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Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
and pro-environment. For several other MDG targets signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. Based on the na onal development strategy that is pro-growth. from planning and budge ng to implementa on. Indonesia will work harder to con nue to improve the welfare and quality of life of the people of Indonesia and to achieve the MDG targets on me. Various approaches that need to be implemented to accelerate the achievement of the MDG targets are also iden ﬁed in this Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia iii . civil society organiza ons and the private sector have made a vital contribu on towards accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans. This year. The objec ves of the Declara on. Indonesia has already been successful in achieving several MDG targets. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). in terms of poverty reduc on. produc ve partnerships between the Government. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in all phases of development. pro-jobs. Special a en on will be given to several MDG targets. 2010. and we are conﬁdent that other MDG targets will be realized by 2015. In addi on.6 percent in 1990 to 5. place people as the main focus of development and ar culate a set of interrelated goals as the agenda for development and global partnership. as well as na onal development policies and strategies. To that end. In Indonesia and other developing countries. at the General Assembly of the United Na ons held in New York in September 2000. is a very important moment for Indonesia to again make a commitment to the global declara on on the MDGs. challenges faced. For example. 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Annual Work Plans and budget documents. strategies. A er the economic crisis in 1997/1998 Indonesia implemented a series of reforms in various ﬁelds which provided a strong founda on for the Indonesian people to return to a period of high and sustainable economic growth.Foreword Ten years ago. the MDGs are used as a reference in formula ng policies. including the reduc on of maternal mortality and increasing the ra o of forest cover so that those targets can be achieved by 2015. This approach has been outlined in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025. Heads of State and representa ves from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declara on to conﬁrm the global concern for the welfare of the people of the world. Economic growth and the strengthening of democracy and social ins tu ons during the past ten years have supported the achievement of the MDGs. This Roadmap includes details concerning the present situa on. alloca ons of public funding at the central and regional levels have been increased annually to support the achievement of the MDG targets. and development programs. pro-poor. Each goal has been translated into one or more targets with measurable indicators. the propor on of the popula on living on less than USD 1 per day has been reduced from 20.9 percent in 2008. the Government of Indonesia has formulated the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs.
MA Minister for Na onal Development Planning/ Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) iv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The informa on presented in this publica on is expected to contribute to a be er understanding concerning the challenges faced and the steps that must be taken to achieve all the MDG targets in Indonesia. Alisjahbana. Dr. Akhirul kalam. grass-roots movement to beneﬁt all Indonesians. Armida S. and implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieve an inclusive pa ern of growth while improving public services and empowering communi es in all regions. and the private sector to par cipate produc vely in a community-based. Prof. the Government of Indonesia con nues to build an environment that allows all components of society. we thank and express gra tude to all those who have contributed to the prepara on of this Roadmap. At the same me. including civil society organiza ons. SE. Success in achieving the MDGs is highly dependent upon good governance.Roadmap. We hope that what we have produced will be useful for the na on. produc ve partnerships among all components of society.
SH. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia v . SKM. SP. Mohammad Sjuhdi Rasjid. for their support in the prepara on of this Roadmap. Ir. Rr. Sederlof. Maliki. and to all others who contributed to the prepara on of this document but that cannot be men oned individually. Woro Srihastu Sulistyaningrum. Ec. ME. MSc. Mahatmi Saronto Parwitasari. Dr. ST. especially to Alan S. The membership of the Team is presented in Appendix 4 of the Roadmap. MPIA. Wahyuningsih Daraja . Ir. Dadang Rizki Ratman. Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo. MA. Yosi Tresna Diani. Ir. MIDS. MSc. Ir. Arif Haryana. • Our thanks are also extended to our development partners from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Agency for Interna onal Development (AusAid). Hygiawa Nur Rahayu.D. Ir. MPS. Erwin Dimas. MM. MS. Ir. Dra. MA who have contributed in providing data. ST. Dr. MSc. Ir.Lic (Econ. Ir.Acknowledgement The Na onal Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Indonesia from 2010 to 2015 has been prepared by a Team consis ng of a Steering Commi ee and a Technical Team / Working Group responsible to the Minister of Na onal Development Planning / Head of BAPPENAS. Dr. S. Dr. MIA. PhD. MPA.).D. Mon y Girianna. MPM. Drs. Rd. MSIE. Imam Subek . MCP. SE. Happy Hardjo. Dr. MSc. To all members of the Prepara on Team we extend our gra tude and thanks for their hard work and dedica on which have contributed to the comple on of the Roadmap. Prouty. SE. SH. MA who have coordinated the prepara on while also maintaining quality assurance for the substance of this Roadmap. Edi Eﬀendi Tedjakusuma. Ec. Tu Riya . Kom. M. DR. Msi. MSc. and Sap a Novadiana. MSc. MSc. Nugroho Tri Utomo. H. MT. Rahmana Yahya Hidayat. Dr. Hadiat. ST. Ir. MPH. MRPL Hamzah Riza. Tri Goddess Virgiyan . as the Special Envoy of the President for the MDGs. Tauﬁk Hanaﬁ MUP. Dr. Wendy Hartanto. informa on and prepara on of the manuscript.A. Ir. ST. Emmy Soeparmijatun. Ir. MSc. Dra. MADM. Dr. Ph. Tommy Hermawan. MPA. Rahma Iryan . who has guided the formula on process of this document. MPM.. Nina Sardjunani. ST. Ir. Siliwan . S. SE. Budi Hidayat. MEM. MA. Ir. MPM. Ir. Dr. MSc. Dr. Sularsono. Wrihatnolo. MA and Dra. M. MARS. MA. Ph.. MPH. Subandi. Hjalte S. Fithriyah. Wynandin Imawan. Apprecia on and thanks are speciﬁcally extended to: • • Prof. and Dr.Eng. Drs. MSc. Ph. Dr. MA. Ir. Ir. Sri Yan .Sc. MAP. Ahmad Tauﬁk. MSIE. Nila Moeloek. M. Wet Hernowo. Benny Azwir. Rooswan Soeharno. Prof. MA. Arum Atmawikarta. Endah Murniningtyas. dr. Sanjoyo. ST. Dr. Dr. DEA. Ir. Adi Wismana Suryabrata. Hidayat Syarief. MA. Randy R.
Armida S. Jakarta. August 2010 Minister for the Na onal Development Planning / Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) Prof. Alisjahbana.May the Roadmap be used by all interested par es both within government and the concerned stakeholders in eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. MA vi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Dr. SE.
... including women and young people ..... OVERVIEW OF STATUS OF MDG TARGETS ................. Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters... between 1990 and 2015.............................................................................................................................................. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015.............................. GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH ....................................................................................... SUMMARY BY GOAL ..............................Table of Contents FOREWORD ................................ between 1990 and 2015..... the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1.............................................................................. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................. by 2015......... by 2015............. universal access to reproduc ve health.. boys and girls alike...... GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN ......................... GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER .................................................................................................................. GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION ................................. LIST OF MAPS ............. Target 5B: Achieve........... TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................... Target 1C: Halve.................................. LIST OF FIGURES .................................. children everywhere................................................................... preferably by 2005................................. INTRODUCTION......................................................... iii v vii ix xi xi xiii 1 9 15 23 25 39 43 49 51 59 61 69 71 78 79 79 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia vii ............ Target 2A: Ensure that.............................................. GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATE ........00 (PPP) a day ........................ will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ................ between 1990 and 2015.............................. LIST OF TABLES ........................................................ Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.... Target 1A: Halve............................................................................................ between 1990 and 2015......... the under-ﬁve mortality rate ................................. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....... the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger .......................................................................................... Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all................ the Maternal Mortality Ra o .................................. Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on..........
............. 141 Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.... by 2010.......................... 101 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ................. 129 GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT ............. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it ........ Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS ........................................... 133 Target 8A: Develop further an open......... 122 Target 7D: By 2020........ Target 6B: Achieve............ make available the beneﬁts of new technologies................ by 2015.... rule-based......................... a signiﬁcant reduc on in the rate of loss ..................GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS... by 2010............................... to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers .................................. 91 93 93 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases ................................ achieving.............................. 113 Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss........................ the propor on of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on ..................................................... predictable............... non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems ....................................................................................................... MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES .................. 144 viii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ............... 111 Target 7A: Integra ng the principles of sustainable development in na onal policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources .................. 136 Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.......... especially informa on and communica ons .... 120 Target 7C: Halve...................
.........................2.......... Employment to Popula on Ra o for urban and rural areas and for the na onal level ...6...... Figure 4..........................5......... Figure 5............ by provinces ............... 2009 ................. 2002-2007 ..... Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os for primary and junior secondary educa on levels (including Madrasah) ...2....................................... Progress in reducing extreme poverty (USD1..................................... Figure 2........... Figure 3......1............................................ Figure 1....... Figure 4................... Figure 1..............................00/capita/day) as compared to the MDG target .......................... Propor on of one-year-old children immunized against measles............................... Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) senior secondary schools by province......... Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ix ....1....1.......... 25 26 27 27 28 29 40 41 43 44 45 46 52 52 62 63 72 73 80 80 Figure 1......... Figure 2.............. The na onal trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index........................9.......................................... 2002 to 2010.......... industry and the service sector ...... Figure 3..................2.............. The growth rate of labor produc vity (in percentages) for the agriculture....... Trend in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age (1989-2007) using the WHO 2005 standard and the MDG Target for this indicator in 2015....... The percentages of the popula on below the na onal poverty line by major geographical region of Indonesia (2010) .. 2010 .. Long-term trends in poverty reduc on in Indonesia measured using the indicator for Na onal Poverty Line and the target for 2015 ... Figure 5..... Figure 1.............................3... by province 2007 ... The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age by province (2007) ..................................................1.......... Average monthly wages (Rp ‘000) of male and female workers in non-agricultural sectors .. Figure 1............................... The distribu on of Indonesia’s poor by urban and rural se ng (1990-2010) ...... Figure 1...................................................................13.......................8..................1..........4.......... The propor on of vulnerable workers to total workers......... Figure 1...........................................7........................................................ Na onal trend Infant and Child Mortality per 1.2............ Percentage of births assisted by skilled provider........... Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia............................................List of Figures Figure 1............... 1990-2009 . Figure 1...2..........000 live births ...................11......... Na onal trends and projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025............. Figure 1....... 2009 ...... Trend in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score of food consump on for rural and urban households............................. Net Enrolment Rate for primary school including Madrasah by province....... Figure 1......................................................................... Figure 1................................... Figure 1......12........................................10........................... 2009 .......................... Trends in the average calorie consump on for rural and urban households (2002-2009) ...
. Figure 7............... 122 The propor on of households that have access to improved drinking water in urban and rural and total according to the provinces.............................. 1993 and 2009 ........ in 1993-2009 .............. by province.....2008 ..........7.....9....................7.. Figure 7.... 113 Total energy use of various types for the years 1990-2008 (equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in millions) ..............3. Figure 8.................................. Figure 8. 106 The percentage of forest cover of the total land area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 .. 130 The trends for imports..........8..................................2... urban and total rural and urban......4....... Figure 6.......... Figure 6............ 146 x Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ....1............. 97 Coverage of ART interven ons in Indonesia............................. 2009. 95 Percentage of unmarried women and men age 15-24 who have ever had sex..... Figure 7. Figure 7...... Figure 6................................. Figure 6............. 2009 ................000 popula on in Indonesia...... Indonesia 2007 .......................... First and fourth antenatal visits......................................... Figure 6.. by back ground characteris c........3................ GDP growth and the ra o of imports plus exports to GDP as the MDG indicator for economic openness .......... 124 The propor on of urban households living in slums............. 82 AIDS cases per 100.2009.......................... 123 The propor on of households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural.... exports... who use condom at last sex.........4... urban and rural and urban total.......................................... 129 The propor on of urban slum households by province.. 94 Distribu on of HIV Infec ons........ 2009 .......... Figure 8...........8.................. Figure 7........ Figure 8........... Figure 5................ 95 Cumula ve percentage on AIDS cases by age group.... Figure 7.................... Figure 6......5.... 141 Percentage of popula on in Indonesia owning ﬁxed-line telephones or cellular telephones during 2004-2009 ........................................ 123 Proporsi households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural...................... Figure 8.............. 145 Percentage of households owning personal computers and having access to the internet by province (2009) ....... Indonesia 1990-2009 ........1...........9........ 1989-2009...... 81 Unmet needs............... 2007........................ according to background characteris c............. year 2009 ......Figure 5.............5................................................ 2009 ..... Figure 6........... 94 Number of AIDS cases in Indonesia.....3.. 114 Propor on of households with access to propoer (improved) drinkingwater.......1.................... 97 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria......... 2000 .................4........ by province...........6................................ Figure 7.. Figure 7.........................4......... Indonesia 1991-2007 ........... the year 1993-2009 ... in Indonesia 1991.................................... 101 The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 .......6. 114 Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 ..................2..... Figure 6........................................ by popula on group.......5.......2...... 138 The trend of foreign debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) during 1996-2009. 1993-2009. Figure 6.... 137 Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of commercial and rural credit banks.................. 96 Propor on of men and woemn aged 15-24 with correct of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS. Figure 7............3... 2006–2009 .............
...................1.......List of Maps Map 1.... Poli cs.......... 116 Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources ...........1...................................................... Table 7.. Table 4..................................... 2010-2014 ....... Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services..................... 2010-2014 ............. 28 64 List of Tables Table 1..3.... Table 2........... 2010-2014..... and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services........... and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs............. Table 1.......... 2010-2014........... Table 7..... Table 1..........1....... Table 7............. 57 Priority...........2.........1.. Table 5........... 87 Priori es................................. Table 2......... 2010 .............1....... 2010-2014 ............ 48 Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* .... Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program. Table 6......2............................................ 109 Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management .... Map 3.... 100 Priori es....................2... 2010—2014 ... 88 Priori es........................... Outputs................1.................. and Labor....... 32 Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007)......4.......................... 2010-2014 . 67 Priori es........ The average wages of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers by province in August 2009 ............. Outputs...............................................................1........... Outputs........2.. Table 3......... 2010-2014.............. Table 6...... Table 6... Table 7....................................... 119 Priori es............. 105 Priori es... Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty ........................ 128 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums ....1......1............... Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB.................................... 76 Priori es...................... Table 5......... Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia................ Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program............................................ and Targets for Improvment of the Access to Drinking Water and Improved Sanita on............... Outputs and Indicators 2010-2014 .....3.... 44 Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) ....................... 131 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xi ...................2...... 54 Program Priori es........................ Outputs.3..............................
Communica on and Social Mobiliza on Artemisinin-based combina on therapy Asian Development Bank Annual Development Plan ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Free Trade Area Acquired Immuno-defeciency Syndrome The ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement Antenatal Care The Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum Areal Penggunaan Lain (areas for other uses) An retroviral Therapy The Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons Kementerian Negara Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (The Na onal Development Planning Agency) Behavioral Change Communica on Bacillus Calme e-Guérin Basic Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Assistance Program) Barrels of Oil Equivalent Biaya Operasional Kesehatan (subsidy for opera onal cost for health facili es) Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (School Opera onal Assistance) Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Supreme Audit Authority) Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (Local Environmental Management Agency) Badan Pusat Sta s k (Central Bureau of Sta s cs) Beasiswa Miskin (Scholarship for Poor Children) Board of Na onal Educa on Standards Broadband Wireless Access Coali on of Agricultural Expor ng Na ons Lobbying for Agricultural Trade Liberaliza on Compulsory Basic Educa on Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Development Mechanism Case Detec on Rate Commi ee of Experts on the Applica on of Conven ons and Recommenda ons Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care xii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .List of Abbreviations ACFTA ACSM ACT ADB ADP AEC AFTA AIDS AKFTA ANC APEC APL ART ASEAN BAPPENAS BCC BCG BEONC BLT BOE BOK BOS BPK BPLHD BPS BSM BSNP BWA CAIRNS CBE CCS CDM CDR CEACR CEONC The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement Advocacy.
CEPT CFCs CH4 CITES CLMV CLTS CO2 CPR CSO DAK Desa Siaga DOTS DPD DPR DPRD DPT 3 DRA DSR DSS ECED EFA FMU FSW G-20 G-33 GATT GDP GER GHG GMP GPI HCFC HDR HIS HIV HL HP The Common Eﬀec ve Preferen al Tariﬀ Chloroﬂuorocarbons Methane Conven on on Interna onal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Cambodia. Laos. Myanmar and Vietnam Community-Led Total Sanita on Carbon Dioxide Contracep ve Prevalence Rate Civil Society Organiza on Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Alloca on Funds) Alert Village: a village that has resources capability and readiness to overcome health problems and to reach a healthy village) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representa ve Council) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representa ves) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional House of Representa ves) Trivalent vaccines against three infec ous diseases in humans: diphtheria. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus Demand-Responsive Approach Debt Service Ra o Dengue Shock Syndrome Early Childhood Educa on and Development Educa on for All Forest Management Unit Female Sex Worker The group of 20 is a forum for 20 industrialized and developing countries to discuss key issues of the global economy Chair of the coali on of developing countries suppor ng ﬂexibility to undertake limited market openings on agricultural issues General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs Gross Domes c Product Gross Enrolment Rate Green House Gasses Growth Monitoring Prac ce Gender Parity Index Hydrochloroﬂuorocarbon Human Development Report Health Informa on System Human Immuno-deﬁciency Virus Hutan Lindung (Protected Forest) Hutan Produksi (Produc on Forest) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xiii .
A tudes and Prac ce Kawasan Pelestarian Alam (Nature Conserva on Area) Komisi Pemilihan Umum (General Elec ons Commission) Kawasan Suaka Alam (Nature Reserve Area) Kredit Usaha Rakyat (People-Based Small Business Loan Program) Loan Deposit Ra o Local Government Lembaga Jasa Keuangan (ﬁnancial service ins tu on) Lembaga Keuangan Bukan Bank (non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on) Long-Las ng Insec cidal Nets Lower Middle Income Country Lembaga Modal Ventura Dasar Liquid Petroleum Gas Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (Teacher Training Ins tute) Land Use. Land Use Change and Forestry Madrasah Aliyah Most at Risk Popula on Millennium Development Goals Mul drug-Resistant TB xiv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Educa on and Communica ons Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement Interna onal Labor Organiza on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Interna onal Monetary Fund Infant Mortality Rate Indonesia Higher Educa on Network Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Interna onal Planned Parenthood Associa on Intermi ent Preven ve Treatment for Pregnant women Indoor Residual Spraying Insec cide-Treated Nets Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature Intra-Uterine Device Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Na onal Health Security Program) Knowledge.HPK HPT ICCSR ICCTF ICT IDHS IDU IEC IJEPA ILO IMCI IMF IMR INHERENT IPCC IPPA IPTP IRS ITN IUCN IUD Jamkesmas KAP KPA KPU KSA KUR LDR LG LJK LKBB LLIN LMIC LMVD LPG LPTK LULUCF MA MARP MDGs MDR-TB Hutan Produksi yang bisa dikonversi (forest areas which can be converted to non-forest uses) Hutan Produksi Terbatas (Limited Produc on Forests) Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Informa on and Communica on Technology Indonesia Demographic Health Survey Injec ng Drug Users Informa on.
Eﬀec ve and Fun Learning) Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Educa on) Public Finance Management Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat (clean and healthy behavior) Program for Interna onal Student Assessment Program Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah Program Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Program) Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) People Living with HIV People Living with HIV/AIDS Preven ng Mother to Child Transmission Postnatal Care Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (Na onal Program for Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xv . Neonatal and Child Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Na onal Educa on Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs Micro. Krea f. Efek f dan Menyenangkan (Ac ve. Small and Medium Enterprise Minimum Service Standards Madrasah Tsanawiyah Medium-Term Expenditure Framework A coali on of developing countries seeking ﬂexibility to limit market opennings in trade of industrial goods Na onal Council for Climate Change Net Enrollment Rate Non-formal Educa on The Na onal Greenhouse Gases Inventory Na onal Iden ﬁca on Number Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan Nitrogen Oxide Non-Performing Loans Na onal TB Program Oil-Based Fuels Ozone Deple ng Poten al Ozone Deple ng Substances Oral Rehydra on Solu ons Oral Rehydra on Therapy Pembelajaran Ak f. Crea ve.MDTFs MI MMR MMT MNCH MOH MONE MORA MSME MSS MT MTEF NAMA 11 NCCC NER NFE NGHGI NIN NMTDP NO NPL NTP OBF ODP ODS ORS ORT PAKEM PAUD PFM PHBS PISA PISEW PKH PKK PLHIV PLWHA PMTCT PNC PNPM Mul -Donor Trust Funds Madrasah Ib daiyah Maternal Mortality Ra o Methadone Maintenance Therapy Maternal.
Posyandu PPLS PPP PSTN PT Puskesmas RANMAPI RASKIN RBM RDA REDD Riskesdas RPJPN RPJMN Sakernas SBM SD SDKI SKRT SMA SMP SPM SPR SR SRH STI Susenas TB TBA TFR TIMSS UNDP UNFCCC UNICEF Community Empowerment) Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Health Post. conducted by the Central Bureau of Sta s cs School-Based Management Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) Survei Demograﬁ dan Kesehatan Indonesia (Indonesian Demography and Health Survey) Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (Household Health Survey) Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) Standar Pelayanan Minimum (Minimun Service Standard) School Par cipa on Rate Success Rate Sexual and Reproduc ve Health Sexually-Transmi ed Infec on Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Na onal Socio-Economic Survey). conducted by Central Bureau of Sta s cs Tuberculosis Tradi onal Birth A endant Total Fer lity Rate Third Interna onal Mathema cs Science Study United Na ons Development Programme United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change United Na ons Childrens’ Fund xvi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . a community-based basic health monitoring and services at village level) Pendataan Program Layanan Sosial (Social Service Program Survey) Purchasing Power Parity Public Switched Telephone Network Perguruan Tinggi (Higher Educa on) Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Primary Health Center) Rencana Aksi Nasional untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (Na onal Ac on Plan on Mi ga on and Adapta on to Climate Change) Beras Miskin (Rice for the Poor Program) Roll Back Malaria Recommended Dietary Allowance Reducing Emissions from Deforesta on and Degrada on Riset Kesehatan Dasar (basic health research. conducted by MOH-RI) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Nasional (Na onal Long-Term Development Plan) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan) Survei Tenagakerja Nasional (Na onal Labour Force Survey).
UNSD VCT WAN WB WBG WHO WiMAX WTO
United Na ons Sta s cs Division Voluntary Counseling and Tes ng Wide Area Network World Bank World Bank Group World Health Organiza on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access World Trade Organiza on
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
2 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
4. cultured. There now remain ﬁve years for developing member states of the UN to achieve the eight MDGs related to poverty reduc on. environmental sustainability. gender equality. and the resource endowment of Indonesia. 2. prosperous and just. peaceful and united. 5. Achievement of an equitable and just pa ern of development. 189 member states agreed to adopt the Millennium Declara on which was then translated into a prac cal framework. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Enabling Indonesia to play an important role in the interna onal community. Crea on of an Indonesia that is safe. advanced. and 8. and Na onal Annual Development Plans (RKP) as well as the State Budget documents. eight missions related Na onal Development are to be achieved: 1. The MDGs have been an important considera on in preparing na onal development planning documents. and based on na onal interests. taking into account the challenges to be faced over the next 20 years. powerful. improving maternal and child health. Crea on of a green and sustainable Indonesia. and based on the philosophy of Pancasila. 7. Realiza on of Indonesia as an independent island na on. 3. advanced. at the Millennium Summit of the United Na ons (UN). Crea on of a compe ve na on.Introduction In September 2000. The MDGs are based on global partnership and developed countries also have stressed their agreement to fully support these eﬀorts. and global coopera on. a ainment of universal basic educa on. 6. National Development Priorities Based on the current condi on of the Indonesian na on. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN 2005-2025). Crea on of a democra c society based on the rule of law. the Na onal Development Vision for the years 2005-2025 year has been deﬁned to be: an Indonesia that is self-reliant. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3 . Realiza on of a society that has strong moral values that are ethical. The MDGs place human development as the focus of development and establish a set of measurable indicators of progress to be achieved by 2015. To achieve this vision. reduc on in the prevalence of communicable diseases.
(ii) educa on. including development of science and technology. the third Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2015-2019) will further strengthen overall development in various ﬁelds by emphasizing the achievement of compe veness of the economy based on compara ve advantages of natural and human resources and the expanding capacity of science and technology. and 4. democra c. (ix) the natural environment and disasters. (vii) investment and improving the business climate. the fourth Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2020-2025) will create a selfreliant Indonesian society. remote areas and post-conﬂict areas. (iv) poverty reduc on. In addi on to these eleven na onal priori es. (v) food security. 2. The Vision and Missions of Na onal Development 2010-2014 have been formulated and translated into opera onal terms in a number of na onal priori es in the following thema c areas: (i) reform of the bureaucracy and governance. the ﬁrst Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2005-2009) was formulated to reorganize and develop all regions of Indonesia and to create Indonesia as a safe and peaceful. The ﬁve-year development phases are summarized as follows: 1. legal. progressive. the second Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) aims to consolidate the restructuring of Indonesia in all ﬁelds with an emphasis on improving the quality of human resources. just and democra c na on while increasing the welfare of the people. (x) border areas. fair. (iii) health. The current Na onal Medium-Term Plan will be implemented during 2010 to 2014. 3. 4 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . crea vity. and technological innova on. and (iii) improve the jus ce system in all sectors. and the strengthening of economic compe veness. (ii) strengthen the pillars of democracy. This vision has been translated into three Na onal Development Missions which are to: (i) con nue developing towards a prosperous Indonesia. The Na onal Development Vision during this period has been deﬁned as follows: The realiza on of Indonesia as a prosperous.The strategies to be implemented to accomplish this vision and missions have been translated into stages of ﬁve-year periods that are presented in Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan documents (RPJMN). (vi) infrastructure. and (xi) culture. and just na on. eﬀorts to achieve the Vision and Mission of the Na onal Development will also be carried out through achievement of other na onal priori es in the poli cal. and security areas and in the ﬁelds of the economy and people’s welfare. and prosperous through the accelera on of development in various ﬁelds built on a solid economic structure and based on compe ve advantages in various ﬁelds supported by qualiﬁed and compe ve human resources. (vii) energy.
Posi ve economic growth and strengthening of democra c ins tu ons during the last ten years have strengthened the posi on of the na on to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. Indonesia con nues to organize and develop in all ﬁelds. Indonesia has faced signiﬁcant global challenges. The global economic crisis has resulted in a world economic recession which has inﬂuenced the performance of the domes c economy. A na on must be fully prepared in all ﬁelds to address the global crises and challenges. high rainfall has resulted in crop failures and damage to crops. which amounted to 7-8 percent. In turn. The growth rate of GDP dropped to 4 to 5 percent as compared with the growth rate of the economy prior to the crisis. ﬁshermen have been unable to go to sea and public health has been nega vely aﬀected. Extreme weather events have increased. that is the propor on of people living with per Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 5 . (b) targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been achieved. Se ng measurable targets related to the MDGs that can be monitored and evaluated has proven to be eﬀec ve in increasing the eﬃciency of resource alloca on. Some of the most important have been the ﬂuctua on of oil prices. and (c) targets that s ll require great eﬀort to be achieved. evalua on of the progress in achievement of the MDGs has been useful in adjus ng plans to be more responsive to the needs of poor and vulnerable groups. In this unfavorable global environment. With rising food prices. global climate change and the global ﬁnancial crisis of 2007/2008. rising food prices. the Government remains determined to fulﬁll the commitment to achieve the MDG targets on me. while the na on has not yet fully recovered from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. The MDG targets that have already been achieved include: • MDG 1 . The Indonesian na on has also worked consistently over the last decade to achieve the MDG targets. Indonesia is the third most populous democracy of the world and has been able to strengthen the economy to achieve the status of a middle-income country. Alloca on of funds in na onal and local budgets in Indonesia has increased from year to year to support the achievement of the MDGs. The various crises and global challenges men oned above have provided the lesson that globaliza on has two diﬀerent sides which provide both opportuni es and challenges.Development of Indonesia After the Global Crisis and Achievement of the MDG Targets During the past ﬁve years. the current status can be grouped into three categories of achievement: (a) targets which have already been achieved. This has been done to accelerate the achievement of na onal goals.The level of extreme poverty. lower middle income households and the poor have been forced to expend a greater share of their incomes on food. Although there are s ll many challenges and problems in the implementa on of development in Indonesia. Currently. In reviewing trends in the achievement of the MDG targets.
rule-based. The ra o of literate women to men in the age group of 15-24 years has reached 99. has declined from 20. from 20.4 percent in 2007.5 percent will be achieved by 2015. MDG 2 – The par cipa on rate for primary educa on is close to 100 percent and the literacy rate of the popula on was more than 99.capita income of less than USD 1 per day.The targets for gender equality in all levels of educa on are expected to be achieved.0 percent.6 percent in 1996 to 10. MDG 6 .47 percent in 2009.7 percent while at the junior secondary schools including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MTs) and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA) the GPI was 101. from 31 percent in 1989 to 18.6 percent in 1990 to 5.1 percent in 2009 as compared to the MDG target of 70.33 percent (2010).000 births in 1991 to 44 per 1.Indonesia has been successful in developing trade and ﬁnancial systems that are open. • The MDG targets for which signiﬁcant progress has been demonstrated include: • MDG 1 . 6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . signiﬁcant progress has been made in reducing the foreign debt ra o to GDP from 24. • • • • The MDG targets where a posi ve trend has been demonstrated but which s ll require special eﬀorts to achieve the targets by 2015 include the following: • MDG 1 .An increase in detec on of tuberculosis cases has been achieved. The Debt Service Ra o has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. MDG 8 . It is expected that the MDG target of 15.99 percent. • MDG 3 .85 percent.95.9 percent in 2008.16 and 102. In 2009.000 popula on in 2009.0 percent in 2000 to 73.as evidenced by the posi ve trends in indicators related to trade and the na onal banking system.The prevalence of infant malnutri on has been reduced by nearly half.Indonesia has raised its targets for poverty reduc on and will give special a en on to reducing poverty levels as measured against the na onal poverty line from 13.9 percent in 2009.000 births in 2007. MDG 4 – The number of deaths in children under the age of ﬁve years has decreased from 97 per 1. Thus it is expected that the target of 100 will be achieved by 2015. the Gender Parity Index (GPI) at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI) was 99.000 popula on in 1990 to 244 cases per 100. It is expected that the target of 32 per 1. There has also been a decrease the prevalence of tuberculosis from 443 cases per 100. At the same me. predictable and non-discriminatory . MDG 3 –The par cipa on ra o of females to males in SMA / MA / Paket C and higher educa on in 2009 was 96.000 births will be achieved by 2015.
Indonesia has high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. increasing the alloca on of resources. Therefore. which has a very important and decisive role in shaping global economic policy.000 live births by 2015. having more than doubled since 1971. BPS). Accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs and all related targets requires that popula on problems are addressed in a comprehensive and integrated approach. Indonesia has also joined the G-20. India. In planning to achieve the MDGs. expanding partnerships. Developed countries who are members of the Organiza on of Economic Coopera on and Development (OECD) recognize and appreciate Indonesia’s development progress. i. produc ve partnerships at all levels of society and the implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieving pro-poor growth.e. Special eﬀorts are required to achieve the target of 102 per 100. The success of Indonesia’s development has been recognized globally and has received various awards. Progress in developing the na onal economy over the past ﬁve years has reduced the gap between Indonesia and the developed countries. Brazil and South Africa were invited to enter the group of ‘enhanced engagement countries’ or states with an increasingly enhanced engagement with developed countries.000 live births in 2007. The rate of increase is also high in some areas where awareness about this disease is low. only 47. including expanding access to reproduc ve health services and family planning while protec ng reproduc ve rights.• • • MDG 5 .Maternal mortality has been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. par cularly in high risk groups.Preliminary results. and developing decentralized approaches to reducing dispari es while empowering communi es in all regions of Indonesia. MDG 6 – The number of people living with HIV / AIDS has increased. and 51. Although Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 7 . The Indonesian popula on is 237.5 million people (2010 Popula on Census . At present. MDG 7 . growth and distribu on of the popula on is one important considera on. but is commi ed to increasing forest cover. including injec ng drug users and sex workers. Indonesia along with China. New Initiatives Moving Forward Success in achieving the MDGs in Indonesia depends on the achievement of good governance. Special a en on is required to achieve the MDG targets for Goal 7 by 2015. elimina ng illegal logging and implemen ng a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved water supply. improving public services.19 percent of households have access to improved sanita on. the size. the twenty countries that control 85 percent of Gross Domes c Product (GDP) of the world. improving coordina on among stakeholders.
49 per cent per annum in the period 1990-2000. especially educa on and health. The Government is commi ed to maintaining a socio-economic environment and culture where all ci zens. • Alloca on of funds by the central. have contributed signiﬁcantly. Of this amount. civil society organiza ons and the private sector can par cipate produc vely in improving the welfare of all Indonesians. the supply of clean water and the living environment. • Support for the expansion of social services in disadvantaged areas and remote areas will be increased. Steps to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs during the next ﬁve years as mandated by Presiden al Instruc on No. provincial and district governments will con nue to be increased to support the intensiﬁca on and expansion of programs to achieve the MDGs. to expand sources of funding to support achievement of the MDGs. the total popula on of Indonesia in 2015 is expected to be approximately 247. no less than 80 percent of industries are concentrated in Java. In addi on.2 percent will be in Java which has an area of only 7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. • Partnerships between the Government and private enterprises (Public . 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .97 per cent per annum during 1980-1990 to 1. • Enhanced coopera on with creditor countries will be sought for the conversion of debt (debt swap) for achieving the MDGs. • Mechanisms to expand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ini a ves will be strengthened to support the achievement of the MDGs. In the future. including community organiza ons. • Provincial governments will prepare “Regional Ac on Plans to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs” and these will be used is used as a reference in improving planning and coordina on of eﬀorts to reduce poverty and improve people’s welfare. grass-roots organiza ons will con nue to be given a en on to speed up achievement of the MDGs and increase the welfare of the people on a sustainable basis. especially in educa on. A funding mechanism will be prepared to provide incen ves to local governments that perform well in achieving the MDGs.6 million people (Indonesian Popula on Projec on 2005-2025). approximately 60. the role of communi es. In eﬀorts to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. health. 3 of 2010 concerning Equitable Development Programming include the following: • The Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs will be distributed as a reference for stakeholders in working to speed up a ainment of the MDGs throughout Indonesia.the popula on growth rate decreased from 1.30 per cent per annum rate in 2005.Private Partnerships or PPP) will be developed in the social sectors. and to a 1. and especially women’s groups.
Summary by Goal .
and (iv) improving the provision of social protec on to the poorest of the poor. (iii) improving access of the poor to social services. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 11 . The country aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. The prevalence of undernourished children under ﬁve years of age decreased from 31. In 2008/09 gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary educa on level (SD/MI) was 116. MDG 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target for primary educa on and literacy. girls and boys. disparity in educa on par cipa on among provinces has been signiﬁcantly reduced with NER above 90 percent in almost all provinces. At primary educa on level. Priori es for the future to reduce poverty are to expand employment opportuni es. grades 7 to 9) to the universal basic educa on targets.77 percent and the ne enrolment rate (NER) was 95.Summary of the Status of Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia MDG 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Indonesia has achieved the target of halving the incidence of extreme poverty as measured by the indicator of USD 1. (ii) empowering disadvantaged communi es in all regions of the na on to be er access and use resources to improve their welfare. small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).00 per capita per day. eﬃciency. and (iii) strengthening governance and accountability of educa on services.1 percent in 1989 to 18. Special a en on will be given to: (i) expanding credit facili es for micro. and eﬀec veness of educa on.50 percent in 2015.4 percent in 2007 and Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target of 15. (ii) improvement of the quality. The main challenge in acelera ng the achievment of MDG educa on target is improving equal access of children. to quality basic educa on. The policy to allocate minimal 20 percent of government budget to the educa on sector will be con nued to accelerate the achievement of universal junior secondary educa on by 2015. Progress is also being made to further reduce poverty as measured against the na onal poverty line from the current rate of 13. improve suppor ng infrastructure and strengthen the agricultural sector.33 percent (2010) to the targeted rate of 8-10 percent by 2014. Government policies and programs to address this challenge: (i) expansion of equitable access to basic educa on par cularly for the poor.23 percent.
In Indonesia. junior secondary schools. Even though the rates for antenatal care and births a ended by skilled health personnel are rela vely high.000 live births. the lowest rate of global achievement has been recorded in the improvement of maternal health. In poli cs. MDG 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has shown a signiﬁcant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1. MDG 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of all the MDGs. (ii) improve protec on for women against all forms of abuse. the target of 23 per 1. the maternal mortality ra o (MMR) has gradually been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. senior high schools and ins tu ons of higher educa on.000 live births in 2007.000 live births in 2015 is expected to be achieved. reﬂec ng the discrepancy in accessing health services. par cularly in underserved and remote areas. the number of women in the Indonesian parliament increased to 17. Indonesia is on track to achieve the educa on-related targets for gender equality by 2015. However. Cri cal measures to reduce maternal mortality are improving the contracep ve prevalence rate 12 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Likewise. With this rate. The ra o of NER for women to men at primary educa on and junior secondary educa on levels was 99.73 and 101.000 live births in 2007. The future priori es are to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services especially for the poor and remote areas. As a result. Extra hard work will be needed to achieve the MDG target by 2015 of 102 per 100. and (iii) mainstream gender equality in all policies and programs while building greater public awareness on issues of gender.35. the child mortality target is expected to be achieved.99 respec vely. several factors such as high risk pregnancy and abor on are considered to be constraints that require special a en on. In the workforce. Priori es for the future are to: (i) improve the role of women in development. regional dispari es remain as constraints to achieve the targets.9 percent in 2009.MDG 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Progress has been achieved in increasing the propor on of females in primary. the share of female wage employment in the nonagricultural sector has increased. and literacy among females aged 15-24 years has already reached 99.
priori es to improve maternal health will be focused on expanding be er quality health care and comprehensive obstetric care. injec ng drug users and sex workers. improving family planning services and provision of informa on. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES In Indonesia. The propor on of households with access to improved sources of drinking water increased from 37.000 popula on decreased from 4.e.81 percent in 1993 to 51. the propor on of households with access to improved sanita on facili es increased from 24. At the same me. the case detec on rate and successfully treated TB cases have already reached the 2015 targets.19 percent in 2009. i. the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has increased. In rural areas. MDG 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS.73 percent in 1993 to 47. with communi es taking responsibility for opera on and management of infrastructure with advisory support from local authori es. educa on and communica on (IEC) messages to the community. MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Indonesia has a high rate of greenhouse gas emission. but has worked to increase forest cover. in TB control. communicable disease control eﬀorts must involve all stakeholders and strengthen health promo on ac vi es to increase public awareness. Meanwhile. especially among high risk groups. eliminate illegal logging and is commi ed to implemen ng a comprehensive policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions over the next 20 years. The role and detailed responsibili es of local governments in natural resource management and water supply /sanita on will be be er delineated and their skills enhanced. The communicable disease control approaches are focusing on preven ve measures and mainstreaming into the na onal health system. Accelera on of achievement of the targets for improving access to improved water and sanita on facili es will be con nued with increased support.71 percent in 2009. Beyond that.85 in 2009. communi es are expected to play a larger role. The incidence of malaria per 1.68 in 1990 to 1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 13 .and reducing the unmet need through expanding access and improving quality of family planning and reproduc ve health services. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Indonesia more than doubled between 2004 and 2005. A en on will be given to investments on water and sanita on systems to serve growing urban popula ons. For the future.
Indonesia has beneﬁted from close collabora on with the interna onal donor community and interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons. The private sector has made major investments in informa on and communica ons technology and access to cellular telephones.9 percent in 2009. The Jakarta Commitment was signed with 26 development partners in 2009 to provide a roadmap for all concerned to improve coopera on and management of development assistance in Indonesia. telephone land lines and internet communica ons has increased drama cally over the past ﬁve years. 14 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .41 percent of the popula on had access to cellular telephones.MDG 8: BUILDING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is an ac ve par cipant in a wide variety of interna onal forums and is commi ed to con nuing to build successful partnerships with mul lateral organiza ons.6 percent in 1996 to 10. bilateral partners and representa ves of the private sector to achieve a pro-poor pa ern of economic growth. Indonesia’s debt service ra o has also con nued to decline from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. In 2009 some 82. Indonesia has commited to reducing interna onal borrowing as a percentage of GDP and this is demonstrated by the reduc on of foreign debt to GDP from 24.
the propor on of people who suﬀer from hunger 1.8b 23.9% ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 15 .8 31.8% (1989)* 13.00 (PPP) per day Poverty gap ra o (incidence x depth of poverty) 20.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed Employment-topopula on (over 15 years of age) Propor on of own-account and contribu ng family workers in total employment Prevalence of underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of severe underweight children under-ﬁve years of age Prevalence of moderate underweight children under-ﬁve years of age 3. 2007 1.7 71% (1990) 64% (2009) ► Target 1C: Halve.52% (1990) 65% (1990) 2.2 2. between 1990 and 2015.5% ► * BPS.4% (2007)** 15.70% (1990) 5.24% (2009) 62% (2009) BPS.30% • ► World Bank and BPS BPS. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve. Susenas ** Ministry of Health Riskesdas.90% (2008) 10.4% (2007)** 3.0 (PPP) a day 1.2% (1989)* 5. Susenas 1.0% (1989)* 18. between 1990 and 2015. Sakernas Decrease PDB Na onal and Sakernas 1.5 1.60% (1990) 2. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1.21% (2010) Reduce Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all. including women and young people 1.Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 1.1 Propor on of popula on below USD 1.0% (2007)** 11.6% ► 1.8a 7.
00 100.00% (2008)** 99. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015 3. will be able to complete full course of primary schooling 2.00% (1990)* 95.70% (1992)** 62.86 (1993) 93.21% (1990) 14. Literacy rate of populaon aged 15-24 year.1a Literacy ra o of women to men in the 15-24 year age group 100.00 100.47% (2009) 61.Ra o of girls to boys in higher educa on 3.2 100.16 (2009) 102.00% ► * MONE **BPS.Ra o of girls to boys in senior high schools .00% (1990) 64.67 (1993) 74.1 Net Enrolment Ra o (NER) in primary educa on Propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school. boys and girls alike.40% Male: 99.9 1400 kcal/capita/day 2000 kcal/capita/day Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source ▼ 17. preferably by 2005. Sakernas ● Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 16 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .50% 35.3 96. MONE ** BPS.00 100.06 (1993) 98.Ra o of girls to boys in junior high schools .Ra o of girls to boys in primary schools .27 (1993) 99.55% 100. Susenas Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on. by 2015. children everywhere. secondary and ter ary educa on .73 (2009) 101.00 100.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Propor on of populaon below minimum level of dietary energy consump on: 1.47% (2009) Female: 99. Susenas * BPS.60% (1990) 100.99 (2009) 96.86% (2009) 8.00% ► BPS. Susenas Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Educa on Target 2A: Ensure that.85 (2009) 100. women and men 88.95 (2009) 99.32% BPS. Susenas 2.23% (2009)* 93.00 ● ● ► ► BPS.44 (1993) 99.00% ► 2.1 Ra os of girls to boys in primary.
Sakernas Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 3.000 live births) Propor on of births a ended by skilled health personnel (%) Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.000 live births Infant mortality rate per 1. between 1990 and 2015.0% (2007) 32 23 Decrease ► ► ► BPS. any method Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old. IDHS 1991. 2007 5.3a 47.1% (1991) 57.2 ► 3. IDHS 1991.Indicator Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Propor on of seats held by women in na onal parliament Baseline 29.1 4.2 Increase Target 5B: Achieve.2 4.000 live births Neonatal mortality rate per 1.90% (2009) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source BPS. Susenas 1992-2009 ▼ ► 5.45% (2009) 17.1 Maternal Mortality Ra o (per 100.4% (2007) Increase ► BPS.34% (2009) 102 BPS.24% (1990) 12. 2007 BPS. modern method 390 (1991) 40.3 Decrease ► KPU Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. by 2015. between 1990 and 2015.5% (1991) 44 (2007) 34 (2007) 19 (2007) 67.3 49. the Maternal Mortality Ra o 5. 2007 4. IDHS 1991.000 live births Propor on of oneyear-old children immunized against measles 97 (1991) 68 (1991) 32 (1991) 44.4% (2007) Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 17 .70% (1992) 228 (2007) 77. universal access to reproduc ve health 5.50% (1990) Current 33.7% (1991) 61.3 Decrease ► Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters. the under-ﬁve mortality rate 4.2a Under-ﬁve mortality rate per 1.
2 12.8% (2002/3) Increase ▼ .4% (2007) 0.7% (1991) 93.5 - Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 18 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .3% Increase 81. 2007 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.7% (2007) Female: 2.3% Male: 18.0% (1991) 12.4 visits: 5.6% Male: 1. SKRRI 2007 Target 6B: Achieve.5% (2007) 9. IYARHS 2002/2003 & 2007 ▼ ▼ 6.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator 5.4% (2009) MOH.2% (2009) Female: 10. by 2010.3 Female: 9. 2010 as per 30 November 2009 6.Married - Increase ▼ BPS. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.6 Unmet need for family planning Baseline 67 (1991) Current 35 (2007) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source ► 5. IDHS 2007 .4% (2007) Decrease MOH es mated 2006 BPS. IDHS 1991.4 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15-19) Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visists) .1% (2007) Decrease ► ► ▼ BPS.Unmarried - Increase ▼ BPS.1 visit: .1 HIV/AIDS Prevalence among total popula on (percent) Condom use at last high-risk sex Propor on of popula on aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.0% 56. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Propor on of popula on with advanced HIV infec on with access to an retroviral drugs 38.5% Male: 14.5 75.
MOH 2008 AMI.6a .3% Rural: 4.17 (1990) 24.68 (1990) 0.6 Incidence and death rates associated with Malaria (per 1.000) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short courses Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS * TB Global WHO Report.Incidence of Malaria outside Jawa & Bali 6.000) Incidence rate associated with Malaria (per 1. IDHS 2007 Increase 6.9b 443 (1990) 92 (1990) 244 (2009) 39 (2009) 6.0% (2000)* 73.1% (2009)** 70. 2009 343 (1990) 228 (2009) Stop. MOH 2008 BPS.10 (1990) 1.9 6.incidence of Malaria in Jawa & Bali . prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis Incidence rates associated with Tuberculosis (all cases/100.77 (2008) 3.5% Urban: 1.0% ● ● 6.000): 6.10a 20.10b 87.85 (2009) 0.6% -2007 Decrease Decrease Decrease Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets ► ► ► ▼ MOH 2009 API.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 6.000) Death rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.0% (2000)* 91. 2009 6.9a ● ● ● TB Global WHO Report. began to reduce 4.16 (2008) 17.10 6.9c 6.0% (2009)** 85.000 pop/ year) Prevalence rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.0% ** MOH Report-2009 Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 19 .7 Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cidetreated bednets Incidence.
28 BOE/ USD 1.1 59.2c 7.626 Gg Gg CO2e CO2e (2008) (2000) 2.2d Energy Elas city Energy mix for renewable energy Total consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) in metric tons Propor on of ﬁsh stocks within safe biological limits The ra o of terrestrial areas protected to maintain biological diversity to total terrestrial area The ra o of marine protected areas to total territorial marine area Decrease 0 CFCs while reducing HCFCs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries Ministry of Forestry *Ministry of Forestry / **Ministry of Marine Aﬀairs & Fisheries 7.416.40% (1990) 26.35% (2009)** Increase ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 20 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2a 7.7 metric tons (1992) 66.98 (1991) 3.2 1. Decrease Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 7.000 (1990) 0.6 0.08% (1998) 4.43% (2008) Increase ▼ Ministry of Forestry 7.000 (2008) 1.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources The ra o of actual forest cover to total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Primary energy consump on (per capita) Energy Intensity 7.332.83% (2008) not exceed ► 7.711.6 (2008) 3.14% (1990)* 4.64 BOE (1991) 5.3 ► 7.074 1.2b.70% (1990) 52.40% (2008) Increase ► 7.3 BOE (2008) 2.4 91.5 26.1 BOE/ USD 1.5% (2000) 8.45% (2008) 0 CFCs (2009) Reduce at least 26% by 2020 Reduce ▼ Ministry of Environment 7.
87% ▼ 7.00% (1996) 10.73% (1993) 47. urban and rural Urban Rural Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 7.8 37.72% (2009) 51. Susenas 7. 2009 7.8b 50.75% (1993) 20.96% (2009) 75.12% (2009) BPS.82% 55.12% (2009) 12.8a 7. 19% (2009) 69.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.89% (2009) 22. to have achieved a signiﬁcant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7. urban and rural Urban Rural Propor on of households with sustainable access to basic sanita on.71% (2009) 68.29% 65. rule-based.1 - BI Economic Report 2008.00% (2009) en on Reduce Reduce ► ► Ministry of Finance BI Annual Report 2009 ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 21 .59% (1996) 51.58% (1993) 31.75% (1993) 20.81% ▼ ▼ BPS.64% (1993) 11.12a Status: Ra o of Interna onal Debt to GDP Debt Service Ra o (DSR) 24.81% (1993) 53.9a 7. predictable.12% (2009) 12.61% (1993) 24. by 2015.1 - Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 8.9 62.9b 76. the propor on of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on Propor on of households with sustainable access to an improved water source.12 8.75% (1993) 12. Susenas Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20. non-discriminatory trading and ﬁnancial systems 7.55% ▼ ▼ Target 7D: By 2020.41% ▼ 7.82% (2009) 45.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 7C: Halve.51% (2009) 33.75% (1993) 12.10% (1993) 49.12% (2009) - ► ► ► BPS & The World Bank 7.
make available the beneﬁts of new technologies.00% 8.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector. Susenas 2009 BPS.16 50.15 14. Susenas 2009 8.51% (2009) 8.14 3.65% (2009) Increase ► Minister of Communica on and Informa cs 2010 8.02% (2004) 8.00% ► ▼ ▼ BPS.16a - Increase Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 22 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .41% (2009) 11.32% (2009) 100. especially informa on and communica ons Propor on of popula on with ﬁxed-line telephones (teledensity in popula on) Propor on of popula on with cellular phones Propor on of households with access to internet Propor on of households with personal computers 4.79% (2004) - 82.
Coming Home from the Field Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger .
24 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
6 percent in 1990 to 5.00 purchasing power parity per capita per day) has been reduced in Indonesia from 20. The declining trend is expected to be sustained to 2015 and beyond.9 7.0 Percentage 15 9.2 Target: 10.7 2006 2007 6. Susenas.9 percent in 2008.1: Progress in Reducing Extreme Poverty (USD1.8 20.5 6. the proportion of people whose income is less than USD 1. The World Bank 2008.3 7. 25 20 Figure 1.6 5.00 (PPP) per capita per day as measured by World Bank/BPS annually from 1990 to 2008.4 8.00/capita/day) as Compared to the MDG Target 14.9 9.9 2008 2009 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS. and Indonesia has already achieved and exceeded Target 1 for reduc on of extreme poverty.2 7.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.0 6. between 1990 and 2015. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 25 .00 (PPP) a day Current Status The incidence of extreme poverty (using the measurement of USD 1.8 12.6 9. Figure 1.1 presents the trend for the declining percentages of the popula on es mated to have levels of consump on below USD 1.
Since 1999.0 32. Susenas.1 13. The economic crisis in 1997/8 resulted in a drama c increase in the number of Indonesians below the poverty line.5 42.51). In 2009 the average Poverty Gap Index for all areas was 2.8 16.47). although there was a signiﬁcant increase in 2006 reﬂec ng increases in the na onal price of fuel and other basic consumer goods.33 percent (2010) as the na onal economy has recovered and as ini a ves to reduce the incidence of poverty proved to be eﬀec ve in beneﬁ ng the poor. Number of poor popula on (milliions) Na onal Poverty Line (percentage) The Poverty Gap Index is an indicator which measures the gap between the average income of the poor and the na onal poverty line. Yogyakarta (4.1 18.83 percent) are resident on the island of Jawa. Sulawesi Tengah (4.5.02 million people living below the na onal poverty line in 2010.9 38.8).2 28.2 49.2 48.0 .2 30.1 35. Figure 1.9 19. the largest share (55. the incidence of poverty has generally trended downwards during the period 1976 to 1996 (Figure 1. The total number of poor is large and the distribu on of the poor among the provinces and islands of Indonesia is uneven.87).7 37.05) was signiﬁcantly higher than for urban areas (1.2 21.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Using the prevailing na onal poverty line. Sumatera 26 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2010 13.94).4 11.4 18.3 36.7 17.74).5 30 25.82 percent and that was less than during the previous year (2008/2009) when the decline of the poverty rate was 1.4 16. amoun ng to 31.9 22. Of the 31. Maluku (6.0 16.02 million people.3 39.3 40. the total number of people living below the na onal poverty line was s ll high. As a result it is necessary to take steps to increase the rate of poverty reduc on.2: Long-Term Trends in Poverty Reduc on in Indonesia Measured Using the Na onal Poverty Line 60 50 40 40. Gorontalo (6.0 27.26). The incidence of poverty more than doubled to 24.0 35. Aceh (4. several years.4 20 10 0 26. At the same me it is important to note that the decline of the poverty rate from March 2009 to March 2010 is only 0.7 15. Although the percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line in 2010 had been reduced.2).0 38.5 14.91) and the highest levels were found in the rural areas of the provinces of Papua Barat (12.52). The Poverty Gap Index measured for rural areas (3. Papua (11.1 33.4 17.2 35. and in 2010 there was a further decline to 2.1 37. A er 2006 there has been a posi ve downward trend reﬂec ng the impact of the measures to stablize prices and mi gate the impact of price increases on the poor (see Figure 1.3 1998* 1976 1978 1980 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: BPS.27 percent.2.6 24.6 23.3 31.2 percent in 1998 when a nega ve GDP growth rate was recorded and prices increased drama cally.3 54. During the period 2002-2010 the trend for this indicator was generally downward.6 15. and Nusa Tenggara Timur (4.2 17.4 37. the na onal poverty rate had been reduced to 13.6 47.3).
2 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: BPS. Yogyakarta and Jawa Timur also have an incidence of poverty that is higher than the na onal average.5).9 3.8% Source: BPS. Sulawesi 7. Papua Barat (34. Susenas.3% Sumatera 21.4% Figure 1. On the islands of Jawa and Bali.4 Poverty Gap Ra o 3. Poverty rates in 17 provinces are below the na onal average.1 3.80 percent). The Na onal Trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.4. Bengkulu and Lampung.0 2.74 percent).1% Maluku 1.3. 2002 to 2010 3. Susenas 2010.44 percent) while Bali/ Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi are the geographical regions with the third and fourth largest shares of people living below the poverty line (Figure 1.5 2. On the island Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 27 .33 percent include Papua (36.4). while in 16 provinces they are above the na onal average (see Figure 1. The Percentages of the Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Major Geographical Region of Indonesia (2010) Jawa 55.6% Kalimantan 3. Figure 1. Sumatera Selatan. the provinces of Jawa Tengah.88 percent) and Maluku (27.ranks second in terms of percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line (21.9 2.8 2. The provinces where the incidence of poverty is more than double the na onal average of 13. There remain signiﬁcant dispari es in the incidence of poverty among the 33 provinces of Indonesia.0 2. In Sumatera the incidence of poverty is s ll higher than the na onal average in the provinces of Aceh.5% Papua 3.3% Bali & Nusa Tenggara 7.
87 percent in urban areas (Figure 1.8 DKI Jakarta Bali Kalimantan Selatan Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Banten Kalimantan Timur Kepulauan Riau Jambi Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat Jawa Barat Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur Sumatera Selatan Jawa Tengah DI Yogyakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Lampung Aceh Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Gorontalo Maluku Papua Barat Papua Na onal Average 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 - Source: BPS. The three provinces with the lowest incidence of poverty in 2010 were Jakarta (3.9 21.3 11.48 percent).7 .21 percent) and Bali (4.0 21.9 5.6).0 9.8 17.3 18.3 8. Kalimantan Selatan (5. 2010 Percentage 34. the provinces of Sulawesi Tengah. 28 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3. The poverty rate is signiﬁcantly higher in rural areas than in urban centers in Indonesia. Susenas 2010.1 18.56 percent in 2010 compared to 9. The geographical distribu on of the incidence of poverty by province is presented in Map 1.5 6.5 Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.2 6.9 36. 2010 Source: BPS.5 11.8 7.6 16. Figure 1. The poverty rate in rural areas of Indonesia was 16.7 8.1.1 8.88 percent).6 23.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger of Sulawesi. Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.6 13.1 9.3 11.7 9. Sulawesi Tenggara and Gorontalo also have poverty rates higher than the na onal rate while the same is true for the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).4 9. Susenas 2010. Map 1.2 27.5 16.0 23.5 4.3 15.2 7.1 18.1.6 15.3 13.
Figure 1.6. Percentages of Urban and Rural Popula ons below the Na onal Poverty Line (1990-2010)
18.9 17.4 10.7 2009 16.6 2010 9.9
1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: BPS, Susenas Several Years
A major challenge is to reduce the propor on of the na onal popula on living below the na onal poverty line while also reducing dispari es in the incidence of poverty among provinces and districts. The government is faced with the challenge of maintaining a high growth rate of GDP in order to expand employment opportuni es for the poor. To break the cycle of poverty there is a need to further strengthen the provision of educa on and health services and social protec on. Decentraliza on has brought new challenges to both central and local government authori es in Indonesia to coordinate programs to reduce poverty and to u lize ﬁscal resources eﬀec vely to promote inclusive growth, empower the poor and improve public services.
Policies and Strategies
Indonesia is commi ed to reducing poverty in all regions, districts and villages. A mul dimensional approach will con nue to be applied, one that includes ac ons to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth, to create employment opportuni es, to empower communi es and to improve delivery of basic social services to all communi es. The government is commi ed to establishing a more conducive environment for all stakeholders to work to reduce poverty and achieve the na onal goals of development. It is expected that
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
the incidence of poverty as measured by the na onal poverty line will be reduced to 8 to 10 percent by 2014 in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (20102014). The Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on, led by the Vice President and senior cabinet oﬃcials, will take the lead in improving coordina on of implementa on of all policies and programs to reduce the incidence of poverty. Cabinet members to be directly involved include the Coordina ng Minister for People’s Welfare, the Coordina ng Minister for Economic Aﬀairs, the Minister of Health, the Minister of Na onal Educa on, the Minister of Social Aﬀairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister for Coopera ves and SMEs and the Minister of Na onal Development Planning (BAPPENAS). The na onal priori es iden ﬁed to reduce poverty and achieve the target for poverty are grouped into three policy areas: 1. Policies to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth will provide the founda on to provide produc ve employment for the poor. It is expected that growth of GDP will reach 6.3 to 6.8 percent during 2011 to 2013 and increase to 7 percent in 2014. 2. Aﬃrma ve ac ons to empower the poor and break the cycle of poverty will be implemented in three clusters of programs: First - Strengthening Social Services and Social Protec on (Cluster 1). Government support to strengthen the provision of health and educa on services will be expanded through the Na onal Health Security Program (Jamkesmas), the Family Hope Program (PKH) and provision of Scholarships for the Children from Poor Households. Second - Support will be expanded to empower communi es to reduce their poverty through PNPM Mandiri (Cluster 2). The government will increase support for the PNPM Mandiri Program to Rupiah 12.1 trillion per year and coverage will be expanded to include all 78,000 villages in Indonesia. Third - Facili es to increase the capacity of MSMEs and coopera ves will be expanded through (i.) entrepreneurship and capacity building on business management; (ii.) provision of informa on services and business consultancy; and through expansion of the PeopleBased Small Business Loan Program (KUR) (Cluster 3). KUR will be expanded to channel funds through local microﬁnance ins tu ons to increase access of medium and small scale enterprises and coopera ves to credit. Bank guarantees will con nue to be provided in the form of Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) by Perum Jamkrindo and PT Askrindo. 3. Increasing eﬀec veness of poverty reduc on programs: a. Priority will be given to improving coordina on of policies and programs to reduce poverty. Increased coordina on across programs within the three clusters is key for eﬀec ve poverty reduc on. Therefore, coordina on of all poverty allevia on policies will be intensiﬁed through the establishment of the Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on under the oﬃce of the Vice President in accordance with Presiden al Decree 15/2010 concerning the Accelera on of Poverty Reduc on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
This eﬀort will be supported by enhancing capacity and func ons of various technical ministries and government oﬃces at the na onal, provincial and district levels. The coordina on of poverty reduc on will also be conducted at provincial and district levels by the Provincial and District Coordina ng Teams for Poverty Reduc on. Concerted eﬀorts for poverty allevia on will also involve private sector partnerships through CSR and other types of funding such as “zikat, infaq and sodaqoh”. The above eﬀorts will be supported by implementa on of an accurate monitoring and evalua on system to achieve greater eﬀec veness in programming to alleviate poverty. Building local capacity to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate poverty reduc on programs, will be given special a en on in those provinces and districts with the highest incidence of poverty. Fiscal policies and instruments will be adjusted to be er support local government in ﬁgh ng poverty and providing services at the community level. Targe ng of the poor and near poor in poverty reduc on programs will be carried out in a systema c manner at the local level using the latest database on the poor. To maintain the accuracy of targe ng of these groups, it is planned that the Survey for Social Protec on Program will be implemented every three years.
In order to implement the policies to reduce poverty as presented above and to achieve the targets for poverty reduc on in 2015, the government has prepared and will implement the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) which deﬁnes programs and ac vi es with speciﬁc targets as presented below in Table 1.1.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
000 110.05 Development of policy and guidance to family planning equality 11.50% 100% Increased basic health services for the poor (JAMKESMAS) Basic Health Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 8.000 66.481 8.000 Increased referral of the poor for health services at hospitals Health Referral Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 75 80 85 90 95 Increased guidance.1 Increased guidance and self reliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 22.80 3. par cipa on and self-reliance of family planning acceptors Number of new family planning acceptors (KPS and KS-I) (poor and other vulnerable groups) to receive coaching and free contracep ves through 23.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) The number of ac ve poor family planning par cipants (KPS and KS-I) and other vulnerable groups to receive coaching and contracep ves free through the 23.40% 94. Annual Implementa on Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty Prioritas Guidance and Development of Health Security Output/Indicator Percentage of the popula on (including all the poor people) who have health security The number of primary health centers providing basic health services for the poor The percentage of hospitals that serve poor pa ents / JAMKESMAS program par cipants 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Formulated ﬁnancing and health insurance policy 59% 70.5 12.000 44.1.75 3.608 8.97 4.89 3.737 8.000 Source: RPJMN 2010-2014 32 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 88.2 12.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) Total number of PUS group members of produc ve age who become members of KB Mandiri Groups 3.868 9.8 13.30% 84.9 12.
840 1.000 540.000 67.000 67.000 540.000 640.396 714.100 1.000 320.916.000 640.000 320.370.1 Con nued Increasing selfreliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 34 34 34 34 34 3 3 3 3 3 Provision of educa on subsidies/ scholarships for students from elementary schools Provision of lementary School Scholarships 2.346. and MA) Number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MI) The number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MT) The number of students from poor households receive scholarships (MA) 640.780 3.020 1.000 320.395.898 614.195.000 veness 70 .000 69.000 320.Prioritas Output/Indicator Total number of working partners who provide capital assistance and business guidance to economic working groups Total number of working partners to become facilitators for working groups Number of primary school students from poor households to receive scholarships Number of junior high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.417 560.700 Provision of High School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality high school educa on in all districts and ci es The number of high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 378.064 1.476 475.000 320.783 501.000 Provision of Voca onal Educa on Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality voca onal educa on in all districts and ci es The number of vocaonal school students from poor households to receive scholarships 305.000 540.275.282 3.767.000 Provision of scholarships for students from poor households (MI.358 645.653 800.298 Ins tu onal Service Delivery Ac vi es Expanding the availability and equitable access and quality of PT interna onal compe The number of poor students receiving scholarships 65.000 640.640.103.220 3.000 Providing Scholarships for Qualiﬁed Madrasah Educa on 540. MTs.210 Provision of Junior Secondary School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to junior high schools in all districts and ci es 966.535 390.000 540.000 640.000 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 33 .200 3.
116.000 people 90.400 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 34 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 people 90.600 6.5 million The realiza on of the land redistribu on Provincial Land Management 210.000 1.000 210. Increased Worker Protec on for Women and the Elimina on of Child Labour 3.538 59.300 5.538 59.1.000 1.538 59.000 210.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.170. The percentage of child workers withdrawn from the worst form of child labor who return to school and / or acquire skills training.900 8.404.000 210.000 The provision of rice to poor households Provision of Subsidized Rice for the Poor (RASKIN) Annual targets will be determined based on surveys of need. Condi onal Cash Transfers (PKH) 816.000 people 90. 17.000 people 231 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es - Facilita on of child workers to return to school or receive skills training .Reduc on of the number of children working in worst forms of child labor The number of child workers withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.000 Increasing the availability of temporary employment for the unemployed and development of community infrastructure Development and Expansion of Employment Opportuni es The number of unemployed people to have temporary jobs Number of districts / ci es to implement temporary employment crea on for the unemployed 24.000 people 90. Con nued Prioritas Provision of Scholarships for Islamic Higher Educa on Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased availability of scholarships for students from poor households The number of students from poor households targetd to receive scholarships (PTA ) Total number of the poorest households to receive condi onal cash assistance (PKH) Total recipient households (15 kg per household per 12 months) Implementa on of the redistribu on of land (hectares) 59.000 1.000 4.000 210.538 59.538 Implementa on of condi onal cash aid to beneﬁt the poorest households (PKH).516.000 1.
Control and Opera on of Se lement Development (RISE) Number of subdistricts served by the suppor ng infrastructure and socio-economic ac vi es.226 Regula ons. 237 237 237 237 237 Accelera ng poverty reduc on through infrastructure development and community empowerment (RIS PNPM + PPIP) Number of villages improved through development of infrastructure 3.165 500 700 813 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 35 . Guidance.9 2. The number of eighborhoods/ villages which beneﬁt from facilita on to empower 8.45 1. Financing and Development of Water Supply Systema 210 districts/ ci es (SANIMAS) Target areas for infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site systems (district / city) Number of villages facilitated 30 districts/ ci es system on-site 35 districts/ ci es system on-site 40 districts/ ci es system on-site 45 districts/ ci es system on-site 50 districts/ ci es system on-site 4.946 subdistricts 4.943 subdistricts 4.940 subdistricts 4. Guidance.949 subdistricts Improving Rural Community Self-Reliance (PNPM-MP) 2 districts / 9 subdistricts Regula ons. Con nued Empowering communi es and accelera ng reduc on of poverty and unemployment in urban neighborhoods / sub-districts (PNPM Urban).472 1. The target areas of applica on of PNPMMP and strengthening PNPM Coverage areas of post-disaster reconstruc on and rehabilita on in crisis districts: Nias and Nias Selatan 4.968 villages in 460 subdistricts 552 villages in 460 subdistricts 482 villages in 460 subdistricts Empowering communi es to accelerate reduc on of poverty and unemployment in districts and rural villages / (PNPM Perdesaan).1.237 1.237 1. Financing. and Management of Sanita on Improvement Supervision.500 villages in 1.482 villages in 805 subdistricts 4. Control.Prioritas Improving Urban Community SelfReliance (PNPM Urban) Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.791 subdistricts 4.094 ubdistricts 7.650 villages (PAMSIMAS) 1.
Ins tu onal Strengthening.000 10.596 villages 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) Increased number of tourist villages through PNPM tourism ini a ves Number of tourism villages 200 450 550 450 350 Budget available to guarantee People’s Business Credit (KUR) Percentage of budget available to guarantee KUR 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. and KUR) Realiza on of distribu on of Sharia ﬁnancing and commercial ﬁnancing for agricultural sector Total number of agricultural business centers in rural areas Total number of farmer groups PUAP (units) Policy Development.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.5 trillion Rupiah Rural Agribusiness Development (PUAP) and Strengthening of Rural Economic Ins tu ons through LM3 4 trillion Rupiah 5 trillion Rupiah 6 trillion Rupiah 7 trillion Rupiah 8 trillion Rupiah 200 200 200 200 200 10. 186 subdistricts.000 10. 4.000 Increasing socio-economic recovery and growth in less developed regions The number of districts. opera ng in 300 districts/ ci es supported by one unit BLU The number of groups of micro-enterprises in coastal areas and small islands are bankable Business Services and Community Empowerment Development of micro tools LKM Rural Community Empowerment Funding / PNPM MK Facilitators Micro Business Groups 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. subdistricts and villages targeted in less developed regions 51 districts.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1. Islamic ﬁnancing. development of rural agricultural business centers. Coordina on and Facilita on of Local Governments in Less Developed Regions (P2DTK/SPADA) – PNPM Improvement of Tourism Sector PNPM Mandiri Support the People’s Business Credit Guarantee Cooperaon (KUR) 1.000 businesses Increasing realiza on of the lending program (KKP-E and KUR) commercial ﬁnancing. and development of farmer groups PUAP Realiza on of lending for agriculture (CTF-E.000 10.2 Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased empowerment and self reliance of two million micro enterprises in coastal se lements.000 10.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.5 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.
10 Prov. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2 2 2 3 3 The increased capacity and coverage of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons to provide ﬁnancing to coopera ves and SMEs Number of non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu on established 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 37 . which supported the development of synergies and coopera on with ﬁnancial ins tu ons Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons (LPKD) doing co-guarantee with the na onal insurance agency The number of coopera ves that can access credit / ﬁnancing banks through linkages Number of MFIs (coopera ves and rural banks). factoring. which work closely with the bank ﬁnancing Number of Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons Increasing the role of nonbank ﬁnancial ins tu ons. Con nued Increasing people’s business credit policy coordina on (KUR) 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increased coverage of credit / bank ﬁnancing for coopera ves and SMEs Coopera on involving ﬁnancing from banks and ﬁnancial ins tu ons / other ﬁnancing. The expansion of credit services / ﬁnancing banks for coopera ves and SMEs.Prioritas Policy Coordina on People’s Business Credit (KUR) Output/Indicator Percentage of policy recommenda ons to be implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1. pawnshops in support of ﬁnance for coopera ves and SMEs. a venture capital. such as KSP / KJKS. leasing companies. 10 Prov. coupled with the development of informa on networks 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 7 Prov. 8 Prov.1. 9 Prov.
as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres of the more eﬀec ve The number of par cipants increase public understanding of coopera ves among the strategic groups.000 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres System of educa on. including MFIs incorporated under the law of the oopera ve 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs Increasing the capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs).000 managers MFIs 1. 1.000 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1. The number of par cipants increased understanding of educa on and training of coopera ves and human resources in coopera ves 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.000 people 1. training and coopera ve extension for members and managers of coopera ves.750 people 1. including the accredita on and cer ﬁca on service for MFIs.750 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 managers MFIs 1.1.000 people - 1.000 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 1.200 people - 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Revitalizing the educa on system.200 people 2 Unit 1.750 people 38 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . training and coopera ve educa on for members and managers of coopera ves. Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator The number of MFIs that are registered and accredited in accordance with the law of the MFI The number of MFIs that par cipate in management training Total HR management staﬀ KSP/ KJKS cer ﬁed Total LDP KJK and reinforced TUK Number of managers/ heads of branch KJK which included training and cer ﬁca on of competencies for MFIs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased ins tu onal capacity of MFIs. Improved ins tu onal capacity and quality of services microﬁnance ins tu ons (MFIs).
A er the crisis. The strong economic growth during the 19901997 and 2004-2008 period resulted in the employment growth rate exceeding the rate of workforce growth. from a popula on structure dominated by the younger genera on in the 1970s to the current structure dominated by those of middle age.8). the growth rate of labor produc vity showed a tendency to decline. The development of various indicators for "the crea on of full and produc ve employment opportuni es and provision of decent jobs for all. In the same year (1995). including women and young people" is detailed as follows: The growth of gross domes c product (GDP) per worker during the 1990-2009 period has varied signiﬁcantly.53 percent. job opportuni es were s ll created even though they were mainly in the informal sector (Figure 1. The lower growth rate of "post crisis" labor produc vity was partly due to the dwindling capital accumula on per worker during the post crisis period.91 percent (see Figure 1. the agricultural sector also experienced the highest growth rate of 12. the working age popula on amounted to 63.05 percent.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all. amoun ng to -0. Meanwhile. Growth of GDP per worker in the period before the crisis of 1997/1998 (during 1990-1995) was rela vely high. The growth of the working age popula on has been higher than the growth of the workforce. In the industrial sector the highest growth rate occurred in 1995. has resulted in a rapid increase in the working popula on. The demographic transi on. from 65 percent to 62 percent. amoun ng to 18. including women and young people Current Status Since the 1970s employment condi ons in Indonesia have been inﬂuenced by the demographic transi on of the popula on structure and two economic crises that occurred in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008. The ra o of the employed to working age popula on in the 1990-2009 period experienced a rela vely small.68 percent and the lowest in 2001. amoun ng to 5.8). but quite dynamic change. indica ng that there is a higher preference Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 39 . In 1971. with an average annual growth of about 2. at the me of the economic crisis.36 percent per year during the past 10 years.42 percent as compared to the period a er the crisis period (1997/1998 . averaging 3. The last two decades have seen a diminishing ra o of employment to the working age popula on. and the lowest in 1998 amounted to -12.15 per cent.2008). The employment opportuni es created during this me were able to absorb new members of the workforce entering the labor market.34 million whereas it is es mated to have reached 171.02 million in 2010.
Sakernas. 1990-2009 25% The growth rate of labor produc vity (%) 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15% -20% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: BPS. 1996.7. 1999-2009 Agriculture Industry Services Total Improvements in the quality of job opportuni es have resulted in a reduc on in the propor on of self-employed workers and family workers (generally in the informal sector) to total employment. The Growth Rate of Labor Produc vity (in Percentages) for the Agriculture.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger among students to con nue their schooling to higher levels of educa on rather than to ﬁnd a job. The employment ra o in the sector has decreased from 71 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2009 (Figure 1. Industry and the Service Sector. 1990-2009 EPR Urban EPR Rural EPR Total The declining ra o of workers who work in the informal sector is made possible by the growth of wage employment and increasing worker produc vity. 1993.9). Employment to Popula on Ra o for Urban and Rural Areas and for the Na onal Level 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: BPS.8. 80% Figure 1. Figure 1. This source of 40 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . Extracted from Sakernas and Indonesia Sta s cs in years 1990.
employment grew by 1.9 percent per annum during the period 2008-2009. Produc vity of workers has increased signiﬁcantly over the last several years.
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nop-05 Agust-06 Agust-07 Agust-08 Agust-09
Figure 1.9. The Propor on of Vulnerable Workers to Total Workers, 1990-2009
Source: BPS, Sakernas (1990-2009).
First: Expanding formal employment opportuni es. Investment recovery that has not met expecta ons may well be a constraint to achievement of a higher economic growth rate. Contribu ng factors to the weak investment climate have been well documented and include, among others, slow investment recovery in infrastructure provision, legal and bureaucra c issues as well as uncertainty in property ownership. Uncertainty in industrial rela ons, including the provisions of severance payment due to layoﬀ as well as on contract and outsourced workers, has aﬀected the compe veness of several key labor-intensive industries, although this is not the sole, deciding factor. Second: Narrowing the wage gap between workers at the same level. Current changes in wages are determined by the increasing price level rather than improvements in produc vity. Produc vity has not yet become the main determinant in wage calcula on. Ideally, the components for determining the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR) should not only include inﬂa on factors, but also produc vity and achievement of job outputs. Third: Accelera ng workers transi on from lower produc vity jobs to higher produc vity jobs. This entails moving “labor surplus” out of the tradi onal or informal sector into more produc ve jobs which provide higher wages. Worker transi on from tradi onal sectors with low produc vity encourages wage increment, improves workers’ output as well as narrows the gap in wage and labor produc vity. Should the growth in the formal sector slow down, it will result in more workers entering the informal sector so that workers in the informal sector (including their families) will be in a state of greater uncertainty.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Policies and Strategis
Crea ng as many employment opportuni es as possible by promo ng investment and business expansion. The government will con nue to promote the crea on of job opportuni es in the formal sector by promo ng investment growth and business expansion. This policy con nues to be implemented so that the economy will grow and develop. Improving the investment climate is one of the government’s na onal priori es, both for urban and rural areas. Improving the environment and mechanisms of industrial rela ons to promote employment and business opportuni es. Through a process of nego a on and delibera on and bipar te discussions, workers and employers can resolve issues rela ng to their respec ve needs and interests. The government will be more ac ve in working to create more conducive industrial rela ons and to encourage collec ve bargaining between workers and employers. Crea ng employment opportuni es through government programs. This policy aims to assist the unemployed who do not have access to economic ac vi es. Unemployment is not only found in urban areas, but also in areas that have been le behind in terms of economic development. Improving the quality of workers. The competence of Indonesian workers is s ll perceived as an obstacle for business development. The low level of competence is a constraint to the improvement of na onal economic security. Indonesia's compe veness and produc vity s ll lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. One eﬀort to be taken to improve labor produc vity will be to improve worker skills. Improving the produc vity of agricultural workers. The government will give a en on to workers in the agricultural sector through improving agricultural sector produc vity. This will be done through various ac vi es, including: (a) extending the scope of agricultural sector management by intensifying research to expand agricultural ac vi es, thus increasing agricultural output and added value; and (b) providing workers with knowledge and skills, through educa on, training and agricultural extension. In me, knowledge and skills improvement will have an impact on the enhancement of agricultural produc vity. Developing social security and empowering workers. Strategies for providing workers with social security will be implemented, including development of social security programs that provide workers with the greatest possible beneﬁts. For informal workers, there is a need to protect workers from their working environment and the dispropor onate use of their labor. Assistance will also be provided to workers in the form of training to improve skills to help them increase their produc vity and, thus, their welfare.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Implemen ng key employment regula ons. The ILO Declara on on the Principles and Fundamental Rights in the Workplace mandates the implementa on and enforcement of basic labor standards.
Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
The nutri onal level of the popula on has improved over me, as indicated by the decline in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age. Indonesia has made good progress in improving nutri on outcomes over the past two decades. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age, who are moderately and severely underweight, decreased from 31.0 percent in 1989 to 21.6 percent in 2000. A slight rise was seen between 2000 and 2005, reaching 24.5 percent in 2005. However in 2007 it decreased to 18.4 percent (Riskesdas 2007) and progress on this indicator is considered to be on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.5 percent by 2015 (Figure 1.10). In the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) the Government has set the new target for this indicator to be less than 15.0 percent in 2014.
29.8 27.7 26.1 22.8 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.2 24.5 18.4
Target MDG 2015
Figure 1.10. Trend in the Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age (1989-2007) Using the WHO 2005 Standard and the MDG Target for this Indicator in 2015
23.8 7.2 21.7 8.1 15.4 12.3 14.8 11.3 13.9 8,9 13.2 8.4 15.0 6.8 14.6 8.6 14.5 8.7 14.8 9.7 13.0 5.4
1989 1992 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2007 2015
Source: BPS, Susenas 1989 to 2005 and MOH, Riskesdas 2007.
Dispari es in the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age remain a problem. Even though the na onal MDG target for the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age is expected to be achieved, dispari es exist in nutri onal
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
2 21.3 percent is not yet achieved in rural and urban areas.3 18.7 13 Total Underweight 20.4 12.6 percent). The data indicates that the MDG target of 3.2 18.9 18.5 percent) (Figure 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger status among provinces. 15.9 15.7 22. Kalimantan Selatan (26.6 DI Yogyakarta Bali Kepulauan Riau DKI Jakarta Jawa Barat Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Banten Bengkulu Jawa Timur Lampung Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung INDONESIA Jambi Kalimantan Timur Sumatera Barat Papua Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Sumatera Utara Maluku Utara Papua Barat Kalimantan Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Aceh Kalimantan Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Maluku Nusa Tenggara Timur Source: MOH.9 percent.5 11.8 25.9 percent (DI Yogyakarta) to 33.2 24. provinces with the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve above 25 percent include: Maluku (27.4 The propor on of the popula on with a daily kcal intake of less than 2. and among socio-economic groups.9 3.7 17.4 12.4 percent.4 25.2 21.4 22.9 11.5 26. there has been a signiﬁcant improvement in reducing undernourishment in Indonesia.2 5.2).4 Moderately Underweight 14 11. The Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age by Province (2007) Percentage 33. disparity between rural and urban areas remains.2. Riskesdas 2007 showed that the lower the household income the higher the prevalence of underweight of children under ﬁve years of age.2 24.4 15. and Aceh (26.6 18.4 percent na onally while in rural areas it was 6.000 calories is s ll high. Riskesdas 2007 Severely Underweight Moderately Underweight Total Underweight Moreover. between rural and urban areas. Data in Table 1.11).6 27.6 40 10.6 27. The Susenas 2002-2008 data showed that the average dietary calorie intake in 2002 was 44 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .6 percent).4 17.4 4.9 19.8 16. Riskesdas 2007 Region Rural Urban Indonesia Severely Underweight 6.0 15.0 16. Table 1.2 also indicates that the prevalence of severely underweight children under ﬁve years of age was 5. In addi on to Nusa Tenggara Timur.8 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TARGET 2015 . Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007) Source: MOH. Riskesdas 2007 indicated that the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age ranged from 10.4 26.7 22. which indicates achievement of the MDG target (Table 1.6 16.4 percent and in urban areas 4.5 17.11. Based on the average daily dietary energy consump on intake per capita.3 20. while in urban areas it was 15. Figure 1. The prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age in rural areas in 2007 was 20.8 23.4 18.6 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur).5 22.8 percent). Sulawesi Tengah (27.2 percent.
(ii) inappropriate child care due to low levels of educa on among mothers.12. (iii) promo on of healthy lifestyle behavior. 2. lack of awareness and commitment of the government contributes to the existence of the malnutri on problem.038 Figure 1. water and sanita on services. The poor have low Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 45 .050 2. In 2008. To address the high prevalence of malnutri on among children. malaria. (ii) preven on of nutri on-related diseases such as diarrhea. The data conﬁrm that food consump on improvement par cularly among the poor is urgently needed. In its eﬀorts to fulﬁll the global accord.950 2002 1. and HIV/AIDS.970 1. and (iv) improvement of food for ﬁca on.12).986 kcal per capita per day which was below the minimum requirement of 2. Susenas.010 2. par cularly the poor. Lack of access of the poor with low educa on to quality and safe food. the government has implemented the Food and Nutri on Ac on Plan 2006-2010.030 2.020 Kcal/capita/day 2. 2005 2007 2008 The Government of Indonesia is commi ed to improving the nutri onal status of the popula on.000 kcal per capita per day.990 1.960 1.015 2.980 1. Moreover. par cularly due to poverty. the government set up health sector policies in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2009 which cover the community nutri on improvement program. and (iii) inadequate access to health.986 Source: BPS. Moreover. tuberculosis. several years. poor people in par cular consume unsafe food which adversely aﬀects their health and nutri onal status. Trends in the Average Calorie Consump on for Rural and Urban Households (2002-2008) 2. it increased to 2.1.000 1.040 2. Challenges Economic and socio-cultural factors aﬀec ng low nutri onal status among children under ﬁve years of age include: (i) lack of access to quality food.007 2. with the following immediate objec ves: (i) improvement of family nutri on awareness (kadarzi) through community-based growth monitoring and counseling.038 kcal per capita per day (Figure 1.
has been undertaken in Integrated Health Posts (Posyandu).0 86. However. 2002-2007 PPH Score 88.2 68.0 Source: BPS. 85.5 75. Nutri on policy development and program planning and management are inadequate in both capacity and ins tu onal linkages. However.6 81.6 81.0 78.9 80. the unbalanced food consump on pa ern of Indonesians can lead to serious disease problems and even death. the quality of food consump on improved as indicated by an increase in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score from 77. The role of the community in dealing with malnutri on has been declining.0 76. the Posyandu ac vi es deteriorated under decentraliza on as indicated by huge varia ons of malnutri on rates among provinces. the United Na ons Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organiza on (WHO) recommend that children be exclusively breas ed for at least six months a er birth.0 70.1 77. Figure 1.0 77.5 in 2002 to 83. and only 41 percent of children under four months old were exclusively breas ed.0 84. During the period 2002-2007. Moreover.0 72. The quality of food consump on is s ll low.6 in 2007. Community par cipa on in dealing with malnutri on. A strong na onal intersectoral body for coordina ng and enforcing nutri on policies across sectors and across the levels of administra on does not exist.0 82. 46 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . several years. Trend in the Desirable Dietary Pa ern (PPH) Score of Food Consump on for Rural and Urban Households.0 2002 2005 2007 Rural Urban Indonesia The prac ce of exclusive breast feeding has declined. In 2007 only about 32 percent of children under six months were exclusively breas ed in Indonesia. this ﬁgure is s ll far from the ideal PPH score of 100 in both rural and urban popula ons.0 80.13. To minimize morbidity and mortality of children. Lack of ins tu ons dealing with hunger eradica on programs.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger capacity to acquire the required food intake.9 83. Un l the early 1990s. par c ularly among children under ﬁve. in terms of quan ty as well as quality. the na onwide system of Posyandus was the main mechanism for nutri on service delivery at the community level. Lack of food intake and inappropriate caring pa ern result in malnutri on among chidren under ﬁve years of age. Susenas.0 74.8 79.
to adequate nutri ous and safe food and other interven ons such as nutrient supplementa on. In the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. Ac ons to be carried out include: (i) expansion of exclusive breast- Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47 . Ensure food security at the local level by: (i) increasing agricultural produc vity. Other strategies that will be developed include: (i) socializa on and advocacy on social and cultural behavior for healthy lifestyle. (ii) provide linkages of nutri on to early child educa on program (PAUD). Develop speciﬁc pro-poor assistance interven ons to provinces and districts with high prevalence of malnutri on. and poli cal issues. Improve food security at the local level par cularly to reduce disparity among regions. Therefore. (ii) improving the eﬃciency of food distribu on and handling systems. Strengthen food and nutri on service delivery at the grassroots level through the following: (i) revitalize Posyandu to expand coverage of service delivery for food and nutri on. Strengthen community empowerment and revitalize Posyandus. 2.Na onal food security ins tu ons are not eﬀec ve in solving problems related to hunger and malnutri on. par cularly to promote exclusive breast-feeding and infant feeding prac ces. 4. water.5 percent in 2015 and to improve the propor on of the popula on consuming at least the minimum level of dietary energy consump on are as follows: 1. economic. Policies and programs should be formulated holis cally and require an ins tu onal framework with a strong authority and capacity in synchronizing and coordina ng ac vi es in food and nutri on. Strengthen ins tu ons at the central and dictrict levels that have a strong authority in formula ng policy and programs in food and nutri on. The problem of malnutri on and food insecurity is mul sectoral in nature. Increase access of the poor. the ins tu onal framework for nutri on and food security at central and district levels will be strengthened. 3. and (iii) developing a local-based food diversiﬁca on program through improvement of food produc on and post-harvest technology and advocacy of balanced diets. and (iii) develop nutri on programs through community-based ac vi es by empowering local community-based ins tu ons such as religious gatherings (kelompok pengajian) and women’s organiza ons. sanita on). the Government set the new target of reducing undernourishment of children under ﬁve years of age to be less than 15. par cularly children under ﬁve years of age and pregnant women. related to socio-cultural. and (ii) investments in basic infrastructure (health. Policies and Strategis Policies and strategies to reduce the prevalence of underweight children under ﬁve years of age to 15. including reac va on of growth monitoring prac ce (GMP).0 percent. par cularly in rural and urban slum areas.
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger feeding. Outputs and Targets Speciﬁed in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) Outputs/Indicators Percentage of severe undernourished children under 5 years ﬁve years old receiving care Percentage of severe undernourished children 6-24 months old from poor households receiving MPASI (food supplement) Percentage 0-6 months old babies with exclusive breast feeding Coverage of Iodized salt Percentage of 6-59 month old children receiving vitamin A supplement Percentage of Puskemas implemen ng nutri onal status monitoring and providing care for the severely undernourished Percentage of districts implemen ng nutri on surveillance Percentage of children under 5 years old weighed for growth monitoring Percentage of children under 5 years old of poor households (GAKIN) receiving recovery food supplements (PMT pemulihan) 2010 100 2011 100 2012 100 2013 100 2014 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 75 75 67 78 78 70 80 80 75 83 83 100 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 100 70 100 75 100 80 100 85 100 100 60 100 100 65 100 100 70 100 100 75 100 100 80 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014). Table 1. 3/2010. (vi) strengthening malnutri on mi ga on management in primary health centers (Puskesmas) and hospitals. (ii) complementary and supplementary feeding for children 6-24 months old. the Na onal Medium-Term Developement Plan 20102014 set up programs and targets to address malnutri on par cularly among children under ﬁve years of age as listed in Table 1. (iv) strengthening communitybased nutri on programs through Posyandu. (v) nutri on educa on and kadarzi. and (v) strengthening the food and nutri on surveillance system. (iii) supplementary feeding for pregnant and lacta ng mothers. Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2010-2014 and Presiden al Instruc on No. MPASI buﬀer stock for disaster areas Percentage of households with nutri onal awareness (keluarga sadar gizi) 48 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .3. In line with the above policies and strategies.3.
Kindergarten and primary school students Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education .
will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Current Status Indonesia aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to include junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs.1). The primary school (SD/MI) gross enrolment ra o (GER) achieved universal coverage by the early 1980s. The Susenas 2009 indicated the NER of all other provinces were above 90 percent. by 2015. The school drop-out rate has been decreasing. This ﬁgure indicates the decreasing trend in the dropout rate at primary schools.2).23 percent. including madrasah. In 2008/2009. Susenas data indicates that the percentage of children aged 16-18 years who completed primary educa on increased from 87. At the primary school level. and stayed high despite the ﬁnancial crisis of the late 1990s.11 percent and the NER was 74. The propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school shows an increasing trend. At the junior secondary level (SMP/MT). except for Papua where the NER was measured to be 76. boys and girls alike. the GER was 116.77 percent while the net enrolment ra o (NER) was 95. the GER was 98. Access to Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on.52 percent (Figure 2. grades 7 to 9) in the universal basic educa on target.0 percent in 2008. disparity in educa on par cipa on has been reduced.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2A: Ensure that.09 percent (Figure 2. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 51 . children everywhere.8 percent in 1995 to 93.
3 93.7 92.2 92. Susenas 2009 and MoNE Sta s cs 2008/2009. 2006).2 2001 60. NER .7 2007 71.0 115.8 Nusa Te enggara Timur Jambi Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Maluku Papua Barat INDONESIA Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Lampung S Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Kalim mantan Selatan Kalim mantan Tengah Kalim mantan Timur Sul lawesi Tengah Ba angka Belitung Su umatera Utara Su umatera Barat DI Yogyakarta Ke epulauan Riau S Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur wesi Sulaw Tenggara Source: BPS.4 2006 66.5 Figure 2.6 93.2 2000 60.5 60 65.6 92.9 64.2.6 96.2009 116.4 61. Indonesia’s educa onal quality is low compared to neighboring countries.1 107.5 78.2 2005 65.1 108.5 92.7 100 92.4 107.1 55.0 102. 1992 .0 77.7 92.3 107.47 percent in 2009.5 2004 65.23 Bali Banten Aceh Riau Kali imantan Barat 2009 74.3 92. Based on the Third Interna onal 52 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sum matera Selatan Sul lawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Gorontalo Papua .0 1999 59.Junior Secondary School/MTs GER .8 40 1994 50.0 120 106. Beyond access.1 107. Progress in increasing the literacy rate has occurred largely due to improvements in the par cipa on rate of educa on and the propor on of students who have been able to complete their educa on at the primary level. 2009 Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 95.2 95.6 57.1 106.3 107.5 88.7 92.0 1993 46.2 82.9 81.2 73.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Percentage 74.1 108.6 107.7 2003 63.2 107. the quality of educa on has been a concern of the government.0 105. Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os (NER) for Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on Levels (Including Madrasah).1 82. Susenas and MoNE Sta s cs. Measured by interna onal standards.5 94.1 116. The literacy rate of the poorest group in the popula on rose signiﬁcantly from 92.9 91.Primary School/MI NER .9 110. The literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years is increasing.9 20 0 1992 42.1.9 percent in 1995 to 97.7 92.0 93.2 98.3 80 70.5 95.Junior Secondary School/MTs Figure 2.Primary School/MI GER .1 76.6 2008 72. The Susenas data of 1992 to 2009 indicated that the literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years increased from 96.1 1995 51.6 1997 1998 57.6 2002 61.3 88.3 106.0 1996 54. Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School Including Madrasah by Province. The nine-year basic educa on graduates do not always have adequate skills relevant to the needs of the community or the labor market.71 percent in 1992 to 99.2 91.3 79.3 Source: BPS.8 percent in 2006 for the 15-24 years age group (UNESCO.6 91.
Poverty is a major factor contribu ng to low enrollment in basic educa on with lack of aﬀordability being the reason for 70 percent of non-a endance at school (AIBEP 2008). and improved learning outcomes. books and teaching learning equipments for basic educa on. including teaching-learning materials and equipment. par cularly in remote. lunches. On the supply side. there is a challenge to develop the holis c and integrated ECED program and to improve the quality of non-formal educa on (NFE) programs par cularly to poor communi es. poverty is considered to be a major factor contribu ng to the low access to schooling. especially in the poorest urban and rural areas. which examines how well students aged 15 years are prepared for life. par cularly in remote and underserved areas. and Indonesia ranked 44 among 57 countries. In addi on. costs are s ll signiﬁcant and o en unaﬀordable for poor parents. Indonesian student performance ranked 34 out of 45 countries. and (iv) lack of funding for school opera ons. the low quality of governance in educa on management contributes to low equitable access of all children to quality basic educa on. it includes: (i) insuﬃcient educa onal infrastructure. only 31 percent of children could complete more than the most basic reading tasks. lack of qualiﬁed teachers. uniforms and books. Reaching the unreached in improving equitable access of all children. overall school eﬀec veness. In the 2006 Program for Interna onal Student Assessment (PISA). the average score of reading ability of Indonesian students was 393. The na onwide implementa on of the BOS program which was intended to support the government policy of free basic educa on contributed to improvement of school par cipa on by elimina ng cost barriers. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge to the achievement of the MDG educa on targets. boys and girls. There is a strong correla on between teachers’ academic qualiﬁca ons.1). However. Moreover. which was below the average of OECD countries (492). there is a need to expand provision of an adequate infrastructure. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge in achieving the educa on MDG target. Several cri cal factors have prevented Indonesia from achieving universal basic educa on.Mathema cs Science Study (TIMSS 2003). In addi on. This was due to lack of access to books and other reading materials. boys and girls. (iii) lack of relevant curriculum and the low quality of teaching learning process. However. Moreover. par cularly for daily travel. On the demand side. Improving the quality and equal distribu on of teachers in all regions to improve the quality of basic educa on. underserved areas. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 53 . (ii) lack of highly qualiﬁed teachers. Challenges Improving equitable access of all children. is a major challenge in improving equitable access to quality basic educa on in Indonesia (Table 2. in reality.
the government has drama cally increased public funding alloca ons for educa on.08 20. underserved and remote areas.96 Total 100 100 100 PrePrimary (TK) Primary School (SD/MI) Junior Secondary School (SMP/ MT) Senior Secondary School (SMA/SMK/MA) TOTAL Source: Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Educa on Personnel.080 758. accountability.806 535.4 percent to 20 percent.26 14.81 50. Formulate and implement policy at na onal and local levels to accelerate provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facili es.1. MONE.88 89.7 percent and as a propor on of public expenditures from 11.972 ≤ Diploma ≥ Dipl. 11.83 20.54 7. educa on spending as a propor on of GDP increased from 2. *not including madrasah teachers. Priori es to Improve Equitable Access: a.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Table 2.590 475.02 5. including in educa on.49 24. A en on will be given to concurrently ra onalizing and accelera ng provision of adequate school infrastructure 54 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .8 percent to 3.659 502. From 2001 to 2009.13 46.378 364.915 Diploma 1-3 71. madrasah and pesantren.60 100 100 Developing be er ﬁnancing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve eﬃciency. The transi on to decentraliza on has not yet included guidelines for monitoring and evalua on as well benchmarking on progress achieved by ins tu ons at all levels of government.311 3. Improving educa on management accountability and eﬃciency in the decentralized system.294 101. and fund transfer mechanisms to improve eﬃciency. However.78 31.633 1.70 25. decentraliza on of educa on policy has not been fully implemented as intended.728 29. and equity in funding to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.110.607. However.984 374.497.35 73. accountability. Indonesia’s decision to decentralize government is transforming the nature and level of public service delivery.637 341. Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualiﬁca ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* Number of Teachers Educa on Level ≤ Senior SS 119.890 ≥ Dipl. In line with educa on reform plans to accelerate the pace of achieving MDG educa on targets.79 36. par cularly in poor.422 1. Therefore.083 Propor on (%) Total 223. a challenge is to further develop be er ﬁnancing. Policies and Strategies 1.917 2.120 341. transfer of resources from central government to district and to schools resulted in reduc on of local budget for educa on (subs tu on eﬀect).601 29. 4 / S1 32. 2010. Senior 1-3 4 / S1 SS 53.876 961. and equity in funding and to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.
Curriculum reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and teaching-learning process to enable students to develop their intellectual. Ensure educa on ﬁnancing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address inequitable alloca on of funds and educa on resources. and central levels to improve planning and monitoring on program performance will be strengthened e. This should include increasing the number of cost-based scholarships for poor students in primary and junior secondary schools in targeted areas with the lowest enrolment rates. facili es and infrastructure for informal educa on. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. community par cipa on will be increased in planning. and accountability of BOS.and teaching learning resources that meet minimum service standards (MSS). monitoring. Districts will be encouraged or mandated to allocate a share of their budget to support an increase in holis c and integrated ECED services in underserved areas. b. the curriculum and teaching-learning process will be enhanced to build moral values and character. Capacity of local government and schools in managing the implementa on of BOS will be strengthened in order to raise the eﬀec veness. Priori es to Improve Quality and Relevance: a. The training will cover teacher support and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 55 . all teacher training ins tutes (Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTKs) will review their courses with a view to improve prac cal classroom performance and apply best prac ces in linking teaching to improved student learning. (ii) improving eﬃciency and quality of services through enhancement of the curriculum and quality assurance of program implementa on to ensure equivalency to formal educa on. An aﬃrma ve policy for the poor is essen al to accelerate access to quality educa on services. More speciﬁcally. 2. and evalua on of BOS by enhancing the capacity of school commi ees. Improvement of training on school-based management (SBM) targeted to school principals and supervisors. eﬃciency. and accountability in the implementa on of BOS. Equivalency program (Packets A and B) will be be er targeted to reach poor and dropout students. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for school dropouts. In order to increase learning quality. Strategies may include: (i) increasing the eﬃcient u liza on of formal school human resources. emo onal. eﬃciency. Moreover. Ins tu onal capacity at district. and ensuring matching funds from revenue-rich districts. d. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training provision. and social capaci es. Accelerate provision of holis c and integrated ECED services in rural and underserved areas. and (iii) improving coordina on of educa on equivalency programs between MoNE and the Ministry of Religious Aﬀairs (MoRA). Strengthen the eﬀec veness. c. provincial. c. spiritual. b.
alongside eﬀec ve mechanisms for ensuring mutual accountability between central and districts. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 sets up program priori es as listed in Table 2. ﬁnancial planning and management. Priori es to Strengthen Governance and Accountability: a. c.2: 56 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and establishment of the Na onal Educa on Council to improve governance. (v) developing governance and accountability indicators and informa on systems at the district level. (iii) strengthening performance evalua on and quality assurance systems. Improve local government capacity in managing basic educa on programs. Improvement of community par cipa on in educa on management will be conducted through: (i) advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobiliza on. and (vi) improving the quality of informa on for educa on sector performance to ensure adherence to standards. planning and budge ng. b. (iv) strengthening ﬁnancial repor ng systems. 3. Strengthen accountability in educa on resource management. In line with the above policies and strategies. The strategies will include: (i) evalua ng budget eﬃciency and funding mechanisms. (iv) strengthening management informa on systems. (ii) developing performance-based budge ng ed to quality standards and incen ve mechanisms. as well as ﬁnancial management. (ii) promo on of public-private partnerships with explicit roles for parents and the community in school performance and school-based management.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education staﬀ performance appraisal. and between schools and parents. District ins tu onal capacity will be strengthened through expanding coverage of capacity development programs in educa on management including analysis. Increase community par cipa on. and community par cipa on. monitoring and supervision. (iii) recogni on of civil society organiza ons as legi mate par cipants in the direc on of the educa on system through strengthening Provincial Educa on Councils and District Educa on Councils. monitoring and evalua on.
control. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 57 . implementa on.543 3.000 28.322 3.736.8% 96.626.000 Provision of educa on subsidy for MI 3. and ﬁnance through Educa on Council 10% 15% 25% 65% 100% Improving quality and welfare of teacher and educa on personnel for primary educa on 15% 25% 45% 70% 90% Improving Management Capacity for basic educa on Improved improved Improved Improved Improved Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014.211.791.2% 95.0% Provision of educa on subsidy for SD/SDLB 27.672. Program Priori es.820 27.591 Provision of quality and aﬀordable text books 100% - - - - Availability of qualiﬁed teachers Provision of and educa on teaching-learning personnel of SD/MI system and that equitable in all curriculum districts/ Percentage of SD/MI principals a ending the training Management and quality assurance system at DG of Primary and Secondary Management improved/ Involvement of community in duca on planning.Priori es Improving access and quality of primary educa o n (SD/MI) Outputs/ Indicators Equitable access to quality primary educa on in all districts achieved/ NER of primary educa on Subsidy for students in SD/SDLB allocated and distributed/ Number of students in SD/SLB received BOS Subsidy for students in MI/Diniyah Ula allocated and distributed/ Number of students in MI/ Diniyah Ula received BOS Availability of curriculum and teachinglearning models/ Percentage of improved curriculum implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 2. Outputs and Indicators of the Educa on Sector.2.000 28.3% 95.555.919 3.803 3.085.7% 95.000 28.973.681. 2010-2014 95.006.
58 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
This supernets event was held to commemorate Kar ni Day. Na onal Educa on Day and the 716th Anniversary of Surabaya Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women . 2009 using the internet. One thousand women in the Atrium TP3 Surabaya. May 11.SUPERNETS.
the GPI at primary schools (SD/MI/Package A) was 99. However. preferably by 2005. where at the junior secondary level the GPI ranged from 89. During the same period. Much eﬀort has been undertaken to improve the quality of life and the role of women to enable them to be equal partners with men in development. and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA/Package C) increased signiﬁcantly.99. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Current Status One of the human development goals of Indonesia is to achieve gender equality by building human resources without diﬀeren a ng between men and women.73. the NER at the junior secondary level including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MT/Package B). gender equality has improved signiﬁcantly. gender equality in educa on has shown signiﬁcant progress. the GPI of NER for higher educa on ﬂuctuates with a tendency to rise signiﬁcantly.17 (Gorontalo) and at the senior secondary level Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 61 . Meanwhile.54 (Papua) to 116.5 (Kepulauan Riau). Measured by the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) or the ra o of NER of females to males.16. while at the junior secondary educa on level (SMP/MT/Package B) it was 101. dispari es s ll exist at the post pimary educa on level (Figure 3. In educa on. In 2009.39 (Papua Barat) to 102. Susenas data from 1993 to 2009 shows that the NER of both girls and boys at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI/Package A) was more than 90. and at all levels of higher educa on it was 102.95 (Susenas 2009). Susenas 2009 indicated that the NER of females to males was close to homogenous among provinces with the GPI ranging from 96.1). Using this indicator.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. at the senior secondary educa on level (SM/MA/Package C) it was 96. the MDG target to achieve gender equality at all levels of educa on will be met.
provinces with GPI of more than 110 include Sumatera Barat. Bangka Belitung. At the senior secondary level. Sumatera Selatan. from 14. Susenas 2009.71 percent to 8. Figure 3. from 9. Progress in educa on par cipa on of both male and female contributed to improvement of the na onal GPI for literacy of the 15-24 year age group. For example in August 2009 around 31.51 percent during the same period. and Gorontalo.5 million males were recorded to be in this category. The MDG target on the literacy ra o of females to males aged 15-24 years has been achieved. the open unemployment rate of females showed signiﬁcant progress.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women it ranged from 68. Nusa Tenggara Timur. provinces with GPI higher than 110 include DI Yogyakarta. the percentage of waged 62 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . However. the female labor force par cipa on rate is lower than that of males. In several provinces the GPI exceeded 110 which indicates that the NER of female students is much higher than that of males. and Sulawesi Barat (7 provinces). Jawa Barat. Riau. while the open unemployment rate for males declined by only 1.29 percent to 7. At the junior secondary level.47 percent. Based on the Na onal Labor Force Survey (Sakernas).60 (Papua Barat) to 143. declining by 6 percent during 2005 to 2009.6 percent. and Papua Barat (6 provinces). the female labor force par cipa on rate has shown no signiﬁcant increase from 2004 to 2009. with female literacy rates at 99. Nusa Tenggara Barat. 2009 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Papua Barat DKI Jakarta Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Jawa Timur Papua Bali Banten Lampung Maluku Utara DI Yogyakarta INDONESIA Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sumatera Utara Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Aceh Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Maluku Gorontalo Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Utara Jambi Riau Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau 0 Source: BPS. while provinces with GPI less than 90 include DKI Jakarta. Kepulauan Riau. Jawa Timur. The low labor par cipa on rate of females was due to most females chosing to work domes cally as housewives.1. In the employment sector.22 (Kepulauan Riau). Nusa Tenggara Timur.4 percent and male literacy rates at 99. The ﬁgures indicate that disparity among provinces is s ll a major problem par cularly for senior and higher educa on levels.8 million females chose to work as housewives while only 1. Morover.5 percent. with an average rate of around 50 percent. In 2009 the GPI was almost 100. This rate is signiﬁcantly lower than that of their male counterparts which averaged around 84 percent during the same period. Papua. Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) Senior Secondary Schools by Province.
Although the average wage of female workers has increased. In poli cs.611 to Rp 1.9 percent of seats in the legisla ve branch. Disparity in the average wage of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers exists among provinces.098 Figure 3. The result of the 2009 general elec on were that women have 17.600 1.400 1. Sakernas 2004-2009.115. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 63 .2).083 974 893 1.8 percent in 2004 to 27.364. wage discrimina on is s ll prevalent. In Nusa Tenggara Barat.02 percent in 2004 to 3.) 1. While the wage levels of female workers have increased. 1.200 1.2. (Figure 3.448 Average monthly wages (thousand Rp. The biggest gap was in casual employees in non-agriculture sectors where women receive only 54 percent of males’ wage. the wage of female worker was only 58 percent of the average male worker’s wage in 2009. the data shows that there is a wide wage disparity between females and males.3 percent in 2009. an increase from 11. Sakernas data showed that from 2004 to 2009. progress has been achieved as indicated by the issuance of a law that mandates a quota of 30 percent women’s representa on in parliament. The quota for women legisla ve candidates as mandated by law was met by all poli cal par es in the 2009 general elec on.women in non-agricultural sectors increased from 29. the average monthly wage of female workers categorized as employees increased from Rp 676. Average Monthly Wages (Rp ‘000) of Male and Female Workers in Non-Agricultural Sectors 277 267 294 337 355 Male labour workers.098.166 1. white collars Male casual employee in non-agricultural sector Female casual employee in non-agricultural sector Source: BPS.3 percent in the period 2004-2009. white collars Female labour workers. A quan ﬁable improvement has been recorded in the propor on of women in public ins tu ons (legisla ve. In non-agricultural sectors. execu ve and judica ve).000 800 600 400 200 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 915 677 540 930 689 609 824 715 593 633 396 732 1.45 percent in 2009 (Sakernas 2004-2009).1).183 to Rp 396. The propor on of women in DPD has also increased from 19. the average wage of female casual employees also increased from Rp 277.255 1. In Sulawesi Utara the average wage of women is higher than that of males (Map 3.
depdagri. The propor on of women out of the total number of state civil servants was 44. dispari es among provinces at senior secondary and hgher educa on as well as in employment and poli cs are s ll a major challenge. The primary focus is to target children from poor families.5 percent.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Map 3. However.1 At the provincial level. 2009. enforcing laws to ensure equal opportuni es without discrimina on for women and men in employment and in the job place is a major challenge. only 8. par cularly those in remote and rural areas. The Average Wages of Female Workers as Percentages of the Average Wages of Male Workers by Province in August 2009 Source: BPS. the challenge is not only improving the NER of females but also the NER of males depending on the situa on.1. Moreover. Ministry of Home Aﬀairs. www. at the district level. In 2008. 2008. Sakernas In decision making. Special a en on is.1 percent of Echelon 2 posi ons were ﬁlled by women. and also to implement comprehensive 1 2 State Civil Service Agency. In employment. less than 10 women ﬁll the posi on of Mayor or district head (Bupa ).7 percent of senior (Echelon 1) posi ons and 7. par cularly in par cipa on in educa on. therefore. gender equality and empowerment showed signiﬁcant progress.2 Challenges At the na onal level. there is only one female Vice Governor while. women’s par cipa on in senior management posi ons of execu ve and judica ve ins tu ons is s ll low. strong coordina on among government ins tu ons at the central and provincial levels is required to ensure a synergy between na onal and regional laws. Sta s cal Yearbook of Indonesia. needed to achieve gender parity among geographically dis nct provinces which have diﬀering characteris cs and cultural values. In educa on.go.id 64 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
there is a need to ensure greater par cipa on of women in decisionmaking posi ons at the na onal. provincial. The priori es iden ﬁed to enhance gender equality are grouped into four areas: (i) educa on. Focus will be given to improve knowledge and life skills par culary in income genera ng ac vi es targeted to those who are unable to enroll in formal schooling. policies on improving gender equality and women’s empowerment will be carried out in all sectors and ins tu ons at both the na onal and local levels. capacity and competency of labor inspectors to ensure be er enforcement of core labor standards. as well as company/ employers. (iii) poli cs. Policies and Strategies To address the above challenges.coordina on and monitoring to ensure enforcement of laws and regula ons on employment at the provincial and district levels. Lack of adequate legal and poli cal literacy training contributes to the low par cipa on of women in poli cal ins tu ons. d) Provide social protec on to women who work in the informal sector. Strategic steps to be carried out in educa on are as follows: a) Improve access and quality of educa on to reduce gender inequality among regions and among socio-economic groups. This is due to lack of planning related to gender issues. 3. The strategy will include provision of subsidies for the poor to join social insurance programs under the na onal social insurance scheme to the poor. including synchronizing policies and employment regula ons at the na onal and regional levels. In poli cal ins tu ons. e) Improve the quality of female workers and job seekers. b) Improve access and quality of gender responsive non-formal educa on. and (iv) local governance processes. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 65 . to ensure that men and women are able to equally par cipate without discrimina on in the labor force. c) Strengthen labor inspec on through improving the number. Strategies to ensure gender equality in poli cs include the followings: a) Improve partnerships with civil society organiza ons (CSO) to improve women’s 2. b) Strengthen coordina on between central and local government to ensure the enforcement of labor laws and regula ons. and district levels. to improve capacity and skills of women workers in the ﬁelds where there is a need for workers. 1. (ii) employment. Strategies to address the challenges in employment are as follows: a) Priori ze the enforcement of exis ng laws. The ac vi es will include improving the access of women to educa on and skills training.
implementa on.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women b) c) d) 4. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 has set the following targets. both provincial and district levels. and ac vi es at the local levels. and MOLT. and elderly. monitoring. par cipa on in poli cs. 66 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Improve poli cal educa on for female members of poli cal par es. disabled. A strategy to implement gender mainstreaming in local governance processes will be carried out through developing a general guideline for local governments agencies to integrate a gender perspec ve into planning. To ensure achievement of the MDG targets for gender par cularly in educa on. MORA. and poli cs. the poor. Design modules on voter educa on for women’s groups. under the responsibilty of MONE. programs. employment. budge ng. General Elec on Commission. and evalua on processes of development policies. Improve voter educa on concerning women legisla ve candidates. MOHA.
95 1 1.98 > 0. and elderly women Number of elec on educa on for women legisla ve candidates Number of women cadre of poli cal party trained in poli c educa on Labor Percentage of Improve protec on company that fulﬁlled work norm of of women against women and children abuse Number of labor controlers for women and children that improved their capacity > 0.85 > 0.98 > 0. Strategic Planning of MOHA 2010-2014.08 1.1.0 95% 85% 5 - 100 5 10 100 100 5 10 150 100 5 10 200 400 k) 25 k) 40 k) 500 k) Note: k) cumula ve. Strategic Planning of General Elec on Comission 2010-2014.97 > 0.90 1 1 1 1 1 > 0.0 75% 70% 1.80 > 0.04 1.Prioritas Educa on Output Target 2010-2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 3. 10% 20% 25% 30% 40% 120 150 180 240 990 k) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 67 . Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on. and Strategic Planning of Ministry of Labor antdTransmigra on 2010-2014.97 > 0.98 > 0.12 97.85 > 0.05 1.04 98.97 > 0.98 > 0.0 85% 80% 1.12 98.97 > 0. Source: MTDP 2010-2014.98 > 0. disabled.98 > 0.12 1. Strategic Planning of MONE 2010-2014.90 > 0.80 > 0.98 > 0.85 1 1 1 1 > 0. Poli cs and Labor.98 > 0.8 68% 60% 1.12 97. Strategic Planning of MORA 2010-2014.05 1.6 60% 50% 1.12 98. Priori es. 2010-2014 NER Ra o of female to male at general primary educa on (SD) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic primary educa on (MI) Improve quality of life and role of women in development NER Ra o of female to male at general junior educa on (SMP) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic junior educa on (MTs) GER Ra o of female to male at general senior educa on GER Ra o of female to male at Islamic general senior educa on (MA) GER Ra o of female to male at general higher educa on GER Ra o of female to male at general Islamic higher educa on Literacy ra o of female to male age 15-24 years Ra o of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher in public school Ra on of cer ﬁed female teacher to male teacher at madrasah Poli cs Number of partnership with NGO on par cipa on of women in poli cs Number of elec on educa on modules for poor.
68 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Lining up to get Vitamin A Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate .
a rate that is more than four mes higher than the province with the lowest rate. simple medical care. by 2002/2003 it had dropped to 46. The decline of child mortality has been accompanied by a reduc on in infant mortality. as well as by social and economic status.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. neonatal mortality has fallen more gradually from 32 in 1991 to 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2007 (Figure 4. antenatal care. In 1991. The signiﬁcant progress that has been achieved in reducing child mortality reﬂects the con nuous expansion of coverage and improvements in the quality of health services. This is shown by the declining rates of infant and child mortality over the past two decades. including immuniza on. the highest rate was recorded in Sulawesi Barat (96). Neonatal. DI Yogayakarta (22). However. as well as increased community awareness.000 live births. nutri on. from 68 deaths per 1. especially at the community level. water and sanita on access and improved environmental condi ons. Signiﬁcant diﬀerences in child mortality among provinces are recorded. the under-ﬁve mortality rate was 97 deaths per 1. and it had fallen to 44 in 2007 (IDHS 2007). infant and under-ﬁve mortality rates vary widely by region.1). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 71 . the under-five mortality rate Current Status The health of children in Indonesia has been improving steadily over me in response to be er health care. This trend shows that the decline of child mortality is faster than the decline in the rate of infant mortality. between 1990 and 2015.000 live births in 1991 to 34 in 2007 (IDHS).e. and promo on of clean and healthy behavior (PHBS). Children of less educated mothers generally have higher mortality rates than those born to more educated mothers. i.
8 percent coverage (Figure 4. Aceh (40. Immuniza on against measles has a direct impact on child mortality. informa on access. In order to achieve universal coverage of immuniza on against measles in areas that have 1 Based on sta s c regression of immuniza on against measles by UNSD-ADB.2). In addi on to these. 1991-2015 Per 1. Data from the IDHS 2007 indicates that there are 18 provinces with lower coverage of immuniza on against measles than the na onal average (67 percent). ADB)1.9 percent). 2009. and it is proven that an increase of three percentage points in the immuniza on rate reduces the number of deaths of children under-ﬁve years of age caused by measles by one per thousand live births (UNSD 2009. In addi on to the constraints of geography. (Infant Mortality) Expon. infant and neonatal mortality causes are preventable. and malaria.1. safe water and good sanita on. Infant and Neonatal Mortality per 1. while the province with the highest coverage was DIY. skilled a endance at birth.000 Live Births.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate while children in richer households have lower mortality rates than those in poorer households. 72 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and access to care could signiﬁcantly reduce child mortality. pneumonia. management of diarrhea. and Papua (49.9 percent). (Under-5 Mortality) Under-5 Mortality Expon. Figure 4. It is proven that increasing the immuniza on rate can reduce the number of child deaths. appropriate feeding prac ces. IDHS several years. access to. and infrastructure contribute signiﬁcantly to decreasing child mortality. transporta on. with 94. Infant Mortality Neonatal Mortality Expon.000 live birth 120 100 97 81 80 68 60 57 58 46 40 32 30 46 35 26 20 19 44 34 RPJMN Target 2014 IMR: 24 Target MDGs 2015 IMR: 32 USMR: 23 20 0 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Source: BPS. availability of clean water and sanita on. (Neonatal Mortality) Most of child. Two eﬀec ve preven ve measures to ﬁght child. infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality are immediate and exclusive breas eeding and immuniza on. access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC/CEONC). The provinces with the lowest coverage were North Sumatra (36.6 percent). Na onal Trend and Projec on of Child.
88 percent and 72 percent of children. coverage for some other types of immuniza on has regressed.3 79. respec vely. counterbalanced by drops in polio and measles immuniza ons from 74 and 76 percent respec vely.6 78.8 71.2 60.0 50. Coverage of immuniza on against measles for children aged 12-23 months will be surveyed to assess coverage of measles immuniza on for infants (<12 months) from previous years’ programs.6 64. Indonesia s ll faces important challenges in all key policy and program areas aﬀec ng child health. will carry out a vaccina on campaign covering all children aged 6-59 months. In 2008.100 80 Percent coverage 60 40 20 0 Sumatera Utara Aceh Papua Maluku Maluku Utara Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Jambi Sulawesi Barat Sumatera Selatan Lampung Nusa Tenggara Timur Riau Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sumatera Barat DKI Jakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Tengah Jawa Timur Jawa Barat Banten Kepulauan Riau Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Timur Bengkulu Sulawesi Utara Bali DI Yogyakarta 36. Full immuniza on coverage is s ll below 50 percent. providing a second measles vaccina on to children in school.9 49.8 51.2 50. irrespec ve of their vaccina on status.9 64.0 67.9 65. Propor on of One-Year-Old Children Immunized Against Measles.9 66. That is.0 74. reaching 82 percent. Diphtheria.8 58.4 69. IDHS 2007. called the ‘Measles Crash Program’. Indonesia started a campaign to immunize all one-year-old children against measles.0 58. coverage by some key immuniza on programs against Tuberculosis.6 40.2 74.6 67.2. Back Log Figh ng (BLF) ac ons. in the areas where coverage targets have not been reached during three consecu ve years.8 72. While immuniza on coverage has increased.5 61.3 74.0 51. ensuring early detec on and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 73 .9 85.6 76. Over the 2002-2005 period.5 57.5 94. These include: maintaining and scaling-up eﬀorts in immuniza on coverage. by Province 2007 Source: BPS. however. Pertusis and Tetanus and Hepa s – has increased by 6. not achieved the coverage target.1 77. Another interven on. 17 and 7 percent.0 58.2 80.that is increased coverage of unvaccinated children aged 12-36 months – will be conducted for those who have not been vaccinated un l they reach their ﬁrst birthday.8 77. Challenges While progress in improving child (and infant) mortality has been good.8 59. to 70 percent.8 Figure 4. .
synchroniza on of eﬀec ve evidence-based interven ons with universal coverage. hand washing. early ini a on of breas eeding. Risk factors for infant and child mortality are strongly related to environmental health – clean water. 2 IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 74 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . implemented by well-trained and properly resourced health care providers. Policies and Strategies While current policy correctly focuses on building up and expanding core interven ons. The risk factors of child and infant mortality are highly correlated with environmental health. procurement of vaccines and equipment. key challenges lie in the areas of: (i) program monitoring.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate prompt treatment of sick children (IMCI2). and (iv) designing informa on and behavior change programs that promote the role of the family (i. improving nutri on outcomes. (iii) cost-eﬀec ve. funding and grassroots promo on of IMCI. and the design of disease surveillance. strengthening the role of the family.e.45 percent live in high risk environments. (ii) management. etc).60 percent of children have no access to proper health services when ill and 40 percent were unprotected from preventable diseases. To achieve the national target for immunization against measles of 93 percent by 2014. while about 30 . basic sanita on and low levels of indoor pollu on. child nutri on program. promo ng family ac on and community prac ces. The 2007 Riskesdas report found that 65 percent of infants and children have access to clean water and 71 percent to basic sanita on. and controlling for environmental risk factors (access to clean water and sanita on) About 20 percent of births had no access to proper health services. par cular emphasis needs to be placed on the following policy areas: immuniza on. IMCI. Central government will strengthen its roles in policy making. It is reported also that 35 . only about 30 percent of mothers apply good health prac ces. staﬀ training. Some 54 percent of households use pollu ng solid fuels in the household. integra on of such interven ons into results-based sector planning and budge ng. To maintain the necessary momentum in pursuing key interven ons. enhancing access to health facili es. setting norms and standards. without which expansion and even maintenance of achievements in immuniza on coverage will slow down. while at the same me most babies born in Indonesia are at high risk (Riskesdas 2007). ensuring adequate resources availability and defining clear roles between central and local government are crucially needed in program implementation. feasible and adaptable nutri on interven ons.
Strategies to address the key nutritional concerns so as to achieve the national target to reduce stunting in under-five children from 36. follow-up. through BCC and IEC. (iv) implement IMCI at the household and community levels to improve care-seeking prac ces and health services u liza on. and measles) before their ﬁrst birthday.Strategies to address the key IMCI concerns are as follows: (i ) focus on IMCI training for health workers. to children when they are sick. coordinate with other child health programs and eliminate conﬂic ng regula ons. diphtheria. and clean cord care). Strategies at the family level relate to the following: (i) protec on of children in malariaendemic areas with insec cide-treated nets. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 75 . (ii) promote child growth aimed at providing basic informa on for households and communi es about feeding. childcare and health care seeking. (iii) introduce communication for behavior change (BCC). including breast milk. infec on detec on and treatment. and (v) provision of counseling for mothers and caregivers on how to care for child and infants. (iii) recognize when sick children need treatment outside the home and then seek care from appropriate providers. (iv) pursue micronutrient interventions. pertussis. (ii) strengthen management structures at the central and district levels. (ii) ensure that children complete a full course of immuniza ons (hepa s. (iii) ensure that essen al drugs are available for IMCI. and improve supervision at facility levels. through: (i) support for implementa on of the newborn and child survival strategy emphasizing focused pregnancy and delivery care. and (vi) follow health workers’ advice about treatment. essen al care for all newborns (including immediate and exclusive breas eeding. increased dietary intake. adequate nutri onal care during illness and severe malnutri on. (ii) support focusing on the ‘essen al obstetric and neonatal care’ approach to preven on/early treatment of complica ons during pregnancy. warmth. and referral. and (v) pursue food supplementation strategies. (iii) quality improvement to promote hygiene and training for community health workers in clean delivery prac ces. (iv) feed and oﬀer more ﬂuids. food for ﬁca on and direct supplementa on. Strengthening Newborn care and Maternal Health. Strategy at the community and household levels includes: increasing clean and healthy life behavior (PHBS) prac ces at the household level from 50 percent to 70 percent by 2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). and special care for low birth weight newborns. 3 The Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014.8 percent to 32 percent by 20143 are as follows: (i) emphasize exclusive breast-feeding and appropriate complementary feeding. oral polio vaccine. . reduce staﬀ turnover. increase funding for IMCI. BCG. delivery and the newborn period. tetanus. and adequate micronutrient intake. and (iv) vaccina ons and support for iron supplementa on to prevent anemia during pregnancy. (v) give sick children appropriate home treatment for infec on.
environmental pollu on. 3/2010. Priori es. Outputs. gender and women empowerment. especially for the poor. ensure adequate opera ng costs for hospitals and primary health centers. 2010—2014 Priority Outputs Coverage of Neonatal ﬁrst visit Coverage of Complete Neonatal Visits Coverage of Treatment on Neonatal Complica on 2010 84% 80% 60% 84% 78% 80% 80% 2011 86% 82% 65% 85% 80% 82% 85% 2012 88% 84% 70% 86% 81% 85% 88% 2013 89% 86% 75% 87% 83% 88% 90% 2014 90% 88% 80% 90% 85% 90% 92% Improve the quality of child health care: Coverage of Health Services for Infants Coverage of Health Services for Under-ﬁve Children Coverage of one-year-old children fully immunized Coverage of one-year-old children immunized against measles Source: The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 and Inpres no. surveillance and IEC technologies with ac ons in water and sanita on.1. infant and child care have been set out in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan as presented in the following table: Table 4. educa on. enable Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC and CEONC). and (v) addressing strategic needs of health workers in remote areas. cross sectoral approaches will be considered. linking service delivery. To support the aforemen oned strategies and leverage their impact. Policy advocacy will be targeted to provinces with lower levels of achievement on the indicators for MDG 4. (ii) increased provision of public funding for health in order to reduce ﬁnancial risks. (iv) improved advocacy and capacity building of health personnel. complete basic immuniza on and other health services that are provided at the Posyandu. through: (i) improved resource alloca on taking into account absorp ve capacity. communicable diseases control. border and island areas. na onal targets for newborn.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Strengthening and improving health facili es. underserved. by introducing strategies to promote primary health care and revitalize Posyandus. and social protec on programs. (iii) development of monitoring instruments. To ensure progress. distribu on mechanisms. Mobiliza on of community par cipa on through Posyandu ac vi es that include: monitoring the nutri onal status of infants and toddlers each month through observa on of their body weight. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services. 76 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . through BOK (Biaya Operasional Kesehatan).
NTT” Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .“Antenatal care at Puskesmas (primary health center) in Praya.
The most eﬀec ve way to reduce maternal mortality is to have births a ended by a skilled health provider. With current trends.34 percent of births are assisted by a skilled health provider Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 79 . family planning to avoid early pregnancies. by 2015. the number reﬂects a gradual decline of MMR (Figure 5. IDHS 2007 places the MMR at 228 maternal deaths per 100. It is es mated by WHO that 15-20 percent of pregnant women in both developed and developing countries will experience high risk and/or complica ons during pregnancy or at birth. proper care of high-risk pregnancies. universal access to reproductive health Current Status Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) remains high.000 live births for the period 2004-2007. Currently. between 1990 and 2015. births attendance by skilled health personnel.000 live births by 2015.1). Key areas of intervention that influence the MMR include appropriate antenatal care. and programs aimed at behavior change (raising awareness) among women of reproductive age.000 live births for the period 1998–2002 and 390 deaths per 100. but extra efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 deaths per 100.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.000 live births in 1991 (IDHS). the Maternal Mortality Ratio Target 5B: Achieve. 77. high risk abortions and post abortion care. the MMR has been falling gradually. While maternal mortality ﬁgures tend to vary by source. Compared to 307 per 100.
5 47.5 percent in 2007 (IDHS 2007) and 66. Percentage of Births Assisted by Skilled Provider.4 77.3 78.4 62.9 98. 80 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Maluku Maluku Utara Sulawesi Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur Kalimantan Barat Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Gorontalo Kalimantan Tengah Banten Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Barat Jambi Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Selatan Lampung INDONESIA Sumatera Selatan Riau Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Bangka Belitung Aceh Jawa Timur Kepulauan Riau Sumatera Utara Sumatera Barat Bali DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta 42.7 82. Figure 5.3 87. compared with 72.3).5 88.7 88.2.1 49.4 85.7 49. There are 81.48 percent in Maluku.5 63.14 percent in DKI Jakarta to 42. but only 65.9 69.1 60.5 percent of pregnant women who have at least four ANC contacts during pregnancy. 2009 100 90 80 70 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: BPS.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Susenas 2009).3 85. IDHS MDG Target NMTDP Linear (IDHS) The disparity of births assisted by skilled health personnel among regions ranges from 98.6 68.2 63.5 percent of pregnant women have complied with the recommended schedule of the minimum of four ANC visits.2 85. Na onal Trends and Projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025 450 390 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 102 2015 (MDG) 334 307 228 226 118 2014 (NMTDP) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: BPS.7 percent in 2002 (IDHS 2002/03).8 84. Figure 5.5 70. as shown by Figure 5.5 48.9 86. IDHS several years.3 76.7 82.2 47.9 96.9 60 59. The MoH target for 2010 is 90 percent. by Provinces.5 71. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a health professional during pregnancy (Figure 5.2.0 76.2 96.1 2025 .2 85.1. Susenas 2009. Even with rela vely high coverage.2 70.
has increased from 8.0 79. but are not using any method of family planning.3. One aspect to be considered is quality of ANC services in ensuring early diagnosis and prompt treatment. respec vely.4 percent for any method (IDHS 2007).1 56. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased insigniﬁcantly in the last ﬁve years. the contracep ve prevalence rate (CPR) is rela vely low.0 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1994 1 visit 81.0 63. In general. The number of couples of reproduc ve age who want to space pregnancy or limit births.1 percent).6 percent (IDHS 2002- 1 14 Unmet need is deﬁned here as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth. the average increase in contracep ve use was 3. The highest for any and modern methods are in Bengkulu. contracep ve and reproduc ve health are the crucial issues to be improved. First and Fourth Antenatal Visits. where the rates recorded are 74. During the period of 2002/03 to 2007. in Indonesia 1991. Con nuum of care is a cri cal element in the strategy to achieve maternal and child health targets.0 93. Regarding the pre-pregnancy period.5 percent). contracep ve use is high when the respondent’s level of educa on and wealth quin le are high. Na onally.7 percent for modern methods during the period 2002/03 to 2007. while the lowest for modern methods is in Papua (24. respec vely.0 86. 100 83.0 percent and 70.2007 65. Women with an unmet need for “spacing” include pregnant women whose pregnancy was mis med. IDHS several years. contracep ve use did not show signiﬁcant improvement. especially since MMR remains high.5 64. The CPR varies among provinces.5 75. level of educa on. beside an integrated and holis c approach of maternal health. amenorrheic Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 81 . Disparity of CPR among provinces indicates the uneven coverage of family planning programs.4 percent.3 1997 ≥ 4 visits 2003 ≥ 4 visits as recommended 2007 Source: BPS.2 percent for all methods and modern methods. 57.4 percent for modern methods and 61.5 percent and 3. The lowest CPR for any method is in Maluku (34. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased only by 1. compared to the steady increase recorded in the period of 1991 to 2002/03.0 81.7 93.ANC s ll needs a en on. while in the period 1991 to 2002/03.5 Figure 5. but do not use any contracep ves (unmet need1). and wealth quin le.1 percent for all methods and 0.
0 4. The high unmet need is also caused by the concern about side eﬀects and the inconvenience of using contracep ves. amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted. who are not using any method of family planning.0 4. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth.2 percent) and the highest in Maluku (22.3 Source: BPS. but are not using any contracep ve method. women whose last birth was mis med. 10.0 12.2 4. which reﬂect the low quality of family planning services.8 5.8 4. Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children (IDHS 2007). Measures of unmet need for family planning are used to evaluate the extent to which programs are mee ng the demand for services. while for women in the lowest quin le it is 13 percent and 8 percent for women in the highest quin le (Figure 5.4 5.6 9.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health 2003) to 9. Unmet Needs. 2007.0 % of married women aged 15-49 12. who are not using any method of family planning. unmet need also tends to be inversely correlated with higher levels of educa on and welfare quin le: it is 11 percent for women with no educa on and 8 percent for women with higher educa on (secondary and above). Unmet need for “limi ng” refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted. In addi on.3 2. and who want no more children.7 10.6 6. The lowest unmet need is found in Bangka Belitung (3.7 percent). do not want more children. the more informa on and services of family planning and reproduc ve health have been accessed. Moreover. and who want to wait two or more years for their next birth.2 8. 75 percent of married women with 3-4 living children.0 4.3 percent women aged 15-19 are not willing to use any contracep ve because of side eﬀects.0 8.4 percent).4.6 4.1 percent because of health problems and 3.1 percent because their husbands forbid them to do so.0 percent (4.16). regions and socio-economic status. Indonesia 1991-2007 14. 1991 1994 Spacing 1997 Limi ng Total 2002/3 2007 Unmet need varies greatly among provinces. 2002/2003. 82 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Figure 5. and 80 percent of married women with 5 or more live children.0 10.4). 1997. Higher unmet need was found in rural areas (9. and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. IDHS 1991. This fact indicates that the more educated and prosperous the group. 12. IDHS 2007 shows that 60 percent of married women with 2 children.2 percent) as compared with urban areas (8. These numbers have been nearly stagnant since 1997 (Figure 5.3 percentage points are for spacing and 4. 0 6.7 percentage points for limi ng) (IDHS 2007). and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. 1994.0 4.7 9.0 6.
This risks increasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abor ons. as well as complica ons during pregnancy and childbirth. The highest ASFR aged 15-19 is found in Sulawesi Tengah (92 births). From a health perspec ve. with an es mated 62 -163 per cent caused by unsafe abor on prac ces. babies born to teenage mothers are more prone to injury during birth. Demographically. Knowledge and awareness of youth and couples in reproduc ve age about family planning and reproduc ve health is s ll low. which in turn lead to termina on of pregnancies. a decrease from 0. The high adolescent birth rate is caused by lack of access to quality reproduc ve health services and reliable informa on on sexual and reproduc ve health Adolescent fer lity raises both health and demographic concerns.33 in 1991. In addi on.3 in Indonesia (IDHS 2007). as well as the provision of family planning and reproduc ve health services for couples in reproduc ve ages. which result in elevated infant and maternal mortality rates. revealed the presence of teenagers who approved of having intercourse before marriage. The Indonesia Youth and Adolescent Reproduc ve Health Survey (IYARHS. especially in rural areas4. Unmet need leads to unwanted and unintended pregnancies. The need for family planning is further underlined by the high adolescent birth rate in Indonesia. and points to the need to promote be er understanding of adolescent reproduc ve health. Furthermore. the risks for both mother and child increase. proﬁle Indonesia Abor on in Indonesia Gu macher Ins tute.The CPR and unmet need contribute to the Total Fer lity Rate (TFR). in addi on to increasing maternal mortality. Policy Brief. 2 3 4 MDGs countdown. par cularly during the perinatal and neonatal period. while the disparity among provinces and regions and socio-economic is s ll the main challenge. in some provinces. while the lowest is in Yogyakarta (7 births). which is due to the low median age of the ﬁrst marriage of women. 9/2008 Adolescent Birth Rate is counted using the ASFR aged 15-19 (number of birth by married women aged 15-19 years divided by number of married women aged 15-19) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 83 . 16 provinces s ll have ASFR aged 15-19 above the na onal average. 2005. Adolescent births risk reproduc ve health system injuries. Furthermore. low birth weight. pregnant women seek unsafe abor on services. Since abor on is illegal in Indonesia. delaying pregnancy broadens opportuni es for pursuing educa on and expanding access to employment opportuni es. early child birth raises fer lity rates.000 married women (IDHS 2007). TFR is signiﬁcantly higher due to the high Adolescent Birth Rate. BPS) in 2007.000 married women (IDHS 1991) to 35 births per 1. The Age Speciﬁc Fer lity Rate for individuals aged 15-19 has decreased from 67 births per 1. The TFR is currently 2. and s llbirth.
infec ous diseases. are low. (ii) too close (interval between pregnancies).Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Challenges 1. is cri cal for a successful safe motherhood program. from community to primary to referral facili es. quality and their distribu on. (iii) too old. Health workers are some mes inadequately trained. especially with the diversity of condi ons that exist in Indonesia. as well as the lack of medical equipment. Limited access to quality health care facili es. which may constrain demand and contribute to the maternal deaths ﬁgure in Indonesia. etc. The current health care facili es are not preferred loca ons for giving birth due to limited access. especially when they have to work in diﬃcult circumstances where in fact they are most needed. cultural issues and lack of necessary facili es and materials. posyandu and blood transfusion units. and cultural factors. especially for the poor in disadvantaged areas. 13.). medicines and blood supplies that are crucial to handling obstetric emergencies. The percentage of women of reproduc ve age (15-45 years old) who suﬀer from chronic protein energy malnutri on is rela vely high. 4. especially in remote and poor areas. Some socio-economic indicators. Limited availability of health personnel both in terms of quan ty. in addi on to escala ng health risks for pregnant women. such as aﬀordability and educa on. 84 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . is one cause of high prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) among infants. The low nutri onal status. This is exacerbated by geographic and transporta on barriers to access health facili es and health workers. In addi on. Due to the inadequate number and distribu on of midwives. remote. as well as cultural factors. Low nutri onal and health status of pregnant women. especially midwives. Community mo va on and mobiliza on becomes a par cularly important tool in an environment of uncertain service provision. which s ll are common problems in most of places in Indonesia. Lack of knowledge and awareness on the signiﬁcance of safe motherhood. border and island areas area (DTPK). This risk is exacerbated when other underlying condi ons are present (anemia. the referral system is weak. or (iv) too young (age of the mother).5 access to trained health personnel. 2. communi es come to depend on tradi onal birth a endants (TBAs) and o en dangerous tradi onal prac ces.6 percent (Riskesdas 2007). especially midwives. 5 The educa on and training programs with crash program approaches some mes poorly resulted with insuﬃciently skilled health workers. where risks to pregnancy and child births are par cularly high. 3. such as availability and quality of Basic Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC) and Comprehensive Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEONC). The risk of maternal death is even greater for mothers with the “4 TOOes”: (i) too many (children).
2. The rate is currently obtained from a survey using a direct es ma on procedure drawing on the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The eﬀects of these policies are not narrowly focused on maternal health. including partnering with TBAs. that is 102 per 100. Low rates of contracep ve use and high unmet need remain major challenges. To obtain accurate death rates and causes of death. The Maternal Mortality Ra o remains uncertain. (b) increasing the use of skilled health personnel in deliveries. but are systemic. The high IMR and MMR.e. 6.000 live births. and (d) increasing the percentage of deliveries in a health facility. Policies and Strategies Considering that the decline in maternal mortality has been slow with complex problems faced in achieving the target for 2015. UN guidelines recommend a minimum of one comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility and four basic emergency obstetric care facili es per 500. village health posts (poskesdes). improving facility-based and outreach services by improving quality and quan ty of puskesmas. the following policies will ensure improvements: (a) increasing the frequency of antenatal6 contacts between skilled health personnel and pregnant women. integrated health posts (posyandu). too young). Mother and Baby Friendly Hospitals (CEONC8) and posyandu revitaliza on. the respondent’s brothers and sisters). will be cri cal for saving her life in the event of a complica on. that is they are key interven ons that accelerate achievement of the full range of health MDG targets. high abor on rates. 3.5. BEONC. and low contracep ve use – are indicators of the weakness of family planning services which are an important driver in reducing maternal mortality. and strengthening the community based care through TBA-midwife partnership. by means of expanding the service network (coverage and access) and integra ng family planning with other reproduc ve health programs with a focus on the poor and underserved areas. which. Therefore. (c) increasing access to emergency (basic and comprehensive) obstetric care for highrisk deliveries. or a popula on census with the cause of death recorded needs to be implemented immediately. CEONC.000 popula on. The surveys collect informa on on the survivorship of all live births of the respondent’s natural mother (i.. 6 7 8 Antenatal care is a poten ally important way to connect a woman with the health system. as the system for recording causes of maternal deaths is not robust. expanding the village midwife func on. the future policies and strategies to be pursued are:7 1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 85 . mother’s age at child birth (too old. if it is func oning. increasing access to family planning services. a complete vital sta s cs model should be compiled through registra on. This has been the case since 1994.
increasing the availability of health workers (general prac oners. free contracep ve devices/drugs and free family planning services for the poor. improving human resources capacity in the family planning program at all levels. 4. 8. strengthening the referral system. BOK (subsidy for non-salary opera ng cost for primary health facili es). and communi es in family planning program implementa on. β. 7. and will be pursued through a series of strategies. 5. δ. χ. specialists. a tudes and behavior of teenagers related to adolescent reproduc ve health. including: 1. family planning and reproduc ve health. improve the con nuum of care. Jamkesmas (social health insurance for the poor). Supervising and building self reliance to par cipate in family planning by: α. the immediate postnatal period. HIV/AIDS. addic ve drugs use. improving commitment and par cipa on across sectors and local governments in popula on and family planning program implementa on. reducing ﬁnancial barriers through: PKH (condi onal cash transfers). χ. a tudes and behavior related to popula on control. life skills educa on and family life educa on for adolescents. NGOs. through pre-service and in-service training of key health personnel and implemen ng the contractual service provider scheme. paramedical staﬀ) in term of quan ty. quality and distribu on. improving knowledge. β. developing media communica ons and intensifying informa on.500 government and private family planning clinics. underserved. border and islands areas. by providing material support for the clinics. improving knowledge. increasing par cipa on and self-reliance training for family planning through 23.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Con nuing family planning revitaliza on in order to control the popula on is one of the key features of policies to achieve universal access to reproduc ve health by 2015. Improving promo on and community mobiliza on by: α. to reduce the “three delays” and to save women’s lives by giving adequate care on me. 6. raising awareness about safe motherhood at the community and household level by strengthening public health educa on. village midwives. Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). and childhood. 9.500 clinics in order to assist and develop self-reliance in family planning. in the aforemen oned 23. focusing to fulﬁll needs in remote. communica on and educa on for popula on control and family planning. that includes integrated service delivery for mothers and children from pregnancy to delivery. improving adequate micronutrient intake by pregnant women by ensuring adequate 86 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 2. promo ng and strengthening partnerships with the private sector.
evalua on and ﬁnancing.1. providing an enabling environment to support management and stakeholders’ par cipa on in policy development and the planning process. strengthening coordina on mechanisms by deﬁning modali es for sharing roles and responsibili es among central. to ensure the achievement of health MDGs at all levels. monitoring. 10. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set annual targets as follows: Table 5. improving the informa on system. (ii) focusing on groups and areas most at risk of maternal death. addressing par cular issues related to decentraliza on and strengthening and sharpening the tasks in achieving health Minimum Services Standards (MSS). In addi on. and (iii) developing models for iden fying eﬀec ve safe motherhood strategies.nutri on intake. provincial and district authori es and introducing be er program oversight and management through surveillance. Outputs. In emphasizing the aforemen oned strategies. including developing linkages with communi es to achieve synergies in advocacy and service delivery. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled birth a endant (PN) 2010 84% 2011 86% 2012 88% 2013 89% 2014 90% Improve quality of maternal and reproduc ve health services Percentage of pregnant mothers with at least 4 ANC visits (K4) Percentage of health care services that provides standardized family planning services Number of puskesmas that implement standardized midwifery services based on guidelines 84% 86% 90% 93% 95% 10% 40% 75% 90% 100% Improve expansion of nursing and midwifery services 70 140 210 280 350 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 87 . while focusing targe ng of interven ons in poor and underserved areas. 11. building eﬀec ve partnerships across programs and sectors to make use of synergies in service provision and advocacy. 13. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services. and promote collabora on among programs and sectors as well as between public and private sector en es. Priori es. 12. in par cular by: (i) introducing analy cal methods to measure maternal deaths drawing on diverse sources of varying quality.
7 3.700 75 4.5 5.1.4 7.8 3. Percentage of family planning clinic providing family planning services based on the proper Standard Opera ng Procedure (SOP) (from the whole 23. and independence in ge ng family planning service from 23.000 74.5 25.2 12.5 29 3.8 13.700 100 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Improving human resources capacity of the family planning providers in 23.75 3.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 3.7 12.6 23.6 23. Con nued Priority Improve support for management and implementa on of technical tasks in Nutri on and Health programs for Maternal-Child Outputs Number of func oning Poskesdes (village health posts) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 70.4 12.1 4. Number of current users (in millions) c.500 2012 7.500 public and private exis ng clinics) 20 35 50 70 85 88 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Percentage of current self-reliant users e. Percentage of new par cipants for long term contracep ve method f.2 3. par cipa on.500 public and private clinics in promo ng guidance.5 50.500 2013 7.000 76. Priori es.9 4.2.6 27. Number of public and private clinics receiving infrastructure support 2010 57. 2010-2014 Priori es Outputs Contracep ve Prevalence Rate/CPR (%) a.89 3. Number of new poor (KPS/family within below prosperity level and KS-1/ prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.7 4.700 35 4.1 24.5 3.0 23.3 23.3 28.4 49.9 13.000 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Table 5. Outputs.000 72.1 4. Number of new par cipants (in millions) b.2 27. Number of public and private clinic providing family planning service 2. Percentage of new male par cipants 1.5 12.700 90 4.05 Increasing guidance.500 public and private clinics 11.97 4.9 25.8 3.4 48.500 Popula on and Family Planning 3.9 12. Percentage of trained family planning human resources in 23. Number of self-reliant users (in thousands) d.2 3.6 12.700 45 4. Number of poor current users (KPS/ family within below prosperity level and KS-1/prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 4.500 2011 7.6 51 13.500 public and private clinics 2.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Table 5.2 26. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.6 29.0 23.4 49.1 26.500 2014 65 7. Percentage of current users for long term contracep ve method g. par cipa on and independence in family planning 1.000 78.
General Basic Training (LDU) b. Planning family life 2. Percentage of Informa on.140 62 76 30 30 5 15. manner and a tude toward popula on control and family planning 95 95 95 95 95 Improving NGO. Number of PKBR trainer receiving training 3. Technical Training 1.450 2.500 3.157 1.343 2.700 2. Refreshing c. Percentage of adolescence knowledge about: a. Family Planning Counselors/PKB): a.342 2. Percentage of reproduc ve age couples.300 1.195 59 72 25 30 4 14.750 3.350 3. Number of adolescence/student Informa on and Counseling Center (PIK) established and guided 1. Number of center of excellent PKBR (per province) 4.065 1.016 38 65 84 100 100 Promo ng people’s knowledge.1. Adolescence reproduc ve health b.373 53 67 15 115 2 12. reproduc ve age women and adolescence obtaining informa on on popula on and family planning from printed and electronic media and outdoor media Number of trained family planning ﬁeld worker (Family Planning Field Workers/ PLKB.018 1.700 950 50 64 10 1 9.253 56 70 20 30 3 13. Educa on and Communica on (IEC) media and materials produced 2. private sector and community par cipa on in maintaining popula on and family planning program Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 89 . HIV/AIDS Promo ng adolescence knowledge. manner and a tude about planning family life among adolescence (PKBR) c.
90 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Start Running”. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases .“Stop AIDS.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases 92 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
During the period 1996 to 2006.227 cases).973 cases.). more than double the number compared with the 8. In 2009 there were 19. CDC MoH 2007). by 2010. the number of HIV cases increased by some 17.22% in 2008.17 percent of the popula on. and Bali (1.1. DKI Jakarta (2. although the percentage of HIV-infected individuals in Indonesia is s ll rela vely low at 0. Although in most parts of Indonesia the AIDS epidemic is generally concentrated among high-risk popula ons with an es mated na onal adult prevalence of 0.000 people are currently living with HIV in Indonesia. Cumula vely. two provinces. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 93 .194 cases recorded in 2006 (Figure 6. Cases of HIV and AIDS are found in all areas of Indonesia.828 cases). East Java (3.615 cases). The provinces with the greatest number of AIDS cases are West Java (3.2).808 cases). Papua and Papua Barat. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve.598 cases). but the number of cases varies by province (Figure 6.5 percent and it is es mated that some 193. are shi ing to a generalized epidemic with a prevalence of 2. Papua (2.4 percent among the general popula on aged 15 – 49 (IBBS.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. the number of AIDS cases has tended to increase. universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it Current Status The number of new HIV infec ons has been increasing in Indonesia.
500 3.000 12. 2009.21 percent in 2008 to 0. At current rates.000 18. HIV infec on in Indonesia would con nue increasing over the next decades as people increasingly engage in unprotected sex. together with their partners represent most reported new HIV cases (50.947 4. Modes of transmission are indicated in Figure 6.873 2.828 3. The projec on of this modeling (Figure 6. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.500 2.639 2.000 8.000 2.000 - 19.598 4.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.195 5.171 316 Source: MoH.808 2.227 . followed by injec ng drug users (IDUs) at 39.863 8. and the spread of HIV through injec ng drug use accelerates.000 500 - 2.141 3.110 11. 21 Source: MoH.4 percent in 2014.3.3 percent from homosexuals (men having sex with men – MSM).) es mates increasing HIV prevalence in the popula on aged 15-49 years from 0.1. by Province. Heterosexual groups such as female sex workers (FSW) and transsexuals.500 1.969 2.3 percent).600 people by the 94 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sulawesi Barat Gorontalo Maluku Utara Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Selatan Aceh Papua Barat Bengkulu Bangka Belitung Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Jambi Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sumatera Selatan DI Yogyakarta Banten Sumatera Barat Kepulauan Riau Riau Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Bali Papua DKI Jakarta Jawa Timur Jawa Barat 0 3 10 11 12 21 27 43 58 91 117 119 138 144 165 173 192 219 290 318 330 333 475 485 591 717 794 1.000 4.000 16.2.1 percent of cases. DG of CDC and EH.3.000 2. and blood transfusion transmission cause about 0.000 1.500 4. DG of CDC and EH. AIDS Cases per 100. 2009 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Number of AIDS Cases Cumula ve AIDS Cases 3. Number of AIDS Cases in Indonesia.973 16. which will increase the number of people with AIDS from some 404.615 Figure 6. 2009. about 2. About 91 percent of AIDS cases have occurred in the reproduc ve age group (15-49 years of age).321 2.6 percent are perinatal infec ons resul ng from mother-to-child transmission.3 percent and 3.000 6.000 14.000 3.000 Popula on in Indonesia. 19892009 20.194 1.682 1.000 10.
In total. the percentage of young unmarried people repor ng condom use during their most recent sexual encounter is only about 18.0 1.5 0.720 by 20141 ().4% Distribu on of HIV Infec ons. where women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to report condom use in their last high risk intercourse.3% IDUs. Condom use is also posi vely correlated with level of educa on (Figure 6. Blood Transfussion.0 20.9 1.3.6% MSM. Figure 6. 2.3% Source: Surveillance reports.0 30.6 3. 2009 Heterosex.2 Source: DG of CDC & EH Ministry of Health. Indonesia.3% Note : MSM=men who have sex with men. Another related factor in HIV/AIDS transmission is the failure to use condom. 3.1% Perinatal.4. 2009 8.800 cases in 2014.2 0. Na onal AIDS Programme. by Popula on Group. 0. NAC Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 95 . 48.0 50. Unknown.400 cases in 2010 to 86.4 percent of young unmarried men and 10.5 3.0 <1 1-4 5-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 Unknown Figure 6.3 30.0 10. 39.1 2. Ministry of Health. men in urban areas are more likely to use a condom during high-risk sex than men in rural areas. 50. that in turn will result in the increased need for an retroviral therapy (ART) from 50. 60.5) 1 Mathema c modeling of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia.end of 2010 to some 813. 2010-2025.0 Percentage (%) 40. 4.3 percent of young unmarried women (IDHS 2007). Diﬀerent pa erns are found in women. 2009 Age Group By residence. IDU=injec ng drug user.7 Cumula ve Percentage on AIDS Cases by Age Goup.
0 7. According to Background Characteris c. While most youth (15-24 years of age) in the country are aware of HIV/AIDS.5 percent of married women have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV. only 14.6 percent of unmarried women have correct and comprehensive knowledge of AIDS (Figure 6.2 20. while the number of PLWHA is es mated based on the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM).4 12.8 21.0 25.5. Likewise. less than 50 percent2 (Figure 6.1 percent and 1. the higher the percentage of correct and comprehensive knowledge about AIDS. Total - 5.3 18.7 percent of married men and 9.0 4. an retroviral therapy (ART) is available at 180 facili es. Among youth who are unmarried.3 8. Who Use Condom at Last Sex. with regard to socio-economic status.0 28. 2 3 UNGASS. 2007 15-19 Age 15. residence (rural vs.7 15. educa on and socio-economic status. Percentage of Unmarried Women and Men Age 15-24 Who Have Ever Had Sex. The equivalent numbers for the lowest quin le are 3.7).0 30.8 percent. and is being oﬀered to 38.0 10.0 20.5 percent (married men) and 21.4 24.7 percent (married women). respec vely. This coverage increased from ART interven on coverage in 2006 by about 24. The higher the level of educa on.6 13. 96 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . There are also dispari es in knowledge among regions. IYARHS 2007.5 9.20% from the total PLWHA in that period.4 percent of unmarried men and 2. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.1 10.4 10. knowledge in the highest wealth quin le was 27. The es mated number of eligible PLWHA for ART per year is based on “cut of point” of the result of CD4 <200/ mm3 is about 10 . only 1.6 11.0 Knowledge about HIV and its preven on is an important prerequisite for adop ng healthy behaviors.9 percent for married men and married women.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.0 15. In Indonesia. Knowledge of married men and women in urban areas was higher than in rural areas. this falls far short of the 95 percent target set by the United Na ons and is the lowest in the region.6).7. urban). country reports: HIV / AIDS in the South-East Asia Region 2009.3 20-24 Residence Urban Rural Less than completed primary Men Women Education Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Source: BPS.4 percent3 of the total es mated cohort of eligible people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (calculated from MOH report 2010) as presented in Figure 6.
5.8 Married Men* Married Women* Unmarried Men 4.0 25.800 in 2014 (Na onal AIDS Strategy Ac on Plan .2 22.5 15.7 28.9 8.8 1.2 1.0 5.0 Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Lowest Highest 1. except when describing married men by age group.8 1. 2006–2009 Note: An retroviral treatment (ART) is given to individuals with advanced HIV infec on as per na onal treatment protocols.6 126.96.36.199 10. the trend and projected cases of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is es mated to increase uncontrollably.1 Figure 6.7 18. Indonesia 2007 Residence Urban Rural no educa on Some primary 14. Without eﬀec ve preven on.9 3.4 0.3 9.6 20-24 15-24 Propor on of Men and Women Aged 15-24 with Correct of Comprehensive Knowledge about AIDS. The number of children needing ART will also increase from 930 in 2008 to 2.2.0 Source: BPS.6 0.2 2.0 15. IDHS and IYARHS 2007.NASAP 2010-2014).7 27.5 15-19 Age 1. except when describing marreid women by age group Total 1.2 1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 97 . the need for ART among the 15-49 age group is projected to increase three fold from 30.0 20.5 14.1 1. **) covering age group of 15-49 years old for married women.4 2.5 Note: *) covering age group of 15-54 years old for married man. Source: Country reports.1 0.2 5.0 10.660 in 2014 (MoH 2010).7 3. Without adequate interven ons.0 35.6 1.0 2.3 2. Figure 6.1 0.8 Unmarried Women Educa on 2.1 2.9 10.2 2.0 30.6 0.1 12.9 Quin le 21.9 3.2 3. Coverage of ART Interven ons in Indonesia.7 10. by Background Characteris c.100 in 2008 to 86.9 1.4 2.7 9.
The health-care system needs to be strengthened in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases in preven on. they may not be suﬃciently eﬀec ve nor well-targeted. diagnosis. safe blood transfusions and universal precau ons. Malaria and Other Diseases Challenges The basic challenge in HIV/AIDS is to halt and reverse the upward trend in the incidence/ prevalence of the infec on and the disease. preven on. transporta on. Limited access to health services related to HIV/AIDS. Policies and Strategies 1. they may not be keeping pace with the spread of the disease. care. and sociogeographically. diagnosis. educa on and communica ons (IEC) programs are being pursued as part of the HIV/AIDS strategy. as it spreads na onwide. Community values shape a tudes. 2. harm reduc on for IDUs. Strengthening the health-care system is crucial in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases. 3. HIV tes ng 98 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. (ii) strengthening the ability to apply preven on. treatment and care. While much eﬀort has gone into se ng up good governance prac ces at the na onal level.4 and (iii) improving coverage of preven on. and conserva ve a tudes may serve as a signiﬁcant barrier to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. immigra on) and places great demands on eﬀec ve coordina on of strategies and interven ons. preven ng mother-to-child infec ons. currently. voluntary counceling and tes ng (VCT) is not yet available in all regions. the penal system. Limited facili es and human resources as well as limited availability of ART in term of quan ty and quality. There are some constraints due to s gma and discrimina on of PLWHA in the community as well as the existence of gender inequali es and viola ons of human rights. infec on and disease management protocols. 5. Some of the crucial challenges in AIDS mi ga on are: 1. Tackling the disease involves par cipa on by a number of sectors (health. The limited budget alloca ons and sustainability of funding in controlling HIV and AIDS. The weakness of inter-sectoral coordina on as well as monitoring and evalua on systems. Improving access by strengthening public health services so that they have the necessary skills and resources to an cipate and respond to the epidemic. care and 4 Protocols would be for managing STIs. through: (i) improving the number and quality of health-care facili es in providing sustainable promo on. treatment. the military. This places the emphasis squarely on preven on strategies and infec on control. coordina on within the Na onal Aids Commission (NAC) itself needs further improvement. educa on. 4. While behavioral change communica ons (BCC) and informa on. The availability and sustainability of funding remain major obstacles in tackling the HIV/ AIDS epidemic.
provincial and district health authori es in tackling the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. in the community. through: (i) integra ng HIV/AIDS into development programs both at the na onal level (ﬁnanced through the na onal budget/APBN) and local level (ﬁnanced through the local budget/ APBD). subsequently tailored to the par cular environment. (ii) undertaking community outreach that focuses on the most-at-risk popula ons and includes HIV tes ng. (iv) developing na onal guidelines for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. treatment including ARV coverage. (v) formula ng na onal guidelines for BCC programs and IEC messages. treatment and care services in drop-in centers and similar loca ons. care and treatment interven ons through: (i) providing IEC services on incurring HIV infec ons and preven ng transmission. counseling. capacity. Mobilizing addi onal ﬁnancial resources for a successful HIV/AIDS strategy. including mobile units. nongovernment and private sector organiza ons. (vi) human resource planning that recognizes the increasing demands of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (management and provider skills). 3. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 99 . while encouraging community ac on. second genera on surveillance. high-risk groups. and among pa ents. (ii) strengthening the role of Na onal and Local AIDS Commissions. gender inequity and human rights viola ons in implementa on of HIV/AIDS programs. and (vi) pursuing an inclusive approach that promotes complementarity among government. Strengthening informa on and monitoring and evalua on systems. Enhancing community mobiliza on to improve HIV/AIDS preven on. by: (i) establishing a concerted system within government that synergizes various levels of organiza on and ins tu ons to contribute towards an integrated strategy. resources). preven ng the progression of HIV to AIDS. (iii) social marke ng of condoms. and (iii ) development of public private partnerships (PPP). (iv) assuaging prejudices – among health workers. (iii) strengthening cross-sectoral partnerships by escala ng the role of HIV/AIDS planning and budge ng forums. In underlining the strategies. (ii) mobiliza on of addi onal ﬁnancial resources in controlling HIV/AIDS. and maintaining an eﬀec ve coordina ng mechanism (NAC). 5. (iv) deﬁning the respec ve roles of central. and (v) adap ng them to speciﬁc situa ons (stage of epidemic. and (ii) providing informa on to policy makers on the socio-economic costs of HIV/AIDS and on scaling-up interven ons. in par cular. and (v) crea ng an enabling and conducive environment to reduce s gma za on and discrimina on. Improving cross-sectoral coordina on and good governance. the Na onal Medium-Term Plan (2010-2014) has set targets to control the spread of HIV/AIDS as follows: and counseling. 4. through: (i) conduc ng health monitoring and analysis including.2. and for the clinical management of treatment and care for people living with HIV.
Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program. Priori es.5 2012 <0.000 400. Inpres 3/2010 and MOH Strategic Plan 2010-2014.1.000 600.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.000 500.5 2014 <0.5 65% 75% 85% 90% 95% 300. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Prevalence of HIV Percentage of Popula on above 15 years have correct and comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS The number of people aged ≥15 who received HIV counseling and tes ng 2010 0.000 Reducing morbidity and mortality rates of communicable diseases (HIV/AIDS) Percentage of districts that implement appropriate guidelines for preven on of HIV transmission Use of condoms in high-risk sex groups (based on the report by the user) Percentage of people living with AIDS(PLWHA) who receive an retroviral therapy (ART) Percentage of public hospitals provide referral service for people with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% - 35% (f) 20% (m) 45% (f) 30% (m) 55% (f) 40% (m) 65% (f) 50% (m) 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. Malaria and Other Diseases Table 6. 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 2013 <0.2 2011 <0.000 700.
83 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 2.62 3. Maluku.85 2. Jambi.50 3. it had declined to 1. Only some 20 percent of pa ents with symptoma c malaria seek treatment at public health facili es. the incidence was at 3. Kalimantan Tengah.89 2. with the rate varying between 0.62 cases per 1.68 5. treatment-suscep ble plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are equally common.00 0. 3.4 percent) and NTT (12. As a result.33 3. about 0. The na onal prevalence based on clinical diagnosis5 is 2.1 percent among regions. The highest prevalence rates are to be found in eastern Indonesia.23 3. Gorontalo. 2010.63 3. where the highest number of malaria cases are reported. Papua (18.36 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.8.50 4.0 percent).5 percent. In the outer islands. Nusa Tenggara Timur.00 1990 3.00 1.74 4.53 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 3.47 2008 2009 1. Nusa Tenggara Barat. There are 15 provinces where malaria prevalence is above the na onal average (Aceh.7 Posi ve per 1.000 popula on 3.000 popula on. Sumatera Utara.54 3.50 5.66 3. Indonesia 1990-2009 2. making it diﬃcult to es mate the actual malaria incidence among the popula on. the highest being in the provinces of Papua Barat (26. Maluku Utara. The malaria incidence rate during the period of 2000-2009 shows that malaria cases tended to decline: in 2000.50 2. and drug-resistant plasmodium vivax malaria predominates.00 3. and some 35 percent of this popula on is malaria posi ve.Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases Current Status Incidence and death rate associated with Malaria.000 popula on.85 2.89 percent (Riskesdas 2007). 5 Based on diagnosis results by health professionals and respondent complaints. Papua Barat and Papua). 4. malaria in Jawa and Bali is hypo-endemic. Provinces in Jawa and Bali have the lowest (clinical) prevalence.2 percent and 26. Almost half the popula on lives in endemic areas. Sulawesi Tengah. by 2009.50 1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 101 . Bengkulu.85 cases per 1.18 3.45 3. Bangka Belitung.00 2.1 percent).81 2003 2004 2005 4.00 Figure 6.50 0.1 2006 2007 Source: Ministry of Health.
Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cide-treated bed nets. geography and socio-economic condi ons. Appropriate IEC and BCC messages are a crucial element. and it will have the desired impact if messages are standardized and pay suﬃcient a en on to the local epidemiology. and community awareness about mely treatment is important. The primary preven ve tools are long-las ng insec cidal nets (LLINs). 6 7 8 An insec cide-treated net (ITN) is 1) a factory-treated net that does not require any further treatment. indoor residual spraying with insec cides (IRS). uses and manages the environment is involved. and 3. It is mainly through interac ons between well-informed communi es at risk and health authori es that results can be accelerated. Households in rural areas are more likely to have insec cide treated bed nets. the use of ITN is almost non-existent. ACT: Artemisinin-based Combina on Therapy.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. and intermi ent preven ve treatment for pregnant women (IPTP). rice ﬁeld draining) can work well only if the community that lives in. Larval control and environmental management measures (for example. In preven on eﬀorts.3 percent have legi mate ITNs6. Financial factors become essen al in ensuring availability. Insuﬃcient understanding of appropriate preven ve ac ons and the need to seek prompt care pose challenges to eﬀec ve infec on control and disease management at the community level. Other vector control measures (for example. Underlining the par cular circumstances that may have led to the posi ve results of the MOH study is the conclusion of the 2007 IDHS study that only 50 percent of communi es na onally were aware of essen al an malarial strategies. or 2) a pretreated net obtained within the past 12 months. malaria can be prevented. respec vely.6 percent. distribu on and monitoring and evalua on of an malarial drugs.5 percent and 1. while provision of an malarial medicines by public health services has increased over me. or 3) a net that has been soaked with insec cide within the past 12 months. 102 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . virtually three mes that of urban households. Case management (diagnosis and treatment) emphasizes prompt interven ons. vector control and the limited supply of malaria-related informa on systems. Ineﬀec ve malaria preven ve ac ons. access to treatment. However. 4.7 is s ll inadequate on a na onal scale. Prompt malaria treatment (that is within 24 hours) occurs in some 48 percent of cases. Malaria and Other Diseases Today. In general.8 Other constraints may also be due to ineﬀec ve implementa on of epidemiological surveillance. larviciding and environmental management) are also used. management of salinity in aquaculture and coastal lagoons. Some 30 percent of households own some type of mosquito net. diagnosed and treated with a combina on of available tools. but ownership of treated nets is very low– only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net (ITN). Challenges 1. especially of ACT. the use of insec cide treated bed nets is an important interven on.
human. domes c ﬁnancing–through na onal and sub-na onal budgets–has been rela vely modest. (v) providing and promo ng the use of insec cide treated bed nets. Expanding malaria preven on and treatment along the lines set out in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program will require addi onal physical. monitoring and evalua on ac vi es are insuﬃcient to allow good planning and budge ng for the na onal malaria program. with the program encountering bo lenecks at the service level. 3. (iv) strengthening monitoring progress at local levels and undertake local situa on analysis. (vi) improving vector control that is suitable to local condi ons. community health workers. Therefore. a ﬁnancial mobiliza on strategy for both interna onal and domes c funding will be expanded for medium and long term programs. Inadequate monitoring and evalua on system. especially in the high malaria endemic areas. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 103 . Developing strategies for social mobiliza on that focus on promo ng community awareness about preven on interven ons and in malaria control. 4. (ii) developing social mobiliza on strategies that focus on increasing public awareness about malaria preven on eﬀorts. through: (i) developing IEC and BCC messages that are designed with par cipa on by service providers and user representa ves. (vii) strengthening epidemiological surveillance and outbreak 9 The par cipa on of malaria cadres. Interna onal ﬁnancial contribu ons need to be balanced with the increment of domes c ﬁnancial resources. Policies and Strategies To accelerate eﬀorts to achieve the MDG targets related to malaria. (iii) increasing a en on to a strong malaria informa on system by collec ng adequate malaria-related morbidity and mortality data. Health services may not be suﬃciently equipped and staﬀed to respond promptly to needs. Case management may suﬀer from weak logis c planning at the facility level with interrup ons in the availability of drugs and the means to carry out diagnos c tests. so that they are tailored to speciﬁc regional and community situa ons (that is client orienta on)9. Limited capacity at local level. The transfer of responsibility for implemen ng the malaria program may not have paid enough a en on to limited capaci es at local levels. the workforce may not have the appropriate training. through: 1. entomologists and monitoring and evalua on specialists). and ﬁnancial resources.2. So far. and there may be shortages of necessary technical exper se (for example. In some instances. improving and strengthening the implementa on of universal coverage RBM strategy are crucially needed. and TBAs in malaria control eﬀorts are key parts of the response strategy. Oversight capabili es remain limited.
3. Malaria and Other Diseases control systems. and allow the incorpora on of local diﬀerences into strategic planning. in par cular by strengthening partnerships with research and technical en es to conduct opera onal research on the eﬀec veness of drugs. (ii) ensuring early detec on and care seeking. Improving capacity of human resources. 5. through the private sector and the interna onal community. concerning Equitable Development Programs. especially in awareness raising. (ii) developing opportuni es for collabora on between public agencies and exploring public-private synergies. the human resources need to be equipped with the appropriate skills in: advocacy. Health services have a central role in raising awareness. through: (i) strengthening program oversight with well-designed monitoring and evalua on systems that draw on a good understanding of community dynamics. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set out some crucial targets that also are speciﬁed in the Presiden al Instruc on No. 2. insec cides and preven ve tools. 4. To ensure sustainability of control programs. especially related to improve malaria case detec on. and (iv) controlling drug quality and use. (iii) strengthening of village malaria posts (posmaldes) to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with malaria. par cularly in remote areas. and (iv) integra ng malaria program with maternal and child health program interven ons. and (ix) developing a capacity to assess the eﬃcacy of the malaria control eﬀorts. and informa on systems that allow monitoring for be er planning and targe ng of malaria interven ons. Strengthening health services in preven on. malaria detec on and rapid treatment. Long-term and predictable funding will be needed to maintain the sustainability of the programs. Improving management structures and governance that include strategies. To be able to carry out the strategies. and entomology. 3/2010.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. (viii) developing cross-sectoral interven on models such as larvaciding and biological control. To accelerate reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of emerging communicable diseases. control and treatment. 104 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (iii) ensuring be er use of donor support by placing it in the context of comprehensive na onal strategic planning for malaria. control and treatment. technical assistance and targeted training programs will be provided to ensure increased capacity at all levels. Improving ﬁnancial support. (iii) responding to the need for case management in a mely manner. work programs. supply chain management. Some improvements are needed in: (i) promo ng preven on and control in the community.
10 and treatment outcomes show a success rate of 91 percent (2006). 2010-2014 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.2. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.25 60 100 2014 1 70 100 Table 6. resul ng from inadequate treatment of TB.9).000 popula on and mortality of 91/100. 85 percent treatment success. there remains a need to face the high incidence of Mul drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 105 . 3/2010. be er logis cs and a stronger TB monitoring system. The TB case detec on rate has increased rapidly – from 30. Indonesia was the ﬁrst high TB burdened country in the WHO South-East Asia Region to achieve the global targets for case detec on (70 percent) and treatment success (85 percent). and avoid interrup ons in medica on cycles.50 50 100 2013 1. MOH Strategic Plan 20102014 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases (Tuberculosis) Current Status The na onal surveillance report on TB prevalence shows that the number of people infected by TB is declining (Figure 6.75 40 100 2012 1.000 popula on Percentage of District/Municipality conduct vector mapping Percentage of Outbreak reported and tackled 2010 2 30 100 2011 1. In order to increase the eﬀec veness of TB control. 10 Targets are 70 percent case detec on of smear-posi ve cases under DOTS. and to reduce incidence rates and halve 1990 prevalence and mortality rates by 2015.Priority Reducing the morbidity rate and the mortality rate of Malaria and other communicable diseases Outputs Malaria case detec on rate per 1.2008. Indonesia has made progress by strengthening of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) program as a na onal policy. This performance reﬂects increased collabora on between sub-na onal oﬃces and private health services. Inpres No. as well as community-based TB care providers. and it reached 91 percent in 2005 . to ensure that the incidence rate con nues to fall through 2015.6 percent in 2002 to 75. to improve prescrip on prac ces. ensure drug quality. With an increasing threat of MDR-TB. more focus needs to be placed on measures that adhere to interna onal standards for TB care. increased focus on capacity building in human resources in health services. Es mates for 1990 are prevalence 443/100. Although the achievement of TB case detec on and treatment success has been rela vely sa sfactory.000 popula on/year.7 percent in 2006. The treatment success rate has been above 85 percent since 2000. Both exceed the MDG targets of 70 and 85 percent respec vely. Case detec on now exceeds 70 percent. Priori es.
In addi on. 2. but only some 38 percent of hospitals.7 91 91 91 91 Percentage 75. Insuﬃcient TB control policies with appropriate local strategies.5 86 86. Involvement of communi es in TB care is essen al. and only about 2-3 percent of private prac oners. The low household and community awareness and behaviors that increase the risk of infec on. partnerships between public and private en es need to be established. but results are s ll modest and understanding of the issues remains weak.8 72. The high case detec on rate has not been followed by the availability of adequate health care services. reduce demand for services and consequently lower eﬀec veness of na onal strategies. SR CDR Challenges 1. ﬁeld-level implementa on needs to pay par cular a en on to strengthening of health services and dissemina on of informa on.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. 3. DG of CDC&EH. Advocacy. Only 16 percent of respondents could correctly iden fy the signs and symptoms of TB.8 54 58 87 89. reﬂec ng a combina on of the following factors: (i) ACSM11 coverage is s ll low and messages may not be eﬀec ve. about 13 percent.7 68 54 37. and a consequently 11 ACSM is s ll a new area in TB program strategy and much more guidance and technical support is necessary.1 86. A survey of Knowledge. (iii) most of the community does not know that an -TB drugs are free and provided by local health facili es (only 19 percent knew). (ii) s gma za on according to TB (keep TB a secret if a family member had TB) is low. including professional associa ons. Directorate CDC. A tudes and Prac ce (KAP) conducted recently reported the following ﬁndings: (i) knowing what is TB (76 percent) and knowing that TB can be totally cured (85 percent). Detec on and treatment services for TB are not yet rou nely delivered in all health services facili es (98 percent of Puskesmas do that rou nely.4 4. 106 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . there is signiﬁcant varia on between regions.5 12 19 20 21 30.9.6 7. Interven on guidelines and ACSM need to be ﬁ ed to local circumstances.8 73. private health facili es and peniten aries do so. and (ii) access to services is limited. communica on and social mobiliza on (ACSM) are being pursued as part of the TB strategy. which will require strong commitments of stakeholders. Moreover.1 1. Poor awareness of the TB program. To be successful. The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 81 73. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. 2009.6 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: MoH-RI.6 69.
increasing awareness and promo ng passive case ﬁnding. Policies and Strategies Mee ng the challenges in TB preven on and control program depends on strengthening some strategies: 1. and (viii) improving the evalua on and monitoring system and measuring the impact of treatment under DOTS. (iii) intensifying involvement of private and public services. There is a shortage of ﬁnancial resources available to combat TB in Indonesia. Funding so far has mainly come from donors. implementa on of some components in the TB Strategy–health systems strengthening. ACSM. for results management. and by means of eﬃciency improvements in current program spending. there is a need to increase mobiliza on of local resources. Beyond distribu ng informa on about TB. (iv) ensuring availability of adequate health personnel both in quan ty and quality. In the absence of integrated planning and budge ng for TB ac vi es. NGOs and the private sector in an integrated movement for na onal TB mi ga on (Gerdunas TB). (vi) improving ac ve promo on of TB control. because data on the former is limited). (v) improving logis c and eﬀec ve drugs management systems. resource use is neither eﬃcient nor eﬀec ve. including the produc on of informa on that can be used. providers and stakeholders. however. research (is less well understood than DOTS expansion and TB/HIV and MDR-TB rela onships. 5. Improving capacity and quality in the TB program by: (i) strengthening laboratory diagnos c capacity in all health care facili es. Some surveillance has been conducted. However. informa on is sparse and insuﬃcient to support strong policy making. At the present me.(ii) improving poli cal support and strengthening decentraliza on programs for eﬀec ve implementa on of DOTS. including through ini a ves that draw more a en on to TB. par cipa on of care providers. Expanding DOTS coverage through health services by: (i) expanding and intensifying ACSM and facilitate access. (ii) implemen ng the Interna onal Standards for TB Care (ISTC) to all services. 2. (vii) improving eﬀec ve communica on to people with TB. The situa on may be par cularly challenging in remote areas where the combina on of poverty and TB can be more devasta ng. (iv) expanding access to health care and free of charge medicines. currently characterize many situa ons at the local level and are reﬂected in insuﬃcient resources being allocated to the TB program. and would be used. family and community as well as work environment in inﬂuencing behavior. the informa on base needs to be improved so that policy making can be based on facts. (iii) improving partnerships involving government. (v) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 107 . 4.weak commitment to it.
In order to accelerate the achievement of the targets in reducing the incidence and death rate related to TB. through: (i) expanding research related to TB. reduce delays in diagnosis. Promo ng the alloca on of funds to ﬁnance the Stop TB program. and (xi) providing standardized facili es and infrastructure for TB services. (x) expanding case detec on rate and coverage of TB treatment and care services in all health services. (v) periodic surveys to iden fy special risks (emergence of MRD-TB or outbreaks in prisons or health facili es). (vi) improving collabora on in TB/HIV programs. (iii) suppor ve advisory services that facilitate adop on of correct prac ces. while strengthening partnerships with other sectors and the private sector. enforcement of regula ons. strong surveillance. Strengthening the health informa on. and implementa on of the DOTS. diagnos c. Enforcing policies and regula ons to build eﬀec ve sector leadership and governance by establishing strong poli cal commitment. through promo ng an appropriate alloca on of resources. Therefore. 5. and treatment delivery schemes to local condi ons and resources. vector control and other locally based preven ve interven ons. (vii) strengthening public health services in providing eﬀec ve responses to the Stop TB program. and (iv) increasing availability of an eﬀec ve health informa on system. It will require: (i) further strengthening the capacity of the health system to prevent and control infec ous disease – reviewing surveillance and case-repor ng systems and se ng up alert and response mechanisms to lower the case fatality rate. and (viii) establishing TB control capacity as a district level priority. as well as cross-sectoral collabora on and a monitoring and evalua on system. and promo ng evidence-based planning and decision making. (ii) improving coverage of laboratory services. Malaria and Other Diseases ensuring the availability and sustainability of drug supply. through periodic studies about eﬀorts to improve provision of services. (ii) reviewing and adjus ng the design of case detec on. 4. (iv) periodic evalua on at na onal and local levels to increase accountability and mo va on to perform. The local commitment in alloca ng funds to local government budgets (APBD) to TB as part of MSS (Minimum Services Standards) as well as the MDGs is crucial since both are na onal and local priori es in health development. 3. both at the central level and among local authori es. (ix) outreach that applies appropriate remote area strategies. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) sets targets for the following ac vi es and indicators as described in the table below: 108 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . strengthening policies and fostering local ownership are key strategies to ensure the sustainability of the TB Program by reducing dependency of the local level on central transfers and external funds. (vi) drug quality control: (vii) public-private collabora ve arrangements. (iii) implemen ng surveillance to iden fy speciﬁc risks (such as the emergence of MDR TB).Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. monitoring and evalua on system. (viii) promo ng community-based treatment.
Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB.3. 2010-2014 Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of TB 85 86 87 87 88 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014.Priority Indicators Prevalence of TB per 100. 3/2010.000 popula on Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) 2010 235 73 2011 231 75 2012 228 80 2013 226 85 2014 224 90 Table 6. Inpres No. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 109 . Priori es.
110 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
Maintaining replanted mangrove trees Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .
Figure 7. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 113 . Degrada on of Indonesia’s forests and reduc on in biodiversity occurred on a large scale prior to 2002 due to unsustainable forest management prac ces.1. The Percentage of Forest Cover of the Total Land Area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 Source: Ministry of Forestry (1990-2008). illegal logging.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrating the principles of sustainable development in national policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources Current Status The ra o of actual forest cover to the total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys was 52. forest ﬁres.43 percent in 2008.97 percent. a reduc on of forest cover as compared with the baseline year of 1990 when forest cover was 59.
Nevertheless. Halon.000 Consump on in ODP tonnes 8. a reduc on as compared to 1.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and conversion of forest lands to other uses.6 million hectares per year during 1985 .000 3. ODS was phased out (CFC.1 million hectares between 1997 and 2001. Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 10.3. the use of nonrenewable energy in Indonesia more than doubled between 1990 and 2008.1997 and 2. The Indonesian government ra ﬁed the Montreal Protocol through Presiden al Decree No.089 million hectares per year. 23 of 1992 on the Elimina on of the Consump on of Figure 7. The ra o of energy use per GDP in Indonesia has tended to decline.000 4. MBr) HCFCs 114 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . The consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) has been signiﬁcantly reduced in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. TCA.000 6.000 1. This in turn increases the threat of an energy crisis in the future.000 9.000 7. The rate of forest degrada on between 2000 and 2005 was es mated to be 1. This reﬂects the increasing eﬃciency in the use of energy.2. Total Energy Use of Various Types for the Years 1990-2008 (Equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in Millions) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. CTC. the availability of non-renewable energy is becoming more limited.000 2. Figure 7. Besides causing emissions that aﬀect climate change.000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Ministry of Environment.000 5.
ini a ves are being taken to reduce deforesta on and forest degrada on through preven on of illegal logging. both to mi gate global climate change and implement steps to empower the people of Indonesia to adapt to the nega ve impacts of climate change. Indonesia is vulnerable to the nega ve impacts of climate change. including sea level rise. there are s ll indica ons of illegal importa on and trade in ODS. Indonesia announced the target to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 percent from Business as Usual (BAU) condi ons in 2020 in the forum of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009. and a regula on prohibi ng the importa on of ozone deple ng substances was enacted in 1998 and revised in 2006 by the Ministry of Trade. and Indonesia is commi ed to cooperate ac vely with the world community in dealing with the important issues related to climate change.Ozone Deple ng Substances. building capacity for these ins tu ons at all levels. control over the smuggling. Policies and Strategies In accordance with the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (2005-2025) and the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). If appropriate steps are not taken. and other environmental changes. Although since 1998 the import of CFCs and goods related to the CFC has been oﬃcially banned. declining crop yields. Na onal plans and policies will be focused on improving coordina on among the ins tu ons directly involved in environmental management. development policies will be directed to achieve a sustainable pa ern of natural resource use and environmental management. and reduced produc vity of coastal ecosystems. Reduc on of global warming requires interna onal partnerships. The steps that the government has already implemented include the following: To overcome Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 115 . many regions in Indonesia will experience water supply shortages.5 million hectares during 2010-2014. and strengthening the enforcement of laws and regula ons governing environmental management in Indonesia. illegal importa on and use of ODS is very diﬃcult. and na onal ac ons are needed. In addi on. more variable rainfall pa erns that can cause ﬂoods and droughts. The target will be increased up to 41 percent with interna onal assistance. forest ﬁres and encroachment on forest lands. Challenges Global warming is leading to climate change and having nega ve impacts on the environment. The government is working to increase forest cover through rehabilita on of 2. As the largest archipelagic country in the world.
The policy framework and strategy have been translated into programs and ac vi es in the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) as follows: Table 7.000 MW electricity program Phase II which has renewable energy as its main energy source.000 Ha 480.1. Law Number 30/2007 has mandated increased use of New and Renewable Energy as an eﬀort to diversify.000 Ha 400. Through the ozone layer protec on program.000 Ha 4.000 Ha 200. In addi on. in 2008 the government increased the total area of protected forests and protected aqua c waters signiﬁcantly. has already launched a 10.000 Ha 5.000 Ha 300. and implementa on of this law will become the responsibility of central and local governments.000 Ha 500.000 Ha 240. The government.000 Ha 295. Comba ng illegal logging is being carried out in various areas to maintain the forest cover and protect conserva on areas.000 Ha 120.000 Ha 180. the government has and will con nue to maintain the ban on the use of materials that have been legally banned.000 Ha Reduced area of cri cal lands through rehabilita on and reclama on of forests Facilitate and implement forest rehabilita on in priority catchment areas Implementa on of Land Reclamaon and Forest Rehabilita on in Priority Watersheds Facilitate land rehabilita on in the priority catchment areas Facilitate development of the urban forest areas Facilitate rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 240. Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rehabilita on of cri cal lands and forest reclama on Implementa on of Forest and Land Rehabilita on Facilitate the rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 1. environmentally friendly and renewable alterna ve energy sources. peat and swamp areas 160.000 Ha 2. The government has also launched a na onal movement of rehabilia on of forests and cri cal lands. peat and swamp areas (295 000 ha) 60. for example.000 Ha 295. especially geothermal energy which comprises 39 percent.000 Ha 640.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability the rate of deforesta on.000 Ha 3.000 Ha 60.000 Ha 320.000 Ha 180.000 Ha 100.000 Ha 120. the government is socializing and providing ﬁscal and non-ﬁscal incen vies to promote energy saving measures and use of more eﬃcient.000 Ha 116 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 Ha 800.
000 ha 500.1.000 ha 100 groups 200 groups 300 groups 400 groups 500 groups 10 Unit 20 Unit 30 Unit 40 Unit 50 Unit 4 Prov 8 Prov 16 Prov 22 Prov 32 Prov 50.600.000.000 ha 150.000 ha 1.000 ha Increased quality of conserva on policies and forest damage control and integrated land management with various ministries and ins tu ons including.Con nued Table 7. Facilitate 500 group / unit management business license HKM Facilitate 50 partnership units HKM Social Forestry Development Facilitate ins tu onal support food security in 32 provinces Facilitate community forest development partnership for industrial wood raw materials covering 250 000 ha Facilitate establishment and func oning of the center at 30 HHBK districts Targeted working area of 500. BPN and Local Governments Number of conserva on policies ﬁnalized to control forest destruc on and land use issued (the criteria and guidelines) are coordinated among the concerned ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Control of Forest and Land Degrada on Data on hotspots in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres that are desseminated to the concerned ministries and ins tu ons An implementa on mechanism for land and forest ﬁre preven on in eight provincial land and forest ﬁres are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons 3 3 3 3 3 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 8 8 8 8 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 117 . with the Ministry of Forestry.000 ha 800.000 ha 200.000 ha 2.000 ha 100.000 ha 200.000 ha 250.000 ha 1. covering 2 million ha.200.000 ha of village forests 400.000 ha 6 Districts 12 Districts 18 Districts 24 Districts 30 Districts 100.000 ha 300.000 ha 400. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Improved forest management through community empowerment Facilitate establishment of community forest management areas (HKM).
to monitor the success of the implementa on mechanisms for the preven on of forest ﬁres 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% Implementa on of integrated watershed management in priority watersheds Integrated watershed management plan in 108 priority watersheds (DAS) Build a base line data on the 36 watershed management BPDAS Provision of data and maps of cri cal land in 36 BPDAS 22 DAS 44 DAS 66 DAS 88 DAS 100 DAS Development of Watershed Management 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 118 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . data and informa on to control land and forest ﬁres is integrated and coordinated with the concerned ministries and ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Forest and Control of Land Degrada on Data on the distribu on of hotspots/ forest ﬁres in eight Provinces disseminated to the ministries/ departments.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Con nued Table 7. Sumatera. Priori es Output / Indicators Detailed data on land and forest damage in 11 priority watersheds and and areas poten ally prone to landslides are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons The data of land cover and land use change (landuse change) compiled through the Program Go Green Indonesia Number of provinces (ecosystem approach) that are monitored according to the data and the poten al for disaster % of conserva on policy recommenda ons and control of forest destruc on and land area of the provinces implemented are monitored each year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 10 15 20 25 30 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Management of the 20% area of coral reefs. mangrove and 15 species of endangered aqua c biota Sea and freshwater conservaon areas and sustainably managed brackish areas Number of conserva on areas and protected aqua c biota species iden ﬁed and mapped accurately 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha Management and Conserva on Development Areas 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types Improved system blackout preven on.8% 59. seagrass.2% Forest Fire Control 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Adequacy of policies. and Sulawesi reduced by 20% each year The area of forest ﬁre is reduced compared to 2008 condi ons 20% 36% 48. impacts to land and forest ﬁres Hotspots on the islands of Borneo.2% 67. mi ga on.1.
795 The realiza on of new renewable energy and energy conserva on op ons Lisdes (EBT) .55 1.1 1 24. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Availability of integrated water quality management policy tools among the concerned ministries and ins tuons % Se ng classiﬁca on of water at the district/ municipality level for 13 rivers in 119 priority districts and ci es.2. ins tu ons and local governments Management of Water Quality and Peat Areas Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons 25% 25% 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% The physical model for CO2 absorb on.59 10.Biomass (MW) .Con nued Table 7.PLTS 50 Wp .PLTMH (kW) .94 5.000 5.1 1 24. Amoun ng to 5795 MW in year 2014 1.38 5.16 0.1 1 27.Number of Pilot Projects genera ng electricity from ocean energy resources DME 3.The number of ocean energy feasibility studies .1.53 0 0 1 24.78 11.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 50 50 50 50 50 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 119 .32 0.49 10.000 MW geothermal power plants in the phase II program Total installed capacity of geothermal power plants.9 5.PLT Wind (kW) Managing the provision of EBT and Implementa on of Energy Conserva on .261 1.260 3.419 2. perfec ng and tes ng produc on Technology for Control and Mi ga on of the Impacts of Global Warming Policy recommenda ons to reduce emissions and increase carbon sinks and pilot plant photobioreactor for CO2 absorb on 1 1 1 1 1 Priori es Increased use of renewable energy including geothermal energy to reach 2000 MW in 2012 and 5000 MW by 2014 the commencement of coal bed methane produc on to generate electricity in 2011 accompanied by the u liza on of solar energy poten al Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 7. Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources Contribu on to achieving the target of 10. with coordina on across the concerned ministries.55 0.69 11.64 0.42 5.
Between 1989 and 2000. 5 / 1994. Since not all gene c erosion occurring in wild species is known. a significant reduction in the rate of loss Current Status Indonesian biodiversity is threatened due to the u liza on of natural resources in unsustainable ways.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. but also at the level of species and gene c diversity. The average rate of degrada on of forest ecosystems in the period 2000-2005 reached 1. This document was published before the ra ﬁca on of the United Na ons Conven on on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) through Law No. by 2010. the percentage with 50 percent live coral reef popula ons has declined from 36 percent to 29 percent. transporta on and other uses has had a nega ve impact on biodiversity. Meanwhile. approximately 240 rare plant species have been declared endangered and some ﬁsh species are also threatened with ex nc on. Discussions on gene c erosion in the ﬁeld of agro-ecosystems may also be true for wild species. Challenges Deprecia on of gene c diversity. residences. is not well documented. and providing support to the management of sustainable natural resources. damage to coral reefs has increased from 10 percent to 50 percent. During the last 50 years. not only at the level of ecosystems. Policies and Strategies The Indonesian government launched the Indonesian Biodiversity Ac on Plan (BAPI) in 1993 as a document to set priori es and investment in biodiversity conserva on and this plan was used in preparing the ﬁ h and sixth Five Year Development Plans (un l 1999). 120 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . achieving. Indonesia may have lost "pearls" without a chance to know the value and beneﬁt lost. Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature (IUCN) Red List data reports that 772 species of ﬂora and fauna are threatened with ex nc on.09 million hectares per year. development of the database. BAPI aimed to preserve biodiversity through reduced degrada on of ecosystems. Reduc on of biodiversity has occurred. par cularly species of wild animals and plants. Transfer of some ecosystems into areas to be used for industry.
IBSAP was built through a par cipatory process and addressed more current environmental problems. Development and conserva on of essen al ecosystems a) Reduce conﬂict and pressure on na onal parks and other conserva on areas b) Improving the management of essen al ecosystem c) Improved management of problems resul ng from encroachment of conserva on areas d) Recovery of conserva on areas 3. Inves ga on and security protec on forest a) Reduce forest crime b) Finaliza on of cases of crime in conserva on areas 4. Improving biodiversity conserva on a) Biodiversity conserva on policy b) Monitor the implementa on of biodiversity conserva on c) Facilitate the development of Biodiversity Parks 2. mangroves. ac ons. In order to address the various issues speciﬁed in the UNCBD and learning from the BAPI experience. opportuni es.Ten years later. Development of species and biodiversity conserva on gene cs a) Enhance biodiversity and endangered species popula ons b) Cap ve c) Interna onal and regional coopera on 5. b) Iden ﬁca on and mapping of marine conserva on areas and protected species Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 121 . etc. Environmental services and ecotourism development 7. Eﬀorts to conserve biodiversity and expand protec on of endangered species is illustrated with clear indicators and targets to be achieved. new challenges and obstacles in implemen ng biodiversity conserva on. namely: 1. Forest ﬁre control a) Reduce the number of hot spots b) Reduce the burned area c) Improving human resource capacity in controlling forest ﬁres 6. sea grass. BAPI was updated into the "Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Ac on Plan (IBSAP)". IBSAP iden ﬁed a number of needs. Conserving biodiversity is one of the priori es in natural resources management as contained in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). Management and development of ecosystem and species conserva on in coastal zones and marine areas a) Improved management of ecosystems of coral reefs.
Figure 7.9 % 58. 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS. Susenas.5 30.9 40.4).71 percent and 51.7 42.6 51.7 38.3 46.9 35. par cularly in urban areas where development has not matched the growth rate of popula on.7 48.3 47.8 20 10 37. DRINKING WATER Improved drinking water is deﬁned as water from a protected water source located more than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina on.71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.0 41.2 57.5 42.1 70 53.2 Percentage 50 40 46. greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets for access to improved drinking water (68.8 47. In addi on.7 49. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Current Status The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and sanita on has con nuously increased.7 37.4. Access to improved sources of drinking water tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas. However.3 56.41 percent) in 2015.3 30 35.9 42.3 42.3 41.5 75.8 48. Access to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37.0 42.7 43.9 52.7 48.87 percent) and sanita on (62.7 53.19 percent respec vely.2 Notes: Data does not include Timor Timur.3 % 68.5 48.5 30. TOTAL URBAN RURAL 122 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47.2 37. To achieve the MDG target by 2015.6 31. by 2015.73 percent of households in 1993 to 47.8 55. Propor ons of Rural.6 47. the number of households who have sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47.4 40.0 50.7 50.6 54. The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reﬂects the slow rate of development of drinking water infrastructure.8 % TARGET MDG 35.0 43. many water supply facili es are not operated and maintained well.7 . several years.8 54.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7C: Halve.8 60 65. Therefore. Urban and all Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources in Indonesia (1993-2009) 80 Urban+Rural: 59.0 41.6 34. both in rural and urban areas.0 45.5 51.7 31.6 54. priority should be given to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies.
and comfortable and that can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces.4 34.1 9. the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta.70 55.3 18.2 70 53.60 33.6 31.5 20 17.71 48.6 28.6 53.4 55.5 MDGs TARGET 80 57.53 50.38 Percentage Banten Aceh Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Papua Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Kepulauan Riau Lampung Jawa Barat Riau Sulawesi Barat Maluku Utara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Gorontalo Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Barat INDONESIA Papua Barat Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Maluku Jawa Timur Kalimantan Timur Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Bali DI Yogyakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL Source: BPS.5 24.7 54.71 58.02 55. Aceh.6 56.4 45. Susenas 1993 – 2009.75 44.2 48. and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources.9 57.1 50 27.5 28.2 27.47 30.9 25.Signiﬁcant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.6 32.1 51.81 percent in 1993 to 51.13 51.04 51. URBAN RURAL TOTAL Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 123 .7 59.3 35.0 35. The propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than doubled.2 Note: Data does not include Timor Timur Source: BPS.30 59.6).7 22. hygienic.6. SANITATION Improved sanita on is deﬁned as facili es that are safe.81 35. Susenas 2009.45 46.85 44.49 44.4 12.5.92 43.8 20.2 49. As shown in Figure 7.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.6 35.99 60.5. urban and total rural and urban.12 59.6 60 51. from 24.2 15.51 40.7 56. Bali and Southeast Sulawesi.36 44.6 10 0 17.0 30 21. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 7.3 56. progress has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic development.84 36.50 55.19 51.1 64.96 45.29 40. However.44 36.6 The propor on of households with access to adequate sanita on in rural.8 62.96 42.3 17.0 44.97 54.62 47.89 37.02 34.0 20. 100 90 66. Percentages of Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources by Urban and Rural Popula ons by Province (2009) 27.9 40 32.2 11.6 38. Banten. 1993-2009 51.7 69.1 14. Figure 7.08 48.7 34.74 40.6 12.7 76.
In terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved 124 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur Papua Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Bengkulu Lampung Maluku Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Aceh Maluku Utara Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Timur INDONESIA Sumatera Utara Jawa Barat Riau Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Selatan Kalimantan Timur Banten Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara DI Yogyakarta Bali DKI Jakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL 80.16 41.93 41.69 39.58 58. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and sanita on.75 54. 2. 69.66 38.18 43.91 51.92 52. and this gap varies among provinces.06 57.96 percent in rural areas.82 60.02 42. Figure 7.59 75.95 10 - Source: BPS.48 58. Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to achieve the MDG target in 2015.65 28.7. There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on.63 34. Challenges The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include the following: 1.17 52.66 63.37 20 .78 45.07 51.19 51.35 75. for example.03 43. Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat.12 40.35 45.43 38. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over the years. Act No.98 21.48 42.83 40. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons. making it diﬃcult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on. Susenas 2009. with the largest gap found in the provinces of Kepulauan Riau. Na onwide.78 32.21 39. Propor ons of Households with Access to Improved Sanita on Facili es by Rural/ urban Areas by Province (2009) 100 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 14. there are 21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average. especially in urban areas where the popula on growth rate is higher than the na onal popula on growth rate.84 45.51 percent of urban popula ons have access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33.
investments in the provision of water service connec ons. Unsanitary behavior is reﬂected in the high incidence of diarrhea. 6. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low. 8. This results from a tendency to rely on central government funding. storage.51 percent of the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariﬀ below the cost of water produc on. 2010). Determina on and se ng of tariﬀs does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery). and there is a need for more intensive coordina on. Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate. The low ﬁnancial performance of the municipal water Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 125 . At the same me there are many on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment in infrastructure. especially in urban areas. The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector is limited. An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly owned water companies are func oning properly. Planning and budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a priority of local governments. is not in balance with the rate of urban popula on growth. and although almost all households boil water for drinking. and this is reﬂected in the low budget alloca ons of regional governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking water and sanita on. including both Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional). both from the government and the private sector. although the provision and management of improved drinking water and sanita on has become the responsibility of the local governments. Diarrhea Morbidity Survey.coli bacteria.000 inhabitants (MOH. and disposal of fecal waste. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water. and about 55. some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas. centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems have been less than adequate. Lack of balance between popula on growth. especially at the level of program implementa on. 7. 5. Hand washing with soap is s ll not common. especially in urban areas. 3. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water. 4. The level of investment in the provision of piped water connec ons. There are s ll many households that rely on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality. some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for development of drinking water and sanita on. and this increases the likelihood of contamina on of water sources.drinking water and sanita on. processing. Similarly. especially in urban areas with development of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita on. which reached 411 per 1.
including the government. 126 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and deregula on of the laws. In addi on. through the addi on. revision. maintenance. remote. In rural areas. and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve ﬁnancing. Eﬀorts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved drinking water and sanita on. 2. either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale. 3. coastal and rural areas. development and improvement of transmission and distribu on networks. Funding from the private sector. Investment will be focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale basis (oﬀ-site). the private sector. construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). the development of drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Health. the future policy of investment is aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. To increase the pace in the provision of sanita on services. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement of water systems. Alloca on of funding from Central Government will give priority to the poor. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water and sanita on are as follows: 1. To increase access of households to improved sanita on. donors. Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support provision of improved drinking water and sanita on. At the same me. and the community. The central government will also encourage and facilitate the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance and ﬁnancing. the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of all par es. DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS). especially in urban areas. the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK) for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns.
Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private sector and the community through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of business plans. as well as the applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water reclama on. through the control of ground water use by domes c and industrial users. and among government. 6. between government and society. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior. aligned with the RIS-SPAM. through communica on. protec on of ground and surface water from sources of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services. informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water and sanita on facili es in schools as part of eﬀorts to improve the hygienic behavior of students and communi es. The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems. and (d) op mizing the u liza on of ﬁnancial resources. as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on. (b) increasing coopera on among government agencies.4. prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK). (c) improving the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the government. as presented in the following table: Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 127 . implementa on of corpora za on. asset management and human resource capacity building. 8. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and basic sanita on that is focused on services for urban popula ons. 5. 7. through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM) based on community based ini a ves. both for ins tu ons and communi es. 9. the private sector and the public. Ensuring the availability of drinking water. especially the poor. between government and the private sector. especially regarding the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has been deﬁned in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on systems.
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Table 7.3.5 67 85 90 95 100 100 Improving surveillance and monitoring of environmental quality Percentage of popula on that have access to basic sanita on 64 67 69 72 75 Number of villages where Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) will be implemented Number of urban areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of rural areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of areas with improved infrastructure developed for syistem oﬀ-site sewerage Number of areas with infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site sewerage systems 2.000 20.3/2010 Improve the development of sanita on infrastructure 30 districts/ ci es 35 districts/ ci es 40 districts/ ci es 50 55 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es 128 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 63 63. Priori es Outputs Percentage of households with access to improved drinking water source Percentage of drinking water quality that meets the requirements 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 62 62.500 11.000 villages 360 areas 32 areas and 700 villages 11 districts/ ci es 11 11 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan ( RPJMN 20102014) and Inpres no.500 5. Annual Implementa on Targets to Improve Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources and Basic Sanita on 2010-2014.165 villages 11 districts/ ci es Improve the development of drinkig water supply systems 260 areas 30 areas and 500 villages 315 areas 30 areas and 1.000 16.000 218 area 31 areas and 1.472 villages 9 districts/ ci es 244 areas 30 areas and 1.
8). The Government of Indonesia has implemented many programs to improve the lives of slum dwellers. Signiﬁcant disparites are found among provinces in the propor on of the urban popula ons categorized as slum households. In addi on.63 percentage points from 1993. by 8. the provinces where with the highest percentage of slum households are found are Nusa Tenggara Timur. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Current Status The propor on of households living in Figure 7. several ini a ves to empower those who live in urban slums are being implemented. The provinces with the lowest propor ons of slum households are DI Yogyakarta.Target 7D: By 2020.8. Jawa Tengah and Kalimantan Barat. including: the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP).12 percent of urban households are s ll found to be living in slums (see Figure 7. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 129 .9. and the Neighborhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Program (NUSSP). the Urban Poverty Project (UPP). the Community-Based Ini a ves for Housing and Local Development (CoBILD).10 percent (DI Yogyakarta) while the highest propor on is 28. Papua and DKI Jakarta. urban renewal. but 12. Source: BPS. The lowest propor on of slum households for a province is 5. Susenas. 1993 and 2009 Many ini a ves have been carried out to improve the welfare of urban households. urban slums in Indonesia has declined The Propor on of Urban Households Living in Slums.85 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). As seen in Figure 7. including the Na onal Community Empowerment Program (PNPM Mandiri) with technical support from various na onal ministries.
6 9. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies is to fulﬁll the needs of the urban poor for adequate.5 8.7 7.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Figure 7. 2.5 10. 3.5 13. and microcredit for housing and na onal housing savings. Other priori es are to improve the quality of residen al environments through the provision of infrastructure. safe and aﬀordable housing. integrated with real estate development to realize ci es without slums.7 10. 130 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 28. as well as facilita ng the provision of land. Several steps have been taken to improve the provision of decent and aﬀordable housing for low-income communi es through development of public housing for rent.6 8.9.6 7.1 25.9 8. Addi onal ini a ves will increase access of low income households to decent and aﬀordable housing through a liquidity facility.1 14.1 14. Limited capacity of the government and the private sector to build aﬀordable houses. the major challenges in reducing the propor on of urban slum households in Indonesia are as follows: 1. Limited access of low-income households to land for housing in urban areas.7 17. Susenas.9 .7 9.0 14.8 19.4 DI Yogyakarta Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Maluku Utara Jambi Sumatera Utara Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Timur Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Aceh Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Lampung INDONESIA Gorontalo Bali Kalimantan Tengah Bengkulu Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Kepulauan Riau Jawa Barat Banten Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sulawesi Barat Papua Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat DKI Jakarta Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: BPS.3 13. 4. Previous programs have produced less than op mal results in improving the lives of slum dwellers. and adequate public u li es. The Propor on of Urban Slum Households by Province.1 5.7 7. facilita on of development of new housing and improvement in the quality of selfhelp housing and the provision of infrastructure.5 8.3 14.3 13.1 12.6 15.4 24. facili es and u li es for self-help housing.0 18. 2009 Percentage 35 5.9 12.0 9. Limited provision of basic facili es for urban se lements. Limited access to housing ﬁnance. and 5.1 21.6 5.8 10. Challenges Aside from the regional dispari es.0 25. basic facili es.
500 16. Note: *) Simpliﬁed Rental Housing Development es mated 30 percent for low-income communi es.500 7.500 6.250 7. Guidance. 2013 30 30 5. district / city governments and urban communi es. the Ministry of Housing.500 12.The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set priori es and targets to reduce the number of households living in urban slums in order to accelerate the achievement of this MDG.2. Table 7.041 50 7.500 6. Control and Opera on in the Development of Se lements Urban slum areas to be improved Units of apartment dwellings built up with suppor ng infrastructure Se lement infrastructure improved in low income residen al areas Facilita on and promo on of environmental planning for slum areas Facilita on and promo on of development of self-help housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp improvement of housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp infrastructure Number of slum areas facilitated 50 Number of self-help new housing construc on ini a ves Number of self-help improvement of exis ng housing ini a ves Number of ini a ves to facilitate and s mulate self-help improvement of infrastructure. as shown in Table 7.4.500 7. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 131 .250 7. provincial governments.200 15 2014 22 22 3.500 12.500 12.960 104 2011 30 30 7.250 6.458 21 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums Targets Priori es Indicators 2010 Prepara on of ac on plans on urban slums at district/ municipality level Regula ons.500 16.250 7.250 16. Eﬀorts to achieve these targets will be implemented by the Ministry of Public Works.250 Development of mul -story low rent housing units* 100 100 180 0 0 Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. facili es and u li es Number of mul -story low rent housing units built (Rusunawa) 100 150 175 180 95 95 3.041 50 2012 30 30 7.
132 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .
G-20 Summit in Pi sburgh. September 24-25. 2009 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .
Brazil. To support u liza on of foreign loans. the government works to strengthen interna onal partnerships and to improve the eﬀec veness and eﬃciency in u liza on of foreign grants and loans to support na onal development. the Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons (ASEAN). Indonesia works to achieve a more equitable and dynamic pa ern of global partnerships as a member of mul lateral ins tu ons. Chile. investment and transfer of technology to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. including south-south and triangular coopera on. Indonesia. Tanzania.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Indonesia is ac vely engaged with the interna onal community in working to improve governance of interna onal trade. Public – private partnerships are encouraged to promote economic growth and improve provision of public services. Indonesia also par cipates with the interna onal community in many interna onal and regional forums including the Group of Twenty (G-20) and the Asia Paciﬁc Economic Coopera on Forum (APEC) to promote collabora on on issues related to economic development and trade between emerging economies and developed economies. Netherlands. the Interna onal Monetary Fund (IMF). In ﬁnancing na onal development. The United Na ons Conference on Trade and Development recently ranked Indonesia as one of the top ten most a rac ve des na ons for foreign direct investment globally. the government will proceed with cau on and borrow from interna onal sources that provide the most favourable terms and condi ons while protec ng Indonesia’s interna onal posi on. Indonesia is commi ed to achieving produc ve partnerships with the private sector while maintaining a conducive investment climate to increase domes c and foreign private investment. To best accomplish this approach. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 135 . Liberia and Senegal) have established a Network of Global Leaders for Global Campaign on Health MDGs (NGL 45) with the sole purpose of garnering interna onal support on one of the most neglected and cri cal social MDGs. The goal of the government is to seek quality investments that create jobs and reduce social inequality. along with other Sherpa’s from ten countries (Norway. the Government of Indonesia will con nue to rely on foreign grants and loans. the World Trade Organiza on (WTO). Mozambique. although funding from interna onal sources is expected to decline as a propor on of the na onal budget. Australia. including the United Na ons. the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). UK. child and maternal mortality. Indonesia has built a wide network of strong bilateral partnerships to promote equitable development and trade.
and movement of individuals 1 ACFTA creates the world’s largest free-trade area in terms of the popula on of the na ons which are signatories to the agreement (1. ASEAN has also reached out to enter into free trade agreements with other Asian na ons as well as na ons outside of Asia. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)1 and the ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement (AKFTA) are among the free trade agreements which have been entered into force. Besides regional trade agreements. At the same me Indonesia supports a Special Safeguard Mechanism to reduce the short term nega ve impacts of trade liberaliza on on those involved in the agricultural sector. and it went into eﬀect on 1 July 2008. The Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) was signed on 20 August 2007 as the ﬁrst Indonesian bilateral trade agreement.6 trillion) a er the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area. the G-33. Indonesia has also par cipated in various interna onal nego a ng forums related to interna onal trade including: APEC. Indonesia has also entered into bilateral agreements for free trade with several other countries. The objec ve of this agreement is to strengthen bilateral economic rela ons. covering wide-ranging coopera on in investment. trade. ASEAN is now in the process of nego a ng other ASEAN FTA such as: the ASEAN-India FTA. ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the ASEANEuropean Union FTA. The agreement is expected to reduce threats of rising protec onism and to provide a s mulus to global recovery. In addi on. Indonesia is one of the founding member states of ASEAN which established the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992. rule-based. Indonesia has par cipated in the Doha Development Round and remains commi ed to reaching an agreement to maintain conﬁdence in the mul lateral trading system.9 billion) and the third largest in terms of GDP (USD 6. the CAIRNS Group. and W52 Sponsors. 136 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . especially the rural poor. predictable. ASEAN is also moving toward the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2015 and the goal of regional economic integra on. the NAMA 11.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Current Status Star ng in the 1950s Indonesia par cipated in global discussions on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariﬀs (GATT) to improve the global trading system and was a founding member of the World Trade Organiza on (WTO) in January 1995.
GDP Growth and the Ra o of Imports Plus Exports to GDP as the MDG Indicator for Economic Openness 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 400 Billion USD 300 37.868 billion in 2003 to Rp 28. The LDR for commercial banks has increased steadily from a level of 45.8 percent in 2009. The deposits of rural banks also increased from Rp 8.5% 200 100 - Level of Economic Openness IMPORTS EXPORTS GDP at Current Price (billion USD) Sources: BPS and the World Bank.0 percent in 2009.8 percent in 2000 to a rate of 72. The recent data for the indicator of economic openness reveals a long-term trend to greater openness in the management of the Indonesian economy. 2009. Trade has increased substan ally since 1980 and has led to growth of the na onal economy and the expansion of employment opportuni es. The Trends for Imports. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 137 .3 percent in 2003 to 109.Indonesia has been successful in developing greater openness in trading with the global community. including strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reduc on of bank vulnerabili es through higher capitaliza on and be er supervision. Comprehensive reforms in Indonesia’s banking sector have been ins tuted based on the diﬃcult lessons learned from the economic crisis of 1997/1998. Exports.1. 100% Percentage (level of economic openness) 600 Figure 8. The indicator for banking for MDG 8 is the Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR) for commercial banks and rural banks. An improved regulatory framework for trade has yielded substan ve economic beneﬁts. The level of nonperforming loans (NPL) at commercial has been improved during the repor ng period while the NPL at rural banks is considered to have been maintained at a safe level.9% 39.001 billion in 2009 while the LDR for rural banks also increased signiﬁcantly from 101.
4 120 101. • Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure.2009 140 119.8 60 45. Among the factors in determining the logis cal performance of a na on on trade are the following: • Eﬃciency of the customs clearance process and border procedures. LDR Rural Banking LDR Commercial Banking Challenges The fragility of the global recovery underlines the importance of s mulus packages and the need to maintain the certainty of open trade and a rule-based mul lateral trading system. and • Frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected me. • Ease of arranging compe vely priced shipments.5 109.8 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 45. “Connec ng to Compete in Indonesia”. The Logis cs Performance Index (LPI) survey highlighted the need for Indonesia to take further ac on to improve border management. 138 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2 64.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. 2010. A er eight years of nego a ons on the Doha Development Agreement.2 72.7 77.2.7 69.9 111.8 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Bank Indonesia Economic Report 2009.0 49.3 100 108. logis cs and freight-forwarding services) and overall logis cs infrastructure. • Ability to track and trace consignments.0 Percentage 80 61. • Competence and quality of logis cs services.7 64. The survey iden ﬁed the need to give special a en on to improve customs and especially quality and standards inspec ons agencies. Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of Commercial and Rural Credit Banks.2 2 World Bank. especially mari me ports.2 107.7 109.1 53. 2000 . the challenge now is to conclude an agreement that will provide a strong founda on for global recovery and sustained growth. service sector performance (transport.
and high demand. mining. 3. Strengthen trade ins tu ons and foreign trade ﬁnancing that can induce eﬀec veness of non-oil export development. The advantages of rural banks compared to commercial banks are the services they provide to SMEs and low income people who priori ze in macy through direct services (door to door). nondiscriminatory trading system. due to a lack of informa on about the businesses owned by their customers. beverages.BPR) has improved. The low composi on of investment credit cannot be separated from the structure of deposits in banks which are short-term funds with a maturity of one to three months so that there is the poten al for funding mismatches in the long term. Therefore. Emphasize eﬀorts on expansion of market access. including the following: 1. However.There is a need to control the intermedia on func on of the banking system. Policies and Strategies Various steps will be taken to further develop an open. Improve trade ac vi es in border regions which are func on as the front gates for economic and trade ac vi es with neighboring countries. Encourage exports of crea ve products and services. chemical products. the magnitude of the spread between lending and deposit interest rates is an cipated to be one cause of low investment lending in the banking industry. chemicals. there is a tendency for rural banks to focus on clients considered to be more bankable. promo on and export facilita on in Africa and Asia. foods. 6. Encourage eﬀorts of market diversiﬁca on to reduce export dependency on certain markets. Secondly. 2. 7. the performance of rural banks (Bank Perkreditan Rakyat . electrical equipment. predictable. In terms of microﬁnance. footwear and leather products. rules-based. and a personal approach with a en on to local culture. tex les. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 139 . Increase non oil and gas exports of products that are high value-added. 4. Support u liza on of trade schemes and interna onal trade coopera on that are more beneﬁcial to na onal interests. 5. machinery. par cularly of small and medium enterprises. development of Indonesian exports will be focused on agriculture and ﬁshery products. natural resourcebased.
The strategy to strenghten the performance and stability of the banking sector includes the following ini a ves: 1. Enhance eﬀorts to protect the consumer and investors. 140 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 2. 3. Strengthen the quality of management and opera onal services of all banking ins tu ons. improve the suppor ng infrastructure of ﬁnancial services ins tu ons. b. Accelerate strategic intermedia on and distribu on of public funds to increase access to ﬁnancial service ins tu ons (LJK) for low income groups through the following ini a ves: a. small and medium enterprises. 4. diversiﬁca on of sources of development funding through non-bank ﬁnancial ins tu ons (LKBB). expand the scope of ﬁnancial services. and d.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The Government of Indonesia will also con ne to work to maintain a healthy. develop appropriate banking products and Islamic borrowing arrangements. stable and eﬃcient banking system to be er support achievement of the goals of na onal development. Strengthen the regulatory framework and further improve supervision of commercial and rural banks. c. especially ﬁnancial services to support micro.
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
In the decade following the economic crisis of 1997/98 the Government of Indonesia ins tuted a comprehensive set of reforms to strengthen the na on’s economic fundamentals, including a reduc on of interna onal debt and strengthening of the banking sector. These reforms have provided a strong founda on for the Government to implement policies to recover from the crisis and also to achieve growth with equity. Mul lateral and bilateral coopera on has assisted Indonesia to work towards achievement of the MDGs while a decade of sustained economic growth has enabled the Government to reduce dependency on interna onal borrowing to a sustainable level. The success of Indonesia’s economic reforms and improvements in the management of the na onal debt are reﬂected in the reduc on of the debt to GDP ra o which had declined from a peak of 89 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2009. While the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP has been reduced from 24.59 percent in 1996 to only 10.89 percent in 2009 (see Figure 8.3).
(% ) 120%
Debt Service Ra o
The Trend of Foreign Debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) During 1996-2009
6,000 5,000 4,000
Ra o of foreign debt to GDP
3,000 2,000 1,000 0
50.7% 47.3% 37.9% 24.6%
41.1% 39.4% 33.1% 34.1% 39.9% 41.9% 37.2% 40% 27.1% 24.8% 24.2% 21.9% 31.3% 29.0% 27.8% 19.2% 17.3% 22.4% 20% 16.8% 14.8% 14.7% 10.9%
1996 DSR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 GDP Foreign Loans 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Outstanding Debt Ra o of Debt to GDP Ra o of Foreign Debt to GDP
Source: Economic Report Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, 2008, Sta s cs of Foreign Debt, Ministry of Finance and Bank Indonesia, 2010, Ministry of Finance, 2009.
The ra o of debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services or the na on’s Debt Service Ra o (DSR) also declined during the same period, having reached a maximum in the crisis years of 60 percent. A level of 19.4 percent was recorded in 2007 and a level of
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
22 percent was recorded in 2009. Both these rates are about 50 percent of the MDG baseline ﬁgure of 51.0 percent in 1996 and reﬂect the success of the Government in applying improved prac ces of debt management as well as prudent ﬁscal policies. The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the Monterrey Consensus (2002) and the Paris Declara on on Aid Eﬀec veness (2005), and is commi ed to the principles of aid eﬀec veness. Indonesia was also an ac ve par cipant in the regional prepara ons for the Third High Level Forum on Aid Eﬀec veness (2008). In 2009, the Government and 26 key interna onal development partners3 signed the “Jakarta Commitment: Aid for Development Eﬀec veness - Indonesia’s Road Map to 2014”. The Jakarta Commitment supports Indonesia’s eﬀorts to maximize the eﬀec veness of its aid in suppor ng development and deﬁnes the policy direc on to achieve greater development eﬀec veness to 2014 and beyond. The roadmap for aid eﬀec veness sets out the strategic vision to which Indonesia, along with development partners, have commi ed. The agenda is based on the principles of the Paris Declara on and the Accra Agenda for Ac on. The program will work to: (i) increase the u lity of interna onal assistance in support of implementa on of the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan; (ii) increase na onal ownership of development assistance; (iii) encourage and assist development partners to follow regula ons and mechanisms established by the Government; (iv) support inclusion of development assistance in the na onal budget (APBN); and (v) encourage development partners to adopt “un ed” systems.
The main constraint facing Indonesia in addressing the challenges and achieving its planned development outcomes is to strengthen capacity to u lize all resources eﬀec vely. Maintaining the current debt por olio is one of the focuses while working to achieve cost eﬃcient and manageable risks within the dynamic of ﬁnancial markets. The Government has worked to increase eﬀec veness in use of interna onal grants and loans in providing support to achievement of na onal development objec ves, but there is s ll room to improve aid eﬀec veness. Various reviews of programs and projects funded by
Development partners signing the Jakarta Commitment include: the Asian Development Bank; the Government of Australia; the Government of Japan; the Government of the Netherlands; the Government of the Republic of Poland; the World Bank; the Austrian Embassy; l’Agence Française de Développement; the Canadian Interna onal Development Agency; the Department for Interna onal Development of the United Kingdom; the Delega on of the European Commission; the Embassy of Finland; the Embassy of France; the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany; the Embassy of Italy; Japan Interna onal Coopera on Agency; Korea Interna onal Coopera on Agency; the Royal Norwegian Embassy; the New Zealand Agency for Interna onal Development; the Embassy of Sweden; the United States Agency for Interna onal Development/Indonesia; the United Na ons System in Indonesia; the Islamic Development Bank; the Danish Interna onal Development Agency; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera on.
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
interna onal ﬁnance ins tu ons and the donor community have found that common challenges exist in increasing the eﬀec veness of aid in Indonesia. These include the following: a. a low sense of ownership of loan and grant funded programs by those responsible for implementa on; b. procedures of the donors are not always fully aligned with those of the Government; c. programming of loans and grants are not always fully harmonized with Government planning and priori es; d. development programs are not always managed to achieve op mum results and the sense of mutual accountability is some mes less than required; and e. weaknesses exist in suppor ng management informa on systems as well as in the human resources assigned to manage informa on on development programs.
Policies and Strategies
Priori es of the Government in the management of loans and grants from mul lateral and bilateral ins tu ons as well as commercial credit ins tu ons for the coming years are as follows: 1. Foreign loans and grants will be used to support achievement of the na onal priori es, goals and objec ves in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) and in harmony with Indonesia’s commitment to achieve the MDGs; 2. Con nuous eﬀorts will be made to reduce the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP while con nuing to maintain a situa on of nega ve net transfers; 3. Further improvements will be made in the regula ons and laws rela ng to interna onal loans and grants; 4. Increased na onal ownership for programs funded by interna onal loans and grants will be promoted as will applica on of improved na onal procedures for management of interna onal funding; 5. Improvements will be made in the ins tu onal coordina on mechanisms, transparency and accountability at all stages, from planning and implementa on to monitoring and evalua on; and 6. Strengthening na onal capacity to manage programming and u liza on of development funding eﬀec vely will be priori zed. The Jakarta Commitment4 is based on the spirit of mutual respect, support and accountability and will be implemented to achieve greater beneﬁts in the achievement of Indonesia’s development objec ves, including the MDGs. It enjoins upon the Government and development partners to make available appropriate resources, knowledge and capacity to
Jakarta Commitment, Aid for Development Eﬀec veness – Indonesia’s Roadmap to 2014 (January, 2009).
Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development implement the Jakarta Commitment. The Government has established a Secretariat for Aid for Development Eﬀec veness (A4DES) to support implementa on of the Jakarta Commitment and to ensure that government ins tu ons have the capacity to take full ownership and to lead aid coordina on and management processes. the complete text is available at the website of the Secretariat for Aid Eﬀec veness in Jakarta: h p://www. although the use of computers is common in businesses. to build capacity of users of ICT. make available the benefits of new technologies.32 percent of Indonesian households owned personal computers in 2009. Only 8. Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector. especially information and communications Current Status The government is commited to expanding collabora on with the private sector to ensure that all Indonesians are able to beneﬁt from the opportuni es that Informa on Communica on Technologies (ICTs) oﬀer in building an inclusive Informa on Society.a4des. Ongoing ini a ves include those to improve infrastructure for ICT.4 presents the rapid increase in the percentages of the popula on owning cellular telephones in recent years as compared to the rela ve decline in the use of ﬁxed line telephones (Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN). The three main components of the Jakarta Commitment5 are as follows: • • • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development. and to create an enabling regulatory/policy environment to achieve the goals agreed at the World Summit on the Informa on Society. and Delivering and Accoun ng for Development Results. civil society 5 The following is a summary adapted from the Jakarta Commitment. Building More Eﬀec ve and Inclusive Partnerships for Development. The expansion in the use of personal computers has grown at a slower rate than cellular telephones due to the rela vely high cost of their purchase and the need for a minimum level of competency to u lize them. Figure 8.org/ 144 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Telecommunica ons in Indonesia have expanded rapidly in the period since the economic crisis.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ministry of Communica ons and Informa on Technology. equipment manufacturers and user solu ons. with the lowest rates of use occurring in the remote eastern provinces (see Figure 8. so ware and device applica ons. Infrastructure and internet use is expanding rapidly in the major urban centers. Figure 8.5). wireless access and land lines.000 Indonesians were able to u lize the internet. computers and the internet among regions. there exist major dispari es in the use of telephones. especially in eastern Indonesia. Most remote areas do not yet have access to modern ICT and the quality of access in many areas is basic.51 percent of the na onal households. Access to the internet has expanded rapidly since 1998 when it was es mated that only 512. The exis ng na onal infrastructure in support of telecommunica ons has been based on a system of satellites. including those providing services for users. government and in community-based organiza ons. 2010. but suppor ng infrastructure is far weaker in rural areas. Percentage of Popula on in Indonesia Owning FixedLine Telephones or Cellular Telephones During 2004-2009 Fixed Telephone Cellular Phone Challenges One of the primary challenges for the future is to close the gap in access to ICT communica ons by improving the telecommunica ons infrastructure to provide broadband access throughout Indonesia. ICT communica ons play a strategic role in trade. while capacity building is s ll required to increase the na onal e-literacy rate. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 145 . government and civil society.4. In a na on as large and diverse as Indonesia.organiza ons. Investment in ICT industries has exceeded expecta ons. By 2009 the number of internet users had risen to 11. Awareness and capacity to use ICT eﬀec vely is developing rapidly including among SMEs. As a result. With the increased investments in ICT industries. there is a need to build a more compe ve environment for the provision of ICT services as well as a more conducive environment for collabora on in all ICT industries.
3G Implementa on. including achievement of the MDGs. including remote and isolated regions.5. It is the government’s objec ve to transform Indonesia into an informa on-based society driven by the free ﬂow of informa on. Transi on to Digital Television. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Deployment. At the same me the government will con nue to cooperate with the private sector and the public in implemen ng four components of a comprehensive ICT blueprint for Indonesia: 1. Corporate social responsibility will also be encouraged to contribute to the achievement of community objec ves. Community Access Points (CAP). 146 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the government will work to strengthen the regulatory framework for investors and harmonize the regula ons of na onal and regional government on investment. At present the popula ons of the larger urban centers of Indonesia have far greater access to ICT. Improvement of ICT Infrastructure: The Palapa Ring Program.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. In order to create a more conducive environment for investors. Percentage of Households Owning Personal Computers and Having Access to the Internet by Province (2009) 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Sulawesi Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Maluku Utara Kalimantan Tengah Maluku Jambi Aceh Papua Barat Papua Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jawa Tengah Sumatera Selatan Kalimantan Selatan Gorontalo Jawa Timur Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara INDONESIA Bengkulu Jawa Barat Sumatera Barat Riau Kepulauan Riau Bali Banten Kalimantan Timur DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta Source: BPS. The government will also expand direct collabora on with the private sector through public-private partnerships while suppor ng the development of special economic zones for specialized products. Computer Internet Policies and Strategies The government is commi ed to the promo on of private sector investment to achieve the objec ves of na onal development. Susenas 2009. but government policy is to make informa on available to communi es in all areas.
businesses and communi es. and • The government will formulate a dra Na onal e-Government Master Plan in 2010 and each government ins tu on will be required to prepare a their own e-Government Master Plan. • Develop na onal e-government ini a ves and services. e-procurement and e-licensing services by the end of 2014. accountability and eﬃciency at all levels of government. in order to enhance transparency. • Building capacity for ICT will be accomplished through a public-private partnership model to be developed in such a way that all the par es involved will beneﬁt. to achieve a more eﬃcient alloca on of resources and public goods.2. • Support interna onal coopera on ini a ves in the ﬁeld of e-government. to improve the management of educa on. 4. at all levels. educa onal ins tu ons. and crea on of an investment climate to promote private sector investment in ICT. improvement of the ICT Convergence Law. ICT Industry Development which will include: implementa on of the Electronic Informa on and Transac ons Law. improving eﬃciency and strengthening rela ons with ci zens. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 147 . E-Government: Various decrees and regula ons of the government have been issued to support adop on of innova ve prac ces of e-government through public-private partnerships and coopera on between central and regional governments and private sector service providers.net) has been established to integrate ICT in learning.Jardiknas. • Implement e-government strategies focusing on applica ons aimed at innova ng and promo ng transparency in public administra ons and democra c processes. 3. It is planned that: • E-services and e-procurement will be applied by all government agencies. The development of human resources for ICT will be focused on the target groups within government. and to make use of ICT in research and development of educa on. E-Educa on under the Ministry of Na onal Educa on: • The na onal educa on network (www. prepara on of government regula ons on the dessemina on of informa on and electronic transac ons (RPP PITE). It is expected that online public services will be available for e-ci zen.4. ICT will be used as an instrument to re-engineer the provision of public services to all Indonesians. • At the end of the current Na onal Medium Term Development Plan it is expected that the score of the na onal system of e-government will have reached 3. adapted to the needs of ci zens and business. The government is preparing an Electronic System at the central and regional levels of government to support a na onal system of e-government. • The applica on of e-budge ng by government agencies will increase the transparency and eﬃciency of government planning and budge ng.
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