na onal average in the provinces of Aceh.9 2.2 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: BPS. The provinces where the incidence of poverty is more than double the na onal average of 13.88 percent) and Maluku (27.3.3% Sumatera 21. Poverty rates in 17 provinces are below the na onal average.0 2. 2002 to 2010 3. while in 16 provinces they are above the na onal average (see Figure 1. Susenas 2010.9 3. The Percentages of the Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Major Geographical Region of Indonesia (2010) Jawa 55.4). On the islands of Jawa and Bali.1% Maluku 1. Yogyakarta and Jawa Timur also have an incidence of poverty that is higher than the na onal average.8% Source: BPS. Papua Barat (34.44 percent) while Bali/ Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi are the geographical regions with the third and fourth largest shares of people living below the poverty line (Figure 1.6% Kalimantan 3. There remain signiﬁcant dispari es in the incidence of poverty among the 33 provinces of Indonesia.4.4% Figure 1. Bengkulu and Lampung.5). the provinces of Jawa Tengah.74 percent).80 percent).3% Bali & Nusa Tenggara 7. Susenas. Sulawesi 7.4 Poverty Gap Ra o 3.8 2.5 2. Figure 1.33 percent include Papua (36.5% Papua 3. The Na onal Trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.ranks second in terms of percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line (21.
28 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3.6 23. 2010 Percentage 34. Sulawesi Tenggara and Gorontalo also have poverty rates higher than the na onal rate while the same is true for the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).5 16.6).7 .3 8.2 7.9 36.1.0 9.8 7. The poverty rate in rural areas of Indonesia was 16.48 percent).3 11. Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.1.5 6. Kalimantan Selatan (5.6 16.5 4.3 18. Figure 1.2 6.1 18.5 11.3 13.9 5.0 21. Susenas 2010. The three provinces with the lowest incidence of poverty in 2010 were Jakarta (3.4 9. the provinces of Sulawesi Tengah. 2010 Source: BPS.8 17. The poverty rate is signiﬁcantly higher in rural areas than in urban centers in Indonesia.7 8.56 percent in 2010 compared to 9.7 9.6 13.1 8.87 percent in urban areas (Figure 1.1 18.21 percent) and Bali (4.3 15.3 11.9 21.8 DKI Jakarta Bali Kalimantan Selatan Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Banten Kalimantan Timur Kepulauan Riau Jambi Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat Jawa Barat Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur Sumatera Selatan Jawa Tengah DI Yogyakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Lampung Aceh Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Gorontalo Maluku Papua Barat Papua Na onal Average 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 - Source: BPS.2 27.6 15. Map 1.88 percent).Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger of Sulawesi.1 9.5 Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia. Susenas 2010. The geographical distribu on of the incidence of poverty by province is presented in Map 1.0 23.
Figure 1.6. Percentages of Urban and Rural Popula ons below the Na onal Poverty Line (1990-2010)
18.9 17.4 10.7 2009 16.6 2010 9.9
1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: BPS, Susenas Several Years
A major challenge is to reduce the propor on of the na onal popula on living below the na onal poverty line while also reducing dispari es in the incidence of poverty among provinces and districts. The government is faced with the challenge of maintaining a high growth rate of GDP in order to expand employment opportuni es for the poor. To break the cycle of poverty there is a need to further strengthen the provision of educa on and health services and social protec on. Decentraliza on has brought new challenges to both central and local government authori es in Indonesia to coordinate programs to reduce poverty and to u lize ﬁscal resources eﬀec vely to promote inclusive growth, empower the poor and improve public services.
Policies and Strategies
Indonesia is commi ed to reducing poverty in all regions, districts and villages. A mul dimensional approach will con nue to be applied, one that includes ac ons to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth, to create employment opportuni es, to empower communi es and to improve delivery of basic social services to all communi es. The government is commi ed to establishing a more conducive environment for all stakeholders to work to reduce poverty and achieve the na onal goals of development. It is expected that
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
the incidence of poverty as measured by the na onal poverty line will be reduced to 8 to 10 percent by 2014 in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (20102014). The Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on, led by the Vice President and senior cabinet oﬃcials, will take the lead in improving coordina on of implementa on of all policies and programs to reduce the incidence of poverty. Cabinet members to be directly involved include the Coordina ng Minister for People’s Welfare, the Coordina ng Minister for Economic Aﬀairs, the Minister of Health, the Minister of Na onal Educa on, the Minister of Social Aﬀairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister for Coopera ves and SMEs and the Minister of Na onal Development Planning (BAPPENAS). The na onal priori es iden ﬁed to reduce poverty and achieve the target for poverty are grouped into three policy areas: 1. Policies to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth will provide the founda on to provide produc ve employment for the poor. It is expected that growth of GDP will reach 6.3 to 6.8 percent during 2011 to 2013 and increase to 7 percent in 2014. 2. Aﬃrma ve ac ons to empower the poor and break the cycle of poverty will be implemented in three clusters of programs: First - Strengthening Social Services and Social Protec on (Cluster 1). Government support to strengthen the provision of health and educa on services will be expanded through the Na onal Health Security Program (Jamkesmas), the Family Hope Program (PKH) and provision of Scholarships for the Children from Poor Households. Second - Support will be expanded to empower communi es to reduce their poverty through PNPM Mandiri (Cluster 2). The government will increase support for the PNPM Mandiri Program to Rupiah 12.1 trillion per year and coverage will be expanded to include all 78,000 villages in Indonesia. Third - Facili es to increase the capacity of MSMEs and coopera ves will be expanded through (i.) entrepreneurship and capacity building on business management; (ii.) provision of informa on services and business consultancy; and through expansion of the PeopleBased Small Business Loan Program (KUR) (Cluster 3). KUR will be expanded to channel funds through local microﬁnance ins tu ons to increase access of medium and small scale enterprises and coopera ves to credit. Bank guarantees will con nue to be provided in the form of Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) by Perum Jamkrindo and PT Askrindo. 3. Increasing eﬀec veness of poverty reduc on programs: a. Priority will be given to improving coordina on of policies and programs to reduce poverty. Increased coordina on across programs within the three clusters is key for eﬀec ve poverty reduc on. Therefore, coordina on of all poverty allevia on policies will be intensiﬁed through the establishment of the Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on under the oﬃce of the Vice President in accordance with Presiden al Decree 15/2010 concerning the Accelera on of Poverty Reduc on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
This eﬀort will be supported by enhancing capacity and func ons of various technical ministries and government oﬃces at the na onal, provincial and district levels. The coordina on of poverty reduc on will also be conducted at provincial and district levels by the Provincial and District Coordina ng Teams for Poverty Reduc on. Concerted eﬀorts for poverty allevia on will also involve private sector partnerships through CSR and other types of funding such as “zikat, infaq and sodaqoh”. The above eﬀorts will be supported by implementa on of an accurate monitoring and evalua on system to achieve greater eﬀec veness in programming to alleviate poverty. Building local capacity to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate poverty reduc on programs, will be given special a en on in those provinces and districts with the highest incidence of poverty. Fiscal policies and instruments will be adjusted to be er support local government in ﬁgh ng poverty and providing services at the community level. Targe ng of the poor and near poor in poverty reduc on programs will be carried out in a systema c manner at the local level using the latest database on the poor. To maintain the accuracy of targe ng of these groups, it is planned that the Survey for Social Protec on Program will be implemented every three years.
In order to implement the policies to reduce poverty as presented above and to achieve the targets for poverty reduc on in 2015, the government has prepared and will implement the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) which deﬁnes programs and ac vi es with speciﬁc targets as presented below in Table 1.1.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) The number of ac ve poor family planning par cipants (KPS and KS-I) and other vulnerable groups to receive coaching and contracep ves free through the 23.9 12.737 8.000 66.481 8.608 8.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.75 3.000 88.2 12.80 3.89 3.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) Total number of PUS group members of produc ve age who become members of KB Mandiri Groups 3. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty Prioritas Guidance and Development of Health Security Output/Indicator Percentage of the popula on (including all the poor people) who have health security The number of primary health centers providing basic health services for the poor The percentage of hospitals that serve poor pa ents / JAMKESMAS program par cipants 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Formulated ﬁnancing and health insurance policy 59% 70.5 12.1.000 Increased referral of the poor for health services at hospitals Health Referral Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 75 80 85 90 95 Increased guidance.30% 84.868 9.40% 94.50% 100% Increased basic health services for the poor (JAMKESMAS) Basic Health Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 8.000 44.1 Increased guidance and self reliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 22.8 13.000 Source: RPJMN 2010-2014 32 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .05 Development of policy and guidance to family planning equality 11.97 4. par cipa on and self-reliance of family planning acceptors Number of new family planning acceptors (KPS and KS-I) (poor and other vulnerable groups) to receive coaching and free contracep ves through 23.000 110.
000 540.000 67.275.103.395.000 540.700 Provision of High School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality high school educa on in all districts and ci es The number of high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 378.000 Provision of scholarships for students from poor households (MI.767.000 320.064 1.783 501.898 614.640. MTs.653 800.000 640.000 640.000 320.020 1.476 475.000 Provision of Voca onal Educa on Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality voca onal educa on in all districts and ci es The number of vocaonal school students from poor households to receive scholarships 305.220 3.780 3.346.000 67.840 1. and MA) Number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MI) The number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MT) The number of students from poor households receive scholarships (MA) 640.195.000 640.000 320.535 390.417 560.000 320.000 veness 70 .282 3.Prioritas Output/Indicator Total number of working partners who provide capital assistance and business guidance to economic working groups Total number of working partners to become facilitators for working groups Number of primary school students from poor households to receive scholarships Number of junior high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.000 540.000 540.210 Provision of Junior Secondary School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to junior high schools in all districts and ci es 966.000 Providing Scholarships for Qualiﬁed Madrasah Educa on 540.000 320.1 Con nued Increasing selfreliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 34 34 34 34 34 3 3 3 3 3 Provision of educa on subsidies/ scholarships for students from elementary schools Provision of lementary School Scholarships 2.370.000 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 33 .298 Ins tu onal Service Delivery Ac vi es Expanding the availability and equitable access and quality of PT interna onal compe The number of poor students receiving scholarships 65.200 3.100 1.396 714.358 645.916.000 640.000 69.
538 59.000 people 231 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es - Facilita on of child workers to return to school or receive skills training .1.538 59.000 4.538 Implementa on of condi onal cash aid to beneﬁt the poorest households (PKH).000 people 90.000 Increasing the availability of temporary employment for the unemployed and development of community infrastructure Development and Expansion of Employment Opportuni es The number of unemployed people to have temporary jobs Number of districts / ci es to implement temporary employment crea on for the unemployed 24.Reduc on of the number of children working in worst forms of child labor The number of child workers withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor. Increased Worker Protec on for Women and the Elimina on of Child Labour 3.300 5.000 The provision of rice to poor households Provision of Subsidized Rice for the Poor (RASKIN) Annual targets will be determined based on surveys of need.000 210.170.400 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 34 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 210. The percentage of child workers withdrawn from the worst form of child labor who return to school and / or acquire skills training.538 59.000 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 210. Condi onal Cash Transfers (PKH) 816.000 210.538 59.000 people 90.000 1.600 6.5 million The realiza on of the land redistribu on Provincial Land Management 210. Con nued Prioritas Provision of Scholarships for Islamic Higher Educa on Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased availability of scholarships for students from poor households The number of students from poor households targetd to receive scholarships (PTA ) Total number of the poorest households to receive condi onal cash assistance (PKH) Total recipient households (15 kg per household per 12 months) Implementa on of the redistribu on of land (hectares) 59.000 1.404.900 8.000 people 90.000 1.000 people 90. 17.116.516.
Control. Con nued Empowering communi es and accelera ng reduc on of poverty and unemployment in urban neighborhoods / sub-districts (PNPM Urban). 237 237 237 237 237 Accelera ng poverty reduc on through infrastructure development and community empowerment (RIS PNPM + PPIP) Number of villages improved through development of infrastructure 3.1.226 Regula ons.500 villages in 1.9 2. Financing.968 villages in 460 subdistricts 552 villages in 460 subdistricts 482 villages in 460 subdistricts Empowering communi es to accelerate reduc on of poverty and unemployment in districts and rural villages / (PNPM Perdesaan).237 1.940 subdistricts 4.946 subdistricts 4. The target areas of applica on of PNPMMP and strengthening PNPM Coverage areas of post-disaster reconstruc on and rehabilita on in crisis districts: Nias and Nias Selatan 4.094 ubdistricts 7. and Management of Sanita on Improvement Supervision. Control and Opera on of Se lement Development (RISE) Number of subdistricts served by the suppor ng infrastructure and socio-economic ac vi es.Prioritas Improving Urban Community SelfReliance (PNPM Urban) Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.482 villages in 805 subdistricts 4.650 villages (PAMSIMAS) 1. Guidance. Financing and Development of Water Supply Systema 210 districts/ ci es (SANIMAS) Target areas for infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site systems (district / city) Number of villages facilitated 30 districts/ ci es system on-site 35 districts/ ci es system on-site 40 districts/ ci es system on-site 45 districts/ ci es system on-site 50 districts/ ci es system on-site 4.237 1.45 1.165 500 700 813 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 35 .949 subdistricts Improving Rural Community Self-Reliance (PNPM-MP) 2 districts / 9 subdistricts Regula ons. The number of eighborhoods/ villages which beneﬁt from facilita on to empower 8. Guidance.472 1.943 subdistricts 4.791 subdistricts 4.
4.2 Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased empowerment and self reliance of two million micro enterprises in coastal se lements. and KUR) Realiza on of distribu on of Sharia ﬁnancing and commercial ﬁnancing for agricultural sector Total number of agricultural business centers in rural areas Total number of farmer groups PUAP (units) Policy Development. Ins tu onal Strengthening.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.596 villages 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) Increased number of tourist villages through PNPM tourism ini a ves Number of tourism villages 200 450 550 450 350 Budget available to guarantee People’s Business Credit (KUR) Percentage of budget available to guarantee KUR 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 Increasing socio-economic recovery and growth in less developed regions The number of districts.000 10.000 10. subdistricts and villages targeted in less developed regions 51 districts.000 businesses Increasing realiza on of the lending program (KKP-E and KUR) commercial ﬁnancing.5 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2. Islamic ﬁnancing.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1. and development of farmer groups PUAP Realiza on of lending for agriculture (CTF-E. development of rural agricultural business centers.5 trillion Rupiah Rural Agribusiness Development (PUAP) and Strengthening of Rural Economic Ins tu ons through LM3 4 trillion Rupiah 5 trillion Rupiah 6 trillion Rupiah 7 trillion Rupiah 8 trillion Rupiah 200 200 200 200 200 10.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. opera ng in 300 districts/ ci es supported by one unit BLU The number of groups of micro-enterprises in coastal areas and small islands are bankable Business Services and Community Empowerment Development of micro tools LKM Rural Community Empowerment Funding / PNPM MK Facilitators Micro Business Groups 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. 186 subdistricts.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. Coordina on and Facilita on of Local Governments in Less Developed Regions (P2DTK/SPADA) – PNPM Improvement of Tourism Sector PNPM Mandiri Support the People’s Business Credit Guarantee Cooperaon (KUR) 1.000 10.000 10.
The expansion of credit services / ﬁnancing banks for coopera ves and SMEs. 10 Prov. coupled with the development of informa on networks 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 7 Prov. 9 Prov.1. pawnshops in support of ﬁnance for coopera ves and SMEs. Con nued Increasing people’s business credit policy coordina on (KUR) 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increased coverage of credit / bank ﬁnancing for coopera ves and SMEs Coopera on involving ﬁnancing from banks and ﬁnancial ins tu ons / other ﬁnancing. 10 Prov. factoring. which work closely with the bank ﬁnancing Number of Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons Increasing the role of nonbank ﬁnancial ins tu ons. which supported the development of synergies and coopera on with ﬁnancial ins tu ons Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons (LPKD) doing co-guarantee with the na onal insurance agency The number of coopera ves that can access credit / ﬁnancing banks through linkages Number of MFIs (coopera ves and rural banks). 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2 2 2 3 3 The increased capacity and coverage of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons to provide ﬁnancing to coopera ves and SMEs Number of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on established 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 37 . such as KSP / KJKS. leasing companies. a venture capital. 8 Prov.Prioritas Policy Coordina on People’s Business Credit (KUR) Output/Indicator Percentage of policy recommenda ons to be implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.
200 people - 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Revitalizing the educa on system.200 people 2 Unit 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres System of educa on.000 people 1. The number of par cipants increased understanding of educa on and training of coopera ves and human resources in coopera ves 1. Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator The number of MFIs that are registered and accredited in accordance with the law of the MFI The number of MFIs that par cipate in management training Total HR management staﬀ KSP/ KJKS cer ﬁed Total LDP KJK and reinforced TUK Number of managers/ heads of branch KJK which included training and cer ﬁca on of competencies for MFIs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased ins tu onal capacity of MFIs. training and coopera ve educa on for members and managers of coopera ves.000 people 1. including the accredita on and cer ﬁca on service for MFIs.200 people 2 Unit 1.750 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1.000 managers MFIs 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 1. 1.000 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1. Improved ins tu onal capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs).750 people 38 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .1. including MFIs incorporated under the law of the oopera ve 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs Increasing the capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs). training and coopera ve extension for members and managers of coopera ves. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres of the more eﬀec ve The number of par cipants increase public understanding of coopera ves among the strategic groups.750 people 1.000 people - 1.000 managers MFIs 1.000 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.
02 million in 2010.05 percent. In the same year (1995). The employment opportuni es created during this me were able to absorb new members of the workforce entering the labor market.2008). indica ng that there is a higher preference Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 39 .8). The development of various indicators for "the crea on of full and produc ve employment opportuni es and provision of decent jobs for all. The strong economic growth during the 19901997 and 2004-2008 period resulted in the employment growth rate exceeding the rate of workforce growth. A er the crisis. The ra o of the employed to working age popula on in the 1990-2009 period experienced a rela vely small.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all.8). from a popula on structure dominated by the younger genera on in the 1970s to the current structure dominated by those of middle age. the growth rate of labor produc vity showed a tendency to decline. including women and young people" is detailed as follows: The growth of gross domes c product (GDP) per worker during the 1990-2009 period has varied signiﬁcantly. and the lowest in 1998 amounted to -12. The demographic transi on. amoun ng to 5. has resulted in a rapid increase in the working popula on. amoun ng to -0. The growth of the working age popula on has been higher than the growth of the workforce. but quite dynamic change. the working age popula on amounted to 63. Meanwhile.68 percent and the lowest in 2001.36 percent per year during the past 10 years. at the me of the economic crisis.91 percent (see Figure 1. amoun ng to 18. In 1971. In the industrial sector the highest growth rate occurred in 1995. The last two decades have seen a diminishing ra o of employment to the working age popula on.42 percent as compared to the period a er the crisis period (1997/1998 . the agricultural sector also experienced the highest growth rate of 12. from 65 percent to 62 percent.53 percent. The lower growth rate of "post crisis" labor produc vity was partly due to the dwindling capital accumula on per worker during the post crisis period. job opportuni es were s ll created even though they were mainly in the informal sector (Figure 1. including women and young people Current Status Since the 1970s employment condi ons in Indonesia have been inﬂuenced by the demographic transi on of the popula on structure and two economic crises that occurred in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008.15 per cent. averaging 3.34 million whereas it is es mated to have reached 171. with an average annual growth of about 2. Growth of GDP per worker in the period before the crisis of 1997/1998 (during 1990-1995) was rela vely high.
The employment ra o in the sector has decreased from 71 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2009 (Figure 1. Employment to Popula on Ra o for Urban and Rural Areas and for the Na onal Level 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: BPS.9). This source of 40 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . 1990-2009 EPR Urban EPR Rural EPR Total The declining ra o of workers who work in the informal sector is made possible by the growth of wage employment and increasing worker produc vity.8. 1993. 1990-2009 25% The growth rate of labor produc vity (%) 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15% -20% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: BPS. 80% Figure 1. Figure 1. Extracted from Sakernas and Indonesia Sta s cs in years 1990. The Growth Rate of Labor Produc vity (in Percentages) for the Agriculture.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger among students to con nue their schooling to higher levels of educa on rather than to ﬁnd a job. Industry and the Service Sector. 1996.7. 1999-2009 Agriculture Industry Services Total Improvements in the quality of job opportuni es have resulted in a reduc on in the propor on of self-employed workers and family workers (generally in the informal sector) to total employment. Sakernas.
employment grew by 1.9 percent per annum during the period 2008-2009. Produc vity of workers has increased signiﬁcantly over the last several years.
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nop-05 Agust-06 Agust-07 Agust-08 Agust-09
Figure 1.9. The Propor on of Vulnerable Workers to Total Workers, 1990-2009
Source: BPS, Sakernas (1990-2009).
First: Expanding formal employment opportuni es. Investment recovery that has not met expecta ons may well be a constraint to achievement of a higher economic growth rate. Contribu ng factors to the weak investment climate have been well documented and include, among others, slow investment recovery in infrastructure provision, legal and bureaucra c issues as well as uncertainty in property ownership. Uncertainty in industrial rela ons, including the provisions of severance payment due to layoﬀ as well as on contract and outsourced workers, has aﬀected the compe veness of several key labor-intensive industries, although this is not the sole, deciding factor. Second: Narrowing the wage gap between workers at the same level. Current changes in wages are determined by the increasing price level rather than improvements in produc vity. Produc vity has not yet become the main determinant in wage calcula on. Ideally, the components for determining the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR) should not only include inﬂa on factors, but also produc vity and achievement of job outputs. Third: Accelera ng workers transi on from lower produc vity jobs to higher produc vity jobs. This entails moving “labor surplus” out of the tradi onal or informal sector into more produc ve jobs which provide higher wages. Worker transi on from tradi onal sectors with low produc vity encourages wage increment, improves workers’ output as well as narrows the gap in wage and labor produc vity. Should the growth in the formal sector slow down, it will result in more workers entering the informal sector so that workers in the informal sector (including their families) will be in a state of greater uncertainty.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Policies and Strategis
Crea ng as many employment opportuni es as possible by promo ng investment and business expansion. The government will con nue to promote the crea on of job opportuni es in the formal sector by promo ng investment growth and business expansion. This policy con nues to be implemented so that the economy will grow and develop. Improving the investment climate is one of the government’s na onal priori es, both for urban and rural areas. Improving the environment and mechanisms of industrial rela ons to promote employment and business opportuni es. Through a process of nego a on and delibera on and bipar te discussions, workers and employers can resolve issues rela ng to their respec ve needs and interests. The government will be more ac ve in working to create more conducive industrial rela ons and to encourage collec ve bargaining between workers and employers. Crea ng employment opportuni es through government programs. This policy aims to assist the unemployed who do not have access to economic ac vi es. Unemployment is not only found in urban areas, but also in areas that have been le behind in terms of economic development. Improving the quality of workers. The competence of Indonesian workers is s ll perceived as an obstacle for business development. The low level of competence is a constraint to the improvement of na onal economic security. Indonesia's compe veness and produc vity s ll lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. One eﬀort to be taken to improve labor produc vity will be to improve worker skills. Improving the produc vity of agricultural workers. The government will give a en on to workers in the agricultural sector through improving agricultural sector produc vity. This will be done through various ac vi es, including: (a) extending the scope of agricultural sector management by intensifying research to expand agricultural ac vi es, thus increasing agricultural output and added value; and (b) providing workers with knowledge and skills, through educa on, training and agricultural extension. In me, knowledge and skills improvement will have an impact on the enhancement of agricultural produc vity. Developing social security and empowering workers. Strategies for providing workers with social security will be implemented, including development of social security programs that provide workers with the greatest possible beneﬁts. For informal workers, there is a need to protect workers from their working environment and the dispropor onate use of their labor. Assistance will also be provided to workers in the form of training to improve skills to help them increase their produc vity and, thus, their welfare.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Implemen ng key employment regula ons. The ILO Declara on on the Principles and Fundamental Rights in the Workplace mandates the implementa on and enforcement of basic labor standards.
Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
The nutri onal level of the popula on has improved over me, as indicated by the decline in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age. Indonesia has made good progress in improving nutri on outcomes over the past two decades. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age, who are moderately and severely underweight, decreased from 31.0 percent in 1989 to 21.6 percent in 2000. A slight rise was seen between 2000 and 2005, reaching 24.5 percent in 2005. However in 2007 it decreased to 18.4 percent (Riskesdas 2007) and progress on this indicator is considered to be on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.5 percent by 2015 (Figure 1.10). In the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) the Government has set the new target for this indicator to be less than 15.0 percent in 2014.
29.8 27.7 26.1 22.8 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.2 24.5 18.4
Target MDG 2015
Figure 1.10. Trend in the Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age (1989-2007) Using the WHO 2005 Standard and the MDG Target for this Indicator in 2015
23.8 7.2 21.7 8.1 15.4 12.3 14.8 11.3 13.9 8,9 13.2 8.4 15.0 6.8 14.6 8.6 14.5 8.7 14.8 9.7 13.0 5.4
1989 1992 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2007 2015
Source: BPS, Susenas 1989 to 2005 and MOH, Riskesdas 2007.
Dispari es in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age remain a problem. Even though the na onal MDG target for the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age is expected to be achieved, dispari es exist in nutri onal
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
6 DI Yogyakarta Bali Kepulauan Riau DKI Jakarta Jawa Barat Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Banten Bengkulu Jawa Timur Lampung Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung INDONESIA Jambi Kalimantan Timur Sumatera Barat Papua Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Sumatera Utara Maluku Utara Papua Barat Kalimantan Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Aceh Kalimantan Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Maluku Nusa Tenggara Timur Source: MOH.9 18. In addi on to Nusa Tenggara Timur.6 percent).4 12. The Susenas 2002-2008 data showed that the average dietary calorie intake in 2002 was 44 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .8 percent).8 25.2.3 20. Based on the average daily dietary energy consump on intake per capita.5 percent) (Figure 1.9 percent.0 15.5 26.7 22. which indicates achievement of the MDG target (Table 1.7 22.2 21.9 15.2 24.3 18. and Aceh (26. Riskesdas 2007 Region Rural Urban Indonesia Severely Underweight 6.9 3. Riskesdas 2007 showed that the lower the household income the higher the prevalence of underweight of children under ﬁve years of age. Riskesdas 2007 Severely Underweight Moderately Underweight Total Underweight Moreover. Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007) Source: MOH. Kalimantan Selatan (26.4 4.5 22. 15.11).2 percent.9 11.4 percent.2 18. The Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age by Province (2007) Percentage 33.4 15.6 40 10.2 5.5 17. while in urban areas it was 15. provinces with the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve above 25 percent include: Maluku (27.9 19.6 18.6 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). there has been a signiﬁcant improvement in reducing undernourishment in Indonesia.4 percent na onally while in rural areas it was 6. Data in Table 1. disparity between rural and urban areas remains. Table 1.8 16.4 18.4 26.4 17. Riskesdas 2007 indicated that the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age ranged from 10.2 21.5 11. between rural and urban areas.4 25.4 percent and in urban areas 4. The data indicates that the MDG target of 3.2 24.3 percent is not yet achieved in rural and urban areas.4 22.11.2). Figure 1. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age in rural areas in 2007 was 20.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger status among provinces. Sulawesi Tengah (27.4 The propor on of the popula on with a daily kcal intake of less than 2.000 calories is s ll high. and among socio-economic groups.7 17.6 27.2 also indicates that the prevalence of severely underweight children under ﬁve years of age was 5.9 percent (DI Yogyakarta) to 33.7 13 Total Underweight 20.4 Moderately Underweight 14 11.6 16.8 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TARGET 2015 .6 27.6 percent).8 23.4 12.0 16.
030 2.986 kcal per capita per day which was below the minimum requirement of 2. 2005 2007 2008 The Government of Indonesia is commi ed to improving the nutri onal status of the popula on. the government set up health sector policies in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2009 which cover the community nutri on improvement program. In 2008.000 kcal per capita per day. Moreover. 2.986 Source: BPS.000 1. Trends in the Average Calorie Consump on for Rural and Urban Households (2002-2008) 2. To address the high prevalence of malnutri on among children. par cularly the poor. lack of awareness and commitment of the government contributes to the existence of the malnutri on problem. tuberculosis. par cularly due to poverty.1.960 1. malaria. (ii) inappropriate child care due to low levels of educa on among mothers. with the following immediate objec ves: (i) improvement of family nutri on awareness (kadarzi) through community-based growth monitoring and counseling.038 Figure 1.950 2002 1.980 1.015 2. water and sanita on services. Susenas. Lack of access of the poor with low educa on to quality and safe food. poor people in par cular consume unsafe food which adversely aﬀects their health and nutri onal status. The poor have low Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 45 . it increased to 2. and (iv) improvement of food for ﬁca on.007 2.050 2. and (iii) inadequate access to health.12).12.038 kcal per capita per day (Figure 1.990 1. In its eﬀorts to fulﬁll the global accord. Challenges Economic and socio-cultural factors aﬀec ng low nutri onal status among children under ﬁve years of age include: (i) lack of access to quality food. (iii) promo on of healthy lifestyle behavior. (ii) preven on of nutri on-related diseases such as diarrhea.010 2. and HIV/AIDS.970 1.040 2. Moreover. The data conﬁrm that food consump on improvement par cularly among the poor is urgently needed. the government has implemented the Food and Nutri on Ac on Plan 2006-2010.020 Kcal/capita/day 2. several years.
0 70.2 68. the Posyandu ac vi es deteriorated under decentraliza on as indicated by huge varia ons of malnutri on rates among provinces. Figure 1. However.0 84.0 80. During the period 2002-2007. the United Na ons Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organiza on (WHO) recommend that children be exclusively breas ed for at least six months a er birth. 2002-2007 PPH Score 88.6 81. in terms of quan ty as well as quality.0 2002 2005 2007 Rural Urban Indonesia The prac ce of exclusive breast feeding has declined.13.0 78.0 77. However.6 in 2007.9 80.6 81. The quality of food consump on is s ll low. several years. par c ularly among children under ﬁve.1 77. The role of the community in dealing with malnutri on has been declining.5 75.9 83. the unbalanced food consump on pa ern of Indonesians can lead to serious disease problems and even death. Susenas. the quality of food consump on improved as indicated by an increase in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score from 77. To minimize morbidity and mortality of children. Un l the early 1990s.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger capacity to acquire the required food intake. Nutri on policy development and program planning and management are inadequate in both capacity and ins tu onal linkages. has been undertaken in Integrated Health Posts (Posyandu). Trend in the Desirable Dietary Pa ern (PPH) Score of Food Consump on for Rural and Urban Households. Lack of ins tu ons dealing with hunger eradica on programs. Lack of food intake and inappropriate caring pa ern result in malnutri on among chidren under ﬁve years of age.0 74. A strong na onal intersectoral body for coordina ng and enforcing nutri on policies across sectors and across the levels of administra on does not exist.5 in 2002 to 83. In 2007 only about 32 percent of children under six months were exclusively breas ed in Indonesia.0 Source: BPS. Community par cipa on in dealing with malnutri on. the na onwide system of Posyandus was the main mechanism for nutri on service delivery at the community level. and only 41 percent of children under four months old were exclusively breas ed.0 86.0 76. Moreover.8 79. this ﬁgure is s ll far from the ideal PPH score of 100 in both rural and urban popula ons.0 72. 85.0 82. 46 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Therefore. and (ii) investments in basic infrastructure (health.Na onal food security ins tu ons are not eﬀec ve in solving problems related to hunger and malnutri on. Strengthen food and nutri on service delivery at the grassroots level through the following: (i) revitalize Posyandu to expand coverage of service delivery for food and nutri on. par cularly children under ﬁve years of age and pregnant women. and (iii) develop nutri on programs through community-based ac vi es by empowering local community-based ins tu ons such as religious gatherings (kelompok pengajian) and women’s organiza ons. Develop speciﬁc pro-poor assistance interven ons to provinces and districts with high prevalence of malnutri on. to adequate nutri ous and safe food and other interven ons such as nutrient supplementa on. par cularly in rural and urban slum areas. the ins tu onal framework for nutri on and food security at central and district levels will be strengthened. 2. The problem of malnutri on and food insecurity is mul sectoral in nature. Other strategies that will be developed include: (i) socializa on and advocacy on social and cultural behavior for healthy lifestyle. 4. water. and poli cal issues. Improve food security at the local level par cularly to reduce disparity among regions. Strengthen community empowerment and revitalize Posyandus. Policies and programs should be formulated holis cally and require an ins tu onal framework with a strong authority and capacity in synchronizing and coordina ng ac vi es in food and nutri on. Ac ons to be carried out include: (i) expansion of exclusive breast- Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47 . the Government set the new target of reducing undernourishment of children under ﬁve years of age to be less than 15.5 percent in 2015 and to improve the propor on of the popula on consuming at least the minimum level of dietary energy consump on are as follows: 1. and (iii) developing a local-based food diversiﬁca on program through improvement of food produc on and post-harvest technology and advocacy of balanced diets. (ii) improving the eﬃciency of food distribu on and handling systems. Increase access of the poor.0 percent. sanita on). par cularly to promote exclusive breast-feeding and infant feeding prac ces. In the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. Strengthen ins tu ons at the central and dictrict levels that have a strong authority in formula ng policy and programs in food and nutri on. Policies and Strategis Policies and strategies to reduce the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age to 15. Ensure food security at the local level by: (i) increasing agricultural produc vity. 3. economic. including reac va on of growth monitoring prac ce (GMP). (ii) provide linkages of nutri on to early child educa on program (PAUD). related to socio-cultural.
MPASI buﬀer stock for disaster areas Percentage of households with nutri onal awareness (keluarga sadar gizi) 48 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (v) nutri on educa on and kadarzi. Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) Outputs/Indicators Percentage of severe undernourished children under 5 years ﬁve years old receiving care Percentage of severe undernourished children 6-24 months old from poor households receiving MPASI (food supplement) Percentage 0-6 months old babies with exclusive breast feeding Coverage of Iodized salt Percentage of 6-59 month old children receiving vitamin A supplement Percentage of Puskemas implemen ng nutri onal status monitoring and providing care for the severely undernourished Percentage of districts implemen ng nutri on surveillance Percentage of children under 5 years old weighed for growth monitoring Percentage of children under 5 years old of poor households (GAKIN) receiving recovery food supplements (PMT pemulihan) 2010 100 2011 100 2012 100 2013 100 2014 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 75 75 67 78 78 70 80 80 75 83 83 100 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 100 70 100 75 100 80 100 85 100 100 60 100 100 65 100 100 70 100 100 75 100 100 80 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014). (iii) supplementary feeding for pregnant and lacta ng mothers. (ii) complementary and supplementary feeding for children 6-24 months old. 3/2010. In line with the above policies and strategies. Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2010-2014 and Presiden al Instruc on No.3. (vi) strengthening malnutri on mi ga on management in primary health centers (Puskesmas) and hospitals.3.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger feeding. the Na onal Medium-Term Developement Plan 20102014 set up programs and targets to address malnutri on par cularly among children under ﬁve years of age as listed in Table 1. and (v) strengthening the food and nutri on surveillance system. Table 1. (iv) strengthening communitybased nutri on programs through Posyandu.
Kindergarten and primary school students Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education .
the GER was 98. The primary school (SD/MI) gross enrolment ra o (GER) achieved universal coverage by the early 1980s. The propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school shows an increasing trend.0 percent in 2008. disparity in educa on par cipa on has been reduced. The Susenas 2009 indicated the NER of all other provinces were above 90 percent.23 percent. This ﬁgure indicates the decreasing trend in the dropout rate at primary schools. At the primary school level.1). At the junior secondary level (SMP/MT). grades 7 to 9) in the universal basic educa on target. The school drop-out rate has been decreasing.77 percent while the net enrolment ra o (NER) was 95.52 percent (Figure 2. Susenas data indicates that the percentage of children aged 16-18 years who completed primary educa on increased from 87. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Current Status Indonesia aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to include junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. and stayed high despite the ﬁnancial crisis of the late 1990s. Access to Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on.09 percent (Figure 2. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 51 .2).11 percent and the NER was 74.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2A: Ensure that. the GER was 116. except for Papua where the NER was measured to be 76. by 2015.8 percent in 1995 to 93. boys and girls alike. In 2008/2009. children everywhere. including madrasah.
1 76.6 93.6 107. NER .4 61.9 64.6 96.5 60 65. Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School Including Madrasah by Province.5 Figure 2.9 20 0 1992 42.3 92.1 108.0 115.2 82.0 1993 46.1 1995 51.6 2002 61.2 2000 60. 2006). Beyond access.1 116.23 Bali Banten Aceh Riau Kali imantan Barat 2009 74.3 Source: BPS.Junior Secondary School/MTs Figure 2.1 107.2.1 55.47 percent in 2009.4 2006 66.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Percentage 74. Susenas and MoNE Sta s cs. The nine-year basic educa on graduates do not always have adequate skills relevant to the needs of the community or the labor market.5 94.2 107.2 2001 60.7 92.Junior Secondary School/MTs GER .1 106. Indonesia’s educa onal quality is low compared to neighboring countries.9 110.0 105.0 93.6 1997 1998 57.7 2007 71.9 81.1.1 107.2 91.8 Nusa Te enggara Timur Jambi Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Maluku Papua Barat INDONESIA Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Lampung S Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Kalim mantan Selatan Kalim mantan Tengah Kalim mantan Timur Sul lawesi Tengah Ba angka Belitung Su umatera Utara Su umatera Barat DI Yogyakarta Ke epulauan Riau S Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur wesi Sulaw Tenggara Source: BPS.2009 116.71 percent in 1992 to 99.6 2008 72. Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os (NER) for Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on Levels (Including Madrasah). The literacy rate of the poorest group in the popula on rose signiﬁcantly from 92.7 2003 63.0 102.3 93.7 92.2 95. The Susenas data of 1992 to 2009 indicated that the literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years increased from 96.8 40 1994 50.6 57.3 88. Susenas 2009 and MoNE Sta s cs 2008/2009. The literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years is increasing.0 1996 54.4 107.6 91.3 79.Primary School/MI NER .7 92.3 80 70.0 1999 59.1 82.5 2004 65. Measured by interna onal standards.9 percent in 1995 to 97.7 100 92.1 108.5 88.2 73.Primary School/MI GER .5 95.5 92. Based on the Third Interna onal 52 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sum matera Selatan Sul lawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Gorontalo Papua .2 2005 65. 1992 .2 98.9 91.8 percent in 2006 for the 15-24 years age group (UNESCO.3 106.7 92. 2009 Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 95. Progress in increasing the literacy rate has occurred largely due to improvements in the par cipa on rate of educa on and the propor on of students who have been able to complete their educa on at the primary level.0 77.5 78.2 92.3 107.3 107. the quality of educa on has been a concern of the government.6 92.0 120 106.
Improving the quality and equal distribu on of teachers in all regions to improve the quality of basic educa on. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge to the achievement of the MDG educa on targets. (ii) lack of highly qualiﬁed teachers. poverty is considered to be a major factor contribu ng to the low access to schooling. only 31 percent of children could complete more than the most basic reading tasks. especially in the poorest urban and rural areas. There is a strong correla on between teachers’ academic qualiﬁca ons. Indonesian student performance ranked 34 out of 45 countries. par cularly in remote. This was due to lack of access to books and other reading materials. Reaching the unreached in improving equitable access of all children. par cularly in remote and underserved areas. boys and girls. it includes: (i) insuﬃcient educa onal infrastructure. Moreover. the low quality of governance in educa on management contributes to low equitable access of all children to quality basic educa on. books and teaching learning equipments for basic educa on. there is a challenge to develop the holis c and integrated ECED program and to improve the quality of non-formal educa on (NFE) programs par cularly to poor communi es. Poverty is a major factor contribu ng to low enrollment in basic educa on with lack of aﬀordability being the reason for 70 percent of non-a endance at school (AIBEP 2008).1). and improved learning outcomes. Challenges Improving equitable access of all children. costs are s ll signiﬁcant and o en unaﬀordable for poor parents. which was below the average of OECD countries (492). However. which examines how well students aged 15 years are prepared for life. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge in achieving the educa on MDG target. In the 2006 Program for Interna onal Student Assessment (PISA). lack of qualiﬁed teachers. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 53 . the average score of reading ability of Indonesian students was 393. in reality. and (iv) lack of funding for school opera ons. On the supply side. In addi on. (iii) lack of relevant curriculum and the low quality of teaching learning process. uniforms and books. boys and girls. including teaching-learning materials and equipment. In addi on. Moreover. par cularly for daily travel. lunches. Several cri cal factors have prevented Indonesia from achieving universal basic educa on. overall school eﬀec veness. However. is a major challenge in improving equitable access to quality basic educa on in Indonesia (Table 2. there is a need to expand provision of an adequate infrastructure. and Indonesia ranked 44 among 57 countries. On the demand side.Mathema cs Science Study (TIMSS 2003). The na onwide implementa on of the BOS program which was intended to support the government policy of free basic educa on contributed to improvement of school par cipa on by elimina ng cost barriers. underserved areas.
Indonesia’s decision to decentralize government is transforming the nature and level of public service delivery.8 percent to 3.110.49 24. Senior 1-3 4 / S1 SS 53.497. 4 / S1 32. par cularly in poor.601 29. educa on spending as a propor on of GDP increased from 2. and fund transfer mechanisms to improve eﬃciency.633 1. *not including madrasah teachers.080 758. However.728 29. accountability.294 101. 11. From 2001 to 2009.915 Diploma 1-3 71.972 ≤ Diploma ≥ Dipl.79 36.60 100 100 Developing be er ﬁnancing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve eﬃciency. Policies and Strategies 1.422 1.890 ≥ Dipl.984 374.13 46.083 Propor on (%) Total 223.876 961.659 502.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Table 2. the government has drama cally increased public funding alloca ons for educa on. The transi on to decentraliza on has not yet included guidelines for monitoring and evalua on as well benchmarking on progress achieved by ins tu ons at all levels of government. accountability. decentraliza on of educa on policy has not been fully implemented as intended. 2010.378 364.1.88 89. Improving educa on management accountability and eﬃciency in the decentralized system.81 50.806 535.917 2.26 14. Priori es to Improve Equitable Access: a. Therefore.4 percent to 20 percent. transfer of resources from central government to district and to schools resulted in reduc on of local budget for educa on (subs tu on eﬀect). A en on will be given to concurrently ra onalizing and accelera ng provision of adequate school infrastructure 54 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and equity in funding and to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.96 Total 100 100 100 PrePrimary (TK) Primary School (SD/MI) Junior Secondary School (SMP/ MT) Senior Secondary School (SMA/SMK/MA) TOTAL Source: Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Educa on Personnel.590 475. However.311 3. and equity in funding to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on. Formulate and implement policy at na onal and local levels to accelerate provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facili es.83 20. Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* Number of Teachers Educa on Level ≤ Senior SS 119. madrasah and pesantren.54 7. including in educa on. In line with educa on reform plans to accelerate the pace of achieving MDG educa on targets.637 341. a challenge is to further develop be er ﬁnancing.607. underserved and remote areas.35 73.78 31.02 5.08 20.7 percent and as a propor on of public expenditures from 11.70 25.120 341. MONE.
Accelerate provision of holis c and integrated ECED services in rural and underserved areas. Moreover. c. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. d. and (iii) improving coordina on of educa on equivalency programs between MoNE and the Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs (MoRA). An aﬃrma ve policy for the poor is essen al to accelerate access to quality educa on services. Equivalency program (Packets A and B) will be be er targeted to reach poor and dropout students. More speciﬁcally. monitoring. c. b. facili es and infrastructure for informal educa on. and accountability of BOS. provincial. Priori es to Improve Quality and Relevance: a. eﬃciency. Strategies may include: (i) increasing the eﬃcient u liza on of formal school human resources. and evalua on of BOS by enhancing the capacity of school commi ees. eﬃciency. The training will cover teacher support and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 55 . Districts will be encouraged or mandated to allocate a share of their budget to support an increase in holis c and integrated ECED services in underserved areas. Ins tu onal capacity at district. the curriculum and teaching-learning process will be enhanced to build moral values and character. 2. Curriculum reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and teaching-learning process to enable students to develop their intellectual. and central levels to improve planning and monitoring on program performance will be strengthened e. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for school dropouts. and ensuring matching funds from revenue-rich districts. Improvement of training on school-based management (SBM) targeted to school principals and supervisors. In order to increase learning quality. b. all teacher training ins tutes (Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTKs) will review their courses with a view to improve prac cal classroom performance and apply best prac ces in linking teaching to improved student learning. Capacity of local government and schools in managing the implementa on of BOS will be strengthened in order to raise the eﬀec veness. spiritual. This should include increasing the number of cost-based scholarships for poor students in primary and junior secondary schools in targeted areas with the lowest enrolment rates. (ii) improving eﬃciency and quality of services through enhancement of the curriculum and quality assurance of program implementa on to ensure equivalency to formal educa on. Strengthen the eﬀec veness. and accountability in the implementa on of BOS. community par cipa on will be increased in planning. and social capaci es. Ensure educa on ﬁnancing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address inequitable alloca on of funds and educa on resources.and teaching learning resources that meet minimum service standards (MSS). emo onal. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training provision.
alongside eﬀec ve mechanisms for ensuring mutual accountability between central and districts. and establishment of the Na onal Educa on Council to improve governance. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 sets up program priori es as listed in Table 2. c. ﬁnancial planning and management. Strengthen accountability in educa on resource management. monitoring and supervision. (v) developing governance and accountability indicators and informa on systems at the district level. Priori es to Strengthen Governance and Accountability: a. as well as ﬁnancial management. planning and budge ng. Improve local government capacity in managing basic educa on programs. b. The strategies will include: (i) evalua ng budget eﬃciency and funding mechanisms. (ii) promo on of public-private partnerships with explicit roles for parents and the community in school performance and school-based management. (ii) developing performance-based budge ng ed to quality standards and incen ve mechanisms. (iii) strengthening performance evalua on and quality assurance systems. (iv) strengthening management informa on systems. 3. (iv) strengthening ﬁnancial repor ng systems. and (vi) improving the quality of informa on for educa on sector performance to ensure adherence to standards. and between schools and parents. District ins tu onal capacity will be strengthened through expanding coverage of capacity development programs in educa on management including analysis. monitoring and evalua on. (iii) recogni on of civil society organiza ons as legi mate par cipants in the direc on of the educa on system through strengthening Provincial Educa on Councils and District Educa on Councils.2: 56 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Increase community par cipa on. In line with the above policies and strategies. Improvement of community par cipa on in educa on management will be conducted through: (i) advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobiliza on.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education staﬀ performance appraisal. and community par cipa on.
000 188.8.131.520 27.2% 95.000 28. and ﬁnance through Educa on Council 10% 15% 25% 65% 100% Improving quality and welfare of teacher and educa on personnel for primary educa on 15% 25% 45% 70% 90% Improving Management Capacity for basic educa on Improved improved Improved Improved Improved Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014.085.000 28.681.3% 95.803 3. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 57 .973.006.626. control. 2010-2014 95.736. implementa on.672.543 3.8% 96.591 Provision of quality and aﬀordable text books 100% - - - - Availability of qualiﬁed teachers Provision of and educa on teaching-learning personnel of SD/MI system and that equitable in all curriculum districts/ Percentage of SD/MI principals a ending the training Management and quality assurance system at DG of Primary and Secondary Management improved/ Involvement of community in duca on planning.0% Provision of educa on subsidy for SD/SDLB 27.000 Provision of educa on subsidy for MI 3. Program Priori es.919 3.322 3.791.555. Outputs and Indicators of the Educa on Sector.7% 95.Priori es Improving access and quality of primary educa o n (SD/MI) Outputs/ Indicators Equitable access to quality primary educa on in all districts achieved/ NER of primary educa on Subsidy for students in SD/SDLB allocated and distributed/ Number of students in SD/SLB received BOS Subsidy for students in MI/Diniyah Ula allocated and distributed/ Number of students in MI/ Diniyah Ula received BOS Availability of curriculum and teachinglearning models/ Percentage of improved curriculum implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 2.
58 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
2009 using the internet. May 11. This supernets event was held to commemorate Kar ni Day. One thousand women in the Atrium TP3 Surabaya.SUPERNETS. Na onal Educa on Day and the 716th Anniversary of Surabaya Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women .
and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Current Status One of the human development goals of Indonesia is to achieve gender equality by building human resources without diﬀeren a ng between men and women. the NER at the junior secondary level including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MT/Package B).17 (Gorontalo) and at the senior secondary level Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 61 . During the same period. Meanwhile. In educa on. gender equality in educa on has shown signiﬁcant progress. In 2009.73. gender equality has improved signiﬁcantly. the MDG target to achieve gender equality at all levels of educa on will be met.16. and at all levels of higher educa on it was 102. Susenas data from 1993 to 2009 shows that the NER of both girls and boys at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI/Package A) was more than 90. Susenas 2009 indicated that the NER of females to males was close to homogenous among provinces with the GPI ranging from 96.5 (Kepulauan Riau).99.54 (Papua) to 116. Measured by the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) or the ra o of NER of females to males. at the senior secondary educa on level (SM/MA/Package C) it was 96. dispari es s ll exist at the post pimary educa on level (Figure 3. while at the junior secondary educa on level (SMP/MT/Package B) it was 101. preferably by 2005. and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA/Package C) increased signiﬁcantly. Much eﬀort has been undertaken to improve the quality of life and the role of women to enable them to be equal partners with men in development. where at the junior secondary level the GPI ranged from 89. Using this indicator.95 (Susenas 2009).Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education.1). the GPI of NER for higher educa on ﬂuctuates with a tendency to rise signiﬁcantly.39 (Papua Barat) to 102. the GPI at primary schools (SD/MI/Package A) was 99. However.
Jawa Timur. For example in August 2009 around 31. In the employment sector. Sumatera Selatan. and Papua Barat (6 provinces). The MDG target on the literacy ra o of females to males aged 15-24 years has been achieved.1. Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nusa Tenggara Timur. 2009 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Papua Barat DKI Jakarta Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Jawa Timur Papua Bali Banten Lampung Maluku Utara DI Yogyakarta INDONESIA Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sumatera Utara Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Aceh Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Maluku Gorontalo Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Utara Jambi Riau Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau 0 Source: BPS. Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) Senior Secondary Schools by Province. provinces with GPI of more than 110 include Sumatera Barat.47 percent. Papua. The ﬁgures indicate that disparity among provinces is s ll a major problem par cularly for senior and higher educa on levels. the percentage of waged 62 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Riau. However. Susenas 2009. At the senior secondary level. In 2009 the GPI was almost 100. Progress in educa on par cipa on of both male and female contributed to improvement of the na onal GPI for literacy of the 15-24 year age group. from 9. Morover. This rate is signiﬁcantly lower than that of their male counterparts which averaged around 84 percent during the same period. the female labor force par cipa on rate is lower than that of males. The low labor par cipa on rate of females was due to most females chosing to work domes cally as housewives. the female labor force par cipa on rate has shown no signiﬁcant increase from 2004 to 2009. the open unemployment rate of females showed signiﬁcant progress. while provinces with GPI less than 90 include DKI Jakarta.8 million females chose to work as housewives while only 1. declining by 6 percent during 2005 to 2009. with female literacy rates at 99. In several provinces the GPI exceeded 110 which indicates that the NER of female students is much higher than that of males.71 percent to 8. and Gorontalo. Figure 3.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women it ranged from 68.4 percent and male literacy rates at 99. with an average rate of around 50 percent.6 percent. Nusa Tenggara Timur. and Sulawesi Barat (7 provinces). Bangka Belitung. At the junior secondary level. Kepulauan Riau. while the open unemployment rate for males declined by only 1.60 (Papua Barat) to 143. from 14.5 million males were recorded to be in this category.22 (Kepulauan Riau). Jawa Barat.5 percent. provinces with GPI higher than 110 include DI Yogyakarta.29 percent to 7. Based on the Na onal Labor Force Survey (Sakernas).51 percent during the same period.
the data shows that there is a wide wage disparity between females and males.166 1.9 percent of seats in the legisla ve branch. The result of the 2009 general elec on were that women have 17.400 1. execu ve and judica ve). The biggest gap was in casual employees in non-agriculture sectors where women receive only 54 percent of males’ wage. the average monthly wage of female workers categorized as employees increased from Rp 676.083 974 893 1. Although the average wage of female workers has increased.000 800 600 400 200 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 915 677 540 930 689 609 824 715 593 633 396 732 1.448 Average monthly wages (thousand Rp.women in non-agricultural sectors increased from 29.255 1. an increase from 11. In poli cs. 1. the average wage of female casual employees also increased from Rp 277. Sakernas 2004-2009.1).600 1.3 percent in 2009. wage discrimina on is s ll prevalent.611 to Rp 1.2.098.183 to Rp 396. (Figure 3. In Sulawesi Utara the average wage of women is higher than that of males (Map 3. While the wage levels of female workers have increased.2).8 percent in 2004 to 27. white collars Female labour workers. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 63 . Sakernas data showed that from 2004 to 2009. In Nusa Tenggara Barat. A quan ﬁable improvement has been recorded in the propor on of women in public ins tu ons (legisla ve. Disparity in the average wage of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers exists among provinces. Average Monthly Wages (Rp ‘000) of Male and Female Workers in Non-Agricultural Sectors 277 267 294 337 355 Male labour workers.200 1.02 percent in 2004 to 3. white collars Male casual employee in non-agricultural sector Female casual employee in non-agricultural sector Source: BPS.115.3 percent in the period 2004-2009.364. The propor on of women in DPD has also increased from 19. the wage of female worker was only 58 percent of the average male worker’s wage in 2009. In non-agricultural sectors. The quota for women legisla ve candidates as mandated by law was met by all poli cal par es in the 2009 general elec on.45 percent in 2009 (Sakernas 2004-2009).) 1.098 Figure 3. progress has been achieved as indicated by the issuance of a law that mandates a quota of 30 percent women’s representa on in parliament.
at the district level. less than 10 women ﬁll the posi on of Mayor or district head (Bupa ). Ministry of Home Aﬀairs. Sta s cal Yearbook of Indonesia. strong coordina on among government ins tu ons at the central and provincial levels is required to ensure a synergy between na onal and regional laws. there is only one female Vice Governor while. The propor on of women out of the total number of state civil servants was 44.depdagri. In educa on. dispari es among provinces at senior secondary and hgher educa on as well as in employment and poli cs are s ll a major challenge. and also to implement comprehensive 1 2 State Civil Service Agency. gender equality and empowerment showed signiﬁcant progress. therefore. Special a en on is.7 percent of senior (Echelon 1) posi ons and 7. In 2008. However.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Map 3. Moreover. 2008. par cularly those in remote and rural areas. In employment. enforcing laws to ensure equal opportuni es without discrimina on for women and men in employment and in the job place is a major challenge. only 8. 2009.1 percent of Echelon 2 posi ons were ﬁlled by women.go.id 64 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . www. The Average Wages of Female Workers as Percentages of the Average Wages of Male Workers by Province in August 2009 Source: BPS. needed to achieve gender parity among geographically dis nct provinces which have diﬀering characteris cs and cultural values.1 At the provincial level. women’s par cipa on in senior management posi ons of execu ve and judica ve ins tu ons is s ll low.2 Challenges At the na onal level. Sakernas In decision making.1. par cularly in par cipa on in educa on.5 percent. the challenge is not only improving the NER of females but also the NER of males depending on the situa on. The primary focus is to target children from poor families.
This is due to lack of planning related to gender issues. d) Provide social protec on to women who work in the informal sector. Strategic steps to be carried out in educa on are as follows: a) Improve access and quality of educa on to reduce gender inequality among regions and among socio-economic groups. Strategies to ensure gender equality in poli cs include the followings: a) Improve partnerships with civil society organiza ons (CSO) to improve women’s 2. The ac vi es will include improving the access of women to educa on and skills training. e) Improve the quality of female workers and job seekers. 1. Policies and Strategies To address the above challenges. c) Strengthen labor inspec on through improving the number. Lack of adequate legal and poli cal literacy training contributes to the low par cipa on of women in poli cal ins tu ons. capacity and competency of labor inspectors to ensure be er enforcement of core labor standards. The strategy will include provision of subsidies for the poor to join social insurance programs under the na onal social insurance scheme to the poor. The priori es iden ﬁed to enhance gender equality are grouped into four areas: (i) educa on. to ensure that men and women are able to equally par cipate without discrimina on in the labor force. to improve capacity and skills of women workers in the ﬁelds where there is a need for workers. In poli cal ins tu ons. including synchronizing policies and employment regula ons at the na onal and regional levels.coordina on and monitoring to ensure enforcement of laws and regula ons on employment at the provincial and district levels. Strategies to address the challenges in employment are as follows: a) Priori ze the enforcement of exis ng laws. policies on improving gender equality and women’s empowerment will be carried out in all sectors and ins tu ons at both the na onal and local levels. b) Strengthen coordina on between central and local government to ensure the enforcement of labor laws and regula ons. 3. (ii) employment. provincial. there is a need to ensure greater par cipa on of women in decisionmaking posi ons at the na onal. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 65 . (iii) poli cs. and (iv) local governance processes. b) Improve access and quality of gender responsive non-formal educa on. as well as company/ employers. Focus will be given to improve knowledge and life skills par culary in income genera ng ac vi es targeted to those who are unable to enroll in formal schooling. and district levels.
and poli cs. the poor. under the responsibilty of MONE. disabled. programs.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women b) c) d) 4. and elderly. Improve poli cal educa on for female members of poli cal par es. monitoring. MORA. Design modules on voter educa on for women’s groups. 66 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . MOHA. budge ng. employment. and ac vi es at the local levels. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 has set the following targets. General Elec on Commission. both provincial and district levels. implementa on. A strategy to implement gender mainstreaming in local governance processes will be carried out through developing a general guideline for local governments agencies to integrate a gender perspec ve into planning. par cipa on in poli cs. and MOLT. Improve voter educa on concerning women legisla ve candidates. To ensure achievement of the MDG targets for gender par cularly in educa on. and evalua on processes of development policies.
98 > 0. Source: MTDP 2010-2014. Strategic Planning of MONE 2010-2014. 10% 20% 25% 30% 40% 120 150 180 240 990 k) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 67 .85 > 0.6 60% 50% 1.1.97 > 0.80 > 0.04 1.95 1 1. and Strategic Planning of Ministry of Labor antdTransmigra on 2010-2014.85 > 0.90 > 0.0 85% 80% 1.04 98.98 > 0. Strategic Planning of General Elec on Comission 2010-2014.90 1 1 1 1 1 > 0. Priori es.80 > 0.98 > 0.98 > 0.05 1.12 98. Strategic Planning of MOHA 2010-2014.Prioritas Educa on Output Target 2010-2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 3. 2010-2014 NER Ra o of female to male at general primary educa on (SD) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic primary educa on (MI) Improve quality of life and role of women in development NER Ra o of female to male at general junior educa on (SMP) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic junior educa on (MTs) GER Ra o of female to male at general senior educa on GER Ra o of female to male at Islamic general senior educa on (MA) GER Ra o of female to male at general higher educa on GER Ra o of female to male at general Islamic higher educa on Literacy ra o of female to male age 15-24 years Ra o of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher in public school Ra on of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher at madrasah Poli cs Number of partnership with NGO on par cipa on of women in poli cs Number of elec on educa on modules for poor.98 > 0.0 95% 85% 5 - 100 5 10 100 100 5 10 150 100 5 10 200 400 k) 25 k) 40 k) 500 k) Note: k) cumula ve.98 > 0. Strategic Planning of MORA 2010-2014.0 75% 70% 1.12 97.85 1 1 1 1 > 0.98 > 0.12 97.8 68% 60% 1. Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on. Poli cs and Labor.98 > 0. disabled.12 1.97 > 0. and elderly women Number of elec on educa on for women legisla ve candidates Number of women cadre of poli cal party trained in poli c educa on Labor Percentage of Improve protec on company that fulﬁlled work norm of of women against women and children abuse Number of labor controlers for women and children that improved their capacity > 0.08 1.12 98.05 1.97 > 0.97 > 0.
68 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Lining up to get Vitamin A Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate .
antenatal care. by 2002/2003 it had dropped to 46. neonatal mortality has fallen more gradually from 32 in 1991 to 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2007 (Figure 4.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.000 live births in 1991 to 34 in 2007 (IDHS).e. Children of less educated mothers generally have higher mortality rates than those born to more educated mothers. the under-ﬁve mortality rate was 97 deaths per 1. the highest rate was recorded in Sulawesi Barat (96). The signiﬁcant progress that has been achieved in reducing child mortality reﬂects the con nuous expansion of coverage and improvements in the quality of health services. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 71 .000 live births. The decline of child mortality has been accompanied by a reduc on in infant mortality. water and sanita on access and improved environmental condi ons. However. i.1). including immuniza on. especially at the community level. This is shown by the declining rates of infant and child mortality over the past two decades. In 1991. infant and under-ﬁve mortality rates vary widely by region. a rate that is more than four mes higher than the province with the lowest rate. and it had fallen to 44 in 2007 (IDHS 2007). between 1990 and 2015. This trend shows that the decline of child mortality is faster than the decline in the rate of infant mortality. as well as increased community awareness. Signiﬁcant diﬀerences in child mortality among provinces are recorded. DI Yogayakarta (22). from 68 deaths per 1. simple medical care. and promo on of clean and healthy behavior (PHBS). as well as by social and economic status. the under-five mortality rate Current Status The health of children in Indonesia has been improving steadily over me in response to be er health care. Neonatal. nutri on.
2). Infant Mortality Neonatal Mortality Expon. pneumonia. Na onal Trend and Projec on of Child. Immuniza on against measles has a direct impact on child mortality. availability of clean water and sanita on. The provinces with the lowest coverage were North Sumatra (36. access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC/CEONC). 1991-2015 Per 1. management of diarrhea. and infrastructure contribute signiﬁcantly to decreasing child mortality.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate while children in richer households have lower mortality rates than those in poorer households.8 percent coverage (Figure 4. 72 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Aceh (40. infant and neonatal mortality causes are preventable. with 94. informa on access.9 percent). IDHS several years. It is proven that increasing the immuniza on rate can reduce the number of child deaths. appropriate feeding prac ces. (Under-5 Mortality) Under-5 Mortality Expon.000 Live Births. Data from the IDHS 2007 indicates that there are 18 provinces with lower coverage of immuniza on against measles than the na onal average (67 percent). Figure 4. and malaria. In order to achieve universal coverage of immuniza on against measles in areas that have 1 Based on sta s c regression of immuniza on against measles by UNSD-ADB. Two eﬀec ve preven ve measures to ﬁght child.6 percent). ADB)1.9 percent). Infant and Neonatal Mortality per 1. 2009. transporta on. In addi on to these. safe water and good sanita on. In addi on to the constraints of geography. skilled a endance at birth. and access to care could signiﬁcantly reduce child mortality. (Infant Mortality) Expon. and Papua (49. infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality are immediate and exclusive breas eeding and immuniza on. (Neonatal Mortality) Most of child.000 live birth 120 100 97 81 80 68 60 57 58 46 40 32 30 46 35 26 20 19 44 34 RPJMN Target 2014 IMR: 24 Target MDGs 2015 IMR: 32 USMR: 23 20 0 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Source: BPS. and it is proven that an increase of three percentage points in the immuniza on rate reduces the number of deaths of children under-ﬁve years of age caused by measles by one per thousand live births (UNSD 2009. access to. while the province with the highest coverage was DIY.1.
respec vely.6 67. called the ‘Measles Crash Program’. Another interven on.0 58.5 57. in the areas where coverage targets have not been reached during three consecu ve years. irrespec ve of their vaccina on status.0 58.2 50.2 60.6 64.4 69.8 77.9 64.6 76. will carry out a vaccina on campaign covering all children aged 6-59 months. not achieved the coverage target. Diphtheria.8 51.3 79.9 66. by Province 2007 Source: BPS. Over the 2002-2005 period.6 40. Indonesia started a campaign to immunize all one-year-old children against measles.5 94. . Coverage of immuniza on against measles for children aged 12-23 months will be surveyed to assess coverage of measles immuniza on for infants (<12 months) from previous years’ programs. coverage for some other types of immuniza on has regressed.0 74.8 71. These include: maintaining and scaling-up eﬀorts in immuniza on coverage. 88 percent and 72 percent of children. to 70 percent. That is. Pertusis and Tetanus and Hepa s – has increased by 6. While immuniza on coverage has increased. 17 and 7 percent. however. Full immuniza on coverage is s ll below 50 percent.9 49.3 74. ensuring early detec on and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 73 .1 77. reaching 82 percent.6 78. counterbalanced by drops in polio and measles immuniza ons from 74 and 76 percent respec vely.8 Figure 4.8 72. Challenges While progress in improving child (and infant) mortality has been good.5 61. providing a second measles vaccina on to children in school.0 50.8 59.0 51. Propor on of One-Year-Old Children Immunized Against Measles.9 85.2 74.9 65. Indonesia s ll faces important challenges in all key policy and program areas aﬀec ng child health.100 80 Percent coverage 60 40 20 0 Sumatera Utara Aceh Papua Maluku Maluku Utara Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Jambi Sulawesi Barat Sumatera Selatan Lampung Nusa Tenggara Timur Riau Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sumatera Barat DKI Jakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Tengah Jawa Timur Jawa Barat Banten Kepulauan Riau Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Timur Bengkulu Sulawesi Utara Bali DI Yogyakarta 36.2 80.8 58.2. coverage by some key immuniza on programs against Tuberculosis.that is increased coverage of unvaccinated children aged 12-36 months – will be conducted for those who have not been vaccinated un l they reach their ﬁrst birthday.0 67. IDHS 2007. In 2008. Back Log Figh ng (BLF) ac ons.
improving nutri on outcomes. early ini a on of breas eeding.60 percent of children have no access to proper health services when ill and 40 percent were unprotected from preventable diseases. ensuring adequate resources availability and defining clear roles between central and local government are crucially needed in program implementation. integra on of such interven ons into results-based sector planning and budge ng. promo ng family ac on and community prac ces.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate prompt treatment of sick children (IMCI2). without which expansion and even maintenance of achievements in immuniza on coverage will slow down. and controlling for environmental risk factors (access to clean water and sanita on) About 20 percent of births had no access to proper health services. synchroniza on of eﬀec ve evidence-based interven ons with universal coverage. hand washing. enhancing access to health facili es. The 2007 Riskesdas report found that 65 percent of infants and children have access to clean water and 71 percent to basic sanita on. funding and grassroots promo on of IMCI. (iii) cost-eﬀec ve. It is reported also that 35 . only about 30 percent of mothers apply good health prac ces. and (iv) designing informa on and behavior change programs that promote the role of the family (i. Central government will strengthen its roles in policy making. feasible and adaptable nutri on interven ons. IMCI. and the design of disease surveillance. To maintain the necessary momentum in pursuing key interven ons. par cular emphasis needs to be placed on the following policy areas: immuniza on. basic sanita on and low levels of indoor pollu on. To achieve the national target for immunization against measles of 93 percent by 2014. procurement of vaccines and equipment. (ii) management. Policies and Strategies While current policy correctly focuses on building up and expanding core interven ons. Risk factors for infant and child mortality are strongly related to environmental health – clean water. key challenges lie in the areas of: (i) program monitoring. implemented by well-trained and properly resourced health care providers. The risk factors of child and infant mortality are highly correlated with environmental health. child nutri on program. strengthening the role of the family. 2 IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 74 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .45 percent live in high risk environments. etc). staﬀ training.e. while about 30 . Some 54 percent of households use pollu ng solid fuels in the household. setting norms and standards. while at the same me most babies born in Indonesia are at high risk (Riskesdas 2007).
(iv) pursue micronutrient interventions. (iii) introduce communication for behavior change (BCC). pertussis.8 percent to 32 percent by 20143 are as follows: (i) emphasize exclusive breast-feeding and appropriate complementary feeding. childcare and health care seeking. and referral. diphtheria. follow-up. Strategies to address the key nutritional concerns so as to achieve the national target to reduce stunting in under-five children from 36. reduce staﬀ turnover. through BCC and IEC. Strategy at the community and household levels includes: increasing clean and healthy life behavior (PHBS) prac ces at the household level from 50 percent to 70 percent by 2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). and measles) before their ﬁrst birthday. and clean cord care). BCG. (ii) support focusing on the ‘essen al obstetric and neonatal care’ approach to preven on/early treatment of complica ons during pregnancy. (iii) recognize when sick children need treatment outside the home and then seek care from appropriate providers. (ii) ensure that children complete a full course of immuniza ons (hepa s. increased dietary intake.Strategies to address the key IMCI concerns are as follows: (i ) focus on IMCI training for health workers. (iv) implement IMCI at the household and community levels to improve care-seeking prac ces and health services u liza on. and special care for low birth weight newborns. . and improve supervision at facility levels. and adequate micronutrient intake. (iii) quality improvement to promote hygiene and training for community health workers in clean delivery prac ces. (iv) feed and oﬀer more ﬂuids. increase funding for IMCI. (ii) promote child growth aimed at providing basic informa on for households and communi es about feeding. tetanus. infec on detec on and treatment. and (v) provision of counseling for mothers and caregivers on how to care for child and infants. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 75 . Strengthening Newborn care and Maternal Health. and (iv) vaccina ons and support for iron supplementa on to prevent anemia during pregnancy. coordinate with other child health programs and eliminate conﬂic ng regula ons. and (vi) follow health workers’ advice about treatment. oral polio vaccine. Strategies at the family level relate to the following: (i) protec on of children in malariaendemic areas with insec cide-treated nets. essen al care for all newborns (including immediate and exclusive breas eeding. through: (i) support for implementa on of the newborn and child survival strategy emphasizing focused pregnancy and delivery care. adequate nutri onal care during illness and severe malnutri on. including breast milk. and (v) pursue food supplementation strategies. to children when they are sick. warmth. delivery and the newborn period. 3 The Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. food for ﬁca on and direct supplementa on. (v) give sick children appropriate home treatment for infec on. (iii) ensure that essen al drugs are available for IMCI. (ii) strengthen management structures at the central and district levels.
Priori es. Outputs. complete basic immuniza on and other health services that are provided at the Posyandu. gender and women empowerment. enable Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC and CEONC).Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Strengthening and improving health facili es. (iii) development of monitoring instruments. and social protec on programs. especially for the poor. underserved. Policy advocacy will be targeted to provinces with lower levels of achievement on the indicators for MDG 4. To support the aforemen oned strategies and leverage their impact. (iv) improved advocacy and capacity building of health personnel. infant and child care have been set out in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan as presented in the following table: Table 4. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services. cross sectoral approaches will be considered. 76 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . through: (i) improved resource alloca on taking into account absorp ve capacity. 3/2010. (ii) increased provision of public funding for health in order to reduce ﬁnancial risks. border and island areas. educa on. To ensure progress. environmental pollu on. linking service delivery. na onal targets for newborn. surveillance and IEC technologies with ac ons in water and sanita on. distribu on mechanisms. 2010—2014 Priority Outputs Coverage of Neonatal ﬁrst visit Coverage of Complete Neonatal Visits Coverage of Treatment on Neonatal Complica on 2010 84% 80% 60% 84% 78% 80% 80% 2011 86% 82% 65% 85% 80% 82% 85% 2012 88% 84% 70% 86% 81% 85% 88% 2013 89% 86% 75% 87% 83% 88% 90% 2014 90% 88% 80% 90% 85% 90% 92% Improve the quality of child health care: Coverage of Health Services for Infants Coverage of Health Services for Under-ﬁve Children Coverage of one-year-old children fully immunized Coverage of one-year-old children immunized against measles Source: The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 and Inpres no. ensure adequate opera ng costs for hospitals and primary health centers. and (v) addressing strategic needs of health workers in remote areas. Mobiliza on of community par cipa on through Posyandu ac vi es that include: monitoring the nutri onal status of infants and toddlers each month through observa on of their body weight. through BOK (Biaya Operasional Kesehatan).1. by introducing strategies to promote primary health care and revitalize Posyandus. communicable diseases control.
NTT” Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .“Antenatal care at Puskesmas (primary health center) in Praya.
between 1990 and 2015. While maternal mortality ﬁgures tend to vary by source. high risk abortions and post abortion care. Key areas of intervention that influence the MMR include appropriate antenatal care. 77. proper care of high-risk pregnancies. family planning to avoid early pregnancies. With current trends. by 2015.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters. IDHS 2007 places the MMR at 228 maternal deaths per 100. and programs aimed at behavior change (raising awareness) among women of reproductive age.000 live births for the period 1998–2002 and 390 deaths per 100. Compared to 307 per 100. the Maternal Mortality Ratio Target 5B: Achieve.1).000 live births by 2015. universal access to reproductive health Current Status Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) remains high.34 percent of births are assisted by a skilled health provider Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 79 . It is es mated by WHO that 15-20 percent of pregnant women in both developed and developing countries will experience high risk and/or complica ons during pregnancy or at birth. the number reﬂects a gradual decline of MMR (Figure 5. but extra efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 deaths per 100. births attendance by skilled health personnel.000 live births in 1991 (IDHS). the MMR has been falling gradually. Currently.000 live births for the period 2004-2007. The most eﬀec ve way to reduce maternal mortality is to have births a ended by a skilled health provider.
There are 81.5 70.9 69. IDHS several years.1.3 87. but only 65. 2009 100 90 80 70 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: BPS.5 percent of pregnant women have complied with the recommended schedule of the minimum of four ANC visits.7 percent in 2002 (IDHS 2002/03). The MoH target for 2010 is 90 percent.1 2025 .7 49. compared with 72.4 62.5 percent in 2007 (IDHS 2007) and 66.8 84.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Susenas 2009). Susenas 2009.5 88.5 percent of pregnant women who have at least four ANC contacts during pregnancy. by Provinces.5 48. Even with rela vely high coverage.5 71.2.14 percent in DKI Jakarta to 42.9 98.2 70.2 85.7 82. 80 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Maluku Maluku Utara Sulawesi Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur Kalimantan Barat Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Gorontalo Kalimantan Tengah Banten Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Barat Jambi Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Selatan Lampung INDONESIA Sumatera Selatan Riau Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Bangka Belitung Aceh Jawa Timur Kepulauan Riau Sumatera Utara Sumatera Barat Bali DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta 42. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a health professional during pregnancy (Figure 5.2 47.4 85.9 96.3 76.2 85. IDHS MDG Target NMTDP Linear (IDHS) The disparity of births assisted by skilled health personnel among regions ranges from 98.1 60.0 76. as shown by Figure 5.4 77.2 63. Na onal Trends and Projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025 450 390 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 102 2015 (MDG) 334 307 228 226 118 2014 (NMTDP) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: BPS. Figure 5.3).2 96.5 63.1 49. Figure 5.7 88.48 percent in Maluku.3 78.2.9 86. Percentage of Births Assisted by Skilled Provider.3 85.5 47.6 68.7 82.9 60 59.
beside an integrated and holis c approach of maternal health.1 percent for all methods and 0. the contracep ve prevalence rate (CPR) is rela vely low. while the lowest for modern methods is in Papua (24.0 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1994 1 visit 81.4 percent for modern methods and 61. especially since MMR remains high.5 Figure 5.0 86. During the period of 2002/03 to 2007. contracep ve and reproduc ve health are the crucial issues to be improved. the average increase in contracep ve use was 3. contracep ve use did not show signiﬁcant improvement.5 75. In general. while in the period 1991 to 2002/03. compared to the steady increase recorded in the period of 1991 to 2002/03. but do not use any contracep ves (unmet need1).1 percent). contracep ve use is high when the respondent’s level of educa on and wealth quin le are high.4 percent for any method (IDHS 2007). respec vely.0 percent and 70.0 63. but are not using any method of family planning. respec vely. where the rates recorded are 74. amenorrheic Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 81 . Con nuum of care is a cri cal element in the strategy to achieve maternal and child health targets. First and Fourth Antenatal Visits. Na onally.5 percent).3.5 64. The highest for any and modern methods are in Bengkulu. 100 83.4 percent.2 percent for all methods and modern methods.ANC s ll needs a en on. and wealth quin le. has increased from 8. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased only by 1.1 56. Regarding the pre-pregnancy period. The lowest CPR for any method is in Maluku (34.3 1997 ≥ 4 visits 2003 ≥ 4 visits as recommended 2007 Source: BPS. level of educa on.5 percent and 3. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased insigniﬁcantly in the last ﬁve years.2007 65.0 93.7 percent for modern methods during the period 2002/03 to 2007. Disparity of CPR among provinces indicates the uneven coverage of family planning programs.0 81. 57.6 percent (IDHS 2002- 1 14 Unmet need is deﬁned here as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth. Women with an unmet need for “spacing” include pregnant women whose pregnancy was mis med. One aspect to be considered is quality of ANC services in ensuring early diagnosis and prompt treatment. in Indonesia 1991.7 93. IDHS several years. The number of couples of reproduc ve age who want to space pregnancy or limit births. The CPR varies among provinces.0 79.
amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted.4 5. but are not using any contracep ve method.6 9. and who want no more children.0 6. the more informa on and services of family planning and reproduc ve health have been accessed.0 12.7 10.6 6. The lowest unmet need is found in Bangka Belitung (3. 1991 1994 Spacing 1997 Limi ng Total 2002/3 2007 Unmet need varies greatly among provinces. which reﬂect the low quality of family planning services. 10. and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health 2003) to 9.4 percent). Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children (IDHS 2007).0 10. and who want to wait two or more years for their next birth. and 80 percent of married women with 5 or more live children. do not want more children.3 2. 1997.7 9. 0 6. Indonesia 1991-2007 14.2 8. 82 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .16). Higher unmet need was found in rural areas (9.1 percent because their husbands forbid them to do so. who are not using any method of family planning.2 percent) as compared with urban areas (8. This fact indicates that the more educated and prosperous the group. In addi on. 1994. Unmet need for “limi ng” refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted. These numbers have been nearly stagnant since 1997 (Figure 5. and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic.7 percent).3 percent women aged 15-19 are not willing to use any contracep ve because of side eﬀects. regions and socio-economic status.0 4.0 % of married women aged 15-49 12.2 4. Figure 5.7 percentage points for limi ng) (IDHS 2007).2 percent) and the highest in Maluku (22.8 4. IDHS 1991.1 percent because of health problems and 3.4). 2007. IDHS 2007 shows that 60 percent of married women with 2 children.0 percent (4. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth.3 percentage points are for spacing and 4. unmet need also tends to be inversely correlated with higher levels of educa on and welfare quin le: it is 11 percent for women with no educa on and 8 percent for women with higher educa on (secondary and above). Measures of unmet need for family planning are used to evaluate the extent to which programs are mee ng the demand for services.8 5. 12. women whose last birth was mis med.0 4. Moreover. The high unmet need is also caused by the concern about side eﬀects and the inconvenience of using contracep ves.0 4.0 8.4.0 4.3 Source: BPS. while for women in the lowest quin le it is 13 percent and 8 percent for women in the highest quin le (Figure 5. Unmet Needs. who are not using any method of family planning.6 4. 75 percent of married women with 3-4 living children. 2002/2003.
Policy Brief. BPS) in 2007. This risks increasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abor ons. The TFR is currently 2. Furthermore. The highest ASFR aged 15-19 is found in Sulawesi Tengah (92 births). 9/2008 Adolescent Birth Rate is counted using the ASFR aged 15-19 (number of birth by married women aged 15-19 years divided by number of married women aged 15-19) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 83 . pregnant women seek unsafe abor on services. 2005. Furthermore. From a health perspec ve. Since abor on is illegal in Indonesia. and s llbirth. a decrease from 0. which is due to the low median age of the ﬁrst marriage of women. early child birth raises fer lity rates. proﬁle Indonesia Abor on in Indonesia Gu macher Ins tute. which result in elevated infant and maternal mortality rates. revealed the presence of teenagers who approved of having intercourse before marriage. Knowledge and awareness of youth and couples in reproduc ve age about family planning and reproduc ve health is s ll low. 16 provinces s ll have ASFR aged 15-19 above the na onal average. Adolescent births risk reproduc ve health system injuries. The need for family planning is further underlined by the high adolescent birth rate in Indonesia. par cularly during the perinatal and neonatal period.3 in Indonesia (IDHS 2007). as well as complica ons during pregnancy and childbirth. with an es mated 62 -163 per cent caused by unsafe abor on prac ces. in some provinces. the risks for both mother and child increase. in addi on to increasing maternal mortality.33 in 1991. babies born to teenage mothers are more prone to injury during birth. as well as the provision of family planning and reproduc ve health services for couples in reproduc ve ages. and points to the need to promote be er understanding of adolescent reproduc ve health. while the disparity among provinces and regions and socio-economic is s ll the main challenge.000 married women (IDHS 2007). 2 3 4 MDGs countdown. The Indonesia Youth and Adolescent Reproduc ve Health Survey (IYARHS. delaying pregnancy broadens opportuni es for pursuing educa on and expanding access to employment opportuni es. TFR is signiﬁcantly higher due to the high Adolescent Birth Rate. Demographically.000 married women (IDHS 1991) to 35 births per 1. which in turn lead to termina on of pregnancies. low birth weight. while the lowest is in Yogyakarta (7 births). In addi on.The CPR and unmet need contribute to the Total Fer lity Rate (TFR). The Age Speciﬁc Fer lity Rate for individuals aged 15-19 has decreased from 67 births per 1. especially in rural areas4. Unmet need leads to unwanted and unintended pregnancies. The high adolescent birth rate is caused by lack of access to quality reproduc ve health services and reliable informa on on sexual and reproduc ve health Adolescent fer lity raises both health and demographic concerns.
posyandu and blood transfusion units. are low. infec ous diseases. is cri cal for a successful safe motherhood program. which may constrain demand and contribute to the maternal deaths ﬁgure in Indonesia. border and island areas area (DTPK). The risk of maternal death is even greater for mothers with the “4 TOOes”: (i) too many (children). especially in remote and poor areas. and cultural factors. medicines and blood supplies that are crucial to handling obstetric emergencies. This risk is exacerbated when other underlying condi ons are present (anemia. in addi on to escala ng health risks for pregnant women. The low nutri onal status. 2. from community to primary to referral facili es. 3. especially when they have to work in diﬃcult circumstances where in fact they are most needed.). Some socio-economic indicators. which s ll are common problems in most of places in Indonesia. The current health care facili es are not preferred loca ons for giving birth due to limited access. In addi on. the referral system is weak. especially with the diversity of condi ons that exist in Indonesia. communi es come to depend on tradi onal birth a endants (TBAs) and o en dangerous tradi onal prac ces. or (iv) too young (age of the mother). is one cause of high prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) among infants. Due to the inadequate number and distribu on of midwives. (ii) too close (interval between pregnancies). 5 The educa on and training programs with crash program approaches some mes poorly resulted with insuﬃciently skilled health workers. especially midwives. such as availability and quality of Basic Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC) and Comprehensive Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEONC). (iii) too old. quality and their distribu on.6 percent (Riskesdas 2007). as well as cultural factors. especially for the poor in disadvantaged areas. cultural issues and lack of necessary facili es and materials. This is exacerbated by geographic and transporta on barriers to access health facili es and health workers. Limited availability of health personnel both in terms of quan ty.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Challenges 1. Lack of knowledge and awareness on the signiﬁcance of safe motherhood.5 access to trained health personnel. remote. 13. where risks to pregnancy and child births are par cularly high. Low nutri onal and health status of pregnant women. etc. Health workers are some mes inadequately trained. The percentage of women of reproduc ve age (15-45 years old) who suﬀer from chronic protein energy malnutri on is rela vely high. 84 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Limited access to quality health care facili es. Community mo va on and mobiliza on becomes a par cularly important tool in an environment of uncertain service provision. such as aﬀordability and educa on. especially midwives. 4. as well as the lack of medical equipment.
000 live births. increasing access to family planning services. or a popula on census with the cause of death recorded needs to be implemented immediately. 2. (b) increasing the use of skilled health personnel in deliveries. by means of expanding the service network (coverage and access) and integra ng family planning with other reproduc ve health programs with a focus on the poor and underserved areas. that is they are key interven ons that accelerate achievement of the full range of health MDG targets. The eﬀects of these policies are not narrowly focused on maternal health. The rate is currently obtained from a survey using a direct es ma on procedure drawing on the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). mother’s age at child birth (too old. UN guidelines recommend a minimum of one comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility and four basic emergency obstetric care facili es per 500. which. Mother and Baby Friendly Hospitals (CEONC8) and posyandu revitaliza on. will be cri cal for saving her life in the event of a complica on. and strengthening the community based care through TBA-midwife partnership. Therefore. if it is func oning. To obtain accurate death rates and causes of death. 3. high abor on rates. the future policies and strategies to be pursued are:7 1. The Maternal Mortality Ra o remains uncertain. The high IMR and MMR. too young). including partnering with TBAs. the following policies will ensure improvements: (a) increasing the frequency of antenatal6 contacts between skilled health personnel and pregnant women.. a complete vital sta s cs model should be compiled through registra on. BEONC. (c) increasing access to emergency (basic and comprehensive) obstetric care for highrisk deliveries. that is 102 per 100. as the system for recording causes of maternal deaths is not robust. village health posts (poskesdes). and (d) increasing the percentage of deliveries in a health facility.000 popula on. The surveys collect informa on on the survivorship of all live births of the respondent’s natural mother (i. 6 7 8 Antenatal care is a poten ally important way to connect a woman with the health system. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 85 . expanding the village midwife func on. This has been the case since 1994. 6. Low rates of contracep ve use and high unmet need remain major challenges.5. integrated health posts (posyandu). improving facility-based and outreach services by improving quality and quan ty of puskesmas.e. but are systemic. CEONC. and low contracep ve use – are indicators of the weakness of family planning services which are an important driver in reducing maternal mortality. Policies and Strategies Considering that the decline in maternal mortality has been slow with complex problems faced in achieving the target for 2015. the respondent’s brothers and sisters).
by providing material support for the clinics. improving knowledge. a tudes and behavior of teenagers related to adolescent reproduc ve health. χ.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Con nuing family planning revitaliza on in order to control the popula on is one of the key features of policies to achieve universal access to reproduc ve health by 2015. β. promo ng and strengthening partnerships with the private sector. increasing the availability of health workers (general prac oners. 4. life skills educa on and family life educa on for adolescents. 7. village midwives. developing media communica ons and intensifying informa on.500 clinics in order to assist and develop self-reliance in family planning. 5. focusing to fulﬁll needs in remote. the immediate postnatal period. 6. improving adequate micronutrient intake by pregnant women by ensuring adequate 86 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . improving human resources capacity in the family planning program at all levels. underserved. δ. increasing par cipa on and self-reliance training for family planning through 23. NGOs. Improving promo on and community mobiliza on by: α. border and islands areas. improve the con nuum of care. specialists. strengthening the referral system. paramedical staﬀ) in term of quan ty. family planning and reproduc ve health. HIV/AIDS. Supervising and building self reliance to par cipate in family planning by: α. communica on and educa on for popula on control and family planning. Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). in the aforemen oned 23.500 government and private family planning clinics. improving commitment and par cipa on across sectors and local governments in popula on and family planning program implementa on. a tudes and behavior related to popula on control. to reduce the “three delays” and to save women’s lives by giving adequate care on me. χ. 2. through pre-service and in-service training of key health personnel and implemen ng the contractual service provider scheme. β. reducing ﬁnancial barriers through: PKH (condi onal cash transfers). free contracep ve devices/drugs and free family planning services for the poor. and communi es in family planning program implementa on. raising awareness about safe motherhood at the community and household level by strengthening public health educa on. addic ve drugs use. and will be pursued through a series of strategies. Jamkesmas (social health insurance for the poor). that includes integrated service delivery for mothers and children from pregnancy to delivery. 8. including: 1. quality and distribu on. BOK (subsidy for non-salary opera ng cost for primary health facili es). 9. and childhood. improving knowledge.
11. in par cular by: (i) introducing analy cal methods to measure maternal deaths drawing on diverse sources of varying quality. In emphasizing the aforemen oned strategies. 10. including developing linkages with communi es to achieve synergies in advocacy and service delivery.nutri on intake. 13. provincial and district authori es and introducing be er program oversight and management through surveillance. 12. building eﬀec ve partnerships across programs and sectors to make use of synergies in service provision and advocacy. Outputs. monitoring.1. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set annual targets as follows: Table 5. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled birth a endant (PN) 2010 84% 2011 86% 2012 88% 2013 89% 2014 90% Improve quality of maternal and reproduc ve health services Percentage of pregnant mothers with at least 4 ANC visits (K4) Percentage of health care services that provides standardized family planning services Number of puskesmas that implement standardized midwifery services based on guidelines 84% 86% 90% 93% 95% 10% 40% 75% 90% 100% Improve expansion of nursing and midwifery services 70 140 210 280 350 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 87 . addressing par cular issues related to decentraliza on and strengthening and sharpening the tasks in achieving health Minimum Services Standards (MSS). to ensure the achievement of health MDGs at all levels. evalua on and ﬁnancing. and (iii) developing models for iden fying eﬀec ve safe motherhood strategies. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services. providing an enabling environment to support management and stakeholders’ par cipa on in policy development and the planning process. while focusing targe ng of interven ons in poor and underserved areas. strengthening coordina on mechanisms by deﬁning modali es for sharing roles and responsibili es among central. Priori es. (ii) focusing on groups and areas most at risk of maternal death. improving the informa on system. In addi on. and promote collabora on among programs and sectors as well as between public and private sector en es.
and independence in ge ng family planning service from 23. Percentage of current self-reliant users e. par cipa on and independence in family planning 1.5 12.6 23.2.8 3.2 3.4 12.700 35 4. Number of poor current users (KPS/ family within below prosperity level and KS-1/prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.500 public and private clinics in promo ng guidance.7 12.3 23.89 3. Percentage of new par cipants for long term contracep ve method f.500 2012 7.4 48.6 29.000 78.700 45 4.700 100 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Improving human resources capacity of the family planning providers in 23.1 24.0 23.500 2011 7. Number of new par cipants (in millions) b.05 Increasing guidance. par cipa on.6 12.8 13.5 3.1 4.5 50.9 12. 2010-2014 Priori es Outputs Contracep ve Prevalence Rate/CPR (%) a.500 public and private clinics 2.700 90 4.3 28.000 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Table 5.000 74.500 Popula on and Family Planning 3.9 4. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.2 26.500 public and private exis ng clinics) 20 35 50 70 85 88 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Number of current users (in millions) c. Percentage of trained family planning human resources in 23. Number of public and private clinics receiving infrastructure support 2010 57.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 3.5 5.1.5 29 3.500 2014 65 7. Con nued Priority Improve support for management and implementa on of technical tasks in Nutri on and Health programs for Maternal-Child Outputs Number of func oning Poskesdes (village health posts) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 70. Outputs.5 25.6 23.9 13. Percentage of family planning clinic providing family planning services based on the proper Standard Opera ng Procedure (SOP) (from the whole 23.700 75 4.1 4. Percentage of current users for long term contracep ve method g.500 2013 7.4 7. Percentage of new male par cipants 1.8 3.1 26. Number of self-reliant users (in thousands) d.7 4.2 12.4 49.7 3.0 23.9 25.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 4.97 4.2 3.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Table 5. Priori es. Number of public and private clinic providing family planning service 2.000 72.2 27. Number of new poor (KPS/family within below prosperity level and KS-1/ prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.000 76.6 51 13.500 public and private clinics 11.4 49.6 27.75 3.
065 1. Educa on and Communica on (IEC) media and materials produced 2.195 59 72 25 30 4 14. Percentage of adolescence knowledge about: a.157 1. Number of PKBR trainer receiving training 3. Percentage of Informa on.350 3.700 2. reproduc ve age women and adolescence obtaining informa on on popula on and family planning from printed and electronic media and outdoor media Number of trained family planning ﬁeld worker (Family Planning Field Workers/ PLKB.300 1.342 2.450 2.700 950 50 64 10 1 9. Technical Training 1. Family Planning Counselors/PKB): a. Percentage of reproduc ve age couples. Number of adolescence/student Informa on and Counseling Center (PIK) established and guided 1.140 62 76 30 30 5 15.750 3. manner and a tude toward popula on control and family planning 95 95 95 95 95 Improving NGO.016 38 65 84 100 100 Promo ng people’s knowledge. Number of center of excellent PKBR (per province) 4.373 53 67 15 115 2 12. General Basic Training (LDU) b. HIV/AIDS Promo ng adolescence knowledge.500 3.1. Refreshing c. Adolescence reproduc ve health b.253 56 70 20 30 3 13. Planning family life 2. manner and a tude about planning family life among adolescence (PKBR) c.343 2.018 1. private sector and community par cipa on in maintaining popula on and family planning program Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 89 .
90 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
“Stop AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases . Start Running”. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases 92 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Cases of HIV and AIDS are found in all areas of Indonesia. by 2010. During the period 1996 to 2006.808 cases). Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve.22% in 2008. two provinces. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 93 . Although in most parts of Indonesia the AIDS epidemic is generally concentrated among high-risk popula ons with an es mated na onal adult prevalence of 0. although the percentage of HIV-infected individuals in Indonesia is s ll rela vely low at 0. more than double the number compared with the 8. are shi ing to a generalized epidemic with a prevalence of 2.000 people are currently living with HIV in Indonesia. CDC MoH 2007).).194 cases recorded in 2006 (Figure 6. Papua and Papua Barat. but the number of cases varies by province (Figure 6.2).Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.1. In 2009 there were 19. and Bali (1.5 percent and it is es mated that some 193.828 cases). The provinces with the greatest number of AIDS cases are West Java (3. DKI Jakarta (2. universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it Current Status The number of new HIV infec ons has been increasing in Indonesia.4 percent among the general popula on aged 15 – 49 (IBBS. the number of AIDS cases has tended to increase. Papua (2.615 cases).598 cases).17 percent of the popula on.227 cases). the number of HIV cases increased by some 17.973 cases. Cumula vely. East Java (3.
DG of CDC and EH.171 316 Source: MoH.194 1.000 10. and the spread of HIV through injec ng drug use accelerates.110 11.) es mates increasing HIV prevalence in the popula on aged 15-49 years from 0. Heterosexual groups such as female sex workers (FSW) and transsexuals.000 16.808 2.598 4.000 - 19. 2009.3 percent from homosexuals (men having sex with men – MSM).000 2. About 91 percent of AIDS cases have occurred in the reproduc ve age group (15-49 years of age).21 percent in 2008 to 0.600 people by the 94 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sulawesi Barat Gorontalo Maluku Utara Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Selatan Aceh Papua Barat Bengkulu Bangka Belitung Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Jambi Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sumatera Selatan DI Yogyakarta Banten Sumatera Barat Kepulauan Riau Riau Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Bali Papua DKI Jakarta Jawa Timur Jawa Barat 0 3 10 11 12 21 27 43 58 91 117 119 138 144 165 173 192 219 290 318 330 333 475 485 591 717 794 1. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.000 14.3 percent and 3. followed by injec ng drug users (IDUs) at 39. Modes of transmission are indicated in Figure 6.141 3.000 3. and blood transfusion transmission cause about 0.4 percent in 2014.973 16.000 18.500 2. HIV infec on in Indonesia would con nue increasing over the next decades as people increasingly engage in unprotected sex.3 percent).000 2.000 12.195 5.2.321 2. together with their partners represent most reported new HIV cases (50.000 8.863 8. 19892009 20.000 1.947 4. 21 Source: MoH. about 2. At current rates.6 percent are perinatal infec ons resul ng from mother-to-child transmission. 2009. DG of CDC and EH.3. The projec on of this modeling (Figure 6.828 3.682 1.500 3.1 percent of cases. which will increase the number of people with AIDS from some 404.3. by Province.227 .969 2. AIDS Cases per 100.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Number of AIDS Cases in Indonesia.1.000 6.000 500 - 2.615 Figure 6.873 2.500 1.639 2.500 4. 2009 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Number of AIDS Cases Cumula ve AIDS Cases 3.000 4.000 Popula on in Indonesia.
0 50. 2009 Age Group By residence.6 3. 4. by Popula on Group.6% MSM. Na onal AIDS Programme. 2009 8. IDU=injec ng drug user.0 10.5 3. where women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to report condom use in their last high risk intercourse.0 20.5 0.end of 2010 to some 813. NAC Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 95 .4 percent of young unmarried men and 10.7 Cumula ve Percentage on AIDS Cases by Age Goup.3% Source: Surveillance reports.1% Perinatal.3 percent of young unmarried women (IDHS 2007).2 0. 60. that in turn will result in the increased need for an retroviral therapy (ART) from 50. 39. 2009 Heterosex. the percentage of young unmarried people repor ng condom use during their most recent sexual encounter is only about 18. 2. 0.4. 3. 50.400 cases in 2010 to 86.720 by 20141 ().0 Percentage (%) 40.1 2.0 30.3 30. Condom use is also posi vely correlated with level of educa on (Figure 6. Ministry of Health.5) 1 Mathema c modeling of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia. 2010-2025. 48.2 Source: DG of CDC & EH Ministry of Health.800 cases in 2014.0 1. Figure 6. In total.3.4% Distribu on of HIV Infec ons. Unknown.0 <1 1-4 5-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 Unknown Figure 6. Diﬀerent pa erns are found in women.3% Note : MSM=men who have sex with men. Indonesia.3% IDUs. Blood Transfussion. men in urban areas are more likely to use a condom during high-risk sex than men in rural areas. Another related factor in HIV/AIDS transmission is the failure to use condom.9 1.
country reports: HIV / AIDS in the South-East Asia Region 2009.20% from the total PLWHA in that period.7.0 25. Who Use Condom at Last Sex. In Indonesia. and is being oﬀered to 38.1 10.0 28. This coverage increased from ART interven on coverage in 2006 by about 24.4 24. According to Background Characteris c.5 percent (married men) and 21.3 20-24 Residence Urban Rural Less than completed primary Men Women Education Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Source: BPS.6 percent of unmarried women have correct and comprehensive knowledge of AIDS (Figure 6.0 Knowledge about HIV and its preven on is an important prerequisite for adop ng healthy behaviors.7 percent (married women). 96 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Knowledge of married men and women in urban areas was higher than in rural areas.6 13.6). only 14. The higher the level of educa on. an retroviral therapy (ART) is available at 180 facili es.0 7.9 percent for married men and married women. The es mated number of eligible PLWHA for ART per year is based on “cut of point” of the result of CD4 <200/ mm3 is about 10 .7 15.1 percent and 1. 2 3 UNGASS.5 percent of married women have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV. urban).0 4. 2007 15-19 Age 15. The equivalent numbers for the lowest quin le are 3. the higher the percentage of correct and comprehensive knowledge about AIDS. Percentage of Unmarried Women and Men Age 15-24 Who Have Ever Had Sex. While most youth (15-24 years of age) in the country are aware of HIV/AIDS.3 18. Likewise.0 20.5 9.8 21. while the number of PLWHA is es mated based on the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM). There are also dispari es in knowledge among regions.7 percent of married men and 9. less than 50 percent2 (Figure 6. with regard to socio-economic status. residence (rural vs.4 percent of unmarried men and 2.2 20.4 percent3 of the total es mated cohort of eligible people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (calculated from MOH report 2010) as presented in Figure 6.4 10.4 12. only 1.0 10.5. this falls far short of the 95 percent target set by the United Na ons and is the lowest in the region. Total - 5.3 8.6 11. respec vely.7). Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. IYARHS 2007. Among youth who are unmarried.0 30.0 15.8 percent. educa on and socio-economic status. knowledge in the highest wealth quin le was 27.
6 0.8 Married Men* Married Women* Unmarried Men 4.5 15-19 Age 1.7 3.100 in 2008 to 86.6 0.0 20. except when describing married men by age group. 5.NASAP 2010-2014).0 2.8 1.3 2.4 2.0 10.9 Quin le 21. Without adequate interven ons. **) covering age group of 15-49 years old for married women. Indonesia 2007 Residence Urban Rural no educa on Some primary 14.1 12.9 8.1 0.2 10.6 2. 2006–2009 Note: An retroviral treatment (ART) is given to individuals with advanced HIV infec on as per na onal treatment protocols.5 14. Coverage of ART Interven ons in Indonesia.0 Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Lowest Highest 1. by Background Characteris c.0 25. Figure 6. except when describing marreid women by age group Total 1. IDHS and IYARHS 2007.7 10.6.0 30.7 9.9 1.2 22.9 3. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 97 .1 1.0 35.2 2. Without eﬀec ve preven on.7 28.0 5.2 3. The number of children needing ART will also increase from 930 in 2008 to 2.7 18.4 2.0 Source: BPS.660 in 2014 (MoH 2010).8 1.0 15.1 Figure 6.2 1.4 0.1 0.9 3.2 2.800 in 2014 (Na onal AIDS Strategy Ac on Plan .5 15.3 9.9 10. the need for ART among the 15-49 age group is projected to increase three fold from 30. the trend and projected cases of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is es mated to increase uncontrollably.2.8 Unmarried Women Educa on 2.2 5.7 27. Source: Country reports.6 1.7.5 Note: *) covering age group of 15-54 years old for married man.1 2.6 20-24 15-24 Propor on of Men and Women Aged 15-24 with Correct of Comprehensive Knowledge about AIDS.2 1.
The availability and sustainability of funding remain major obstacles in tackling the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. transporta on. and sociogeographically. care and 4 Protocols would be for managing STIs. This places the emphasis squarely on preven on strategies and infec on control. they may not be suﬃciently eﬀec ve nor well-targeted. harm reduc on for IDUs. safe blood transfusions and universal precau ons. Strengthening the health-care system is crucial in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases. care. There are some constraints due to s gma and discrimina on of PLWHA in the community as well as the existence of gender inequali es and viola ons of human rights. diagnosis. Some of the crucial challenges in AIDS mi ga on are: 1. preven ng mother-to-child infec ons. 2. 3. Limited facili es and human resources as well as limited availability of ART in term of quan ty and quality. and conserva ve a tudes may serve as a signiﬁcant barrier to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. the penal system. Policies and Strategies 1. educa on. Community values shape a tudes. 5. currently. The health-care system needs to be strengthened in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases in preven on. Tackling the disease involves par cipa on by a number of sectors (health. While behavioral change communica ons (BCC) and informa on. coordina on within the Na onal Aids Commission (NAC) itself needs further improvement. treatment.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.4 and (iii) improving coverage of preven on. Improving access by strengthening public health services so that they have the necessary skills and resources to an cipate and respond to the epidemic. through: (i) improving the number and quality of health-care facili es in providing sustainable promo on. While much eﬀort has gone into se ng up good governance prac ces at the na onal level. The weakness of inter-sectoral coordina on as well as monitoring and evalua on systems. they may not be keeping pace with the spread of the disease. immigra on) and places great demands on eﬀec ve coordina on of strategies and interven ons. The limited budget alloca ons and sustainability of funding in controlling HIV and AIDS. the military. HIV tes ng 98 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Malaria and Other Diseases Challenges The basic challenge in HIV/AIDS is to halt and reverse the upward trend in the incidence/ prevalence of the infec on and the disease. Limited access to health services related to HIV/AIDS. preven on. infec on and disease management protocols. educa on and communica ons (IEC) programs are being pursued as part of the HIV/AIDS strategy. treatment and care. (ii) strengthening the ability to apply preven on. voluntary counceling and tes ng (VCT) is not yet available in all regions. as it spreads na onwide. 4. diagnosis.
gender inequity and human rights viola ons in implementa on of HIV/AIDS programs. 3. treatment and care services in drop-in centers and similar loca ons. and (iii ) development of public private partnerships (PPP). preven ng the progression of HIV to AIDS. nongovernment and private sector organiza ons. and (ii) providing informa on to policy makers on the socio-economic costs of HIV/AIDS and on scaling-up interven ons. (iv) assuaging prejudices – among health workers. capacity. (ii) undertaking community outreach that focuses on the most-at-risk popula ons and includes HIV tes ng. (iii) strengthening cross-sectoral partnerships by escala ng the role of HIV/AIDS planning and budge ng forums. through: (i) integra ng HIV/AIDS into development programs both at the na onal level (ﬁnanced through the na onal budget/APBN) and local level (ﬁnanced through the local budget/ APBD). (vi) human resource planning that recognizes the increasing demands of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (management and provider skills). (ii) mobiliza on of addi onal ﬁnancial resources in controlling HIV/AIDS. Enhancing community mobiliza on to improve HIV/AIDS preven on. treatment including ARV coverage. (ii) strengthening the role of Na onal and Local AIDS Commissions. the Na onal Medium-Term Plan (2010-2014) has set targets to control the spread of HIV/AIDS as follows: and counseling. including mobile units. and maintaining an eﬀec ve coordina ng mechanism (NAC). and (v) adap ng them to speciﬁc situa ons (stage of epidemic. 5. subsequently tailored to the par cular environment.2. resources). through: (i) conduc ng health monitoring and analysis including. counseling. and for the clinical management of treatment and care for people living with HIV. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 99 . in par cular. (iv) developing na onal guidelines for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. Strengthening informa on and monitoring and evalua on systems. (v) formula ng na onal guidelines for BCC programs and IEC messages. in the community. and among pa ents. care and treatment interven ons through: (i) providing IEC services on incurring HIV infec ons and preven ng transmission. 4. (iv) deﬁning the respec ve roles of central. while encouraging community ac on. second genera on surveillance. (iii) social marke ng of condoms. Improving cross-sectoral coordina on and good governance. In underlining the strategies. provincial and district health authori es in tackling the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. by: (i) establishing a concerted system within government that synergizes various levels of organiza on and ins tu ons to contribute towards an integrated strategy. high-risk groups. Mobilizing addi onal ﬁnancial resources for a successful HIV/AIDS strategy. and (vi) pursuing an inclusive approach that promotes complementarity among government. and (v) crea ng an enabling and conducive environment to reduce s gma za on and discrimina on.
60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2 2011 <0.000 Reducing morbidity and mortality rates of communicable diseases (HIV/AIDS) Percentage of districts that implement appropriate guidelines for preven on of HIV transmission Use of condoms in high-risk sex groups (based on the report by the user) Percentage of people living with AIDS(PLWHA) who receive an retroviral therapy (ART) Percentage of public hospitals provide referral service for people with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% - 35% (f) 20% (m) 45% (f) 30% (m) 55% (f) 40% (m) 65% (f) 50% (m) 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. Inpres 3/2010 and MOH Strategic Plan 2010-2014.000 500.5 65% 75% 85% 90% 95% 300. Malaria and Other Diseases Table 6.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Priori es.5 2014 <0.000 400.000 700.5 2012 <0. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Prevalence of HIV Percentage of Popula on above 15 years have correct and comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS The number of people aged ≥15 who received HIV counseling and tes ng 2010 0.1. Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program.000 600.5 2013 <0.
the highest being in the provinces of Papua Barat (26.000 popula on. and some 35 percent of this popula on is malaria posi ve. Maluku Utara.47 2008 2009 1.000 popula on 3.00 Figure 6. In the outer islands.63 3. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 101 .89 percent (Riskesdas 2007). Bangka Belitung.00 2. Kalimantan Tengah.54 3.81 2003 2004 2005 4. Provinces in Jawa and Bali have the lowest (clinical) prevalence. Only some 20 percent of pa ents with symptoma c malaria seek treatment at public health facili es. Indonesia 1990-2009 2.50 2.2 percent and 26.7 Posi ve per 1.50 3. Gorontalo. 2010.00 1.74 4. Jambi.8.62 3.50 4.33 3.85 cases per 1.00 0.62 cases per 1.66 3. treatment-suscep ble plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are equally common.23 3. 3. where the highest number of malaria cases are reported.00 1990 3.36 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.85 2. and drug-resistant plasmodium vivax malaria predominates. Almost half the popula on lives in endemic areas.89 2. the incidence was at 3. The malaria incidence rate during the period of 2000-2009 shows that malaria cases tended to decline: in 2000.00 3.4 percent) and NTT (12.85 2. making it diﬃcult to es mate the actual malaria incidence among the popula on.68 5. Bengkulu. 4.18 3. malaria in Jawa and Bali is hypo-endemic.000 popula on.50 5.50 0. Maluku. Sumatera Utara.5 percent. There are 15 provinces where malaria prevalence is above the na onal average (Aceh.Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases Current Status Incidence and death rate associated with Malaria.45 3. Sulawesi Tengah.1 percent). The highest prevalence rates are to be found in eastern Indonesia. with the rate varying between 0. Papua Barat and Papua).0 percent). 5 Based on diagnosis results by health professionals and respondent complaints. The na onal prevalence based on clinical diagnosis5 is 2. Nusa Tenggara Barat. about 0. Nusa Tenggara Timur. Papua (18.83 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 2. by 2009. As a result.1 percent among regions.1 2006 2007 Source: Ministry of Health. it had declined to 1.50 1.53 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 3.
Some 30 percent of households own some type of mosquito net.5 percent and 1. access to treatment. Prompt malaria treatment (that is within 24 hours) occurs in some 48 percent of cases. vector control and the limited supply of malaria-related informa on systems. Ineﬀec ve malaria preven ve ac ons. The primary preven ve tools are long-las ng insec cidal nets (LLINs). Malaria and Other Diseases Today. ACT: Artemisinin-based Combina on Therapy. virtually three mes that of urban households. indoor residual spraying with insec cides (IRS). the use of ITN is almost non-existent. while provision of an malarial medicines by public health services has increased over me. Insuﬃcient understanding of appropriate preven ve ac ons and the need to seek prompt care pose challenges to eﬀec ve infec on control and disease management at the community level.7 is s ll inadequate on a na onal scale. and 3. uses and manages the environment is involved. Underlining the par cular circumstances that may have led to the posi ve results of the MOH study is the conclusion of the 2007 IDHS study that only 50 percent of communi es na onally were aware of essen al an malarial strategies. 4. management of salinity in aquaculture and coastal lagoons. and intermi ent preven ve treatment for pregnant women (IPTP). However. distribu on and monitoring and evalua on of an malarial drugs. Challenges 1. and community awareness about mely treatment is important. diagnosed and treated with a combina on of available tools. Larval control and environmental management measures (for example. Other vector control measures (for example. Appropriate IEC and BCC messages are a crucial element.8 Other constraints may also be due to ineﬀec ve implementa on of epidemiological surveillance.3 percent have legi mate ITNs6. Case management (diagnosis and treatment) emphasizes prompt interven ons. In preven on eﬀorts. Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cide-treated bed nets.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.6 percent. rice ﬁeld draining) can work well only if the community that lives in. geography and socio-economic condi ons. or 2) a pretreated net obtained within the past 12 months. 102 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Households in rural areas are more likely to have insec cide treated bed nets. In general. Financial factors become essen al in ensuring availability. and it will have the desired impact if messages are standardized and pay suﬃcient a en on to the local epidemiology. It is mainly through interac ons between well-informed communi es at risk and health authori es that results can be accelerated. but ownership of treated nets is very low– only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net (ITN). especially of ACT. the use of insec cide treated bed nets is an important interven on. respec vely. malaria can be prevented. larviciding and environmental management) are also used. 6 7 8 An insec cide-treated net (ITN) is 1) a factory-treated net that does not require any further treatment. or 3) a net that has been soaked with insec cide within the past 12 months.
Interna onal ﬁnancial contribu ons need to be balanced with the increment of domes c ﬁnancial resources. Expanding malaria preven on and treatment along the lines set out in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program will require addi onal physical. In some instances. Case management may suﬀer from weak logis c planning at the facility level with interrup ons in the availability of drugs and the means to carry out diagnos c tests. 3. Health services may not be suﬃciently equipped and staﬀed to respond promptly to needs. and there may be shortages of necessary technical exper se (for example. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 103 . (v) providing and promo ng the use of insec cide treated bed nets. so that they are tailored to speciﬁc regional and community situa ons (that is client orienta on)9. 4. through: 1. (vii) strengthening epidemiological surveillance and outbreak 9 The par cipa on of malaria cadres. The transfer of responsibility for implemen ng the malaria program may not have paid enough a en on to limited capaci es at local levels. Inadequate monitoring and evalua on system. especially in the high malaria endemic areas. (vi) improving vector control that is suitable to local condi ons. entomologists and monitoring and evalua on specialists). Developing strategies for social mobiliza on that focus on promo ng community awareness about preven on interven ons and in malaria control. Therefore. the workforce may not have the appropriate training. So far. domes c ﬁnancing–through na onal and sub-na onal budgets–has been rela vely modest. (iv) strengthening monitoring progress at local levels and undertake local situa on analysis. (ii) developing social mobiliza on strategies that focus on increasing public awareness about malaria preven on eﬀorts. (iii) increasing a en on to a strong malaria informa on system by collec ng adequate malaria-related morbidity and mortality data. a ﬁnancial mobiliza on strategy for both interna onal and domes c funding will be expanded for medium and long term programs. Policies and Strategies To accelerate eﬀorts to achieve the MDG targets related to malaria. monitoring and evalua on ac vi es are insuﬃcient to allow good planning and budge ng for the na onal malaria program. through: (i) developing IEC and BCC messages that are designed with par cipa on by service providers and user representa ves. community health workers. and TBAs in malaria control eﬀorts are key parts of the response strategy.2. and ﬁnancial resources. with the program encountering bo lenecks at the service level. improving and strengthening the implementa on of universal coverage RBM strategy are crucially needed. human. Limited capacity at local level. Oversight capabili es remain limited.
in par cular by strengthening partnerships with research and technical en es to conduct opera onal research on the eﬀec veness of drugs. control and treatment. work programs. 3. especially related to improve malaria case detec on. To accelerate reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of emerging communicable diseases. To be able to carry out the strategies. (ii) developing opportuni es for collabora on between public agencies and exploring public-private synergies. concerning Equitable Development Programs. (iii) responding to the need for case management in a mely manner. through: (i) strengthening program oversight with well-designed monitoring and evalua on systems that draw on a good understanding of community dynamics. and (iv) integra ng malaria program with maternal and child health program interven ons. the human resources need to be equipped with the appropriate skills in: advocacy. 3/2010. Strengthening health services in preven on. technical assistance and targeted training programs will be provided to ensure increased capacity at all levels. par cularly in remote areas. supply chain management. (ii) ensuring early detec on and care seeking. and entomology. Improving capacity of human resources. Malaria and Other Diseases control systems. and (iv) controlling drug quality and use. and (ix) developing a capacity to assess the eﬃcacy of the malaria control eﬀorts. Some improvements are needed in: (i) promo ng preven on and control in the community. and allow the incorpora on of local diﬀerences into strategic planning. (viii) developing cross-sectoral interven on models such as larvaciding and biological control. To ensure sustainability of control programs. 4.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Long-term and predictable funding will be needed to maintain the sustainability of the programs. malaria detec on and rapid treatment. 104 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (iii) ensuring be er use of donor support by placing it in the context of comprehensive na onal strategic planning for malaria. and informa on systems that allow monitoring for be er planning and targe ng of malaria interven ons. Improving ﬁnancial support. 2. control and treatment. through the private sector and the interna onal community. especially in awareness raising. 5. Improving management structures and governance that include strategies. insec cides and preven ve tools. (iii) strengthening of village malaria posts (posmaldes) to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with malaria. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set out some crucial targets that also are speciﬁed in the Presiden al Instruc on No. Health services have a central role in raising awareness.
Indonesia has made progress by strengthening of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) program as a na onal policy. to improve prescrip on prac ces.000 popula on Percentage of District/Municipality conduct vector mapping Percentage of Outbreak reported and tackled 2010 2 30 100 2011 1. ensure drug quality. and it reached 91 percent in 2005 . and to reduce incidence rates and halve 1990 prevalence and mortality rates by 2015. be er logis cs and a stronger TB monitoring system. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 105 . In order to increase the eﬀec veness of TB control. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.000 popula on and mortality of 91/100.75 40 100 2012 1. The treatment success rate has been above 85 percent since 2000.7 percent in 2006. With an increasing threat of MDR-TB. increased focus on capacity building in human resources in health services. there remains a need to face the high incidence of Mul drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB). This performance reﬂects increased collabora on between sub-na onal oﬃces and private health services. to ensure that the incidence rate con nues to fall through 2015.50 50 100 2013 1.6 percent in 2002 to 75. Although the achievement of TB case detec on and treatment success has been rela vely sa sfactory.Priority Reducing the morbidity rate and the mortality rate of Malaria and other communicable diseases Outputs Malaria case detec on rate per 1. Priori es. 10 Targets are 70 percent case detec on of smear-posi ve cases under DOTS. The TB case detec on rate has increased rapidly – from 30. Case detec on now exceeds 70 percent.9). MOH Strategic Plan 20102014 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases (Tuberculosis) Current Status The na onal surveillance report on TB prevalence shows that the number of people infected by TB is declining (Figure 6. Inpres No. more focus needs to be placed on measures that adhere to interna onal standards for TB care. 85 percent treatment success. Indonesia was the ﬁrst high TB burdened country in the WHO South-East Asia Region to achieve the global targets for case detec on (70 percent) and treatment success (85 percent). 3/2010. resul ng from inadequate treatment of TB.25 60 100 2014 1 70 100 Table 6.2008.2. 2010-2014 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.000 popula on/year. and avoid interrup ons in medica on cycles. as well as community-based TB care providers. Both exceed the MDG targets of 70 and 85 percent respec vely. Es mates for 1990 are prevalence 443/100.10 and treatment outcomes show a success rate of 91 percent (2006).
but only some 38 percent of hospitals. Involvement of communi es in TB care is essen al. Only 16 percent of respondents could correctly iden fy the signs and symptoms of TB.6 7.7 68 54 37. reduce demand for services and consequently lower eﬀec veness of na onal strategies.9.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. communica on and social mobiliza on (ACSM) are being pursued as part of the TB strategy. (iii) most of the community does not know that an -TB drugs are free and provided by local health facili es (only 19 percent knew). partnerships between public and private en es need to be established. To be successful. Directorate CDC. A tudes and Prac ce (KAP) conducted recently reported the following ﬁndings: (i) knowing what is TB (76 percent) and knowing that TB can be totally cured (85 percent). Poor awareness of the TB program. including professional associa ons. Interven on guidelines and ACSM need to be ﬁ ed to local circumstances.6 69. which will require strong commitments of stakeholders. private health facili es and peniten aries do so.7 91 91 91 91 Percentage 75.6 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: MoH-RI.4 4. DG of CDC&EH.1 86. ﬁeld-level implementa on needs to pay par cular a en on to strengthening of health services and dissemina on of informa on. 2009. Insuﬃcient TB control policies with appropriate local strategies. but results are s ll modest and understanding of the issues remains weak.8 73. reﬂec ng a combina on of the following factors: (i) ACSM11 coverage is s ll low and messages may not be eﬀec ve. and (ii) access to services is limited. Moreover. Detec on and treatment services for TB are not yet rou nely delivered in all health services facili es (98 percent of Puskesmas do that rou nely.1 1. there is signiﬁcant varia on between regions. 106 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . 3. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. 2. and a consequently 11 ACSM is s ll a new area in TB program strategy and much more guidance and technical support is necessary. The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 81 73. about 13 percent. The low household and community awareness and behaviors that increase the risk of infec on.8 54 58 87 89. SR CDR Challenges 1. The high case detec on rate has not been followed by the availability of adequate health care services. A survey of Knowledge. (ii) s gma za on according to TB (keep TB a secret if a family member had TB) is low. In addi on. Advocacy. and only about 2-3 percent of private prac oners.5 12 19 20 21 30.8 72.5 86 86.
(iv) expanding access to health care and free of charge medicines. resource use is neither eﬃcient nor eﬀec ve. At the present me. In the absence of integrated planning and budge ng for TB ac vi es. However. for results management. Beyond distribu ng informa on about TB. and (viii) improving the evalua on and monitoring system and measuring the impact of treatment under DOTS. however. The situa on may be par cularly challenging in remote areas where the combina on of poverty and TB can be more devasta ng. There is a shortage of ﬁnancial resources available to combat TB in Indonesia. ACSM. 4. NGOs and the private sector in an integrated movement for na onal TB mi ga on (Gerdunas TB). informa on is sparse and insuﬃcient to support strong policy making. (iv) ensuring availability of adequate health personnel both in quan ty and quality. Funding so far has mainly come from donors. including the produc on of informa on that can be used. (v) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 107 . and would be used. Improving capacity and quality in the TB program by: (i) strengthening laboratory diagnos c capacity in all health care facili es. increasing awareness and promo ng passive case ﬁnding. there is a need to increase mobiliza on of local resources. and by means of eﬃciency improvements in current program spending. (iii) intensifying involvement of private and public services. research (is less well understood than DOTS expansion and TB/HIV and MDR-TB rela onships. (vii) improving eﬀec ve communica on to people with TB. including through ini a ves that draw more a en on to TB. Policies and Strategies Mee ng the challenges in TB preven on and control program depends on strengthening some strategies: 1. (vi) improving ac ve promo on of TB control. Some surveillance has been conducted. because data on the former is limited). 5. providers and stakeholders. currently characterize many situa ons at the local level and are reﬂected in insuﬃcient resources being allocated to the TB program. (ii) implemen ng the Interna onal Standards for TB Care (ISTC) to all services. (v) improving logis c and eﬀec ve drugs management systems. (iii) improving partnerships involving government. 2.(ii) improving poli cal support and strengthening decentraliza on programs for eﬀec ve implementa on of DOTS. implementa on of some components in the TB Strategy–health systems strengthening. the informa on base needs to be improved so that policy making can be based on facts.weak commitment to it. Expanding DOTS coverage through health services by: (i) expanding and intensifying ACSM and facilitate access. par cipa on of care providers. family and community as well as work environment in inﬂuencing behavior.
and (iv) increasing availability of an eﬀec ve health informa on system. strengthening policies and fostering local ownership are key strategies to ensure the sustainability of the TB Program by reducing dependency of the local level on central transfers and external funds. while strengthening partnerships with other sectors and the private sector. (viii) promo ng community-based treatment. (vi) drug quality control: (vii) public-private collabora ve arrangements. Promo ng the alloca on of funds to ﬁnance the Stop TB program. (iii) suppor ve advisory services that facilitate adop on of correct prac ces. enforcement of regula ons. (vi) improving collabora on in TB/HIV programs. and treatment delivery schemes to local condi ons and resources. monitoring and evalua on system. through periodic studies about eﬀorts to improve provision of services. and promo ng evidence-based planning and decision making. The local commitment in alloca ng funds to local government budgets (APBD) to TB as part of MSS (Minimum Services Standards) as well as the MDGs is crucial since both are na onal and local priori es in health development. both at the central level and among local authori es. (iv) periodic evalua on at na onal and local levels to increase accountability and mo va on to perform. It will require: (i) further strengthening the capacity of the health system to prevent and control infec ous disease – reviewing surveillance and case-repor ng systems and se ng up alert and response mechanisms to lower the case fatality rate. 3. reduce delays in diagnosis. (vii) strengthening public health services in providing eﬀec ve responses to the Stop TB program. (v) periodic surveys to iden fy special risks (emergence of MRD-TB or outbreaks in prisons or health facili es). Malaria and Other Diseases ensuring the availability and sustainability of drug supply. as well as cross-sectoral collabora on and a monitoring and evalua on system. through: (i) expanding research related to TB. and (viii) establishing TB control capacity as a district level priority. (iii) implemen ng surveillance to iden fy speciﬁc risks (such as the emergence of MDR TB). strong surveillance. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) sets targets for the following ac vi es and indicators as described in the table below: 108 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 4.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. vector control and other locally based preven ve interven ons. and (xi) providing standardized facili es and infrastructure for TB services. (ix) outreach that applies appropriate remote area strategies. Therefore. In order to accelerate the achievement of the targets in reducing the incidence and death rate related to TB. and implementa on of the DOTS. Strengthening the health informa on. 5. Enforcing policies and regula ons to build eﬀec ve sector leadership and governance by establishing strong poli cal commitment. (x) expanding case detec on rate and coverage of TB treatment and care services in all health services. diagnos c. (ii) reviewing and adjus ng the design of case detec on. through promo ng an appropriate alloca on of resources. (ii) improving coverage of laboratory services.
2010-2014 Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of TB 85 86 87 87 88 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.3.000 popula on Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) 2010 235 73 2011 231 75 2012 228 80 2013 226 85 2014 224 90 Table 6. 3/2010. Priori es. Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB. Inpres No. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 109 .Priority Indicators Prevalence of TB per 100.
110 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Maintaining replanted mangrove trees Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .
The Percentage of Forest Cover of the Total Land Area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 Source: Ministry of Forestry (1990-2008). illegal logging.1. forest ﬁres.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrating the principles of sustainable development in national policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources Current Status The ra o of actual forest cover to the total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys was 52. Degrada on of Indonesia’s forests and reduc on in biodiversity occurred on a large scale prior to 2002 due to unsustainable forest management prac ces.43 percent in 2008. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 113 . Figure 7.97 percent. a reduc on of forest cover as compared with the baseline year of 1990 when forest cover was 59.
Nevertheless.2.000 Consump on in ODP tonnes 8. Figure 7.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and conversion of forest lands to other uses. The rate of forest degrada on between 2000 and 2005 was es mated to be 1. This in turn increases the threat of an energy crisis in the future.1 million hectares between 1997 and 2001.1997 and 2.089 million hectares per year.000 1. Halon.000 2. This reﬂects the increasing eﬃciency in the use of energy. MBr) HCFCs 114 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 9. The ra o of energy use per GDP in Indonesia has tended to decline.3.000 6. 23 of 1992 on the Elimina on of the Consump on of Figure 7.6 million hectares per year during 1985 . a reduc on as compared to 1. the use of nonrenewable energy in Indonesia more than doubled between 1990 and 2008. TCA. Besides causing emissions that aﬀect climate change. The Indonesian government ra ﬁed the Montreal Protocol through Presiden al Decree No.000 5. Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 10. the availability of non-renewable energy is becoming more limited.000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Ministry of Environment. CTC.000 4. ODS was phased out (CFC.000 3. Total Energy Use of Various Types for the Years 1990-2008 (Equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in Millions) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.000 7. The consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) has been signiﬁcantly reduced in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.
Reduc on of global warming requires interna onal partnerships. and strengthening the enforcement of laws and regula ons governing environmental management in Indonesia. Policies and Strategies In accordance with the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (2005-2025) and the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). control over the smuggling. Indonesia is vulnerable to the nega ve impacts of climate change. illegal importa on and use of ODS is very diﬃcult. and Indonesia is commi ed to cooperate ac vely with the world community in dealing with the important issues related to climate change. In addi on. Na onal plans and policies will be focused on improving coordina on among the ins tu ons directly involved in environmental management. both to mi gate global climate change and implement steps to empower the people of Indonesia to adapt to the nega ve impacts of climate change. If appropriate steps are not taken. many regions in Indonesia will experience water supply shortages. more variable rainfall pa erns that can cause ﬂoods and droughts. Indonesia announced the target to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 percent from Business as Usual (BAU) condi ons in 2020 in the forum of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009. As the largest archipelagic country in the world.5 million hectares during 2010-2014. building capacity for these ins tu ons at all levels. declining crop yields. Challenges Global warming is leading to climate change and having nega ve impacts on the environment. and other environmental changes. The government is working to increase forest cover through rehabilita on of 2. development policies will be directed to achieve a sustainable pa ern of natural resource use and environmental management. there are s ll indica ons of illegal importa on and trade in ODS. ini a ves are being taken to reduce deforesta on and forest degrada on through preven on of illegal logging. Although since 1998 the import of CFCs and goods related to the CFC has been oﬃcially banned. The steps that the government has already implemented include the following: To overcome Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 115 . and na onal ac ons are needed. and reduced produc vity of coastal ecosystems. The target will be increased up to 41 percent with interna onal assistance. and a regula on prohibi ng the importa on of ozone deple ng substances was enacted in 1998 and revised in 2006 by the Ministry of Trade. including sea level rise.Ozone Deple ng Substances. forest ﬁres and encroachment on forest lands.
000 Ha 240. and implementa on of this law will become the responsibility of central and local governments.000 Ha 500.000 Ha 480.000 Ha Reduced area of cri cal lands through rehabilita on and reclama on of forests Facilitate and implement forest rehabilita on in priority catchment areas Implementa on of Land Reclamaon and Forest Rehabilita on in Priority Watersheds Facilitate land rehabilita on in the priority catchment areas Facilitate development of the urban forest areas Facilitate rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 5. The government has also launched a na onal movement of rehabilia on of forests and cri cal lands. the government is socializing and providing ﬁscal and non-ﬁscal incen vies to promote energy saving measures and use of more eﬃcient.000 Ha 100.000 Ha 2. The policy framework and strategy have been translated into programs and ac vi es in the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) as follows: Table 7.000 Ha 640.000 Ha 120.000 Ha 240.000 Ha 116 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the government has and will con nue to maintain the ban on the use of materials that have been legally banned.000 Ha 200.000 Ha 295.000 Ha 60. Through the ozone layer protec on program.000 Ha 120.000 Ha 320.000 Ha 4. in 2008 the government increased the total area of protected forests and protected aqua c waters signiﬁcantly. In addi on. The government.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability the rate of deforesta on.000 Ha 1.1.000 Ha 300.000 MW electricity program Phase II which has renewable energy as its main energy source.000 Ha 3.000 Ha 800. especially geothermal energy which comprises 39 percent. has already launched a 10.000 Ha 295. Law Number 30/2007 has mandated increased use of New and Renewable Energy as an eﬀort to diversify. for example.000 Ha 400. Comba ng illegal logging is being carried out in various areas to maintain the forest cover and protect conserva on areas. Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rehabilita on of cri cal lands and forest reclama on Implementa on of Forest and Land Rehabilita on Facilitate the rehabilita on of mangrove forests. environmentally friendly and renewable alterna ve energy sources. peat and swamp areas 160.000 Ha 180.000 Ha 180. peat and swamp areas (295 000 ha) 60.
Facilitate 500 group / unit management business license HKM Facilitate 50 partnership units HKM Social Forestry Development Facilitate ins tu onal support food security in 32 provinces Facilitate community forest development partnership for industrial wood raw materials covering 250 000 ha Facilitate establishment and func oning of the center at 30 HHBK districts Targeted working area of 500.000 ha 200.600.000 ha 500.000 ha of village forests 400. with the Ministry of Forestry. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Improved forest management through community empowerment Facilitate establishment of community forest management areas (HKM). covering 2 million ha.1.Con nued Table 7.000 ha 6 Districts 12 Districts 18 Districts 24 Districts 30 Districts 100.200.000 ha 100 groups 200 groups 300 groups 400 groups 500 groups 10 Unit 20 Unit 30 Unit 40 Unit 50 Unit 4 Prov 8 Prov 16 Prov 22 Prov 32 Prov 50.000 ha 100.000 ha 400.000 ha 1.000 ha 300.000 ha Increased quality of conserva on policies and forest damage control and integrated land management with various ministries and ins tu ons including.000 ha 250.000 ha 150.000 ha 800.000 ha 200.000. BPN and Local Governments Number of conserva on policies ﬁnalized to control forest destruc on and land use issued (the criteria and guidelines) are coordinated among the concerned ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Control of Forest and Land Degrada on Data on hotspots in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres that are desseminated to the concerned ministries and ins tu ons An implementa on mechanism for land and forest ﬁre preven on in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons 3 3 3 3 3 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 8 8 8 8 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 117 .000 ha 1.000 ha 2.
2% Forest Fire Control 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Adequacy of policies. impacts to land and forest ﬁres Hotspots on the islands of Borneo. seagrass.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Con nued Table 7. mi ga on. mangrove and 15 species of endangered aqua c biota Sea and freshwater conservaon areas and sustainably managed brackish areas Number of conserva on areas and protected aqua c biota species iden ﬁed and mapped accurately 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha Management and Conserva on Development Areas 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types Improved system blackout preven on. and Sulawesi reduced by 20% each year The area of forest ﬁre is reduced compared to 2008 condi ons 20% 36% 48.2% 67. Priori es Output / Indicators Detailed data on land and forest damage in 11 priority watersheds and and areas poten ally prone to landslides are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons The data of land cover and land use change (landuse change) compiled through the Program Go Green Indonesia Number of provinces (ecosystem approach) that are monitored according to the data and the poten al for disaster % of conserva on policy recommenda ons and control of forest destruc on and land area of the provinces implemented are monitored each year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 10 15 20 25 30 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Management of the 20% area of coral reefs.8% 59. data and informa on to control land and forest ﬁres is integrated and coordinated with the concerned ministries and ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Forest and Control of Land Degrada on Data on the distribu on of hotspots/ forest ﬁres in eight Provinces disseminated to the ministries/ departments.1. Sumatera. to monitor the success of the implementa on mechanisms for the preven on of forest ﬁres 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% Implementa on of integrated watershed management in priority watersheds Integrated watershed management plan in 108 priority watersheds (DAS) Build a base line data on the 36 watershed management BPDAS Provision of data and maps of cri cal land in 36 BPDAS 22 DAS 44 DAS 66 DAS 88 DAS 100 DAS Development of Watershed Management 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 118 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
with coordina on across the concerned ministries.795 The realiza on of new renewable energy and energy conserva on op ons Lisdes (EBT) .16 0.53 0 0 1 24.000 MW geothermal power plants in the phase II program Total installed capacity of geothermal power plants.32 0.55 0.1 1 24.94 5.The number of ocean energy feasibility studies .42 5.PLT Wind (kW) Managing the provision of EBT and Implementa on of Energy Conserva on .PLTMH (kW) .9 5.Number of Pilot Projects genera ng electricity from ocean energy resources DME 3.38 5.1.000 5.55 1.1 1 24.419 2.64 0. Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources Contribu on to achieving the target of 10.59 10.Biomass (MW) .Con nued Table 7.1 1 27. ins tu ons and local governments Management of Water Quality and Peat Areas Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons 25% 25% 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% The physical model for CO2 absorb on.49 10.PLTS 50 Wp .260 3.2. Amoun ng to 5795 MW in year 2014 1. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Availability of integrated water quality management policy tools among the concerned ministries and ins tuons % Se ng classiﬁca on of water at the district/ municipality level for 13 rivers in 119 priority districts and ci es.69 11. perfec ng and tes ng produc on Technology for Control and Mi ga on of the Impacts of Global Warming Policy recommenda ons to reduce emissions and increase carbon sinks and pilot plant photobioreactor for CO2 absorb on 1 1 1 1 1 Priori es Increased use of renewable energy including geothermal energy to reach 2000 MW in 2012 and 5000 MW by 2014 the commencement of coal bed methane produc on to generate electricity in 2011 accompanied by the u liza on of solar energy poten al Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 7.261 1.78 11.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 50 50 50 50 50 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 119 .
Reduc on of biodiversity has occurred.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. The average rate of degrada on of forest ecosystems in the period 2000-2005 reached 1. a significant reduction in the rate of loss Current Status Indonesian biodiversity is threatened due to the u liza on of natural resources in unsustainable ways. achieving. During the last 50 years. Indonesia may have lost "pearls" without a chance to know the value and beneﬁt lost. damage to coral reefs has increased from 10 percent to 50 percent. not only at the level of ecosystems. BAPI aimed to preserve biodiversity through reduced degrada on of ecosystems. Challenges Deprecia on of gene c diversity.09 million hectares per year. Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature (IUCN) Red List data reports that 772 species of ﬂora and fauna are threatened with ex nc on. is not well documented. Policies and Strategies The Indonesian government launched the Indonesian Biodiversity Ac on Plan (BAPI) in 1993 as a document to set priori es and investment in biodiversity conserva on and this plan was used in preparing the ﬁ h and sixth Five Year Development Plans (un l 1999). Discussions on gene c erosion in the ﬁeld of agro-ecosystems may also be true for wild species. 5 / 1994. and providing support to the management of sustainable natural resources. transporta on and other uses has had a nega ve impact on biodiversity. par cularly species of wild animals and plants. development of the database. by 2010. This document was published before the ra ﬁca on of the United Na ons Conven on on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) through Law No. the percentage with 50 percent live coral reef popula ons has declined from 36 percent to 29 percent. Meanwhile. Since not all gene c erosion occurring in wild species is known. but also at the level of species and gene c diversity. approximately 240 rare plant species have been declared endangered and some ﬁsh species are also threatened with ex nc on. Transfer of some ecosystems into areas to be used for industry. 120 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . residences. Between 1989 and 2000.
Forest ﬁre control a) Reduce the number of hot spots b) Reduce the burned area c) Improving human resource capacity in controlling forest ﬁres 6. Management and development of ecosystem and species conserva on in coastal zones and marine areas a) Improved management of ecosystems of coral reefs. Development and conserva on of essen al ecosystems a) Reduce conﬂict and pressure on na onal parks and other conserva on areas b) Improving the management of essen al ecosystem c) Improved management of problems resul ng from encroachment of conserva on areas d) Recovery of conserva on areas 3. opportuni es. ac ons. b) Iden ﬁca on and mapping of marine conserva on areas and protected species Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 121 . Inves ga on and security protec on forest a) Reduce forest crime b) Finaliza on of cases of crime in conserva on areas 4. mangroves. In order to address the various issues speciﬁed in the UNCBD and learning from the BAPI experience. Improving biodiversity conserva on a) Biodiversity conserva on policy b) Monitor the implementa on of biodiversity conserva on c) Facilitate the development of Biodiversity Parks 2. IBSAP iden ﬁed a number of needs.Ten years later. Conserving biodiversity is one of the priori es in natural resources management as contained in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). new challenges and obstacles in implemen ng biodiversity conserva on. Environmental services and ecotourism development 7. Development of species and biodiversity conserva on gene cs a) Enhance biodiversity and endangered species popula ons b) Cap ve c) Interna onal and regional coopera on 5. Eﬀorts to conserve biodiversity and expand protec on of endangered species is illustrated with clear indicators and targets to be achieved. BAPI was updated into the "Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Ac on Plan (IBSAP)". etc. IBSAP was built through a par cipatory process and addressed more current environmental problems. namely: 1. sea grass.
Susenas.3 % 68.3 46.7 48. The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reﬂects the slow rate of development of drinking water infrastructure.6 47.7 48.5 30.5 42.3 56.8 47.8 % TARGET MDG 35. TOTAL URBAN RURAL 122 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47.9 42.5 30. To achieve the MDG target by 2015.1 70 53. In addi on.2 37.0 50.0 41.2 57. Access to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37.7 50.8 20 10 37.8 60 65.5 48.7 43.5 51.7 38.6 31.9 % 58.3 42.6 54.7 37. by 2015. priority should be given to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies.9 52.3 47.4 40.0 42.87 percent) and sanita on (62.7 49.7 31. DRINKING WATER Improved drinking water is deﬁned as water from a protected water source located more than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina on. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Current Status The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and sanita on has con nuously increased.73 percent of households in 1993 to 47.4). the number of households who have sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47.8 48.0 45. greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets for access to improved drinking water (68.7 42.19 percent respec vely.71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.8 54.0 43.8 55. many water supply facili es are not operated and maintained well.0 41. several years.3 30 35. par cularly in urban areas where development has not matched the growth rate of popula on.3 41. Figure 7.9 35. Therefore. both in rural and urban areas.2 Percentage 50 40 46. However.2 Notes: Data does not include Timor Timur.4.6 54.7 53.6 34.5 75. Access to improved sources of drinking water tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas. 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS.6 51.9 40. Propor ons of Rural.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7C: Halve.41 percent) in 2015.71 percent and 51.7 . Urban and all Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources in Indonesia (1993-2009) 80 Urban+Rural: 59.
6 38. 100 90 66.2 49.75 44.7 54.3 35.96 42.6).08 48.1 64.6 35. and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources. Percentages of Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources by Urban and Rural Popula ons by Province (2009) 27.45 46.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7. URBAN RURAL TOTAL Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 123 .5 28.2 11.02 55.96 45.36 44.6 56.6 32.60 33.4 12.1 9.Signiﬁcant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.62 47. The propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than doubled.81 percent in 1993 to 51.2 Note: Data does not include Timor Timur Source: BPS.8 20. urban and total rural and urban.12 59. progress has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic development.9 57.53 50.4 55.2 70 53.1 50 27.92 43.0 35. 1993-2009 51.81 35.97 54.0 44.3 17. However.8 62.6 60 51.89 37.0 30 21.71 58. Figure 7. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 7.3 18.4 45.2 48.38 Percentage Banten Aceh Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Papua Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Kepulauan Riau Lampung Jawa Barat Riau Sulawesi Barat Maluku Utara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Gorontalo Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Barat INDONESIA Papua Barat Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Maluku Jawa Timur Kalimantan Timur Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Bali DI Yogyakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL Source: BPS.7 59.7 76.29 40. Susenas 2009.74 40.5.44 36.85 44.5.19 51.9 40 32.84 36. Susenas 1993 – 2009.50 55. from 24. As shown in Figure 7.7 56.6 53.7 22.02 34.99 60.49 44. SANITATION Improved sanita on is deﬁned as facili es that are safe.6 10 0 17.30 59. hygienic.5 MDGs TARGET 80 57.6 28.3 56.13 51.6 The propor on of households with access to adequate sanita on in rural.6.2 27.1 51.2 15.70 55.1 14.4 34.9 25.6 12.6 31. Bali and Southeast Sulawesi. and comfortable and that can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces. Aceh.0 20.51 40.47 30.5 20 17. Banten.7 69.71 48.5 24.04 51.7 34. the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta.
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on.03 43.19 51.84 45. Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to achieve the MDG target in 2015.66 38.07 51. In terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas. for example.58 58.63 34.78 45.48 42.17 52. Na onwide.59 75.18 43.02 42.35 75. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved 124 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur Papua Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Bengkulu Lampung Maluku Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Aceh Maluku Utara Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Timur INDONESIA Sumatera Utara Jawa Barat Riau Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Selatan Kalimantan Timur Banten Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara DI Yogyakarta Bali DKI Jakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL 80.65 28. there are 21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average.69 39.83 40. 2.66 63. Act No.78 32. making it diﬃcult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate. Propor ons of Households with Access to Improved Sanita on Facili es by Rural/ urban Areas by Province (2009) 100 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 14. Susenas 2009.95 10 - Source: BPS.51 percent of urban popula ons have access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33.43 38.7.96 percent in rural areas.98 21.35 45.82 60. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over the years. Figure 7. Challenges The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include the following: 1.06 57.21 39. especially in urban areas where the popula on growth rate is higher than the na onal popula on growth rate.75 54.16 41.48 58. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and sanita on.93 41. and this gap varies among provinces.12 40. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised. with the largest gap found in the provinces of Kepulauan Riau. 69.37 20 .91 51. There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on.92 52. Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat.
6. There are s ll many households that rely on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality.000 inhabitants (MOH. and there is a need for more intensive coordina on. Similarly. is not in balance with the rate of urban popula on growth. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for development of drinking water and sanita on. especially in urban areas with development of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita on. 4. This results from a tendency to rely on central government funding. Planning and budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a priority of local governments. 7. which reached 411 per 1. The level of investment in the provision of piped water connec ons. Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate. Unsanitary behavior is reﬂected in the high incidence of diarrhea. including both Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional). and this is reﬂected in the low budget alloca ons of regional governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking water and sanita on. processing. and this increases the likelihood of contamina on of water sources. 5. centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems have been less than adequate. especially in urban areas. especially at the level of program implementa on. Hand washing with soap is s ll not common. An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly owned water companies are func oning properly. some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E. investments in the provision of water service connec ons. both from the government and the private sector. and about 55. although the provision and management of improved drinking water and sanita on has become the responsibility of the local governments. 8. some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas. and although almost all households boil water for drinking. Determina on and se ng of tariﬀs does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery). 3. Diarrhea Morbidity Survey.51 percent of the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariﬀ below the cost of water produc on. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water.coli bacteria. The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector is limited. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low.drinking water and sanita on. and disposal of fecal waste. especially in urban areas. The low ﬁnancial performance of the municipal water Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 125 . Lack of balance between popula on growth. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water. At the same me there are many on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment in infrastructure. storage. 2010).
Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support provision of improved drinking water and sanita on. the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of all par es. the development of drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Health. and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014. donors. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water and sanita on are as follows: 1. In rural areas. maintenance. coastal and rural areas. 2. the future policy of investment is aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. 126 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . In addi on. including the government. and deregula on of the laws. especially in urban areas. DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS). To increase the pace in the provision of sanita on services. construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). the private sector. Alloca on of funding from Central Government will give priority to the poor. and the community. either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale. development and improvement of transmission and distribu on networks. the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK) for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns. 3. At the same me. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement of water systems. remote. through the addi on. Funding from the private sector. To increase access of households to improved sanita on. Eﬀorts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved drinking water and sanita on. revision.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve ﬁnancing. The central government will also encourage and facilitate the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance and ﬁnancing. Investment will be focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale basis (oﬀ-site).
as well as the applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water reclama on. through the control of ground water use by domes c and industrial users. implementa on of corpora za on. The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. protec on of ground and surface water from sources of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services. informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water and sanita on facili es in schools as part of eﬀorts to improve the hygienic behavior of students and communi es. and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems. and among government. 6. prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK). especially the poor. aligned with the RIS-SPAM. Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of business plans. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior. as presented in the following table: Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 127 . asset management and human resource capacity building. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on systems. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and basic sanita on that is focused on services for urban popula ons. (b) increasing coopera on among government agencies. Ensuring the availability of drinking water. 7. between government and society. as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on. (c) improving the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the government. especially regarding the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has been deﬁned in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan. Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private sector and the community through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). and (d) op mizing the u liza on of ﬁnancial resources.4. 9. between government and the private sector. 8. 5. the private sector and the public. both for ins tu ons and communi es. through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM) based on community based ini a ves. through communica on.
000 villages 360 areas 32 areas and 700 villages 11 districts/ ci es 11 11 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan ( RPJMN 20102014) and Inpres no.000 218 area 31 areas and 1. Priori es Outputs Percentage of households with access to improved drinking water source Percentage of drinking water quality that meets the requirements 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 62 62.3/2010 Improve the development of sanita on infrastructure 30 districts/ ci es 35 districts/ ci es 40 districts/ ci es 50 55 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es 128 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .500 5.472 villages 9 districts/ ci es 244 areas 30 areas and 1.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Table 7.000 16. Annual Implementa on Targets to Improve Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources and Basic Sanita on 2010-2014.5 63 63.500 11.5 67 85 90 95 100 100 Improving surveillance and monitoring of environmental quality Percentage of popula on that have access to basic sanita on 64 67 69 72 75 Number of villages where Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) will be implemented Number of urban areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of rural areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of areas with improved infrastructure developed for syistem oﬀ-site sewerage Number of areas with infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site sewerage systems 2.3.165 villages 11 districts/ ci es Improve the development of drinkig water supply systems 260 areas 30 areas and 500 villages 315 areas 30 areas and 1.000 20.
Source: BPS. but 12.12 percent of urban households are s ll found to be living in slums (see Figure 7. Papua and DKI Jakarta.8. several ini a ves to empower those who live in urban slums are being implemented. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 129 .Target 7D: By 2020.9. Jawa Tengah and Kalimantan Barat. the Urban Poverty Project (UPP).10 percent (DI Yogyakarta) while the highest propor on is 28.8). Signiﬁcant disparites are found among provinces in the propor on of the urban popula ons categorized as slum households. urban renewal. the Community-Based Ini a ves for Housing and Local Development (CoBILD). including the Na onal Community Empowerment Program (PNPM Mandiri) with technical support from various na onal ministries. including: the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP). to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Current Status The propor on of households living in Figure 7. The provinces with the lowest propor ons of slum households are DI Yogyakarta. Susenas. As seen in Figure 7. and the Neighborhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Program (NUSSP). 1993 and 2009 Many ini a ves have been carried out to improve the welfare of urban households. urban slums in Indonesia has declined The Propor on of Urban Households Living in Slums. the provinces where with the highest percentage of slum households are found are Nusa Tenggara Timur.63 percentage points from 1993. The lowest propor on of slum households for a province is 5. by 8. The Government of Indonesia has implemented many programs to improve the lives of slum dwellers. In addi on.85 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur).
1 5.0 9. Limited access to housing ﬁnance.9 8.7 10.1 21.8 10.4 DI Yogyakarta Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Maluku Utara Jambi Sumatera Utara Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Timur Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Aceh Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Lampung INDONESIA Gorontalo Bali Kalimantan Tengah Bengkulu Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Kepulauan Riau Jawa Barat Banten Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sulawesi Barat Papua Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat DKI Jakarta Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: BPS. 2009 Percentage 35 5. Susenas. and 5.0 14.5 8.6 5.1 14.9 12. Challenges Aside from the regional dispari es. 3.6 15.6 8.6 7. facili es and u li es for self-help housing. the major challenges in reducing the propor on of urban slum households in Indonesia are as follows: 1. facilita on of development of new housing and improvement in the quality of selfhelp housing and the provision of infrastructure. 2.9 .3 14.1 14.7 17.5 10.4 24.1 25.9.7 7. 4. Previous programs have produced less than op mal results in improving the lives of slum dwellers. integrated with real estate development to realize ci es without slums. safe and aﬀordable housing. The Propor on of Urban Slum Households by Province. Limited access of low-income households to land for housing in urban areas.1 12.5 13. Other priori es are to improve the quality of residen al environments through the provision of infrastructure. Addi onal ini a ves will increase access of low income households to decent and aﬀordable housing through a liquidity facility.0 25.5 8. Limited provision of basic facili es for urban se lements.7 9.3 13. Several steps have been taken to improve the provision of decent and aﬀordable housing for low-income communi es through development of public housing for rent.6 9. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies is to fulﬁll the needs of the urban poor for adequate.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Figure 7.8 19.7 7. as well as facilita ng the provision of land.3 13. basic facili es. 130 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 28. and adequate public u li es. Limited capacity of the government and the private sector to build aﬀordable houses. and microcredit for housing and na onal housing savings.0 18.
500 16.The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set priori es and targets to reduce the number of households living in urban slums in order to accelerate the achievement of this MDG. provincial governments.500 6.250 7.250 7.500 7.500 12. Guidance. Eﬀorts to achieve these targets will be implemented by the Ministry of Public Works. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 131 .250 6.250 7.250 Development of mul -story low rent housing units* 100 100 180 0 0 Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014.200 15 2014 22 22 3. facili es and u li es Number of mul -story low rent housing units built (Rusunawa) 100 150 175 180 95 95 3.041 50 2012 30 30 7. Control and Opera on in the Development of Se lements Urban slum areas to be improved Units of apartment dwellings built up with suppor ng infrastructure Se lement infrastructure improved in low income residen al areas Facilita on and promo on of environmental planning for slum areas Facilita on and promo on of development of self-help housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp improvement of housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp infrastructure Number of slum areas facilitated 50 Number of self-help new housing construc on ini a ves Number of self-help improvement of exis ng housing ini a ves Number of ini a ves to facilitate and s mulate self-help improvement of infrastructure.500 12. Table 7.960 104 2011 30 30 7.250 16.500 7.4. the Ministry of Housing. 2013 30 30 5. as shown in Table 7.041 50 7.500 12. district / city governments and urban communi es.458 21 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums Targets Priori es Indicators 2010 Prepara on of ac on plans on urban slums at district/ municipality level Regula ons. Note: *) Simpliﬁed Rental Housing Development es mated 30 percent for low-income communi es.500 6.500 16.2.
132 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
September 24-25. 2009 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .G-20 Summit in Pi sburgh.
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Indonesia is ac vely engaged with the interna onal community in working to improve governance of interna onal trade. the Interna onal Monetary Fund (IMF). Tanzania. UK. Indonesia has built a wide network of strong bilateral partnerships to promote equitable development and trade. the Government of Indonesia will con nue to rely on foreign grants and loans. the World Trade Organiza on (WTO). Indonesia. Liberia and Senegal) have established a Network of Global Leaders for Global Campaign on Health MDGs (NGL 45) with the sole purpose of garnering interna onal support on one of the most neglected and cri cal social MDGs. The goal of the government is to seek quality investments that create jobs and reduce social inequality. The United Na ons Conference on Trade and Development recently ranked Indonesia as one of the top ten most a rac ve des na ons for foreign direct investment globally. Indonesia is commi ed to achieving produc ve partnerships with the private sector while maintaining a conducive investment climate to increase domes c and foreign private investment. Australia. Netherlands. Chile. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 135 . Brazil. along with other Sherpa’s from ten countries (Norway. In ﬁnancing na onal development. including south-south and triangular coopera on. Indonesia also par cipates with the interna onal community in many interna onal and regional forums including the Group of Twenty (G-20) and the Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum (APEC) to promote collabora on on issues related to economic development and trade between emerging economies and developed economies. the Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons (ASEAN). including the United Na ons. To best accomplish this approach. although funding from interna onal sources is expected to decline as a propor on of the na onal budget. the government works to strengthen interna onal partnerships and to improve the eﬀec veness and eﬃciency in u liza on of foreign grants and loans to support na onal development. the government will proceed with cau on and borrow from interna onal sources that provide the most favourable terms and condi ons while protec ng Indonesia’s interna onal posi on. To support u liza on of foreign loans. investment and transfer of technology to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. child and maternal mortality. the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Indonesia works to achieve a more equitable and dynamic pa ern of global partnerships as a member of mul lateral ins tu ons. Mozambique. Public – private partnerships are encouraged to promote economic growth and improve provision of public services.
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the ASEANEuropean Union FTA.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open. trade. and it went into eﬀect on 1 July 2008. rule-based. 136 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The agreement is expected to reduce threats of rising protec onism and to provide a s mulus to global recovery.9 billion) and the third largest in terms of GDP (USD 6. Indonesia has also par cipated in various interna onal nego a ng forums related to interna onal trade including: APEC. Indonesia has also entered into bilateral agreements for free trade with several other countries. and movement of individuals 1 ACFTA creates the world’s largest free-trade area in terms of the popula on of the na ons which are signatories to the agreement (1. the CAIRNS Group. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Current Status Star ng in the 1950s Indonesia par cipated in global discussions on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs (GATT) to improve the global trading system and was a founding member of the World Trade Organiza on (WTO) in January 1995. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)1 and the ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement (AKFTA) are among the free trade agreements which have been entered into force. Indonesia is one of the founding member states of ASEAN which established the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992. The objec ve of this agreement is to strengthen bilateral economic rela ons. and W52 Sponsors. Indonesia has par cipated in the Doha Development Round and remains commi ed to reaching an agreement to maintain conﬁdence in the mul lateral trading system. ASEAN is also moving toward the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2015 and the goal of regional economic integra on. In addi on. the G-33. covering wide-ranging coopera on in investment. At the same me Indonesia supports a Special Safeguard Mechanism to reduce the short term nega ve impacts of trade liberaliza on on those involved in the agricultural sector. ASEAN has also reached out to enter into free trade agreements with other Asian na ons as well as na ons outside of Asia. ASEAN is now in the process of nego a ng other ASEAN FTA such as: the ASEAN-India FTA. the NAMA 11. predictable. The Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) was signed on 20 August 2007 as the ﬁrst Indonesian bilateral trade agreement.6 trillion) a er the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area. especially the rural poor. Besides regional trade agreements.
2009.9% 39.001 billion in 2009 while the LDR for rural banks also increased signiﬁcantly from 101.8 percent in 2009.868 billion in 2003 to Rp 28. An improved regulatory framework for trade has yielded substan ve economic beneﬁts. Comprehensive reforms in Indonesia’s banking sector have been ins tuted based on the diﬃcult lessons learned from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. Trade has increased substan ally since 1980 and has led to growth of the na onal economy and the expansion of employment opportuni es.3 percent in 2003 to 109. The level of nonperforming loans (NPL) at commercial has been improved during the repor ng period while the NPL at rural banks is considered to have been maintained at a safe level. GDP Growth and the Ra o of Imports Plus Exports to GDP as the MDG Indicator for Economic Openness 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 400 Billion USD 300 37. The indicator for banking for MDG 8 is the Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR) for commercial banks and rural banks. The deposits of rural banks also increased from Rp 8.8 percent in 2000 to a rate of 72. Exports. The Trends for Imports.Indonesia has been successful in developing greater openness in trading with the global community. The LDR for commercial banks has increased steadily from a level of 45.1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 137 . The recent data for the indicator of economic openness reveals a long-term trend to greater openness in the management of the Indonesian economy. including strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reduc on of bank vulnerabili es through higher capitaliza on and be er supervision.0 percent in 2009.5% 200 100 - Level of Economic Openness IMPORTS EXPORTS GDP at Current Price (billion USD) Sources: BPS and the World Bank. 100% Percentage (level of economic openness) 600 Figure 8.
1 53.9 111.4 120 101. 2000 .2009 140 119. especially mari me ports.0 Percentage 80 61. and • Frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected me.7 77.2 64. “Connec ng to Compete in Indonesia”. Among the factors in determining the logis cal performance of a na on on trade are the following: • Eﬃciency of the customs clearance process and border procedures.2 107.7 109. • Competence and quality of logis cs services. A er eight years of nego a ons on the Doha Development Agreement. service sector performance (transport. the challenge now is to conclude an agreement that will provide a strong founda on for global recovery and sustained growth.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. The survey iden ﬁed the need to give special a en on to improve customs and especially quality and standards inspec ons agencies.2.3 100 108.7 64.5 109. • Ability to track and trace consignments. 2010.8 60 45. • Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure. 138 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2 72. • Ease of arranging compe vely priced shipments.8 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 45.8 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Bank Indonesia Economic Report 2009. logis cs and freight-forwarding services) and overall logis cs infrastructure. Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of Commercial and Rural Credit Banks. LDR Rural Banking LDR Commercial Banking Challenges The fragility of the global recovery underlines the importance of s mulus packages and the need to maintain the certainty of open trade and a rule-based mul lateral trading system.2 2 World Bank. The Logis cs Performance Index (LPI) survey highlighted the need for Indonesia to take further ac on to improve border management.0 49.7 69.
There is a need to control the intermedia on func on of the banking system. beverages. there is a tendency for rural banks to focus on clients considered to be more bankable. and high demand. 6. However. In terms of microﬁnance. Improve trade ac vi es in border regions which are func on as the front gates for economic and trade ac vi es with neighboring countries. 4. rules-based. footwear and leather products. development of Indonesian exports will be focused on agriculture and ﬁshery products. Emphasize eﬀorts on expansion of market access. The low composi on of investment credit cannot be separated from the structure of deposits in banks which are short-term funds with a maturity of one to three months so that there is the poten al for funding mismatches in the long term. Encourage exports of crea ve products and services. tex les. natural resourcebased. machinery. predictable. Encourage eﬀorts of market diversiﬁca on to reduce export dependency on certain markets. chemical products. due to a lack of informa on about the businesses owned by their customers. nondiscriminatory trading system. promo on and export facilita on in Africa and Asia.BPR) has improved. the performance of rural banks (Bank Perkreditan Rakyat . Secondly. Therefore. 7. par cularly of small and medium enterprises. The advantages of rural banks compared to commercial banks are the services they provide to SMEs and low income people who priori ze in macy through direct services (door to door). electrical equipment. Strengthen trade ins tu ons and foreign trade ﬁnancing that can induce eﬀec veness of non-oil export development. foods. 5. 3. chemicals. including the following: 1. Support u liza on of trade schemes and interna onal trade coopera on that are more beneﬁcial to na onal interests. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 139 . Policies and Strategies Various steps will be taken to further develop an open. 2. and a personal approach with a en on to local culture. the magnitude of the spread between lending and deposit interest rates is an cipated to be one cause of low investment lending in the banking industry. Increase non oil and gas exports of products that are high value-added. mining.
especially ﬁnancial services to support micro. develop appropriate banking products and Islamic borrowing arrangements.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The Government of Indonesia will also con ne to work to maintain a healthy. The strategy to strenghten the performance and stability of the banking sector includes the following ini a ves: 1. stable and eﬃcient banking system to be er support achievement of the goals of na onal development. Accelerate strategic intermedia on and distribu on of public funds to increase access to ﬁnancial service ins tu ons (LJK) for low income groups through the following ini a ves: a. 2. b. 4. Strengthen the quality of management and opera onal services of all banking ins tu ons. expand the scope of ﬁnancial services. 140 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 3. Enhance eﬀorts to protect the consumer and investors. diversiﬁca on of sources of development funding through non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons (LKBB). small and medium enterprises. c. Strengthen the regulatory framework and further improve supervision of commercial and rural banks. improve the suppor ng infrastructure of ﬁnancial services ins tu ons. and d.
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
In the decade following the economic crisis of 1997/98 the Government of Indonesia ins tuted a comprehensive set of reforms to strengthen the na on’s economic fundamentals, including a reduc on of interna onal debt and strengthening of the banking sector. These reforms have provided a strong founda on for the Government to implement policies to recover from the crisis and also to achieve growth with equity. Mul lateral and bilateral coopera on has assisted Indonesia to work towards achievement of the MDGs while a decade of sustained economic growth has enabled the Government to reduce dependency on interna onal borrowing to a sustainable level. The success of Indonesia’s economic reforms and improvements in the management of the na onal debt are reﬂected in the reduc on of the debt to GDP ra o which had declined from a peak of 89 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2009. While the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP has been reduced from 24.59 percent in 1996 to only 10.89 percent in 2009 (see Figure 8.3).
(% ) 120%
Debt Service Ra o
The Trend of Foreign Debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) During 1996-2009
6,000 5,000 4,000
Ra o of foreign debt to GDP
3,000 2,000 1,000 0
50.7% 47.3% 37.9% 24.6%
41.1% 39.4% 33.1% 34.1% 39.9% 41.9% 37.2% 40% 27.1% 24.8% 24.2% 21.9% 31.3% 29.0% 27.8% 19.2% 17.3% 22.4% 20% 16.8% 14.8% 14.7% 10.9%
1996 DSR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 GDP Foreign Loans 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Outstanding Debt Ra o of Debt to GDP Ra o of Foreign Debt to GDP
Source: Economic Report Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, 2008, Sta s cs of Foreign Debt, Ministry of Finance and Bank Indonesia, 2010, Ministry of Finance, 2009.
The ra o of debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services or the na on’s Debt Service Ra o (DSR) also declined during the same period, having reached a maximum in the crisis years of 60 percent. A level of 19.4 percent was recorded in 2007 and a level of
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
22 percent was recorded in 2009. Both these rates are about 50 percent of the MDG baseline ﬁgure of 51.0 percent in 1996 and reﬂect the success of the Government in applying improved prac ces of debt management as well as prudent ﬁscal policies. The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the Monterrey Consensus (2002) and the Paris Declara on on Aid Eﬀec veness (2005), and is commi ed to the principles of aid eﬀec veness. Indonesia was also an ac ve par cipant in the regional prepara ons for the Third High Level Forum on Aid Eﬀec veness (2008). In 2009, the Government and 26 key interna onal development partners3 signed the “Jakarta Commitment: Aid for Development Eﬀec veness - Indonesia’s Road Map to 2014”. The Jakarta Commitment supports Indonesia’s eﬀorts to maximize the eﬀec veness of its aid in suppor ng development and deﬁnes the policy direc on to achieve greater development eﬀec veness to 2014 and beyond. The roadmap for aid eﬀec veness sets out the strategic vision to which Indonesia, along with development partners, have commi ed. The agenda is based on the principles of the Paris Declara on and the Accra Agenda for Ac on. The program will work to: (i) increase the u lity of interna onal assistance in support of implementa on of the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan; (ii) increase na onal ownership of development assistance; (iii) encourage and assist development partners to follow regula ons and mechanisms established by the Government; (iv) support inclusion of development assistance in the na onal budget (APBN); and (v) encourage development partners to adopt “un ed” systems.
The main constraint facing Indonesia in addressing the challenges and achieving its planned development outcomes is to strengthen capacity to u lize all resources eﬀec vely. Maintaining the current debt por olio is one of the focuses while working to achieve cost eﬃcient and manageable risks within the dynamic of ﬁnancial markets. The Government has worked to increase eﬀec veness in use of interna onal grants and loans in providing support to achievement of na onal development objec ves, but there is s ll room to improve aid eﬀec veness. Various reviews of programs and projects funded by
Development partners signing the Jakarta Commitment include: the Asian Development Bank; the Government of Australia; the Government of Japan; the Government of the Netherlands; the Government of the Republic of Poland; the World Bank; the Austrian Embassy; l’Agence Française de Développement; the Canadian Interna onal Development Agency; the Department for Interna onal Development of the United Kingdom; the Delega on of the European Commission; the Embassy of Finland; the Embassy of France; the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany; the Embassy of Italy; Japan Interna onal Coopera on Agency; Korea Interna onal Coopera on Agency; the Royal Norwegian Embassy; the New Zealand Agency for Interna onal Development; the Embassy of Sweden; the United States Agency for Interna onal Development/Indonesia; the United Na ons System in Indonesia; the Islamic Development Bank; the Danish Interna onal Development Agency; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons and the donor community have found that common challenges exist in increasing the eﬀec veness of aid in Indonesia. These include the following: a. a low sense of ownership of loan and grant funded programs by those responsible for implementa on; b. procedures of the donors are not always fully aligned with those of the Government; c. programming of loans and grants are not always fully harmonized with Government planning and priori es; d. development programs are not always managed to achieve op mum results and the sense of mutual accountability is some mes less than required; and e. weaknesses exist in suppor ng management informa on systems as well as in the human resources assigned to manage informa on on development programs.
Policies and Strategies
Priori es of the Government in the management of loans and grants from mul lateral and bilateral ins tu ons as well as commercial credit ins tu ons for the coming years are as follows: 1. Foreign loans and grants will be used to support achievement of the na onal priori es, goals and objec ves in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) and in harmony with Indonesia’s commitment to achieve the MDGs; 2. Con nuous eﬀorts will be made to reduce the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP while con nuing to maintain a situa on of nega ve net transfers; 3. Further improvements will be made in the regula ons and laws rela ng to interna onal loans and grants; 4. Increased na onal ownership for programs funded by interna onal loans and grants will be promoted as will applica on of improved na onal procedures for management of interna onal funding; 5. Improvements will be made in the ins tu onal coordina on mechanisms, transparency and accountability at all stages, from planning and implementa on to monitoring and evalua on; and 6. Strengthening na onal capacity to manage programming and u liza on of development funding eﬀec vely will be priori zed. The Jakarta Commitment4 is based on the spirit of mutual respect, support and accountability and will be implemented to achieve greater beneﬁts in the achievement of Indonesia’s development objec ves, including the MDGs. It enjoins upon the Government and development partners to make available appropriate resources, knowledge and capacity to
Jakarta Commitment, Aid for Development Eﬀec veness – Indonesia’s Roadmap to 2014 (January, 2009).
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector.4 presents the rapid increase in the percentages of the popula on owning cellular telephones in recent years as compared to the rela ve decline in the use of ﬁxed line telephones (Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN). the complete text is available at the website of the Secretariat for Aid Eﬀec veness in Jakarta: h p://www. make available the benefits of new technologies. Only 8. Figure 8. and to create an enabling regulatory/policy environment to achieve the goals agreed at the World Summit on the Informa on Society. The three main components of the Jakarta Commitment5 are as follows: • • • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development.a4des.org/ 144 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Telecommunica ons in Indonesia have expanded rapidly in the period since the economic crisis.32 percent of Indonesian households owned personal computers in 2009. although the use of computers is common in businesses. and Delivering and Accoun ng for Development Results. The expansion in the use of personal computers has grown at a slower rate than cellular telephones due to the rela vely high cost of their purchase and the need for a minimum level of competency to u lize them. especially information and communications Current Status The government is commited to expanding collabora on with the private sector to ensure that all Indonesians are able to beneﬁt from the opportuni es that Informa on Communica on Technologies (ICTs) oﬀer in building an inclusive Informa on Society.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development implement the Jakarta Commitment. to build capacity of users of ICT. civil society 5 The following is a summary adapted from the Jakarta Commitment. Ongoing ini a ves include those to improve infrastructure for ICT. Building More Eﬀec ve and Inclusive Partnerships for Development. The Government has established a Secretariat for Aid for Development Eﬀec veness (A4DES) to support implementa on of the Jakarta Commitment and to ensure that government ins tu ons have the capacity to take full ownership and to lead aid coordina on and management processes.
there exist major dispari es in the use of telephones. As a result.000 Indonesians were able to u lize the internet. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 145 . By 2009 the number of internet users had risen to 11. In a na on as large and diverse as Indonesia. Awareness and capacity to use ICT eﬀec vely is developing rapidly including among SMEs. there is a need to build a more compe ve environment for the provision of ICT services as well as a more conducive environment for collabora on in all ICT industries. Access to the internet has expanded rapidly since 1998 when it was es mated that only 512. computers and the internet among regions. The exis ng na onal infrastructure in support of telecommunica ons has been based on a system of satellites. government and in community-based organiza ons.organiza ons.4. 2010. including those providing services for users. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ministry of Communica ons and Informa on Technology. With the increased investments in ICT industries. wireless access and land lines. Most remote areas do not yet have access to modern ICT and the quality of access in many areas is basic. Infrastructure and internet use is expanding rapidly in the major urban centers.51 percent of the na onal households.5). Figure 8. with the lowest rates of use occurring in the remote eastern provinces (see Figure 8. especially in eastern Indonesia. government and civil society. while capacity building is s ll required to increase the na onal e-literacy rate. equipment manufacturers and user solu ons. so ware and device applica ons. Investment in ICT industries has exceeded expecta ons. Percentage of Popula on in Indonesia Owning FixedLine Telephones or Cellular Telephones During 2004-2009 Fixed Telephone Cellular Phone Challenges One of the primary challenges for the future is to close the gap in access to ICT communica ons by improving the telecommunica ons infrastructure to provide broadband access throughout Indonesia. ICT communica ons play a strategic role in trade. but suppor ng infrastructure is far weaker in rural areas.
In order to create a more conducive environment for investors. Susenas 2009. The government will also expand direct collabora on with the private sector through public-private partnerships while suppor ng the development of special economic zones for specialized products. It is the government’s objec ve to transform Indonesia into an informa on-based society driven by the free ﬂow of informa on. 146 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Corporate social responsibility will also be encouraged to contribute to the achievement of community objec ves. Percentage of Households Owning Personal Computers and Having Access to the Internet by Province (2009) 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Sulawesi Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Maluku Utara Kalimantan Tengah Maluku Jambi Aceh Papua Barat Papua Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jawa Tengah Sumatera Selatan Kalimantan Selatan Gorontalo Jawa Timur Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara INDONESIA Bengkulu Jawa Barat Sumatera Barat Riau Kepulauan Riau Bali Banten Kalimantan Timur DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta Source: BPS. Transi on to Digital Television. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Deployment. including achievement of the MDGs. the government will work to strengthen the regulatory framework for investors and harmonize the regula ons of na onal and regional government on investment.5. At present the popula ons of the larger urban centers of Indonesia have far greater access to ICT. Improvement of ICT Infrastructure: The Palapa Ring Program. At the same me the government will con nue to cooperate with the private sector and the public in implemen ng four components of a comprehensive ICT blueprint for Indonesia: 1. including remote and isolated regions. but government policy is to make informa on available to communi es in all areas.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. Community Access Points (CAP). 3G Implementa on. Computer Internet Policies and Strategies The government is commi ed to the promo on of private sector investment to achieve the objec ves of na onal development.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 147 . • The applica on of e-budge ng by government agencies will increase the transparency and eﬃciency of government planning and budge ng. at all levels. The government is preparing an Electronic System at the central and regional levels of government to support a na onal system of e-government. • Implement e-government strategies focusing on applica ons aimed at innova ng and promo ng transparency in public administra ons and democra c processes. 3.4. • Building capacity for ICT will be accomplished through a public-private partnership model to be developed in such a way that all the par es involved will beneﬁt. E-Government: Various decrees and regula ons of the government have been issued to support adop on of innova ve prac ces of e-government through public-private partnerships and coopera on between central and regional governments and private sector service providers. • At the end of the current Na onal Medium Term Development Plan it is expected that the score of the na onal system of e-government will have reached 3. improving eﬃciency and strengthening rela ons with ci zens. It is expected that online public services will be available for e-ci zen. improvement of the ICT Convergence Law.net) has been established to integrate ICT in learning. The development of human resources for ICT will be focused on the target groups within government. E-Educa on under the Ministry of Na onal Educa on: • The na onal educa on network (www. to achieve a more eﬃcient alloca on of resources and public goods. adapted to the needs of ci zens and business. educa onal ins tu ons. in order to enhance transparency. and • The government will formulate a dra Na onal e-Government Master Plan in 2010 and each government ins tu on will be required to prepare a their own e-Government Master Plan.2. accountability and eﬃciency at all levels of government. • Develop na onal e-government ini a ves and services. • Support interna onal coopera on ini a ves in the ﬁeld of e-government. prepara on of government regula ons on the dessemina on of informa on and electronic transac ons (RPP PITE). and to make use of ICT in research and development of educa on. 4. ICT Industry Development which will include: implementa on of the Electronic Informa on and Transac ons Law. e-procurement and e-licensing services by the end of 2014.Jardiknas. to improve the management of educa on. It is planned that: • E-services and e-procurement will be applied by all government agencies. ICT will be used as an instrument to re-engineer the provision of public services to all Indonesians. businesses and communi es. and crea on of an investment climate to promote private sector investment in ICT.