Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

.

Foreword Ten years ago. in terms of poverty reduc on. Annual Work Plans and budget documents. In Indonesia and other developing countries. the Government of Indonesia has formulated the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs. Indonesia has already been successful in achieving several MDG targets. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans. This year. the MDGs are used as a reference in formula ng policies. is a very important moment for Indonesia to again make a commitment to the global declara on on the MDGs. 2010. To that end. the propor on of the popula on living on less than USD 1 per day has been reduced from 20. Heads of State and representa ves from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declara on to confirm the global concern for the welfare of the people of the world. pro-poor. For several other MDG targets significant progress has been achieved. produc ve partnerships between the Government. pro-jobs. In addi on. Each goal has been translated into one or more targets with measurable indicators. from planning and budge ng to implementa on. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). and pro-environment. alloca ons of public funding at the central and regional levels have been increased annually to support the achievement of the MDG targets. place people as the main focus of development and ar culate a set of interrelated goals as the agenda for development and global partnership. Various approaches that need to be implemented to accelerate the achievement of the MDG targets are also iden fied in this Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia iii . This approach has been outlined in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025. at the General Assembly of the United Na ons held in New York in September 2000. and development programs. 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. This Roadmap includes details concerning the present situa on. Economic growth and the strengthening of democracy and social ins tu ons during the past ten years have supported the achievement of the MDGs. challenges faced. A er the economic crisis in 1997/1998 Indonesia implemented a series of reforms in various fields which provided a strong founda on for the Indonesian people to return to a period of high and sustainable economic growth. Indonesia will work harder to con nue to improve the welfare and quality of life of the people of Indonesia and to achieve the MDG targets on me. For example. Based on the na onal development strategy that is pro-growth. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in all phases of development. and we are confident that other MDG targets will be realized by 2015. Special a en on will be given to several MDG targets. civil society organiza ons and the private sector have made a vital contribu on towards accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs.9 percent in 2008. The objec ves of the Declara on. strategies.6 percent in 1990 to 5. as well as na onal development policies and strategies. including the reduc on of maternal mortality and increasing the ra o of forest cover so that those targets can be achieved by 2015.

Prof. Akhirul kalam. the Government of Indonesia con nues to build an environment that allows all components of society. we thank and express gra tude to all those who have contributed to the prepara on of this Roadmap. including civil society organiza ons. We hope that what we have produced will be useful for the na on. and the private sector to par cipate produc vely in a community-based.Roadmap. Armida S. Success in achieving the MDGs is highly dependent upon good governance. Dr. and implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieve an inclusive pa ern of growth while improving public services and empowering communi es in all regions. SE. The informa on presented in this publica on is expected to contribute to a be er understanding concerning the challenges faced and the steps that must be taken to achieve all the MDG targets in Indonesia. Alisjahbana. MA Minister for Na onal Development Planning/ Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) iv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . At the same me. grass-roots movement to benefit all Indonesians. produc ve partnerships among all components of society.

Ir. Dr. DR. Ir. Apprecia on and thanks are specifically extended to: • • Prof. SH. MSIE. MA. Taufik Hanafi MUP. MPM. Ir. MM. and Sap a Novadiana. MA who have contributed in providing data. M. Rahma Iryan .Sc. MPM.Acknowledgement The Na onal Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Indonesia from 2010 to 2015 has been prepared by a Team consis ng of a Steering Commi ee and a Technical Team / Working Group responsible to the Minister of Na onal Development Planning / Head of BAPPENAS. Maliki. Arif Haryana. MA. as the Special Envoy of the President for the MDGs. Rooswan Soeharno. Hjalte S. MSc. Happy Hardjo. Dr. MADM. Rd. S. Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sjuhdi Rasjid. MSc.). ST. MA. MPS.Lic (Econ. Ir. MIDS. Hygiawa Nur Rahayu. Ph. Dr. ST. Imam Subek . Kom. Sanjoyo. Yosi Tresna Diani.D. informa on and prepara on of the manuscript. Dr. Ir. ST. MPH. Ec. Nila Moeloek. Ir. MARS. Ph. Rr. MA who have coordinated the prepara on while also maintaining quality assurance for the substance of this Roadmap. Sri Yan . Nina Sardjunani. Randy R. MPA. ME. Mon y Girianna. MCP. SKM. MIA. MSc. MSc. MS. MSc. Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo. Hidayat Syarief. SH. for their support in the prepara on of this Roadmap. Fithriyah. PhD. The membership of the Team is presented in Appendix 4 of the Roadmap. SE.. MSc. Woro Srihastu Sulistyaningrum. and Dr. Dr. M. H. Ir. Dr.D. • Our thanks are also extended to our development partners from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Agency for Interna onal Development (AusAid). Arum Atmawikarta. Endah Murniningtyas. SE. Hadiat. Wynandin Imawan. Dr. Wrihatnolo. Tommy Hermawan. Nugroho Tri Utomo. MPIA. MAP. especially to Alan S. who has guided the formula on process of this document. ST. MSc. Tri Goddess Virgiyan . Erwin Dimas. Dr. Msi. Ir. Wet Hernowo. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia v . MRPL Hamzah Riza. MSc. Ir. Rahmana Yahya Hidayat. Ir. MSc. Dr.. MEM. MPH. MA. ST. DEA. MT. Dra. Wahyuningsih Daraja . MSc. Wendy Hartanto. Dr. Ir. Ir. dr. Emmy Soeparmijatun. SP. and to all others who contributed to the prepara on of this document but that cannot be men oned individually. MSIE. MA and Dra. Ir. To all members of the Prepara on Team we extend our gra tude and thanks for their hard work and dedica on which have contributed to the comple on of the Roadmap. Adi Wismana Suryabrata. Ahmad Taufik. Drs. Dadang Rizki Ratman. Dra. MPM. Edi Effendi Tedjakusuma. Ph. Benny Azwir. ST. SE. Drs. Ir.Eng. MA. M. Siliwan . Dr. Subandi. Ec. Dr.A. Mahatmi Saronto Parwitasari. S. MA. Sularsono. Sederlof. Prouty. Budi Hidayat. Ir. Ir. MPA. Ir. Tu Riya .

May the Roadmap be used by all interested par es both within government and the concerned stakeholders in efforts to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Dr. Alisjahbana. Armida S. SE. August 2010 Minister for the Na onal Development Planning / Head of the Na onal Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) Prof. Jakarta. MA vi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

........................... GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN ..................................................... by 2015............................................................................................ by 2015...................................................Table of Contents FOREWORD ... INTRODUCTION......... including women and young people .............. boys and girls alike................................................. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1.............................................................................................................. universal access to reproduc ve health........................ and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015.............. Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters...... the propor on of people who suffer from hunger ........................... between 1990 and 2015............................................................................... OVERVIEW OF STATUS OF MDG TARGETS ......................................................... Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds........ Target 1C: Halve......................................................................... LIST OF TABLES ................................................................ Target 5B: Achieve.......................... preferably by 2005.............................................. LIST OF MAPS ............. LIST OF FIGURES ....... between 1990 and 2015...................................................................................................................... between 1990 and 2015........................................................................................................... Target 2A: Ensure that................................................................................................................................................. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..... Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on................ between 1990 and 2015.... Target 1A: Halve.... will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling .. GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY RATE .................. TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................ GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER ...................... Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all........ the under-five mortality rate ..................... GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION ... SUMMARY BY GOAL .......................................................00 (PPP) a day . iii v vii ix xi xi xiii 1 9 15 23 25 39 43 49 51 59 61 69 71 78 79 79 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia vii ................................................... GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH .................................. children everywhere. the Maternal Mortality Ra o ...............................................................................

............................ Target 6B: Achieve..... universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it ............................. 133 Target 8A: Develop further an open.. 144 viii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ................ MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES .................................. the propor on of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on ........ make available the benefits of new technologies....................... 129 GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT ...................GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS.................................................... non-discriminatory trading and financial systems ................................................ 113 Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss............ 111 Target 7A: Integra ng the principles of sustainable development in na onal policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources ........................... achieving. 120 Target 7C: Halve.......... by 2010....................... Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS .. 136 Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.................................................. especially informa on and communica ons ...... rule-based......................................... 141 Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.................. predictable.................. 122 Target 7D: By 2020.................. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers ................................... 101 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY . a significant reduc on in the rate of loss .................................................. by 2015.................. by 2010..... 91 93 93 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases ..........................

.......................................... 1990-2009 ...... Figure 4........................................................... Employment to Popula on Ra o for urban and rural areas and for the na onal level .................................................1........ 2002 to 2010................ The na onal trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.................... Figure 5..2..... Figure 1...................................................... Trends in the average calorie consump on for rural and urban households (2002-2009) ...2............................................ Figure 3..............12.................................................1.........3...... Figure 1................4........... Figure 2.......... The percentages of the popula on below the na onal poverty line by major geographical region of Indonesia (2010) .................... Na onal trend Infant and Child Mortality per 1... Figure 2.............................. by province 2007 ........ Figure 1........................................................ Net Enrolment Rate for primary school including Madrasah by province. Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia.......2.............. 25 26 27 27 28 29 40 41 43 44 45 46 52 52 62 63 72 73 80 80 Figure 1............... Na onal trends and projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025...6............................................. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ix ................ Propor on of one-year-old children immunized against measles............................... 2009 .. Figure 1......................................... Figure 1...5............................... Figure 1........... Figure 1. Long-term trends in poverty reduc on in Indonesia measured using the indicator for Na onal Poverty Line and the target for 2015 .................. Average monthly wages (Rp ‘000) of male and female workers in non-agricultural sectors ........ 2009 .................. Percentage of births assisted by skilled provider....1........1................ Figure 1................................. Figure 5. 2010 ...............11................List of Figures Figure 1.1............ Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) senior secondary schools by province................. Trend in the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (1989-2007) using the WHO 2005 standard and the MDG Target for this indicator in 2015..................000 live births ............................ Figure 1..................2.................. 2009 ..7............ Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os for primary and junior secondary educa on levels (including Madrasah) . Progress in reducing extreme poverty (USD1................................................................13.... The propor on of vulnerable workers to total workers.................................... The growth rate of labor produc vity (in percentages) for the agriculture.....................................10.................... Figure 4.... Figure 1.. by provinces ..... Figure 1.........................00/capita/day) as compared to the MDG target .... Figure 3. The distribu on of Indonesia’s poor by urban and rural se ng (1990-2010) ...............8........................2......... industry and the service sector ............. Trend in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score of food consump on for rural and urban households...... 2002-2007 ................. The prevalence of underweight children under five years of age by province (2007) ....9.......................

...... by popula on group. 130 The trends for imports.............................. 137 Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of commercial and rural credit banks......................3............................. Figure 7.................... Indonesia 1990-2009 ................. year 2009 .. who use condom at last sex..............................4.8............ 97 Coverage of ART interven ons in Indonesia............................... Figure 6..............5...4........... exports.......... 2009 ...................... 81 Unmet needs..... 2009 ..........................................2.. 145 Percentage of households owning personal computers and having access to the internet by province (2009) .... Indonesia 1991-2007 ..........2....... Figure 8............6..4..................3... Figure 6................ 114 Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 ............. Figure 6..1....... Figure 5........ Figure 7...... Figure 6.................. 123 The propor on of households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural..................................... Figure 7... 113 Total energy use of various types for the years 1990-2008 (equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in millions) ............................................................ Figure 7.... 122 The propor on of households that have access to improved drinking water in urban and rural and total according to the provinces.. Figure 7..............8... according to background characteris c.....1..... Figure 6.... Figure 7............000 popula on in Indonesia........ 123 Proporsi households that have access to adequate sanita on in rural.. 82 AIDS cases per 100................................................... 94 Distribu on of HIV Infec ons. 114 Propor on of households with access to propoer (improved) drinkingwater.............................................3......... by back ground characteris c.............9...2..5.............5....7...................... Figure 6....... Indonesia 2007 .... 1993-2009....... urban and rural and urban total........ 95 Cumula ve percentage on AIDS cases by age group............... 2009 ........................... by province......1.............. Figure 6..... Figure 6................................... 124 The propor on of urban households living in slums..........................Figure 5............. by province... 129 The propor on of urban slum households by province.......... 96 Propor on of men and woemn aged 15-24 with correct of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS.... 2006–2009 ... Figure 7.. Figure 6............................3.................. the year 1993-2009 ........... Figure 8. 2000 ... 2009.. 1993 and 2009 ........................ 1989-2009................................ First and fourth antenatal visits. Figure 7.. urban and total rural and urban......9.......... 101 The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 ........ 97 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.. Figure 8............. in Indonesia 1991.......2008 .......... in 1993-2009 ..... Figure 8........................7.....2009.... 95 Percentage of unmarried women and men age 15-24 who have ever had sex..................... 94 Number of AIDS cases in Indonesia.... 138 The trend of foreign debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) during 1996-2009........... 106 The percentage of forest cover of the total land area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 ............. 141 Percentage of popula on in Indonesia owning fixed-line telephones or cellular telephones during 2004-2009 ...........4..... 146 x Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia ........ Figure 8............ 2007.................... GDP growth and the ra o of imports plus exports to GDP as the MDG indicator for economic openness ..............6.. Figure 7.....

2010—2014 ..............1....... Outputs..3............................................. and Targets for Improvment of the Access to Drinking Water and Improved Sanita on. 88 Priori es... 131 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xi ........................ Percentages of popula on below the na onal poverty line by province of Indonesia............ and Labor.............1..... Table 6..1........................... 2010-2014............................. 2010-2014 ............... Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program................. Poli cs............................ 54 Program Priori es........ Outputs.1.....2... 105 Priori es..... 44 Outputs and Targets Specified in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) ............. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services.... 2010-2014...................... Annual Implementa on Targets Specified in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty . Table 7...1............................. 2010 ..............1.........................2....... and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.............. Table 4............................ 2010-2014 ... 48 Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualifica ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* ... 109 Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management ............................ Table 6.............. 128 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums .......1............. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program. 116 Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources ........... Table 3.........2....... Table 7............... Table 2...............4.....2....... Map 3.............. 2010-2014 ......................................... The average wages of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers by province in August 2009 ... 119 Priori es... Table 5..... Table 7........2..... Table 7...1.................... 28 64 List of Tables Table 1.....................List of Maps Map 1................ Table 5.... Outputs and Indicators 2010-2014 .................................................. 67 Priori es.................. 76 Priori es.......................... Table 2... 87 Priori es.. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services................... 100 Priori es................. Table 6.......3............................................................................. Table 1. Table 1........................................... 32 Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007)................................ Outputs... Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB. 2010-2014 ................ 57 Priority. Outputs........ Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.... 2010-2014........................1..............3..........

List of Abbreviations ACFTA ACSM ACT ADB ADP AEC AFTA AIDS AKFTA ANC APEC APL ART ASEAN BAPPENAS BCC BCG BEONC BLT BOE BOK BOS BPK BPLHD BPS BSM BSNP BWA CAIRNS CBE CCS CDM CDR CEACR CEONC The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement Advocacy. Communica on and Social Mobiliza on Artemisinin-based combina on therapy Asian Development Bank Annual Development Plan ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Free Trade Area Acquired Immuno-defeciency Syndrome The ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement Antenatal Care The Asia Pacific Economic Coopera on Forum Areal Penggunaan Lain (areas for other uses) An retroviral Therapy The Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons Kementerian Negara Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (The Na onal Development Planning Agency) Behavioral Change Communica on Bacillus Calme e-Guérin Basic Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Assistance Program) Barrels of Oil Equivalent Biaya Operasional Kesehatan (subsidy for opera onal cost for health facili es) Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (School Opera onal Assistance) Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Supreme Audit Authority) Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (Local Environmental Management Agency) Badan Pusat Sta s k (Central Bureau of Sta s cs) Beasiswa Miskin (Scholarship for Poor Children) Board of Na onal Educa on Standards Broadband Wireless Access Coali on of Agricultural Expor ng Na ons Lobbying for Agricultural Trade Liberaliza on Compulsory Basic Educa on Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Development Mechanism Case Detec on Rate Commi ee of Experts on the Applica on of Conven ons and Recommenda ons Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric-Neonatal Care xii Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Laos. Myanmar and Vietnam Community-Led Total Sanita on Carbon Dioxide Contracep ve Prevalence Rate Civil Society Organiza on Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Alloca on Funds) Alert Village: a village that has resources capability and readiness to overcome health problems and to reach a healthy village) Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representa ve Council) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representa ves) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional House of Representa ves) Trivalent vaccines against three infec ous diseases in humans: diphtheria.CEPT CFCs CH4 CITES CLMV CLTS CO2 CPR CSO DAK Desa Siaga DOTS DPD DPR DPRD DPT 3 DRA DSR DSS ECED EFA FMU FSW G-20 G-33 GATT GDP GER GHG GMP GPI HCFC HDR HIS HIV HL HP The Common Effec ve Preferen al Tariff Chlorofluorocarbons Methane Conven on on Interna onal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Cambodia. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus Demand-Responsive Approach Debt Service Ra o Dengue Shock Syndrome Early Childhood Educa on and Development Educa on for All Forest Management Unit Female Sex Worker The group of 20 is a forum for 20 industrialized and developing countries to discuss key issues of the global economy Chair of the coali on of developing countries suppor ng flexibility to undertake limited market openings on agricultural issues General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs Gross Domes c Product Gross Enrolment Rate Green House Gasses Growth Monitoring Prac ce Gender Parity Index Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Human Development Report Health Informa on System Human Immuno-deficiency Virus Hutan Lindung (Protected Forest) Hutan Produksi (Produc on Forest) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xiii .

HPK HPT ICCSR ICCTF ICT IDHS IDU IEC IJEPA ILO IMCI IMF IMR INHERENT IPCC IPPA IPTP IRS ITN IUCN IUD Jamkesmas KAP KPA KPU KSA KUR LDR LG LJK LKBB LLIN LMIC LMVD LPG LPTK LULUCF MA MARP MDGs MDR-TB Hutan Produksi yang bisa dikonversi (forest areas which can be converted to non-forest uses) Hutan Produksi Terbatas (Limited Produc on Forests) Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Informa on and Communica on Technology Indonesia Demographic Health Survey Injec ng Drug Users Informa on. Educa on and Communica ons Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement Interna onal Labor Organiza on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Interna onal Monetary Fund Infant Mortality Rate Indonesia Higher Educa on Network Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Interna onal Planned Parenthood Associa on Intermi ent Preven ve Treatment for Pregnant women Indoor Residual Spraying Insec cide-Treated Nets Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature Intra-Uterine Device Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Na onal Health Security Program) Knowledge. A tudes and Prac ce Kawasan Pelestarian Alam (Nature Conserva on Area) Komisi Pemilihan Umum (General Elec ons Commission) Kawasan Suaka Alam (Nature Reserve Area) Kredit Usaha Rakyat (People-Based Small Business Loan Program) Loan Deposit Ra o Local Government Lembaga Jasa Keuangan (financial service ins tu on) Lembaga Keuangan Bukan Bank (non-bank financial ins tu on) Long-Las ng Insec cidal Nets Lower Middle Income Country Lembaga Modal Ventura Dasar Liquid Petroleum Gas Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (Teacher Training Ins tute) Land Use. Land Use Change and Forestry Madrasah Aliyah Most at Risk Popula on Millennium Development Goals Mul drug-Resistant TB xiv Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Krea f. Small and Medium Enterprise Minimum Service Standards Madrasah Tsanawiyah Medium-Term Expenditure Framework A coali on of developing countries seeking flexibility to limit market opennings in trade of industrial goods Na onal Council for Climate Change Net Enrollment Rate Non-formal Educa on The Na onal Greenhouse Gases Inventory Na onal Iden fica on Number Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan Nitrogen Oxide Non-Performing Loans Na onal TB Program Oil-Based Fuels Ozone Deple ng Poten al Ozone Deple ng Substances Oral Rehydra on Solu ons Oral Rehydra on Therapy Pembelajaran Ak f. Neonatal and Child Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Na onal Educa on Ministry of Religious Affairs Micro. Crea ve. Efek f dan Menyenangkan (Ac ve. Effec ve and Fun Learning) Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Educa on) Public Finance Management Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat (clean and healthy behavior) Program for Interna onal Student Assessment Program Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Wilayah Program Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Program) Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) People Living with HIV People Living with HIV/AIDS Preven ng Mother to Child Transmission Postnatal Care Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (Na onal Program for Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia xv .MDTFs MI MMR MMT MNCH MOH MONE MORA MSME MSS MT MTEF NAMA 11 NCCC NER NFE NGHGI NIN NMTDP NO NPL NTP OBF ODP ODS ORS ORT PAKEM PAUD PFM PHBS PISA PISEW PKH PKK PLHIV PLWHA PMTCT PNC PNPM Mul -Donor Trust Funds Madrasah Ib daiyah Maternal Mortality Ra o Methadone Maintenance Therapy Maternal.

Posyandu PPLS PPP PSTN PT Puskesmas RANMAPI RASKIN RBM RDA REDD Riskesdas RPJPN RPJMN Sakernas SBM SD SDKI SKRT SMA SMP SPM SPR SR SRH STI Susenas TB TBA TFR TIMSS UNDP UNFCCC UNICEF Community Empowerment) Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Health Post. conducted by the Central Bureau of Sta s cs School-Based Management Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia (Indonesian Demography and Health Survey) Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (Household Health Survey) Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) Standar Pelayanan Minimum (Minimun Service Standard) School Par cipa on Rate Success Rate Sexual and Reproduc ve Health Sexually-Transmi ed Infec on Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Na onal Socio-Economic Survey). conducted by Central Bureau of Sta s cs Tuberculosis Tradi onal Birth A endant Total Fer lity Rate Third Interna onal Mathema cs Science Study United Na ons Development Programme United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change United Na ons Childrens’ Fund xvi Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . conducted by MOH-RI) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Nasional (Na onal Long-Term Development Plan) Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan) Survei Tenagakerja Nasional (Na onal Labour Force Survey). a community-based basic health monitoring and services at village level) Pendataan Program Layanan Sosial (Social Service Program Survey) Purchasing Power Parity Public Switched Telephone Network Perguruan Tinggi (Higher Educa on) Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Primary Health Center) Rencana Aksi Nasional untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (Na onal Ac on Plan on Mi ga on and Adapta on to Climate Change) Beras Miskin (Rice for the Poor Program) Roll Back Malaria Recommended Dietary Allowance Reducing Emissions from Deforesta on and Degrada on Riset Kesehatan Dasar (basic health research.

UNSD VCT WAN WB WBG WHO WiMAX WTO

United Na ons Sta s cs Division Voluntary Counseling and Tes ng Wide Area Network World Bank World Bank Group World Health Organiza on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access World Trade Organiza on

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

xvii

xviii

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Introduction

2 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). Realiza on of a society that has strong moral values that are ethical. advanced. and the resource endowment of Indonesia. and based on the philosophy of Pancasila. National Development Priorities Based on the current condi on of the Indonesian na on. The Indonesian government has mainstreamed the MDGs in the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN 2005-2025). 3. 4. powerful. Crea on of a compe ve na on. cultured. Crea on of a democra c society based on the rule of law. 2. eight missions related Na onal Development are to be achieved: 1. The MDGs have been an important considera on in preparing na onal development planning documents. Crea on of a green and sustainable Indonesia. Realiza on of Indonesia as an independent island na on. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). peaceful and united. advanced. The MDGs are based on global partnership and developed countries also have stressed their agreement to fully support these efforts. at the Millennium Summit of the United Na ons (UN). improving maternal and child health. Enabling Indonesia to play an important role in the interna onal community. environmental sustainability. and Na onal Annual Development Plans (RKP) as well as the State Budget documents. and global coopera on. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3 . and 8. 6. a ainment of universal basic educa on. 5. 7. gender equality. The MDGs place human development as the focus of development and establish a set of measurable indicators of progress to be achieved by 2015. reduc on in the prevalence of communicable diseases. and based on na onal interests. prosperous and just. the Na onal Development Vision for the years 2005-2025 year has been defined to be: an Indonesia that is self-reliant. 189 member states agreed to adopt the Millennium Declara on which was then translated into a prac cal framework. To achieve this vision. Crea on of an Indonesia that is safe. Achievement of an equitable and just pa ern of development.Introduction In September 2000. taking into account the challenges to be faced over the next 20 years. There now remain five years for developing member states of the UN to achieve the eight MDGs related to poverty reduc on.

3. In addi on to these eleven na onal priori es. 2. (vii) investment and improving the business climate. and prosperous through the accelera on of development in various fields built on a solid economic structure and based on compe ve advantages in various fields supported by qualified and compe ve human resources. and technological innova on. and security areas and in the fields of the economy and people’s welfare. (ii) educa on. legal. and (iii) improve the jus ce system in all sectors.The strategies to be implemented to accomplish this vision and missions have been translated into stages of five-year periods that are presented in Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan documents (RPJMN). (ix) the natural environment and disasters. and just na on. (iii) health. The five-year development phases are summarized as follows: 1. the first Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2005-2009) was formulated to reorganize and develop all regions of Indonesia and to create Indonesia as a safe and peaceful. crea vity. This vision has been translated into three Na onal Development Missions which are to: (i) con nue developing towards a prosperous Indonesia. (vii) energy. The current Na onal Medium-Term Plan will be implemented during 2010 to 2014. the fourth Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2020-2025) will create a selfreliant Indonesian society. democra c. including development of science and technology. (iv) poverty reduc on. (x) border areas. (ii) strengthen the pillars of democracy. the third Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2015-2019) will further strengthen overall development in various fields by emphasizing the achievement of compe veness of the economy based on compara ve advantages of natural and human resources and the expanding capacity of science and technology. 4 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (vi) infrastructure. fair. the second Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) aims to consolidate the restructuring of Indonesia in all fields with an emphasis on improving the quality of human resources. (v) food security. efforts to achieve the Vision and Mission of the Na onal Development will also be carried out through achievement of other na onal priori es in the poli cal. just and democra c na on while increasing the welfare of the people. and 4. progressive. The Na onal Development Vision during this period has been defined as follows: The realiza on of Indonesia as a prosperous. The Vision and Missions of Na onal Development 2010-2014 have been formulated and translated into opera onal terms in a number of na onal priori es in the following thema c areas: (i) reform of the bureaucracy and governance. remote areas and post-conflict areas. and the strengthening of economic compe veness. and (xi) culture.

Indonesia is the third most populous democracy of the world and has been able to strengthen the economy to achieve the status of a middle-income country. The various crises and global challenges men oned above have provided the lesson that globaliza on has two different sides which provide both opportuni es and challenges. In turn. lower middle income households and the poor have been forced to expend a greater share of their incomes on food. This has been done to accelerate the achievement of na onal goals. Alloca on of funds in na onal and local budgets in Indonesia has increased from year to year to support the achievement of the MDGs. Extreme weather events have increased. global climate change and the global financial crisis of 2007/2008. that is the propor on of people living with per Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 5 . The MDG targets that have already been achieved include: • MDG 1 . Although there are s ll many challenges and problems in the implementa on of development in Indonesia. while the na on has not yet fully recovered from the economic crisis of 1997/1998.Development of Indonesia After the Global Crisis and Achievement of the MDG Targets During the past five years. With rising food prices. the Government remains determined to fulfill the commitment to achieve the MDG targets on me. fishermen have been unable to go to sea and public health has been nega vely affected. and (c) targets that s ll require great effort to be achieved. Currently. Indonesia con nues to organize and develop in all fields. (b) targets for which significant progress has been achieved. A na on must be fully prepared in all fields to address the global crises and challenges. In this unfavorable global environment. evalua on of the progress in achievement of the MDGs has been useful in adjus ng plans to be more responsive to the needs of poor and vulnerable groups. In reviewing trends in the achievement of the MDG targets.The level of extreme poverty. The global economic crisis has resulted in a world economic recession which has influenced the performance of the domes c economy. Posi ve economic growth and strengthening of democra c ins tu ons during the last ten years have strengthened the posi on of the na on to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. high rainfall has resulted in crop failures and damage to crops. Some of the most important have been the fluctua on of oil prices. The growth rate of GDP dropped to 4 to 5 percent as compared with the growth rate of the economy prior to the crisis. the current status can be grouped into three categories of achievement: (a) targets which have already been achieved. which amounted to 7-8 percent. The Indonesian na on has also worked consistently over the last decade to achieve the MDG targets. Se ng measurable targets related to the MDGs that can be monitored and evaluated has proven to be effec ve in increasing the efficiency of resource alloca on. rising food prices. Indonesia has faced significant global challenges.

An increase in detec on of tuberculosis cases has been achieved.9 percent in 2009.000 births in 1991 to 44 per 1. MDG 2 – The par cipa on rate for primary educa on is close to 100 percent and the literacy rate of the popula on was more than 99.0 percent.capita income of less than USD 1 per day. rule-based.6 percent in 1996 to 10.The prevalence of infant malnutri on has been reduced by nearly half. MDG 3 –The par cipa on ra o of females to males in SMA / MA / Paket C and higher educa on in 2009 was 96. It is expected that the MDG target of 15.Indonesia has been successful in developing trade and financial systems that are open. In 2009.4 percent in 2007. MDG 6 .000 births will be achieved by 2015. • MDG 3 .0 percent in 2000 to 73.95. 6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . At the same me. from 20. The Debt Service Ra o has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009.5 percent will be achieved by 2015. Thus it is expected that the target of 100 will be achieved by 2015.99 percent.7 percent while at the junior secondary schools including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MTs) and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA) the GPI was 101.000 popula on in 1990 to 244 cases per 100.1 percent in 2009 as compared to the MDG target of 70.The targets for gender equality in all levels of educa on are expected to be achieved. • • • • The MDG targets where a posi ve trend has been demonstrated but which s ll require special efforts to achieve the targets by 2015 include the following: • MDG 1 .Indonesia has raised its targets for poverty reduc on and will give special a en on to reducing poverty levels as measured against the na onal poverty line from 13.000 popula on in 2009. There has also been a decrease the prevalence of tuberculosis from 443 cases per 100. It is expected that the target of 32 per 1. from 31 percent in 1989 to 18.47 percent in 2009. predictable and non-discriminatory .9 percent in 2008. has declined from 20.16 and 102.as evidenced by the posi ve trends in indicators related to trade and the na onal banking system. significant progress has been made in reducing the foreign debt ra o to GDP from 24. • The MDG targets for which significant progress has been demonstrated include: • MDG 1 .6 percent in 1990 to 5. The ra o of literate women to men in the age group of 15-24 years has reached 99. the Gender Parity Index (GPI) at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI) was 99. MDG 8 . MDG 4 – The number of deaths in children under the age of five years has decreased from 97 per 1.85 percent.000 births in 2007.33 percent (2010).

5 million people (2010 Popula on Census . BPS). only 47. Accelera ng the achievement of the MDGs and all related targets requires that popula on problems are addressed in a comprehensive and integrated approach. New Initiatives Moving Forward Success in achieving the MDGs in Indonesia depends on the achievement of good governance. and developing decentralized approaches to reducing dispari es while empowering communi es in all regions of Indonesia. improving public services. MDG 6 – The number of people living with HIV / AIDS has increased. the size. In planning to achieve the MDGs. but is commi ed to increasing forest cover. Progress in developing the na onal economy over the past five years has reduced the gap between Indonesia and the developed countries.e.19 percent of households have access to improved sanita on. India. including injec ng drug users and sex workers. increasing the alloca on of resources. i. Indonesia has also joined the G-20.000 live births in 2007.Maternal mortality has been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100.Indonesia has high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. growth and distribu on of the popula on is one important considera on. Brazil and South Africa were invited to enter the group of ‘enhanced engagement countries’ or states with an increasingly enhanced engagement with developed countries. including expanding access to reproduc ve health services and family planning while protec ng reproduc ve rights. The success of Indonesia’s development has been recognized globally and has received various awards. The rate of increase is also high in some areas where awareness about this disease is low. MDG 7 . elimina ng illegal logging and implemen ng a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years. and 51. Although Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 7 . having more than doubled since 1971. Developed countries who are members of the Organiza on of Economic Coopera on and Development (OECD) recognize and appreciate Indonesia’s development progress. Therefore. Indonesia along with China.000 live births by 2015. expanding partnerships.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved water supply. The Indonesian popula on is 237. improving coordina on among stakeholders. which has a very important and decisive role in shaping global economic policy. par cularly in high risk groups.Preliminary results.• • • MDG 5 . produc ve partnerships at all levels of society and the implementa on of a comprehensive approach to achieving pro-poor growth. At present. Special efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 per 100. Special a en on is required to achieve the MDG targets for Goal 7 by 2015. the twenty countries that control 85 percent of Gross Domes c Product (GDP) of the world.

2 percent will be in Java which has an area of only 7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. especially in educa on. especially educa on and health.49 per cent per annum in the period 1990-2000. health.the popula on growth rate decreased from 1. • Provincial governments will prepare “Regional Ac on Plans to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs” and these will be used is used as a reference in improving planning and coordina on of efforts to reduce poverty and improve people’s welfare. Steps to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs during the next five years as mandated by Presiden al Instruc on No. • Support for the expansion of social services in disadvantaged areas and remote areas will be increased. • Enhanced coopera on with creditor countries will be sought for the conversion of debt (debt swap) for achieving the MDGs.6 million people (Indonesian Popula on Projec on 2005-2025). and especially women’s groups. approximately 60. • Partnerships between the Government and private enterprises (Public . civil society organiza ons and the private sector can par cipate produc vely in improving the welfare of all Indonesians. A funding mechanism will be prepared to provide incen ves to local governments that perform well in achieving the MDGs. In addi on. have contributed significantly. 3 of 2010 concerning Equitable Development Programming include the following: • The Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs will be distributed as a reference for stakeholders in working to speed up a ainment of the MDGs throughout Indonesia. provincial and district governments will con nue to be increased to support the intensifica on and expansion of programs to achieve the MDGs.30 per cent per annum rate in 2005. to expand sources of funding to support achievement of the MDGs. the total popula on of Indonesia in 2015 is expected to be approximately 247. • Alloca on of funds by the central. no less than 80 percent of industries are concentrated in Java. and to a 1. The Government is commi ed to maintaining a socio-economic environment and culture where all ci zens. including community organiza ons. In efforts to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs. the role of communi es. the supply of clean water and the living environment. grass-roots organiza ons will con nue to be given a en on to speed up achievement of the MDGs and increase the welfare of the people on a sustainable basis. 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Private Partnerships or PPP) will be developed in the social sectors. • Mechanisms to expand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ini a ves will be strengthened to support the achievement of the MDGs.97 per cent per annum during 1980-1990 to 1. Of this amount. In the future.

Summary by Goal .

.

Progress is also being made to further reduce poverty as measured against the na onal poverty line from the current rate of 13. The main challenge in acelera ng the achievment of MDG educa on target is improving equal access of children. improve suppor ng infrastructure and strengthen the agricultural sector. efficiency. Government policies and programs to address this challenge: (i) expansion of equitable access to basic educa on par cularly for the poor.50 percent in 2015.77 percent and the ne enrolment rate (NER) was 95. The country aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. (ii) empowering disadvantaged communi es in all regions of the na on to be er access and use resources to improve their welfare. (ii) improvement of the quality. At primary educa on level. The policy to allocate minimal 20 percent of government budget to the educa on sector will be con nued to accelerate the achievement of universal junior secondary educa on by 2015.1 percent in 1989 to 18. MDG 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target for primary educa on and literacy.23 percent. small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). disparity in educa on par cipa on among provinces has been significantly reduced with NER above 90 percent in almost all provinces.00 per capita per day. Special a en on will be given to: (i) expanding credit facili es for micro. The prevalence of undernourished children under five years of age decreased from 31. In 2008/09 gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary educa on level (SD/MI) was 116.Summary of the Status of Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia MDG 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Indonesia has achieved the target of halving the incidence of extreme poverty as measured by the indicator of USD 1. and (iv) improving the provision of social protec on to the poorest of the poor. girls and boys. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 11 . grades 7 to 9) to the universal basic educa on targets. Priori es for the future to reduce poverty are to expand employment opportuni es. (iii) improving access of the poor to social services. and effec veness of educa on.4 percent in 2007 and Indonesia is on track to achieve the MDG target of 15. and (iii) strengthening governance and accountability of educa on services. to quality basic educa on.33 percent (2010) to the targeted rate of 8-10 percent by 2014.

reflec ng the discrepancy in accessing health services. the lowest rate of global achievement has been recorded in the improvement of maternal health. the maternal mortality ra o (MMR) has gradually been reduced from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100. (ii) improve protec on for women against all forms of abuse.99 respec vely. Even though the rates for antenatal care and births a ended by skilled health personnel are rela vely high.35. The ra o of NER for women to men at primary educa on and junior secondary educa on levels was 99. the number of women in the Indonesian parliament increased to 17. the target of 23 per 1. Likewise. the share of female wage employment in the nonagricultural sector has increased. Extra hard work will be needed to achieve the MDG target by 2015 of 102 per 100. Cri cal measures to reduce maternal mortality are improving the contracep ve prevalence rate 12 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . As a result. With this rate. and literacy among females aged 15-24 years has already reached 99. Indonesia is on track to achieve the educa on-related targets for gender equality by 2015. In Indonesia. junior secondary schools. The future priori es are to strengthen health systems and improve access to health services especially for the poor and remote areas. and (iii) mainstream gender equality in all policies and programs while building greater public awareness on issues of gender.000 live births in 2007.000 live births. MDG 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has shown a significant decline from 68 in 1991 to 34 per 1. Priori es for the future are to: (i) improve the role of women in development. In the workforce. regional dispari es remain as constraints to achieve the targets. par cularly in underserved and remote areas.000 live births in 2015 is expected to be achieved.MDG 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Progress has been achieved in increasing the propor on of females in primary. However.9 percent in 2009. MDG 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of all the MDGs. In poli cs.000 live births in 2007. the child mortality target is expected to be achieved. senior high schools and ins tu ons of higher educa on. several factors such as high risk pregnancy and abor on are considered to be constraints that require special a en on.73 and 101.

but has worked to increase forest cover. The communicable disease control approaches are focusing on preven ve measures and mainstreaming into the na onal health system. the propor on of households with access to improved sanita on facili es increased from 24. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Indonesia more than doubled between 2004 and 2005. At the same me.e. The incidence of malaria per 1. MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES In Indonesia. Meanwhile.81 percent in 1993 to 51. For the future. communi es are expected to play a larger role.19 percent in 2009.68 in 1990 to 1. especially among high risk groups.71 percent in 2009. injec ng drug users and sex workers. Accelera on of achievement of the targets for improving access to improved water and sanita on facili es will be con nued with increased support. The role and detailed responsibili es of local governments in natural resource management and water supply /sanita on will be be er delineated and their skills enhanced. A en on will be given to investments on water and sanita on systems to serve growing urban popula ons. with communi es taking responsibility for opera on and management of infrastructure with advisory support from local authori es. MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Indonesia has a high rate of greenhouse gas emission. improving family planning services and provision of informa on. MDG 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS. Beyond that. eliminate illegal logging and is commi ed to implemen ng a comprehensive policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions over the next 20 years. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 13 .000 popula on decreased from 4. priori es to improve maternal health will be focused on expanding be er quality health care and comprehensive obstetric care. the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has increased.73 percent in 1993 to 47. in TB control. i. The propor on of households with access to improved sources of drinking water increased from 37. communicable disease control efforts must involve all stakeholders and strengthen health promo on ac vi es to increase public awareness. educa on and communica on (IEC) messages to the community.and reducing the unmet need through expanding access and improving quality of family planning and reproduc ve health services.85 in 2009. the case detec on rate and successfully treated TB cases have already reached the 2015 targets. In rural areas.

The Jakarta Commitment was signed with 26 development partners in 2009 to provide a roadmap for all concerned to improve coopera on and management of development assistance in Indonesia. Indonesia’s debt service ra o has also con nued to decline from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009. The private sector has made major investments in informa on and communica ons technology and access to cellular telephones. 14 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .6 percent in 1996 to 10.9 percent in 2009. Indonesia has benefited from close collabora on with the interna onal donor community and interna onal finance ins tu ons. In 2009 some 82. bilateral partners and representa ves of the private sector to achieve a pro-poor pa ern of economic growth. Indonesia has commited to reducing interna onal borrowing as a percentage of GDP and this is demonstrated by the reduc on of foreign debt to GDP from 24.41 percent of the popula on had access to cellular telephones. telephone land lines and internet communica ons has increased drama cally over the past five years.MDG 8: BUILDING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is an ac ve par cipant in a wide variety of interna onal forums and is commi ed to con nuing to build successful partnerships with mul lateral organiza ons.

60% (1990) 2. Susenas 1. the propor on of people whose income is less than USD 1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.4% (2007)** 3.1 Propor on of popula on below USD 1.7 71% (1990) 64% (2009) ► Target 1C: Halve.30% • ► World Bank and BPS BPS.8a 7.00 (PPP) per day Poverty gap ra o (incidence x depth of poverty) 20.90% (2008) 10.8% (1989)* 13. 2007 1.Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 1. including women and young people 1.0% (1989)* 18.6% ► 1.5 1.8 31.9% ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 15 . between 1990 and 2015. Susenas ** Ministry of Health Riskesdas.21% (2010) Reduce Target 1B: Achieve full and produc ve employment and decent work for all.70% (1990) 5.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed Employment-topopula on (over 15 years of age) Propor on of own-account and contribu ng family workers in total employment Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age Prevalence of severe underweight children under-five years of age Prevalence of moderate underweight children under-five years of age 3.2 2.5% ► * BPS. between 1990 and 2015.4% (2007)** 15.0% (2007)** 11. Sakernas Decrease PDB Na onal and Sakernas 1.24% (2009) 62% (2009) BPS.52% (1990) 65% (1990) 2. the propor on of people who suffer from hunger 1.8b 23.2% (1989)* 5.0 (PPP) a day 1.

2 100. children everywhere.00% (1990) 64.27 (1993) 99.40% Male: 99.99 (2009) 96.00% (1990)* 95.Ra o of girls to boys in senior high schools . by 2015.55% 100.00% (2008)** 99.21% (1990) 14.60% (1990) 100.86 (1993) 93. Literacy rate of populaon aged 15-24 year.1 Net Enrolment Ra o (NER) in primary educa on Propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school.16 (2009) 102.23% (2009)* 93.00 100.1a Literacy ra o of women to men in the 15-24 year age group 100. Susenas Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Educa on Target 2A: Ensure that.00 100.95 (2009) 99. Susenas 2.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Propor on of populaon below minimum level of dietary energy consump on: 1. will be able to complete full course of primary schooling 2.Ra o of girls to boys in junior high schools .44 (1993) 99.47% (2009) Female: 99.73 (2009) 101. women and men 88.00% ► * MONE **BPS.3 96.1 Ra os of girls to boys in primary.Ra o of girls to boys in higher educa on 3. Susenas Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educa on.70% (1992)** 62.Ra o of girls to boys in primary schools .9 1400 kcal/capita/day 2000 kcal/capita/day Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source ▼ 17.00 100.32% BPS.86% (2009) 8.00% ► BPS. boys and girls alike. and in all levels of educa on no later than 2015 3.00% ► 2. preferably by 2005.47% (2009) 61. Susenas * BPS.00 ● ● ► ► BPS. secondary and ter ary educa on . MONE ** BPS.06 (1993) 98. Sakernas ● Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 16 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .00 100.67 (1993) 74.85 (2009) 100.50% 35.

IDHS 1991. by 2015.0% (2007) 32 23 Decrease ► ► ► BPS.1 4.34% (2009) 102 BPS. 2007 5.2 ► 3. modern method 390 (1991) 40.5% (1991) 44 (2007) 34 (2007) 19 (2007) 67.4% (2007) Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 17 . any method Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.1% (1991) 57.4% (2007) Increase ► BPS.3 49.45% (2009) 17.3a 47.2 Increase Target 5B: Achieve. 2007 BPS. between 1990 and 2015. the Maternal Mortality Ra o 5.7% (1991) 61. IDHS 1991.Indicator Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Propor on of seats held by women in na onal parliament Baseline 29.000 live births Infant mortality rate per 1.90% (2009) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source BPS.2 4.000 live births Neonatal mortality rate per 1.2a Under-five mortality rate per 1. Sakernas Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 3. Susenas 1992-2009 ▼ ► 5.000 live births) Propor on of births a ended by skilled health personnel (%) Current contracep ve use among married women 15-49 years old.50% (1990) Current 33. between 1990 and 2015.3 Decrease ► KPU Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. 2007 4.1 Maternal Mortality Ra o (per 100. IDHS 1991.70% (1992) 228 (2007) 77. the under-five mortality rate 4.3 Decrease ► Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.000 live births Propor on of oneyear-old children immunized against measles 97 (1991) 68 (1991) 32 (1991) 44.24% (1990) 12. universal access to reproduc ve health 5.

Unmarried - Increase ▼ BPS. IDHS 1991.0% (1991) 12.6 Unmet need for family planning Baseline 67 (1991) Current 35 (2007) MDG Target 2015 Decrease Status Source ► 5.3% Male: 18.4 visits: 5.5 75.7% (2007) Female: 2. SKRRI 2007 Target 6B: Achieve. 2010 as per 30 November 2009 6. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Propor on of popula on with advanced HIV infec on with access to an retroviral drugs 38.3% Increase 81.0% 56.5% (2007) 9.4% (2009) MOH. by 2010.8% (2002/3) Increase ▼ .Married - Increase ▼ BPS.2% (2009) Female: 10.5% Male: 14. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.1 visit: .4 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15-19) Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visists) .2 12. 2007 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.1 HIV/AIDS Prevalence among total popula on (percent) Condom use at last high-risk sex Propor on of popula on aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.5 - Increase ▼ Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 18 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .7% (1991) 93.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator 5.1% (2007) Decrease ► ► ▼ BPS.4% (2007) 0.6% Male: 1.4% (2007) Decrease MOH es mated 2006 BPS. IDHS 2007 . IYARHS 2002/2003 & 2007 ▼ ▼ 6.3 Female: 9.

incidence of Malaria in Jawa & Bali .10b 87.000 pop/ year) Prevalence rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.0% ● ● 6.0% (2009)** 85.000) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short courses Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS * TB Global WHO Report.68 (1990) 0.6% -2007 Decrease Decrease Decrease Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets ► ► ► ▼ MOH 2009 API.9 6. 2009 6.10a 20.16 (2008) 17.85 (2009) 0.9b 443 (1990) 92 (1990) 244 (2009) 39 (2009) 6.000) Incidence rate associated with Malaria (per 1. MOH 2008 AMI.000): 6.10 6.9a ● ● ● TB Global WHO Report.7 Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cidetreated bednets Incidence.000) Death rate of Tuberculosis (per 100.9c 6.6a .0% ** MOH Report-2009 Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 19 .10 (1990) 1.0% (2000)* 91.1% (2009)** 70. prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis Incidence rates associated with Tuberculosis (all cases/100.5% Urban: 1.77 (2008) 3.0% (2000)* 73.3% Rural: 4. IDHS 2007 Increase 6.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 6.17 (1990) 24. began to reduce 4.Incidence of Malaria outside Jawa & Bali 6. 2009 343 (1990) 228 (2009) Stop.6 Incidence and death rates associated with Malaria (per 1. MOH 2008 BPS.

83% (2008) not exceed ► 7.2c 7.4 91.626 Gg Gg CO2e CO2e (2008) (2000) 2.64 BOE (1991) 5.08% (1998) 4.70% (1990) 52.2a 7.28 BOE/ USD 1.000 (2008) 1.35% (2009)** Increase ► Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 20 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources The ra o of actual forest cover to total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Primary energy consump on (per capita) Energy Intensity 7.7 metric tons (1992) 66.98 (1991) 3.000 (1990) 0.416.3 BOE (2008) 2.6 0.332.5% (2000) 8.5 26.2 1.711.45% (2008) 0 CFCs (2009) Reduce at least 26% by 2020 Reduce ▼ Ministry of Environment 7.40% (1990) 26.3 ► 7.2b.074 1.43% (2008) Increase ▼ Ministry of Forestry 7.1 59.1 BOE/ USD 1.40% (2008) Increase ► 7.14% (1990)* 4. Decrease Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources 7.2d Energy Elas city Energy mix for renewable energy Total consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) in metric tons Propor on of fish stocks within safe biological limits The ra o of terrestrial areas protected to maintain biological diversity to total terrestrial area The ra o of marine protected areas to total territorial marine area Decrease 0 CFCs while reducing HCFCs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Marine Affairs & Fisheries Ministry of Forestry *Ministry of Forestry / **Ministry of Marine Affairs & Fisheries 7.6 (2008) 3.

8a 7.82% (2009) 45.75% (1993) 20.9 62.Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 7C: Halve.1 - BI Economic Report 2008.73% (1993) 47.8b 50.12% (2009) - ► ► ► BPS & The World Bank 7. 19% (2009) 69.75% (1993) 20.41% ▼ 7.00% (2009) en on Reduce Reduce ► ► Ministry of Finance BI Annual Report 2009 ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 21 . the propor on of households without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanita on Propor on of households with sustainable access to an improved water source.12% (2009) 12.59% (1996) 51.9a 7. non-discriminatory trading and financial systems 7.1 - Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through na onal and interna onal measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 8. predictable.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.81% (1993) 53. Susenas Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open.29% 65.64% (1993) 11.10% (1993) 49.51% (2009) 33.12 8.71% (2009) 68.12% (2009) 12.96% (2009) 75.9b 76. Susenas 7.58% (1993) 31.61% (1993) 24. urban and rural Urban Rural Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets 7.12a Status: Ra o of Interna onal Debt to GDP Debt Service Ra o (DSR) 24.00% (1996) 10.75% (1993) 12.89% (2009) 22.75% (1993) 12.81% ▼ ▼ BPS.1 Propor on of urban popula on living in slums 20.82% 55.55% ▼ ▼ Target 7D: By 2020. 2009 7. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7. urban and rural Urban Rural Propor on of households with sustainable access to basic sanita on.8 37. by 2015.12% (2009) BPS.87% ▼ 7. rule-based.72% (2009) 51.

especially informa on and communica ons Propor on of popula on with fixed-line telephones (teledensity in popula on) Propor on of popula on with cellular phones Propor on of households with access to internet Propor on of households with personal computers 4. Susenas 2009 BPS.15 14.02% (2004) 8.79% (2004) - 82.41% (2009) 11.16a - Increase Status: ● Already achieved ►On-track ▼Need special a en on 22 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .00% ► ▼ ▼ BPS.14 3.32% (2009) 100.00% 8.65% (2009) Increase ► Minister of Communica on and Informa cs 2010 8.16 50. Susenas 2009 8.Con nued: Overview of the Status of Achievement of the MDG Targets Indicator Baseline Current MDG Target 2015 Status Source Target 8F: In coopera on with the private sector.51% (2009) 8. make available the benefits of new technologies.

Coming Home from the Field Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger .

24 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

6 percent in 1990 to 5.0 Percentage 15 9.3 7.00 (PPP) a day Current Status The incidence of extreme poverty (using the measurement of USD 1. between 1990 and 2015. Figure 1.2 Target: 10.1 presents the trend for the declining percentages of the popula on es mated to have levels of consump on below USD 1. The declining trend is expected to be sustained to 2015 and beyond.6 9.00 purchasing power parity per capita per day) has been reduced in Indonesia from 20. 25 20 Figure 1.1: Progress in Reducing Extreme Poverty (USD1.4 8.8 12.9 2008 2009 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS. The World Bank 2008.00 (PPP) per capita per day as measured by World Bank/BPS annually from 1990 to 2008. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 25 .5 6. Susenas. the proportion of people whose income is less than USD 1.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve.0 6.2 7.9 9.6 5.9 percent in 2008.8 20.7 2006 2007 6.9 7. and Indonesia has already achieved and exceeded Target 1 for reduc on of extreme poverty.00/capita/day) as Compared to the MDG Target 14.

2 35.3 1998* 1976 1978 1980 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: BPS.02 million people.4 20 10 0 26. several years.4 37. Yogyakarta (4.26).83 percent) are resident on the island of Jawa. The Poverty Gap Index measured for rural areas (3.1 18.2 17.2 28. During the period 2002-2010 the trend for this indicator was generally downward.1 37. the total number of people living below the na onal poverty line was s ll high.74).7 15.0 27.2.4 17. Papua (11.02 million people living below the na onal poverty line in 2010. As a result it is necessary to take steps to increase the rate of poverty reduc on.5 14.0 38.6 24.51).91) and the highest levels were found in the rural areas of the provinces of Papua Barat (12.4 16.2 21. the largest share (55.2 49.9 19.9 38.3 36. The economic crisis in 1997/8 resulted in a drama c increase in the number of Indonesians below the poverty line.2 30. and Nusa Tenggara Timur (4.3 40.8 16.6 23. Figure 1. The total number of poor is large and the distribu on of the poor among the provinces and islands of Indonesia is uneven.7 17. the incidence of poverty has generally trended downwards during the period 1976 to 1996 (Figure 1.52).9 22.82 percent and that was less than during the previous year (2008/2009) when the decline of the poverty rate was 1.05) was significantly higher than for urban areas (1.33 percent (2010) as the na onal economy has recovered and as ini a ves to reduce the incidence of poverty proved to be effec ve in benefi ng the poor.87).0 16.5 42.47). Sulawesi Tengah (4.1 13. Susenas. amoun ng to 31.0 35.5 30 25.4 11.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Using the prevailing na onal poverty line.1 35. A er 2006 there has been a posi ve downward trend reflec ng the impact of the measures to stablize prices and mi gate the impact of price increases on the poor (see Figure 1.3). Sumatera 26 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2010 13. In 2009 the average Poverty Gap Index for all areas was 2.3 54.0 32. At the same me it is important to note that the decline of the poverty rate from March 2009 to March 2010 is only 0. the na onal poverty rate had been reduced to 13. Number of poor popula on (milliions) Na onal Poverty Line (percentage) The Poverty Gap Index is an indicator which measures the gap between the average income of the poor and the na onal poverty line.3 39. although there was a significant increase in 2006 reflec ng increases in the na onal price of fuel and other basic consumer goods. Since 1999. Gorontalo (6. Of the 31. Although the percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line in 2010 had been reduced.2 percent in 1998 when a nega ve GDP growth rate was recorded and prices increased drama cally.7 37.94).1 33.6 47.8).27 percent.2 48. Aceh (4.0 . Maluku (6. and in 2010 there was a further decline to 2.5.3 31.4 18.2).6 15.2: Long-Term Trends in Poverty Reduc on in Indonesia Measured Using the Na onal Poverty Line 60 50 40 40. The incidence of poverty more than doubled to 24.

The provinces where the incidence of poverty is more than double the na onal average of 13.0 2.1 3.1% Maluku 1. On the island Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 27 . 2002 to 2010 3. The Percentages of the Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Major Geographical Region of Indonesia (2010) Jawa 55.9 2.5% Papua 3. On the islands of Jawa and Bali.8 2. Sumatera Selatan.2 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: BPS.88 percent) and Maluku (27.5 2.4 Poverty Gap Ra o 3.6% Kalimantan 3.4% Figure 1. Susenas 2010.0 2.80 percent). Bengkulu and Lampung. while in 16 provinces they are above the na onal average (see Figure 1. Yogyakarta and Jawa Timur also have an incidence of poverty that is higher than the na onal average.5).8% Source: BPS. There remain significant dispari es in the incidence of poverty among the 33 provinces of Indonesia.3. Susenas. The Na onal Trend in Indonesia of the Poverty Gap Index.4. Papua Barat (34.44 percent) while Bali/ Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi are the geographical regions with the third and fourth largest shares of people living below the poverty line (Figure 1.74 percent).9 3.3% Bali & Nusa Tenggara 7. Poverty rates in 17 provinces are below the na onal average. Figure 1.ranks second in terms of percentage of the popula on living below the poverty line (21. the provinces of Jawa Tengah.3% Sumatera 21. In Sumatera the incidence of poverty is s ll higher than the na onal average in the provinces of Aceh.4). Sulawesi 7.33 percent include Papua (36.

7 8.8 DKI Jakarta Bali Kalimantan Selatan Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Banten Kalimantan Timur Kepulauan Riau Jambi Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat Jawa Barat Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur Sumatera Selatan Jawa Tengah DI Yogyakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Lampung Aceh Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Gorontalo Maluku Papua Barat Papua Na onal Average 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 - Source: BPS.5 6.3 8.0 23.1 8.2 6.6 13.5 4.3 15.1 18.9 21. The poverty rate is significantly higher in rural areas than in urban centers in Indonesia. Map 1.8 17. Figure 1.21 percent) and Bali (4.9 5.5 16. The geographical distribu on of the incidence of poverty by province is presented in Map 1. 2010 Source: BPS.9 36. The three provinces with the lowest incidence of poverty in 2010 were Jakarta (3.1.2 27.6 23. Susenas 2010.48 percent).0 9.3 13.1.1 9.6 15.87 percent in urban areas (Figure 1.6).6 16. 28 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 3. Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.2 7.7 .88 percent). the provinces of Sulawesi Tengah.5 11.0 21. Susenas 2010.5 Percentages of Popula on Below the Na onal Poverty Line by Province of Indonesia.3 11.3 11. Sulawesi Tenggara and Gorontalo also have poverty rates higher than the na onal rate while the same is true for the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).8 7. The poverty rate in rural areas of Indonesia was 16.7 9.1 18.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger of Sulawesi.4 9.56 percent in 2010 compared to 9.3 18. Kalimantan Selatan (5. 2010 Percentage 34.

25.7

26.0

30

22.4

21.1

25
19.8 16.8

21.8

20.2

20.1

20.0

20.4

Figure 1.6. Percentages of Urban and Rural Popula ons below the Na onal Poverty Line (1990-2010)
18.9 17.4 10.7 2009 16.6 2010 9.9

20

21.9

Percentage

15
14.3

13.8

19.1

14.6

24.8 14.5

13.5

13.6

13.4

13.5

11.7

5

1990 1993 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

9.8

11.7

10

12.3

12.5

Source: BPS, Susenas Several Years

Urban

Rural

Challenges
A major challenge is to reduce the propor on of the na onal popula on living below the na onal poverty line while also reducing dispari es in the incidence of poverty among provinces and districts. The government is faced with the challenge of maintaining a high growth rate of GDP in order to expand employment opportuni es for the poor. To break the cycle of poverty there is a need to further strengthen the provision of educa on and health services and social protec on. Decentraliza on has brought new challenges to both central and local government authori es in Indonesia to coordinate programs to reduce poverty and to u lize fiscal resources effec vely to promote inclusive growth, empower the poor and improve public services.

Policies and Strategies
Indonesia is commi ed to reducing poverty in all regions, districts and villages. A mul dimensional approach will con nue to be applied, one that includes ac ons to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth, to create employment opportuni es, to empower communi es and to improve delivery of basic social services to all communi es. The government is commi ed to establishing a more conducive environment for all stakeholders to work to reduce poverty and achieve the na onal goals of development. It is expected that

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

29

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

the incidence of poverty as measured by the na onal poverty line will be reduced to 8 to 10 percent by 2014 in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (20102014). The Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on, led by the Vice President and senior cabinet officials, will take the lead in improving coordina on of implementa on of all policies and programs to reduce the incidence of poverty. Cabinet members to be directly involved include the Coordina ng Minister for People’s Welfare, the Coordina ng Minister for Economic Affairs, the Minister of Health, the Minister of Na onal Educa on, the Minister of Social Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister for Coopera ves and SMEs and the Minister of Na onal Development Planning (BAPPENAS). The na onal priori es iden fied to reduce poverty and achieve the target for poverty are grouped into three policy areas: 1. Policies to achieve a sustained period of pro-poor growth will provide the founda on to provide produc ve employment for the poor. It is expected that growth of GDP will reach 6.3 to 6.8 percent during 2011 to 2013 and increase to 7 percent in 2014. 2. Affirma ve ac ons to empower the poor and break the cycle of poverty will be implemented in three clusters of programs: First - Strengthening Social Services and Social Protec on (Cluster 1). Government support to strengthen the provision of health and educa on services will be expanded through the Na onal Health Security Program (Jamkesmas), the Family Hope Program (PKH) and provision of Scholarships for the Children from Poor Households. Second - Support will be expanded to empower communi es to reduce their poverty through PNPM Mandiri (Cluster 2). The government will increase support for the PNPM Mandiri Program to Rupiah 12.1 trillion per year and coverage will be expanded to include all 78,000 villages in Indonesia. Third - Facili es to increase the capacity of MSMEs and coopera ves will be expanded through (i.) entrepreneurship and capacity building on business management; (ii.) provision of informa on services and business consultancy; and through expansion of the PeopleBased Small Business Loan Program (KUR) (Cluster 3). KUR will be expanded to channel funds through local microfinance ins tu ons to increase access of medium and small scale enterprises and coopera ves to credit. Bank guarantees will con nue to be provided in the form of Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) by Perum Jamkrindo and PT Askrindo. 3. Increasing effec veness of poverty reduc on programs: a. Priority will be given to improving coordina on of policies and programs to reduce poverty. Increased coordina on across programs within the three clusters is key for effec ve poverty reduc on. Therefore, coordina on of all poverty allevia on policies will be intensified through the establishment of the Na onal Team for Accelera ng Poverty Reduc on under the office of the Vice President in accordance with Presiden al Decree 15/2010 concerning the Accelera on of Poverty Reduc on.

30

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

b.

c. d.

This effort will be supported by enhancing capacity and func ons of various technical ministries and government offices at the na onal, provincial and district levels. The coordina on of poverty reduc on will also be conducted at provincial and district levels by the Provincial and District Coordina ng Teams for Poverty Reduc on. Concerted efforts for poverty allevia on will also involve private sector partnerships through CSR and other types of funding such as “zikat, infaq and sodaqoh”. The above efforts will be supported by implementa on of an accurate monitoring and evalua on system to achieve greater effec veness in programming to alleviate poverty. Building local capacity to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate poverty reduc on programs, will be given special a en on in those provinces and districts with the highest incidence of poverty. Fiscal policies and instruments will be adjusted to be er support local government in figh ng poverty and providing services at the community level. Targe ng of the poor and near poor in poverty reduc on programs will be carried out in a systema c manner at the local level using the latest database on the poor. To maintain the accuracy of targe ng of these groups, it is planned that the Survey for Social Protec on Program will be implemented every three years.

In order to implement the policies to reduce poverty as presented above and to achieve the targets for poverty reduc on in 2015, the government has prepared and will implement the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) which defines programs and ac vi es with specific targets as presented below in Table 1.1.

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

31

608 8.000 88.97 4.737 8.05 Development of policy and guidance to family planning equality 11.80 3.40% 94. Annual Implementa on Targets Specified in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Reduce Poverty Prioritas Guidance and Development of Health Security Output/Indicator Percentage of the popula on (including all the poor people) who have health security The number of primary health centers providing basic health services for the poor The percentage of hospitals that serve poor pa ents / JAMKESMAS program par cipants 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Formulated financing and health insurance policy 59% 70.868 9.1 Increased guidance and self reliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 22.75 3.30% 84.500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) Total number of PUS group members of produc ve age who become members of KB Mandiri Groups 3.9 12.000 66.481 8.000 44.89 3.000 110.5 12.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.1.000 Source: RPJMN 2010-2014 32 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .500 government and private family planning clinics (millions) The number of ac ve poor family planning par cipants (KPS and KS-I) and other vulnerable groups to receive coaching and contracep ves free through the 23.2 12.50% 100% Increased basic health services for the poor (JAMKESMAS) Basic Health Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 8. par cipa on and self-reliance of family planning acceptors Number of new family planning acceptors (KPS and KS-I) (poor and other vulnerable groups) to receive coaching and free contracep ves through 23.000 Increased referral of the poor for health services at hospitals Health Referral Services for the Poor (Jamkesmas) 75 80 85 90 95 Increased guidance.8 13.

767. MTs.700 Provision of High School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality high school educa on in all districts and ci es The number of high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 378.000 67.275.000 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 33 .000 Provision of scholarships for students from poor households (MI.220 3.103.000 veness 70 .000 320.000 540.000 640.395.000 540.200 3.064 1.396 714.100 1.417 560.898 614.653 800.358 645.282 3.476 475.535 390. and MA) Number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MI) The number of students from poor households to receive scholarships (MT) The number of students from poor households receive scholarships (MA) 640.000 320.000 320.000 Provision of Voca onal Educa on Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to quality voca onal educa on in all districts and ci es The number of vocaonal school students from poor households to receive scholarships 305.1 Con nued Increasing selfreliance of family planning acceptors (Pre-S and KS-1) 34 34 34 34 34 3 3 3 3 3 Provision of educa on subsidies/ scholarships for students from elementary schools Provision of lementary School Scholarships 2.000 67.Prioritas Output/Indicator Total number of working partners who provide capital assistance and business guidance to economic working groups Total number of working partners to become facilitators for working groups Number of primary school students from poor households to receive scholarships Number of junior high school students from poor households to receive scholarships 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.000 640.000 69.916.000 320.840 1.000 Providing Scholarships for Qualified Madrasah Educa on 540.298 Ins tu onal Service Delivery Ac vi es Expanding the availability and equitable access and quality of PT interna onal compe The number of poor students receiving scholarships 65.210 Provision of Junior Secondary School Scholarships The achievement of expanded and equitable access to junior high schools in all districts and ci es 966.195.000 540.000 640.000 320.346.000 640.780 3.020 1.640.000 540.370.783 501.

Con nued Prioritas Provision of Scholarships for Islamic Higher Educa on Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased availability of scholarships for students from poor households The number of students from poor households targetd to receive scholarships (PTA ) Total number of the poorest households to receive condi onal cash assistance (PKH) Total recipient households (15 kg per household per 12 months) Implementa on of the redistribu on of land (hectares) 59.600 6.000 Increasing the availability of temporary employment for the unemployed and development of community infrastructure Development and Expansion of Employment Opportuni es The number of unemployed people to have temporary jobs Number of districts / ci es to implement temporary employment crea on for the unemployed 24.000 people 90.000 1.000 1.538 Implementa on of condi onal cash aid to benefit the poorest households (PKH).000 210.900 8.Reduc on of the number of children working in worst forms of child labor The number of child workers withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.000 1.404.000 people 231 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es 360 districts/ ci es -   Facilita on of child workers to return to school or receive skills training .300 5.000 210.516.000 4.000 people 90. 17.5 million The realiza on of the land redistribu on Provincial Land Management 210.538 59.000 210. Increased Worker Protec on for Women and the Elimina on of Child Labour 3.1.170. Condi onal Cash Transfers (PKH) 816.000 210.116.400 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 34 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .538 59.000 1.538 59.000 people 90.538 59.000 people 90. The percentage of child workers withdrawn from the worst form of child labor who return to school and / or acquire skills training.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 The provision of rice to poor households Provision of Subsidized Rice for the Poor (RASKIN) Annual targets will be determined based on surveys of need.

Con nued Empowering communi es and accelera ng reduc on of poverty and unemployment in urban neighborhoods / sub-districts (PNPM Urban).9 2.1.Prioritas Improving Urban Community SelfReliance (PNPM Urban) Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1.943 subdistricts 4. Guidance.237 1. 237 237 237 237 237 Accelera ng poverty reduc on through infrastructure development and community empowerment (RIS PNPM + PPIP) Number of villages improved through development of infrastructure 3. Financing.949 subdistricts Improving Rural Community Self-Reliance (PNPM-MP) 2 districts / 9 subdistricts Regula ons. Guidance.226 Regula ons.946 subdistricts 4.500 villages in 1.237 1.791 subdistricts 4.650 villages (PAMSIMAS) 1.472 1. Control and Opera on of Se lement Development (RISE) Number of subdistricts served by the suppor ng infrastructure and socio-economic ac vi es.165 500 700 813 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 35 .482 villages in 805 subdistricts 4. and Management of Sanita on Improvement Supervision. The target areas of applica on of PNPMMP and strengthening PNPM Coverage areas of post-disaster reconstruc on and rehabilita on in crisis districts: Nias and Nias Selatan 4.968 villages in 460 subdistricts 552 villages in 460 subdistricts 482 villages in 460 subdistricts Empowering communi es to accelerate reduc on of poverty and unemployment in districts and rural villages / (PNPM Perdesaan).940 subdistricts 4.094 ubdistricts 7. Financing and Development of Water Supply Systema 210 districts/ ci es (SANIMAS) Target areas for infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site systems (district / city) Number of villages facilitated 30 districts/ ci es system on-site 35 districts/ ci es system on-site 40 districts/ ci es system on-site 45 districts/ ci es system on-site 50 districts/ ci es system on-site 4. The number of eighborhoods/ villages which benefit from facilita on to empower 8.45 1. Control.

000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.5 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2 trillion Rupiah 2. Coordina on and Facilita on of Local Governments in Less Developed Regions (P2DTK/SPADA) – PNPM Improvement of Tourism Sector PNPM Mandiri Support the People’s Business Credit Guarantee Cooperaon (KUR) 1.2 Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased empowerment and self reliance of two million micro enterprises in coastal se lements.000 10. Islamic financing. and development of farmer groups PUAP Realiza on of lending for agriculture (CTF-E.596 villages 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) 80 districts **) Increased number of tourist villages through PNPM tourism ini a ves Number of tourism villages 200 450 550 450 350 Budget available to guarantee People’s Business Credit (KUR) Percentage of budget available to guarantee KUR 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. 186 subdistricts.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.5 trillion Rupiah Rural Agribusiness Development (PUAP) and Strengthening of Rural Economic Ins tu ons through LM3 4 trillion Rupiah 5 trillion Rupiah 6 trillion Rupiah 7 trillion Rupiah 8 trillion Rupiah 200 200 200 200 200 10. development of rural agricultural business centers. and KUR) Realiza on of distribu on of Sharia financing and commercial financing for agricultural sector Total number of agricultural business centers in rural areas Total number of farmer groups PUAP (units) Policy Development.000 10. Ins tu onal Strengthening.000 10.000 businesses Increasing realiza on of the lending program (KKP-E and KUR) commercial financing.000 Increasing socio-economic recovery and growth in less developed regions The number of districts.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.000 10. 4. opera ng in 300 districts/ ci es supported by one unit BLU The number of groups of micro-enterprises in coastal areas and small islands are bankable Business Services and Community Empowerment Development of micro tools LKM Rural Community Empowerment Funding / PNPM MK Facilitators Micro Business Groups 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800.000 businesses 100 units 120 districts/ ci es 480 people 800. subdistricts and villages targeted in less developed regions 51 districts.

10 Prov. a venture capital. pawnshops in support of finance for coopera ves and SMEs.Prioritas Policy Coordina on People’s Business Credit (KUR) Output/Indicator Percentage of policy recommenda ons to be implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 1. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2 2 2 3 3 The increased capacity and coverage of non-bank financial ins tu ons to provide financing to coopera ves and SMEs Number of non-bank financial ins tu on established 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD 100 KSP/ KJKS 1 LMVD Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 37 . which supported the development of synergies and coopera on with financial ins tu ons Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons (LPKD) doing co-guarantee with the na onal insurance agency The number of coopera ves that can access credit / financing banks through linkages Number of MFIs (coopera ves and rural banks). 8 Prov. leasing companies. 10 Prov. 9 Prov. such as KSP / KJKS.1. factoring. The expansion of credit services / financing banks for coopera ves and SMEs. which work closely with the bank financing Number of Regional Credit Guarantee Ins tu ons Increasing the role of nonbank financial ins tu ons. coupled with the development of informa on networks 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 5 MOU 7 Prov. Con nued Increasing people’s business credit policy coordina on (KUR) 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increased coverage of credit / bank financing for coopera ves and SMEs Coopera on involving financing from banks and financial ins tu ons / other financing.

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Table 1.000 people 1.750 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 1. The number of par cipants increased understanding of educa on and training of coopera ves and human resources in coopera ves 1.000 managers MFIs 1. 1. Improved ins tu onal capacity and quality of services microfinance ins tu ons (MFIs).000 people 1. as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres of the more effec ve The number of par cipants increase public understanding of coopera ves among the strategic groups. training and coopera ve extension for members and managers of coopera ves.200 people 2 Unit 1.200 people - 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people 900 people Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Revitalizing the educa on system.000 managers MFIs 1. including the accredita on and cer fica on service for MFIs.200 people 2 Unit 1.000 people 1.000 managers MFIs 1.750 people 38 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . as well as poten al coopera ve members and cadres System of educa on. training and coopera ve educa on for members and managers of coopera ves. including MFIs incorporated under the law of the oopera ve 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs 100 MFIs Increasing the capacity and quality of services microfinance ins tu ons (MFIs).1.000 people - 1. Con nued Prioritas Output/Indicator The number of MFIs that are registered and accredited in accordance with the law of the MFI The number of MFIs that par cipate in management training Total HR management staff KSP/ KJKS cer fied Total LDP KJK and reinforced TUK Number of managers/ heads of branch KJK which included training and cer fica on of competencies for MFIs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Increased ins tu onal capacity of MFIs.000 people 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.200 people 2 Unit 1.750 people 1.

from 65 percent to 62 percent. averaging 3. the working age popula on amounted to 63. Meanwhile. and the lowest in 1998 amounted to -12.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all.8).34 million whereas it is es mated to have reached 171. The ra o of the employed to working age popula on in the 1990-2009 period experienced a rela vely small. The strong economic growth during the 19901997 and 2004-2008 period resulted in the employment growth rate exceeding the rate of workforce growth. The lower growth rate of "post crisis" labor produc vity was partly due to the dwindling capital accumula on per worker during the post crisis period.36 percent per year during the past 10 years.68 percent and the lowest in 2001. The demographic transi on. In the same year (1995). The last two decades have seen a diminishing ra o of employment to the working age popula on. amoun ng to -0.91 percent (see Figure 1.53 percent. the agricultural sector also experienced the highest growth rate of 12. In the industrial sector the highest growth rate occurred in 1995.02 million in 2010.15 per cent.2008). including women and young people Current Status Since the 1970s employment condi ons in Indonesia have been influenced by the demographic transi on of the popula on structure and two economic crises that occurred in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008.42 percent as compared to the period a er the crisis period (1997/1998 . The growth of the working age popula on has been higher than the growth of the workforce. at the me of the economic crisis. amoun ng to 18. the growth rate of labor produc vity showed a tendency to decline. but quite dynamic change. amoun ng to 5. A er the crisis. indica ng that there is a higher preference Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 39 . In 1971. has resulted in a rapid increase in the working popula on.8). The employment opportuni es created during this me were able to absorb new members of the workforce entering the labor market. Growth of GDP per worker in the period before the crisis of 1997/1998 (during 1990-1995) was rela vely high.05 percent. job opportuni es were s ll created even though they were mainly in the informal sector (Figure 1. from a popula on structure dominated by the younger genera on in the 1970s to the current structure dominated by those of middle age. The development of various indicators for "the crea on of full and produc ve employment opportuni es and provision of decent jobs for all. including women and young people" is detailed as follows: The growth of gross domes c product (GDP) per worker during the 1990-2009 period has varied significantly. with an average annual growth of about 2.

Sakernas. Figure 1. 1996.7. Extracted from Sakernas and Indonesia Sta s cs in years 1990.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger among students to con nue their schooling to higher levels of educa on rather than to find a job.9).8. 80% Figure 1. Industry and the Service Sector. This source of 40 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . Employment to Popula on Ra o for Urban and Rural Areas and for the Na onal Level 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: BPS. The employment ra o in the sector has decreased from 71 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2009 (Figure 1. The Growth Rate of Labor Produc vity (in Percentages) for the Agriculture. 1999-2009 Agriculture Industry Services Total Improvements in the quality of job opportuni es have resulted in a reduc on in the propor on of self-employed workers and family workers (generally in the informal sector) to total employment. 1990-2009 25% The growth rate of labor produc vity (%) 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15% -20% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: BPS. 1993. 1990-2009 EPR Urban EPR Rural EPR Total The declining ra o of workers who work in the informal sector is made possible by the growth of wage employment and increasing worker produc vity.

employment grew by 1.9 percent per annum during the period 2008-2009. Produc vity of workers has increased significantly over the last several years.
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nop-05 Agust-06 Agust-07 Agust-08 Agust-09

Figure 1.9. The Propor on of Vulnerable Workers to Total Workers, 1990-2009

Male

Female

Urban

Rural

Total

Source: BPS, Sakernas (1990-2009).

Challenges
First: Expanding formal employment opportuni es. Investment recovery that has not met expecta ons may well be a constraint to achievement of a higher economic growth rate. Contribu ng factors to the weak investment climate have been well documented and include, among others, slow investment recovery in infrastructure provision, legal and bureaucra c issues as well as uncertainty in property ownership. Uncertainty in industrial rela ons, including the provisions of severance payment due to layoff as well as on contract and outsourced workers, has affected the compe veness of several key labor-intensive industries, although this is not the sole, deciding factor. Second: Narrowing the wage gap between workers at the same level. Current changes in wages are determined by the increasing price level rather than improvements in produc vity. Produc vity has not yet become the main determinant in wage calcula on. Ideally, the components for determining the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR) should not only include infla on factors, but also produc vity and achievement of job outputs. Third: Accelera ng workers transi on from lower produc vity jobs to higher produc vity jobs. This entails moving “labor surplus” out of the tradi onal or informal sector into more produc ve jobs which provide higher wages. Worker transi on from tradi onal sectors with low produc vity encourages wage increment, improves workers’ output as well as narrows the gap in wage and labor produc vity. Should the growth in the formal sector slow down, it will result in more workers entering the informal sector so that workers in the informal sector (including their families) will be in a state of greater uncertainty.

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

41

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

Policies and Strategis
Crea ng as many employment opportuni es as possible by promo ng investment and business expansion. The government will con nue to promote the crea on of job opportuni es in the formal sector by promo ng investment growth and business expansion. This policy con nues to be implemented so that the economy will grow and develop. Improving the investment climate is one of the government’s na onal priori es, both for urban and rural areas. Improving the environment and mechanisms of industrial rela ons to promote employment and business opportuni es. Through a process of nego a on and delibera on and bipar te discussions, workers and employers can resolve issues rela ng to their respec ve needs and interests. The government will be more ac ve in working to create more conducive industrial rela ons and to encourage collec ve bargaining between workers and employers. Crea ng employment opportuni es through government programs. This policy aims to assist the unemployed who do not have access to economic ac vi es. Unemployment is not only found in urban areas, but also in areas that have been le behind in terms of economic development. Improving the quality of workers. The competence of Indonesian workers is s ll perceived as an obstacle for business development. The low level of competence is a constraint to the improvement of na onal economic security. Indonesia's compe veness and produc vity s ll lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. One effort to be taken to improve labor produc vity will be to improve worker skills. Improving the produc vity of agricultural workers. The government will give a en on to workers in the agricultural sector through improving agricultural sector produc vity. This will be done through various ac vi es, including: (a) extending the scope of agricultural sector management by intensifying research to expand agricultural ac vi es, thus increasing agricultural output and added value; and (b) providing workers with knowledge and skills, through educa on, training and agricultural extension. In me, knowledge and skills improvement will have an impact on the enhancement of agricultural produc vity. Developing social security and empowering workers. Strategies for providing workers with social security will be implemented, including development of social security programs that provide workers with the greatest possible benefits. For informal workers, there is a need to protect workers from their working environment and the dispropor onate use of their labor. Assistance will also be provided to workers in the form of training to improve skills to help them increase their produc vity and, thus, their welfare.

42

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Implemen ng key employment regula ons. The ILO Declara on on the Principles and Fundamental Rights in the Workplace mandates the implementa on and enforcement of basic labor standards.

Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
Current Status
The nutri onal level of the popula on has improved over me, as indicated by the decline in the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age. Indonesia has made good progress in improving nutri on outcomes over the past two decades. The prevalence of underweight children under five years of age, who are moderately and severely underweight, decreased from 31.0 percent in 1989 to 21.6 percent in 2000. A slight rise was seen between 2000 and 2005, reaching 24.5 percent in 2005. However in 2007 it decreased to 18.4 percent (Riskesdas 2007) and progress on this indicator is considered to be on track to achieve the MDG target of 15.5 percent by 2015 (Figure 1.10). In the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) the Government has set the new target for this indicator to be less than 15.0 percent in 2014.
40
31.0

29.8 27.7 26.1 22.8 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.2 24.5 18.4

30

Target MDG 2015

Figure 1.10. Trend in the Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age (1989-2007) Using the WHO 2005 Standard and the MDG Target for this Indicator in 2015

Percentage

20

15.5

10
23.8 7.2 21.7 8.1 15.4 12.3 14.8 11.3 13.9 8,9 13.2 8.4 15.0 6.8 14.6 8.6 14.5 8.7 14.8 9.7 13.0 5.4

0
1989 1992 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2007 2015

Source: BPS, Susenas 1989 to 2005 and MOH, Riskesdas 2007.

Moderate

Severe

Malnourished

Dispari es in the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age remain a problem. Even though the na onal MDG target for the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age is expected to be achieved, dispari es exist in nutri onal

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

43

6 16.11).5 17.9 percent.8 25. Riskesdas 2007 Region Rural Urban Indonesia Severely Underweight 6.4 15.8 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TARGET 2015 .9 15.2 21. Table 1.6 percent).4 26. The Prevalence of Underweight Children Under Five Years of Age by Province (2007) Percentage 33.6 27.2). Sulawesi Tengah (27. Riskesdas 2007 indicated that the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age ranged from 10.5 11. The data indicates that the MDG target of 3. and Aceh (26.2 21. Underweight Prevalence Among Children Under Five Years of Age by Rural and Urban Areas of Indonesia (2007) Source: MOH. while in urban areas it was 15.9 19.6 percent).4 25.4 12. disparity between rural and urban areas remains. between rural and urban areas. Figure 1.2 also indicates that the prevalence of severely underweight children under five years of age was 5.4 17. Riskesdas 2007 showed that the lower the household income the higher the prevalence of underweight of children under five years of age.4 22. The prevalence of underweight children under five years of age in rural areas in 2007 was 20.8 percent). Riskesdas 2007 Severely Underweight Moderately Underweight Total Underweight Moreover.4 percent na onally while in rural areas it was 6.2 24.4 Moderately Underweight 14 11.4 The propor on of the popula on with a daily kcal intake of less than 2. 15.6 27. and among socio-economic groups.4 percent and in urban areas 4.7 17.4 18. The Susenas 2002-2008 data showed that the average dietary calorie intake in 2002 was 44 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Data in Table 1.9 18.6 40 10.6 DI Yogyakarta Bali Kepulauan Riau DKI Jakarta Jawa Barat Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Banten Bengkulu Jawa Timur Lampung Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung INDONESIA Jambi Kalimantan Timur Sumatera Barat Papua Riau Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Sumatera Utara Maluku Utara Papua Barat Kalimantan Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Aceh Kalimantan Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Maluku Nusa Tenggara Timur Source: MOH.9 3.7 22.7 13 Total Underweight 20.5 percent) (Figure 1.9 percent (DI Yogyakarta) to 33.3 percent is not yet achieved in rural and urban areas.000 calories is s ll high.2 24.4 percent. In addi on to Nusa Tenggara Timur.2 percent.0 15.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger status among provinces.0 16. Kalimantan Selatan (26.2.5 26.2 18.8 16.6 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur).3 20.8 23.4 12.9 11. there has been a significant improvement in reducing undernourishment in Indonesia.4 4.2 5.3 18.5 22.7 22.11. provinces with the prevalence of underweight children under five above 25 percent include: Maluku (27. which indicates achievement of the MDG target (Table 1.6 18. Based on the average daily dietary energy consump on intake per capita.

Lack of access of the poor with low educa on to quality and safe food. In 2008. The data confirm that food consump on improvement par cularly among the poor is urgently needed. the government set up health sector policies in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2009 which cover the community nutri on improvement program. The poor have low Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 45 . the government has implemented the Food and Nutri on Ac on Plan 2006-2010. and (iii) inadequate access to health. Susenas. water and sanita on services.950 2002 1. it increased to 2. with the following immediate objec ves: (i) improvement of family nutri on awareness (kadarzi) through community-based growth monitoring and counseling. In its efforts to fulfill the global accord.000 kcal per capita per day. Moreover.050 2.000 1. tuberculosis. malaria.007 2.12. To address the high prevalence of malnutri on among children. (ii) inappropriate child care due to low levels of educa on among mothers.020 Kcal/capita/day 2. and (iv) improvement of food for fica on. and HIV/AIDS.990 1. par cularly due to poverty.038 kcal per capita per day (Figure 1. (ii) preven on of nutri on-related diseases such as diarrhea.040 2. poor people in par cular consume unsafe food which adversely affects their health and nutri onal status. 2.030 2.015 2.960 1.986 kcal per capita per day which was below the minimum requirement of 2.1. par cularly the poor. Trends in the Average Calorie Consump on for Rural and Urban Households (2002-2008) 2. 2005 2007 2008 The Government of Indonesia is commi ed to improving the nutri onal status of the popula on.010 2. several years.980 1.970 1.12).038 Figure 1. lack of awareness and commitment of the government contributes to the existence of the malnutri on problem.986 Source: BPS. Challenges Economic and socio-cultural factors affec ng low nutri onal status among children under five years of age include: (i) lack of access to quality food. Moreover. (iii) promo on of healthy lifestyle behavior.

0 80. During the period 2002-2007. The quality of food consump on is s ll low. Lack of ins tu ons dealing with hunger eradica on programs. the na onwide system of Posyandus was the main mechanism for nutri on service delivery at the community level. Nutri on policy development and program planning and management are inadequate in both capacity and ins tu onal linkages.9 83.5 in 2002 to 83.0 Source: BPS. the quality of food consump on improved as indicated by an increase in the desirable dietary pa ern (PPH) score from 77.0 2002 2005 2007 Rural Urban Indonesia The prac ce of exclusive breast feeding has declined. Trend in the Desirable Dietary Pa ern (PPH) Score of Food Consump on for Rural and Urban Households. the Posyandu ac vi es deteriorated under decentraliza on as indicated by huge varia ons of malnutri on rates among provinces. In 2007 only about 32 percent of children under six months were exclusively breas ed in Indonesia.0 82. this figure is s ll far from the ideal PPH score of 100 in both rural and urban popula ons. par c ularly among children under five.6 81. 46 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger capacity to acquire the required food intake. and only 41 percent of children under four months old were exclusively breas ed.0 78.5 75.0 76. Figure 1. Susenas. To minimize morbidity and mortality of children.1 77. the unbalanced food consump on pa ern of Indonesians can lead to serious disease problems and even death. Lack of food intake and inappropriate caring pa ern result in malnutri on among chidren under five years of age.6 in 2007.0 86. Moreover. However. Community par cipa on in dealing with malnutri on.13. The role of the community in dealing with malnutri on has been declining. in terms of quan ty as well as quality. several years.0 77. Un l the early 1990s.9 80.8 79. A strong na onal intersectoral body for coordina ng and enforcing nutri on policies across sectors and across the levels of administra on does not exist. the United Na ons Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organiza on (WHO) recommend that children be exclusively breas ed for at least six months a er birth. has been undertaken in Integrated Health Posts (Posyandu). 85.0 70.0 84. However.0 72.6 81.2 68. 2002-2007 PPH Score 88.0 74.

Strengthen ins tu ons at the central and dictrict levels that have a strong authority in formula ng policy and programs in food and nutri on. sanita on). (ii) provide linkages of nutri on to early child educa on program (PAUD). related to socio-cultural. including reac va on of growth monitoring prac ce (GMP). the ins tu onal framework for nutri on and food security at central and district levels will be strengthened. economic. Strengthen community empowerment and revitalize Posyandus.5 percent in 2015 and to improve the propor on of the popula on consuming at least the minimum level of dietary energy consump on are as follows: 1. The problem of malnutri on and food insecurity is mul sectoral in nature. and (iii) develop nutri on programs through community-based ac vi es by empowering local community-based ins tu ons such as religious gatherings (kelompok pengajian) and women’s organiza ons. and (ii) investments in basic infrastructure (health. Therefore. (ii) improving the efficiency of food distribu on and handling systems. 3. Increase access of the poor. Ensure food security at the local level by: (i) increasing agricultural produc vity. par cularly in rural and urban slum areas.0 percent. to adequate nutri ous and safe food and other interven ons such as nutrient supplementa on. and (iii) developing a local-based food diversifica on program through improvement of food produc on and post-harvest technology and advocacy of balanced diets. par cularly to promote exclusive breast-feeding and infant feeding prac ces. Policies and Strategis Policies and strategies to reduce the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age to 15. In the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014. Ac ons to be carried out include: (i) expansion of exclusive breast- Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47 . Develop specific pro-poor assistance interven ons to provinces and districts with high prevalence of malnutri on. 2. water. Strengthen food and nutri on service delivery at the grassroots level through the following: (i) revitalize Posyandu to expand coverage of service delivery for food and nutri on. 4. Improve food security at the local level par cularly to reduce disparity among regions. the Government set the new target of reducing undernourishment of children under five years of age to be less than 15. Policies and programs should be formulated holis cally and require an ins tu onal framework with a strong authority and capacity in synchronizing and coordina ng ac vi es in food and nutri on. and poli cal issues.Na onal food security ins tu ons are not effec ve in solving problems related to hunger and malnutri on. Other strategies that will be developed include: (i) socializa on and advocacy on social and cultural behavior for healthy lifestyle. par cularly children under five years of age and pregnant women.

Table 1.3. the Na onal Medium-Term Developement Plan 20102014 set up programs and targets to address malnutri on par cularly among children under five years of age as listed in Table 1. (v) nutri on educa on and kadarzi. In line with the above policies and strategies. Outputs and Targets Specified in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2104) Outputs/Indicators Percentage of severe undernourished children under 5 years five years old receiving care Percentage of severe undernourished children 6-24 months old from poor households receiving MPASI (food supplement) Percentage 0-6 months old babies with exclusive breast feeding Coverage of Iodized salt Percentage of 6-59 month old children receiving vitamin A supplement Percentage of Puskemas implemen ng nutri onal status monitoring and providing care for the severely undernourished Percentage of districts implemen ng nutri on surveillance Percentage of children under 5 years old weighed for growth monitoring Percentage of children under 5 years old of poor households (GAKIN) receiving recovery food supplements (PMT pemulihan) 2010 100 2011 100 2012 100 2013 100 2014 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 75 75 67 78 78 70 80 80 75 83 83 100 85 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 100 70 100 75 100 80 100 85 100 100 60 100 100 65 100 100 70 100 100 75 100 100 80 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014). and (v) strengthening the food and nutri on surveillance system.Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger feeding. (iv) strengthening communitybased nutri on programs through Posyandu. MPASI buffer stock for disaster areas Percentage of households with nutri onal awareness (keluarga sadar gizi) 48 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (ii) complementary and supplementary feeding for children 6-24 months old. Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2010-2014 and Presiden al Instruc on No. 3/2010. (iii) supplementary feeding for pregnant and lacta ng mothers. (vi) strengthening malnutri on mi ga on management in primary health centers (Puskesmas) and hospitals.3.

Kindergarten and primary school students Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education .

.

Access to Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Current Status Indonesia aims to go beyond the MDG educa on target for primary educa on by expanding the target to include junior secondary educa on (SMP and madrasah tsanawiyah-MTs. The Susenas 2009 indicated the NER of all other provinces were above 90 percent. The propor on of pupils star ng grade 1 who complete primary school shows an increasing trend. and stayed high despite the financial crisis of the late 1990s. including madrasah. Susenas data indicates that the percentage of children aged 16-18 years who completed primary educa on increased from 87.23 percent. The school drop-out rate has been decreasing.77 percent while the net enrolment ra o (NER) was 95. The primary school (SD/MI) gross enrolment ra o (GER) achieved universal coverage by the early 1980s.11 percent and the NER was 74. the GER was 116.09 percent (Figure 2. disparity in educa on par cipa on has been reduced. This figure indicates the decreasing trend in the dropout rate at primary schools.52 percent (Figure 2.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2A: Ensure that.2).8 percent in 1995 to 93. children everywhere. At the primary school level. except for Papua where the NER was measured to be 76. In 2008/2009.0 percent in 2008. boys and girls alike. grades 7 to 9) in the universal basic educa on target. the GER was 98. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 51 . by 2015.1). At the junior secondary level (SMP/MT).

0 115.4 61.1 1995 51.6 91.0 102.1 107.5 Figure 2. Susenas 2009 and MoNE Sta s cs 2008/2009. the quality of educa on has been a concern of the government.3 88.3 92.5 88. Trends for Net Enrolment Ra os (NER) for Primary and Junior Secondary Educa on Levels (Including Madrasah).9 110.2 2000 60.7 92.2.9 64.2 73.Junior Secondary School/MTs Figure 2.47 percent in 2009.6 93.1 116.2 2001 60.2 92.3 106.7 92.6 1997 1998 57.Primary School/MI GER .6 2008 72. The nine-year basic educa on graduates do not always have adequate skills relevant to the needs of the community or the labor market.Primary School/MI NER . Based on the Third Interna onal 52 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sum matera Selatan Sul lawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Gorontalo Papua .3 107. 2009 Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 95.0 1996 54.7 92.5 60 65.1 106.3 80 70. The literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years is increasing.1 108.1 107. Measured by interna onal standards.2 82.1 55. 2006).0 1993 46.0 120 106.3 93.2 95.0 1999 59.7 92.2 91.4 107. 1992 .2 98.3 79.2 107.3 Source: BPS.5 92.7 2003 63.0 105.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Percentage 74.2009 116.23 Bali Banten Aceh Riau Kali imantan Barat 2009 74.8 Nusa Te enggara Timur Jambi Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Maluku Papua Barat INDONESIA Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Lampung S Sulawesi Utara Maluku Utara Kalim mantan Selatan Kalim mantan Tengah Kalim mantan Timur Sul lawesi Tengah Ba angka Belitung Su umatera Utara Su umatera Barat DI Yogyakarta Ke epulauan Riau S Sulawesi Barat Jawa Timur wesi Sulaw Tenggara Source: BPS. NER .9 81.9 91.71 percent in 1992 to 99.6 96. Indonesia’s educa onal quality is low compared to neighboring countries.6 2002 61.5 95.Junior Secondary School/MTs GER .7 100 92.8 40 1994 50.6 92.1 108.8 percent in 2006 for the 15-24 years age group (UNESCO. Progress in increasing the literacy rate has occurred largely due to improvements in the par cipa on rate of educa on and the propor on of students who have been able to complete their educa on at the primary level.6 57.5 2004 65.5 94.3 107. Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School Including Madrasah by Province.0 77.1 76.9 percent in 1995 to 97. The Susenas data of 1992 to 2009 indicated that the literacy rate of the Indonesian popula on aged 15-24 years increased from 96.5 78.6 107.2 2005 65.1 82.4 2006 66.1.0 93. The literacy rate of the poorest group in the popula on rose significantly from 92.7 2007 71.9 20 0 1992 42. Susenas and MoNE Sta s cs. Beyond access.

books and teaching learning equipments for basic educa on. Moreover. (iii) lack of relevant curriculum and the low quality of teaching learning process. underserved areas. lack of qualified teachers. the low quality of governance in educa on management contributes to low equitable access of all children to quality basic educa on. is a major challenge in improving equitable access to quality basic educa on in Indonesia (Table 2. boys and girls. par cularly in remote. poverty is considered to be a major factor contribu ng to the low access to schooling.1). There is a strong correla on between teachers’ academic qualifica ons. Improving the quality and equal distribu on of teachers in all regions to improve the quality of basic educa on. In the 2006 Program for Interna onal Student Assessment (PISA). In addi on. Challenges Improving equitable access of all children. Indonesian student performance ranked 34 out of 45 countries. Poverty is a major factor contribu ng to low enrollment in basic educa on with lack of affordability being the reason for 70 percent of non-a endance at school (AIBEP 2008). to quality basic educa on is a major challenge to the achievement of the MDG educa on targets. lunches. there is a challenge to develop the holis c and integrated ECED program and to improve the quality of non-formal educa on (NFE) programs par cularly to poor communi es. especially in the poorest urban and rural areas. it includes: (i) insufficient educa onal infrastructure. overall school effec veness. which examines how well students aged 15 years are prepared for life. to quality basic educa on is a major challenge in achieving the educa on MDG target. there is a need to expand provision of an adequate infrastructure. only 31 percent of children could complete more than the most basic reading tasks. in reality. par cularly in remote and underserved areas. (ii) lack of highly qualified teachers. par cularly for daily travel. Several cri cal factors have prevented Indonesia from achieving universal basic educa on. the average score of reading ability of Indonesian students was 393. including teaching-learning materials and equipment. Reaching the unreached in improving equitable access of all children. This was due to lack of access to books and other reading materials. However. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 53 . and improved learning outcomes. In addi on. and Indonesia ranked 44 among 57 countries. boys and girls. The na onwide implementa on of the BOS program which was intended to support the government policy of free basic educa on contributed to improvement of school par cipa on by elimina ng cost barriers. which was below the average of OECD countries (492). On the supply side. However. and (iv) lack of funding for school opera ons. uniforms and books. On the demand side. costs are s ll significant and o en unaffordable for poor parents. Moreover.Mathema cs Science Study (TIMSS 2003).

11.633 1. accountability.02 5.81 50. Formulate and implement policy at na onal and local levels to accelerate provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facili es.70 25.497.083 Propor on (%) Total 223. and fund transfer mechanisms to improve efficiency.83 20.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Table 2. The transi on to decentraliza on has not yet included guidelines for monitoring and evalua on as well benchmarking on progress achieved by ins tu ons at all levels of government.972 ≤ Diploma ≥ Dipl.728 29.60 100 100 Developing be er financing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve efficiency. However. Improving educa on management accountability and efficiency in the decentralized system. From 2001 to 2009.7 percent and as a propor on of public expenditures from 11.607.26 14.110.080 758. educa on spending as a propor on of GDP increased from 2.917 2. including in educa on.659 502. Indonesia’s decision to decentralize government is transforming the nature and level of public service delivery.54 7. par cularly in poor.96 Total 100 100 100 PrePrimary (TK) Primary School (SD/MI) Junior Secondary School (SMP/ MT) Senior Secondary School (SMA/SMK/MA) TOTAL Source: Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Educa on Personnel. Number and Propor on of Teachers by Academic Qualifica ons and School Levels for Indonesia (2009)* Number of Teachers Educa on Level ≤ Senior SS 119.311 3.890 ≥ Dipl.294 101. Priori es to Improve Equitable Access: a.984 374.78 31.8 percent to 3. A en on will be given to concurrently ra onalizing and accelera ng provision of adequate school infrastructure 54 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . MONE. madrasah and pesantren.120 341. *not including madrasah teachers.79 36. and equity in funding and to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.4 percent to 20 percent. 4 / S1 32.35 73.422 1. decentraliza on of educa on policy has not been fully implemented as intended. In line with educa on reform plans to accelerate the pace of achieving MDG educa on targets. However.1. Therefore. and equity in funding to ensure the equitable access to quality basic educa on.915 Diploma 1-3 71. 2010.13 46.49 24.88 89.590 475. a challenge is to further develop be er financing.378 364.08 20. the government has drama cally increased public funding alloca ons for educa on. underserved and remote areas. Policies and Strategies 1. accountability.637 341.806 535.601 29. transfer of resources from central government to district and to schools resulted in reduc on of local budget for educa on (subs tu on effect).876 961. Senior 1-3 4 / S1 SS 53.

Ensure educa on financing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address inequitable alloca on of funds and educa on resources. and ensuring matching funds from revenue-rich districts. facili es and infrastructure for informal educa on. Equivalency program (Packets A and B) will be be er targeted to reach poor and dropout students. b. Accelerate provision of holis c and integrated ECED services in rural and underserved areas. More specifically. An affirma ve policy for the poor is essen al to accelerate access to quality educa on services. and (iii) improving coordina on of educa on equivalency programs between MoNE and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA). Districts will be encouraged or mandated to allocate a share of their budget to support an increase in holis c and integrated ECED services in underserved areas. and evalua on of BOS by enhancing the capacity of school commi ees. spiritual. provincial. c. emo onal. Capacity of local government and schools in managing the implementa on of BOS will be strengthened in order to raise the effec veness. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training provision.and teaching learning resources that meet minimum service standards (MSS). and social capaci es. and central levels to improve planning and monitoring on program performance will be strengthened e. Moreover. monitoring. The training will cover teacher support and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 55 . and accountability of BOS. Priori es to Improve Quality and Relevance: a. 2. (ii) improving efficiency and quality of services through enhancement of the curriculum and quality assurance of program implementa on to ensure equivalency to formal educa on. all teacher training ins tutes (Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTKs) will review their courses with a view to improve prac cal classroom performance and apply best prac ces in linking teaching to improved student learning. d. and accountability in the implementa on of BOS. Improvement of training on school-based management (SBM) targeted to school principals and supervisors. the curriculum and teaching-learning process will be enhanced to build moral values and character. Curriculum reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and teaching-learning process to enable students to develop their intellectual. efficiency. In order to increase learning quality. Strengthen the effec veness. efficiency. This should include increasing the number of cost-based scholarships for poor students in primary and junior secondary schools in targeted areas with the lowest enrolment rates. Ins tu onal capacity at district. Strategies may include: (i) increasing the efficient u liza on of formal school human resources. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for school dropouts. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. b. community par cipa on will be increased in planning. c.

District ins tu onal capacity will be strengthened through expanding coverage of capacity development programs in educa on management including analysis. b. (iii) strengthening performance evalua on and quality assurance systems. Priori es to Strengthen Governance and Accountability: a. The strategies will include: (i) evalua ng budget efficiency and funding mechanisms. (iv) strengthening financial repor ng systems. alongside effec ve mechanisms for ensuring mutual accountability between central and districts. Increase community par cipa on. (v) developing governance and accountability indicators and informa on systems at the district level. monitoring and supervision. Strengthen accountability in educa on resource management. and (vi) improving the quality of informa on for educa on sector performance to ensure adherence to standards. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 sets up program priori es as listed in Table 2.2: 56 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . (ii) developing performance-based budge ng ed to quality standards and incen ve mechanisms. (iii) recogni on of civil society organiza ons as legi mate par cipants in the direc on of the educa on system through strengthening Provincial Educa on Councils and District Educa on Councils. and community par cipa on. financial planning and management. 3. monitoring and evalua on. and establishment of the Na onal Educa on Council to improve governance. Improve local government capacity in managing basic educa on programs.Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education staff performance appraisal. In line with the above policies and strategies. and between schools and parents. planning and budge ng. (iv) strengthening management informa on systems. c. (ii) promo on of public-private partnerships with explicit roles for parents and the community in school performance and school-based management. as well as financial management. Improvement of community par cipa on in educa on management will be conducted through: (i) advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobiliza on.

919 3.791.085.0% Provision of educa on subsidy for SD/SDLB 27.006.211.543 3.555.8% 96.3% 95.322 3.820 27. Program Priori es. 2010-2014 95.Priori es Improving access and quality of primary educa o n (SD/MI) Outputs/ Indicators Equitable access to quality primary educa on in all districts achieved/ NER of primary educa on Subsidy for students in SD/SDLB allocated and distributed/ Number of students in SD/SLB received BOS Subsidy for students in MI/Diniyah Ula allocated and distributed/ Number of students in MI/ Diniyah Ula received BOS Availability of curriculum and teachinglearning models/ Percentage of improved curriculum implemented 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 2.591 Provision of quality and affordable text books 100% - - - - Availability of qualified teachers Provision of and educa on teaching-learning personnel of SD/MI system and that equitable in all curriculum districts/ Percentage of SD/MI principals a ending the training Management and quality assurance system at DG of Primary and Secondary Management improved/ Involvement of community in duca on planning. and finance through Educa on Council 10% 15% 25% 65% 100% Improving quality and welfare of teacher and educa on personnel for primary educa on 15% 25% 45% 70% 90% Improving Management Capacity for basic educa on Improved improved Improved Improved Improved Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014.000 Provision of educa on subsidy for MI 3. control.2% 95.000 28. Outputs and Indicators of the Educa on Sector.803 3.973. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 57 .626.000 28.7% 95.672. implementa on.2.681.736.000 28.

58 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Na onal Educa on Day and the 716th Anniversary of Surabaya Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women . May 11. One thousand women in the Atrium TP3 Surabaya. This supernets event was held to commemorate Kar ni Day.SUPERNETS. 2009 using the internet.

.

the GPI of NER for higher educa on fluctuates with a tendency to rise significantly.17 (Gorontalo) and at the senior secondary level Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 61 . the NER at the junior secondary level including madrasah tsanawiyah (SMP/MT/Package B).95 (Susenas 2009). the MDG target to achieve gender equality at all levels of educa on will be met.16. Meanwhile.39 (Papua Barat) to 102. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Current Status One of the human development goals of Indonesia is to achieve gender equality by building human resources without differen a ng between men and women. while at the junior secondary educa on level (SMP/MT/Package B) it was 101. and senior secondary educa on including madrasah aliyah (SM/MA/Package C) increased significantly.73. In 2009. the GPI at primary schools (SD/MI/Package A) was 99.1). dispari es s ll exist at the post pimary educa on level (Figure 3.99. preferably by 2005.54 (Papua) to 116. and at all levels of higher educa on it was 102.5 (Kepulauan Riau). gender equality in educa on has shown significant progress. Susenas data from 1993 to 2009 shows that the NER of both girls and boys at primary schools including madrasah ib daiyah (SD/MI/Package A) was more than 90. where at the junior secondary level the GPI ranged from 89. gender equality has improved significantly.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. Measured by the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) or the ra o of NER of females to males. Using this indicator. Much effort has been undertaken to improve the quality of life and the role of women to enable them to be equal partners with men in development. at the senior secondary educa on level (SM/MA/Package C) it was 96. During the same period. Susenas 2009 indicated that the NER of females to males was close to homogenous among provinces with the GPI ranging from 96. However. In educa on.

Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Net Enrolment Rates (NER) Senior Secondary Schools by Province. the percentage of waged 62 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .22 (Kepulauan Riau). while provinces with GPI less than 90 include DKI Jakarta.5 million males were recorded to be in this category. the female labor force par cipa on rate is lower than that of males. 2009 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Papua Barat DKI Jakarta Nusa Tenggara Barat Jawa Barat Jawa Timur Papua Bali Banten Lampung Maluku Utara DI Yogyakarta INDONESIA Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sumatera Utara Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Aceh Sulawesi Tengah Bengkulu Maluku Gorontalo Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Utara Jambi Riau Sumatera Selatan Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau 0 Source: BPS. Susenas 2009. The low labor par cipa on rate of females was due to most females chosing to work domes cally as housewives. At the junior secondary level. Jawa Timur. Figure 3. Jawa Barat. Sumatera Selatan. while the open unemployment rate for males declined by only 1. However. This rate is significantly lower than that of their male counterparts which averaged around 84 percent during the same period. In the employment sector. Nusa Tenggara Barat. The figures indicate that disparity among provinces is s ll a major problem par cularly for senior and higher educa on levels.6 percent. with an average rate of around 50 percent.71 percent to 8.29 percent to 7. Papua. and Sulawesi Barat (7 provinces). the open unemployment rate of females showed significant progress.5 percent. the female labor force par cipa on rate has shown no significant increase from 2004 to 2009. For example in August 2009 around 31. Bangka Belitung. with female literacy rates at 99. Progress in educa on par cipa on of both male and female contributed to improvement of the na onal GPI for literacy of the 15-24 year age group. and Gorontalo.47 percent. declining by 6 percent during 2005 to 2009.51 percent during the same period. Morover. provinces with GPI higher than 110 include DI Yogyakarta.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women it ranged from 68. Based on the Na onal Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). from 14. In several provinces the GPI exceeded 110 which indicates that the NER of female students is much higher than that of males. Riau. provinces with GPI of more than 110 include Sumatera Barat.4 percent and male literacy rates at 99.8 million females chose to work as housewives while only 1. The MDG target on the literacy ra o of females to males aged 15-24 years has been achieved. Nusa Tenggara Timur. Nusa Tenggara Timur. Kepulauan Riau.1.60 (Papua Barat) to 143. and Papua Barat (6 provinces). from 9. In 2009 the GPI was almost 100. At the senior secondary level.

3 percent in the period 2004-2009. the data shows that there is a wide wage disparity between females and males. an increase from 11. white collars Female labour workers. In non-agricultural sectors.115. The biggest gap was in casual employees in non-agriculture sectors where women receive only 54 percent of males’ wage.1).200 1.255 1. the wage of female worker was only 58 percent of the average male worker’s wage in 2009. wage discrimina on is s ll prevalent. white collars Male casual employee in non-agricultural sector Female casual employee in non-agricultural sector Source: BPS. In poli cs. Sakernas 2004-2009. The quota for women legisla ve candidates as mandated by law was met by all poli cal par es in the 2009 general elec on.8 percent in 2004 to 27. Although the average wage of female workers has increased. the average monthly wage of female workers categorized as employees increased from Rp 676.166 1.083 974 893 1. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 63 . execu ve and judica ve).448 Average monthly wages (thousand Rp.9 percent of seats in the legisla ve branch.183 to Rp 396.3 percent in 2009.364. Sakernas data showed that from 2004 to 2009.2). The propor on of women in DPD has also increased from 19.600 1. 1. A quan fiable improvement has been recorded in the propor on of women in public ins tu ons (legisla ve. (Figure 3.women in non-agricultural sectors increased from 29. The result of the 2009 general elec on were that women have 17.400 1. In Sulawesi Utara the average wage of women is higher than that of males (Map 3.611 to Rp 1. progress has been achieved as indicated by the issuance of a law that mandates a quota of 30 percent women’s representa on in parliament.2.000 800 600 400 200 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 915 677 540 930 689 609 824 715 593 633 396 732 1. Disparity in the average wage of female workers as percentages of the average wages of male workers exists among provinces. In Nusa Tenggara Barat.098 Figure 3. While the wage levels of female workers have increased. Average Monthly Wages (Rp ‘000) of Male and Female Workers in Non-Agricultural Sectors 277 267 294 337 355 Male labour workers. the average wage of female casual employees also increased from Rp 277.02 percent in 2004 to 3.) 1.098.45 percent in 2009 (Sakernas 2004-2009).

2008.go.depdagri. However. dispari es among provinces at senior secondary and hgher educa on as well as in employment and poli cs are s ll a major challenge. par cularly those in remote and rural areas.1 percent of Echelon 2 posi ons were filled by women. In employment. 2009.5 percent. Ministry of Home Affairs. enforcing laws to ensure equal opportuni es without discrimina on for women and men in employment and in the job place is a major challenge. The primary focus is to target children from poor families. Special a en on is. at the district level. therefore. only 8. there is only one female Vice Governor while. The propor on of women out of the total number of state civil servants was 44. gender equality and empowerment showed significant progress.1. less than 10 women fill the posi on of Mayor or district head (Bupa ).id 64 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .2 Challenges At the na onal level. Sta s cal Yearbook of Indonesia. In 2008. strong coordina on among government ins tu ons at the central and provincial levels is required to ensure a synergy between na onal and regional laws. needed to achieve gender parity among geographically dis nct provinces which have differing characteris cs and cultural values. Moreover. www.7 percent of senior (Echelon 1) posi ons and 7. par cularly in par cipa on in educa on. Sakernas In decision making.Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Map 3. the challenge is not only improving the NER of females but also the NER of males depending on the situa on. In educa on. and also to implement comprehensive 1 2 State Civil Service Agency.1 At the provincial level. women’s par cipa on in senior management posi ons of execu ve and judica ve ins tu ons is s ll low. The Average Wages of Female Workers as Percentages of the Average Wages of Male Workers by Province in August 2009 Source: BPS.

b) Improve access and quality of gender responsive non-formal educa on. capacity and competency of labor inspectors to ensure be er enforcement of core labor standards. 3. to improve capacity and skills of women workers in the fields where there is a need for workers. The strategy will include provision of subsidies for the poor to join social insurance programs under the na onal social insurance scheme to the poor. Focus will be given to improve knowledge and life skills par culary in income genera ng ac vi es targeted to those who are unable to enroll in formal schooling. The priori es iden fied to enhance gender equality are grouped into four areas: (i) educa on.coordina on and monitoring to ensure enforcement of laws and regula ons on employment at the provincial and district levels. including synchronizing policies and employment regula ons at the na onal and regional levels. and (iv) local governance processes. Lack of adequate legal and poli cal literacy training contributes to the low par cipa on of women in poli cal ins tu ons. In poli cal ins tu ons. policies on improving gender equality and women’s empowerment will be carried out in all sectors and ins tu ons at both the na onal and local levels. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 65 . Strategic steps to be carried out in educa on are as follows: a) Improve access and quality of educa on to reduce gender inequality among regions and among socio-economic groups. provincial. The ac vi es will include improving the access of women to educa on and skills training. to ensure that men and women are able to equally par cipate without discrimina on in the labor force. there is a need to ensure greater par cipa on of women in decisionmaking posi ons at the na onal. This is due to lack of planning related to gender issues. (ii) employment. d) Provide social protec on to women who work in the informal sector. as well as company/ employers. c) Strengthen labor inspec on through improving the number. (iii) poli cs. e) Improve the quality of female workers and job seekers. Strategies to ensure gender equality in poli cs include the followings: a) Improve partnerships with civil society organiza ons (CSO) to improve women’s 2. b) Strengthen coordina on between central and local government to ensure the enforcement of labor laws and regula ons. Strategies to address the challenges in employment are as follows: a) Priori ze the enforcement of exis ng laws. and district levels. Policies and Strategies To address the above challenges. 1.

Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women b) c) d) 4. monitoring. and ac vi es at the local levels. both provincial and district levels. the poor. and evalua on processes of development policies. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 has set the following targets. disabled. programs. Improve voter educa on concerning women legisla ve candidates. and MOLT. and poli cs. MOHA. MORA. Design modules on voter educa on for women’s groups. To ensure achievement of the MDG targets for gender par cularly in educa on. 66 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and elderly. Improve poli cal educa on for female members of poli cal par es. implementa on. General Elec on Commission. employment. budge ng. par cipa on in poli cs. under the responsibilty of MONE. A strategy to implement gender mainstreaming in local governance processes will be carried out through developing a general guideline for local governments agencies to integrate a gender perspec ve into planning.

04 1.05 1.08 1.12 98. Source: MTDP 2010-2014.97 > 0. 2010-2014 NER Ra o of female to male at general primary educa on (SD) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic primary educa on (MI) Improve quality of life and role of women in development NER Ra o of female to male at general junior educa on (SMP) NER Ra o of female to male at Islamic junior educa on (MTs) GER Ra o of female to male at general senior educa on GER Ra o of female to male at Islamic general senior educa on (MA) GER Ra o of female to male at general higher educa on GER Ra o of female to male at general Islamic higher educa on Literacy ra o of female to male age 15-24 years Ra o of cer fied female teacher to male teacher in public school Ra on of cer fied female teacher to male teacher at madrasah Poli cs Number of partnership with NGO on par cipa on of women in poli cs Number of elec on educa on modules for poor.85 > 0.98 > 0.98 > 0.0 75% 70% 1.85 1 1 1 1 > 0.98 > 0. Strategic Planning of MORA 2010-2014.12 98.98 > 0.8 68% 60% 1.Prioritas Educa on Output Target 2010-2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 3.98 > 0. disabled.85 > 0. Output and Performance Indicators in Educa on.04 98.90 > 0. and Strategic Planning of Ministry of Labor antdTransmigra on 2010-2014. Strategic Planning of MONE 2010-2014. and elderly women Number of elec on educa on for women legisla ve candidates Number of women cadre of poli cal party trained in poli c educa on Labor Percentage of Improve protec on company that fulfilled work norm of of women against women and children abuse Number of labor controlers for women and children that improved their capacity > 0.0 95% 85% 5 - 100 5 10 100 100 5 10 150 100 5 10 200 400 k) 25 k) 40 k) 500 k) Note: k) cumula ve. Strategic Planning of General Elec on Comission 2010-2014.97 > 0.12 97.98 > 0.0 85% 80% 1.05 1.98 > 0.95 1 1.12 97.80 > 0. Poli cs and Labor.1.12 1.97 > 0.80 > 0.98 > 0.97 > 0.6 60% 50% 1. Strategic Planning of MOHA 2010-2014. Priori es.90 1 1 1 1 1 > 0. 10% 20% 25% 30% 40% 120 150 180 240 990 k) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 67 .

68 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Lining up to get Vitamin A Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate .

.

by 2002/2003 it had dropped to 46. antenatal care. However. between 1990 and 2015. In 1991. This is shown by the declining rates of infant and child mortality over the past two decades. as well as by social and economic status.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds.1). The significant progress that has been achieved in reducing child mortality reflects the con nuous expansion of coverage and improvements in the quality of health services. Neonatal. infant and under-five mortality rates vary widely by region. nutri on. the under-five mortality rate was 97 deaths per 1. DI Yogayakarta (22).000 live births in 1991 to 34 in 2007 (IDHS). i. neonatal mortality has fallen more gradually from 32 in 1991 to 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2007 (Figure 4. The decline of child mortality has been accompanied by a reduc on in infant mortality. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 71 . the under-five mortality rate Current Status The health of children in Indonesia has been improving steadily over me in response to be er health care. including immuniza on. simple medical care. and promo on of clean and healthy behavior (PHBS). especially at the community level. the highest rate was recorded in Sulawesi Barat (96). water and sanita on access and improved environmental condi ons.e. This trend shows that the decline of child mortality is faster than the decline in the rate of infant mortality. a rate that is more than four mes higher than the province with the lowest rate. from 68 deaths per 1. Significant differences in child mortality among provinces are recorded. as well as increased community awareness.000 live births. and it had fallen to 44 in 2007 (IDHS 2007). Children of less educated mothers generally have higher mortality rates than those born to more educated mothers.

Na onal Trend and Projec on of Child.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate while children in richer households have lower mortality rates than those in poorer households. safe water and good sanita on. and infrastructure contribute significantly to decreasing child mortality. and Papua (49. In order to achieve universal coverage of immuniza on against measles in areas that have 1 Based on sta s c regression of immuniza on against measles by UNSD-ADB. informa on access. availability of clean water and sanita on. It is proven that increasing the immuniza on rate can reduce the number of child deaths.9 percent). Immuniza on against measles has a direct impact on child mortality. In addi on to the constraints of geography. The provinces with the lowest coverage were North Sumatra (36. access to. access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC/CEONC). 72 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . 2009. management of diarrhea.000 Live Births. (Neonatal Mortality) Most of child.9 percent). In addi on to these. pneumonia.000 live birth 120 100 97 81 80 68 60 57 58 46 40 32 30 46 35 26 20 19 44 34 RPJMN Target 2014 IMR: 24 Target MDGs 2015 IMR: 32 USMR: 23 20 0 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Source: BPS. and it is proven that an increase of three percentage points in the immuniza on rate reduces the number of deaths of children under-five years of age caused by measles by one per thousand live births (UNSD 2009. Data from the IDHS 2007 indicates that there are 18 provinces with lower coverage of immuniza on against measles than the na onal average (67 percent). Two effec ve preven ve measures to fight child. IDHS several years. ADB)1. with 94. appropriate feeding prac ces. Infant and Neonatal Mortality per 1. (Infant Mortality) Expon. skilled a endance at birth.6 percent). and malaria. infant and neonatal mortality causes are preventable. Figure 4.2). and access to care could significantly reduce child mortality.8 percent coverage (Figure 4. Aceh (40. transporta on. while the province with the highest coverage was DIY.1. Infant Mortality Neonatal Mortality Expon. (Under-5 Mortality) Under-5 Mortality Expon. infant and neonatal morbidity and mortality are immediate and exclusive breas eeding and immuniza on. 1991-2015 Per 1.

Full immuniza on coverage is s ll below 50 percent.3 74. That is.8 72. however. 17 and 7 percent. in the areas where coverage targets have not been reached during three consecu ve years.6 76.5 61.0 50.100 80 Percent coverage 60 40 20 0 Sumatera Utara Aceh Papua Maluku Maluku Utara Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Jambi Sulawesi Barat Sumatera Selatan Lampung Nusa Tenggara Timur Riau Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Barat Gorontalo Sulawesi Selatan INDONESIA Sumatera Barat DKI Jakarta Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Tengah Jawa Timur Jawa Barat Banten Kepulauan Riau Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Timur Bengkulu Sulawesi Utara Bali DI Yogyakarta 36. Back Log Figh ng (BLF) ac ons. Challenges While progress in improving child (and infant) mortality has been good.5 94. by Province 2007 Source: BPS.9 65.8 59. coverage by some key immuniza on programs against Tuberculosis.4 69.9 85. IDHS 2007. Over the 2002-2005 period.9 64. In 2008. While immuniza on coverage has increased.9 49. . Diphtheria. Pertusis and Tetanus and Hepa s – has increased by 6.6 64.that is increased coverage of unvaccinated children aged 12-36 months – will be conducted for those who have not been vaccinated un l they reach their first birthday. irrespec ve of their vaccina on status. Propor on of One-Year-Old Children Immunized Against Measles. coverage for some other types of immuniza on has regressed.2 60. reaching 82 percent.0 58.8 58.2 50.6 67. counterbalanced by drops in polio and measles immuniza ons from 74 and 76 percent respec vely.8 71.6 40. Coverage of immuniza on against measles for children aged 12-23 months will be surveyed to assess coverage of measles immuniza on for infants (<12 months) from previous years’ programs.6 78.2.8 51. Indonesia s ll faces important challenges in all key policy and program areas affec ng child health.2 74.1 77.0 74. not achieved the coverage target.0 51. to 70 percent. will carry out a vaccina on campaign covering all children aged 6-59 months. ensuring early detec on and Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 73 . 88 percent and 72 percent of children.8 Figure 4. Another interven on. called the ‘Measles Crash Program’.5 57. providing a second measles vaccina on to children in school. respec vely. These include: maintaining and scaling-up efforts in immuniza on coverage.0 58.2 80.0 67.9 66.3 79. Indonesia started a campaign to immunize all one-year-old children against measles.8 77.

and controlling for environmental risk factors (access to clean water and sanita on) About 20 percent of births had no access to proper health services. child nutri on program. procurement of vaccines and equipment. To maintain the necessary momentum in pursuing key interven ons. improving nutri on outcomes. par cular emphasis needs to be placed on the following policy areas: immuniza on. only about 30 percent of mothers apply good health prac ces. To achieve the national target for immunization against measles of 93 percent by 2014. Some 54 percent of households use pollu ng solid fuels in the household. while about 30 . promo ng family ac on and community prac ces. and (iv) designing informa on and behavior change programs that promote the role of the family (i. IMCI. (iii) cost-effec ve. Policies and Strategies While current policy correctly focuses on building up and expanding core interven ons. basic sanita on and low levels of indoor pollu on. staff training. and the design of disease surveillance. funding and grassroots promo on of IMCI. enhancing access to health facili es. It is reported also that 35 . The risk factors of child and infant mortality are highly correlated with environmental health.e. without which expansion and even maintenance of achievements in immuniza on coverage will slow down. while at the same me most babies born in Indonesia are at high risk (Riskesdas 2007). early ini a on of breas eeding. 2 IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 74 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .60 percent of children have no access to proper health services when ill and 40 percent were unprotected from preventable diseases.45 percent live in high risk environments. implemented by well-trained and properly resourced health care providers. Central government will strengthen its roles in policy making. integra on of such interven ons into results-based sector planning and budge ng. The 2007 Riskesdas report found that 65 percent of infants and children have access to clean water and 71 percent to basic sanita on. key challenges lie in the areas of: (i) program monitoring. hand washing. setting norms and standards. strengthening the role of the family. feasible and adaptable nutri on interven ons. (ii) management. etc). ensuring adequate resources availability and defining clear roles between central and local government are crucially needed in program implementation. Risk factors for infant and child mortality are strongly related to environmental health – clean water.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate prompt treatment of sick children (IMCI2). synchroniza on of effec ve evidence-based interven ons with universal coverage.

3 The Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014. and special care for low birth weight newborns. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 75 . (iv) pursue micronutrient interventions. and (iv) vaccina ons and support for iron supplementa on to prevent anemia during pregnancy. (v) give sick children appropriate home treatment for infec on. including breast milk. through BCC and IEC. Strategies to address the key nutritional concerns so as to achieve the national target to reduce stunting in under-five children from 36. to children when they are sick. (iii) ensure that essen al drugs are available for IMCI. increase funding for IMCI. (ii) support focusing on the ‘essen al obstetric and neonatal care’ approach to preven on/early treatment of complica ons during pregnancy. and clean cord care). oral polio vaccine. adequate nutri onal care during illness and severe malnutri on. childcare and health care seeking. (iii) recognize when sick children need treatment outside the home and then seek care from appropriate providers. and (vi) follow health workers’ advice about treatment. (ii) strengthen management structures at the central and district levels. through: (i) support for implementa on of the newborn and child survival strategy emphasizing focused pregnancy and delivery care. and improve supervision at facility levels. tetanus. and adequate micronutrient intake. increased dietary intake. (iv) feed and offer more fluids. infec on detec on and treatment.Strategies to address the key IMCI concerns are as follows: (i ) focus on IMCI training for health workers. coordinate with other child health programs and eliminate conflic ng regula ons. diphtheria. (ii) promote child growth aimed at providing basic informa on for households and communi es about feeding. Strategy at the community and household levels includes: increasing clean and healthy life behavior (PHBS) prac ces at the household level from 50 percent to 70 percent by 2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). essen al care for all newborns (including immediate and exclusive breas eeding. delivery and the newborn period. follow-up. pertussis. and (v) pursue food supplementation strategies. reduce staff turnover. and (v) provision of counseling for mothers and caregivers on how to care for child and infants. Strategies at the family level relate to the following: (i) protec on of children in malariaendemic areas with insec cide-treated nets. Strengthening Newborn care and Maternal Health. (iii) introduce communication for behavior change (BCC). (iii) quality improvement to promote hygiene and training for community health workers in clean delivery prac ces. and measles) before their first birthday. . warmth.8 percent to 32 percent by 20143 are as follows: (i) emphasize exclusive breast-feeding and appropriate complementary feeding. BCG. food for fica on and direct supplementa on. (ii) ensure that children complete a full course of immuniza ons (hepa s. (iv) implement IMCI at the household and community levels to improve care-seeking prac ces and health services u liza on. and referral.

(ii) increased provision of public funding for health in order to reduce financial risks. and (v) addressing strategic needs of health workers in remote areas. complete basic immuniza on and other health services that are provided at the Posyandu. gender and women empowerment. Mobiliza on of community par cipa on through Posyandu ac vi es that include: monitoring the nutri onal status of infants and toddlers each month through observa on of their body weight. and social protec on programs.Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate Strengthening and improving health facili es. Priori es. (iii) development of monitoring instruments. educa on. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Child Health Services. (iv) improved advocacy and capacity building of health personnel. infant and child care have been set out in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan as presented in the following table: Table 4. 76 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Outputs. surveillance and IEC technologies with ac ons in water and sanita on. underserved. border and island areas. distribu on mechanisms. environmental pollu on. by introducing strategies to promote primary health care and revitalize Posyandus. communicable diseases control.1. enable Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC and CEONC). 2010—2014 Priority Outputs Coverage of Neonatal first visit Coverage of Complete Neonatal Visits Coverage of Treatment on Neonatal Complica on 2010 84% 80% 60% 84% 78% 80% 80% 2011 86% 82% 65% 85% 80% 82% 85% 2012 88% 84% 70% 86% 81% 85% 88% 2013 89% 86% 75% 87% 83% 88% 90% 2014 90% 88% 80% 90% 85% 90% 92% Improve the quality of child health care: Coverage of Health Services for Infants Coverage of Health Services for Under-five Children Coverage of one-year-old children fully immunized Coverage of one-year-old children immunized against measles Source: The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 and Inpres no. 3/2010. To ensure progress. through: (i) improved resource alloca on taking into account absorp ve capacity. linking service delivery. Policy advocacy will be targeted to provinces with lower levels of achievement on the indicators for MDG 4. especially for the poor. through BOK (Biaya Operasional Kesehatan). ensure adequate opera ng costs for hospitals and primary health centers. cross sectoral approaches will be considered. To support the aforemen oned strategies and leverage their impact. na onal targets for newborn.

“Antenatal care at Puskesmas (primary health center) in Praya. NTT” Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .

.

It is es mated by WHO that 15-20 percent of pregnant women in both developed and developing countries will experience high risk and/or complica ons during pregnancy or at birth. family planning to avoid early pregnancies. births attendance by skilled health personnel. the MMR has been falling gradually.000 live births for the period 2004-2007.34 percent of births are assisted by a skilled health provider Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 79 . but extra efforts are required to achieve the target of 102 deaths per 100.000 live births by 2015. Compared to 307 per 100. With current trends. Currently.1). the Maternal Mortality Ratio Target 5B: Achieve. 77. by 2015. high risk abortions and post abortion care. While maternal mortality figures tend to vary by source. Key areas of intervention that influence the MMR include appropriate antenatal care. the number reflects a gradual decline of MMR (Figure 5. IDHS 2007 places the MMR at 228 maternal deaths per 100.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters.000 live births in 1991 (IDHS). proper care of high-risk pregnancies. between 1990 and 2015. universal access to reproductive health Current Status Indonesia’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) remains high. The most effec ve way to reduce maternal mortality is to have births a ended by a skilled health provider. and programs aimed at behavior change (raising awareness) among women of reproductive age.000 live births for the period 1998–2002 and 390 deaths per 100.

Susenas 2009.5 percent of pregnant women who have at least four ANC contacts during pregnancy. by Provinces.3).1 49. 80 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Maluku Maluku Utara Sulawesi Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur Kalimantan Barat Papua Barat Sulawesi Tengah Gorontalo Kalimantan Tengah Banten Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Barat Jambi Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Selatan Lampung INDONESIA Sumatera Selatan Riau Sulawesi Utara Jawa Tengah Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Bangka Belitung Aceh Jawa Timur Kepulauan Riau Sumatera Utara Sumatera Barat Bali DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta 42.3 78.1.7 percent in 2002 (IDHS 2002/03).48 percent in Maluku. Figure 5.9 69.14 percent in DKI Jakarta to 42.5 63. Even with rela vely high coverage.5 88. as shown by Figure 5. There are 81.8 84. Na onal Trends and Projec ons for the Maternal Mortality Ra o 1991-2025 450 390 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 102 2015 (MDG) 334 307 228 226 118 2014 (NMTDP) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 Source: BPS.3 76.7 82.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Susenas 2009). compared with 72.3 85. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a health professional during pregnancy (Figure 5.7 49.4 77.7 82.5 percent of pregnant women have complied with the recommended schedule of the minimum of four ANC visits. IDHS MDG Target NMTDP Linear (IDHS) The disparity of births assisted by skilled health personnel among regions ranges from 98.9 60 59.6 68.2 96.0 76. IDHS several years. but only 65.2 70. The MoH target for 2010 is 90 percent.5 percent in 2007 (IDHS 2007) and 66.2 85.5 70.1 2025 .5 47.2 63.1 60.5 71.3 87.2.4 85.9 96.9 98.2.4 62.7 88. 2009 100 90 80 70 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: BPS. Figure 5.2 85.9 86.5 48.2 47. Percentage of Births Assisted by Skilled Provider.

3. level of educa on.4 percent for modern methods and 61.0 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1994 1 visit 81.5 percent). In general.0 81. First and Fourth Antenatal Visits.7 93. especially since MMR remains high. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased only by 1. the contracep ve prevalence rate (CPR) is rela vely low. contracep ve and reproduc ve health are the crucial issues to be improved.0 93. The number of couples of reproduc ve age who want to space pregnancy or limit births. 57. The highest for any and modern methods are in Bengkulu. IDHS several years.4 percent.2 percent for all methods and modern methods.1 56. amenorrheic Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 81 .3 1997 ≥ 4 visits 2003 ≥ 4 visits as recommended 2007 Source: BPS. compared to the steady increase recorded in the period of 1991 to 2002/03. One aspect to be considered is quality of ANC services in ensuring early diagnosis and prompt treatment. respec vely.1 percent).5 75. respec vely. The lowest CPR for any method is in Maluku (34. Women with an unmet need for “spacing” include pregnant women whose pregnancy was mis med.6 percent (IDHS 2002- 1 14 Unmet need is defined here as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth.5 percent and 3.0 percent and 70. but are not using any method of family planning. contracep ve use did not show significant improvement.4 percent for any method (IDHS 2007). where the rates recorded are 74. Regarding the pre-pregnancy period. beside an integrated and holis c approach of maternal health. Con nuum of care is a cri cal element in the strategy to achieve maternal and child health targets.0 79. The contracep ve prevalence rate increased insignificantly in the last five years.0 86.2007 65.0 63.5 Figure 5. but do not use any contracep ves (unmet need1). The CPR varies among provinces.5 64.1 percent for all methods and 0. while in the period 1991 to 2002/03. and wealth quin le. During the period of 2002/03 to 2007.7 percent for modern methods during the period 2002/03 to 2007. while the lowest for modern methods is in Papua (24. in Indonesia 1991. Na onally. has increased from 8. Disparity of CPR among provinces indicates the uneven coverage of family planning programs. contracep ve use is high when the respondent’s level of educa on and wealth quin le are high. the average increase in contracep ve use was 3.ANC s ll needs a en on. 100 83.

Indonesia 1991-2007 14. but are not using any contracep ve method. Measures of unmet need for family planning are used to evaluate the extent to which programs are mee ng the demand for services. unmet need also tends to be inversely correlated with higher levels of educa on and welfare quin le: it is 11 percent for women with no educa on and 8 percent for women with higher educa on (secondary and above).3 Source: BPS. which reflect the low quality of family planning services. 1994. 10.0 8.4).3 percentage points are for spacing and 4.4 percent).7 10.7 percentage points for limi ng) (IDHS 2007). This fact indicates that the more educated and prosperous the group. IDHS 1991. regions and socio-economic status.0 6.0 10. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth. Moreover. and who want to wait two or more years for their next birth.2 percent) as compared with urban areas (8. Unmet Needs.6 9. Higher unmet need was found in rural areas (9.6 6. 75 percent of married women with 3-4 living children. amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted. and 80 percent of married women with 5 or more live children.3 2. who are not using any method of family planning. 2007. 0 6. 1997.0 4. These numbers have been nearly stagnant since 1997 (Figure 5. the more informa on and services of family planning and reproduc ve health have been accessed.6 4.2 4.0 percent (4.16). who are not using any method of family planning.2 8. In addi on.0 % of married women aged 15-49 12. 82 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .0 12.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health 2003) to 9.7 9.1 percent because their husbands forbid them to do so.7 percent).1 percent because of health problems and 3. and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic.0 4. while for women in the lowest quin le it is 13 percent and 8 percent for women in the highest quin le (Figure 5. 2002/2003.8 4.0 4. do not want more children. and who want no more children.0 4. Figure 5. and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. The lowest unmet need is found in Bangka Belitung (3. IDHS 2007 shows that 60 percent of married women with 2 children.2 percent) and the highest in Maluku (22.3 percent women aged 15-19 are not willing to use any contracep ve because of side effects.4. Unmet need for “limi ng” refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted. 12.8 5.4 5. The high unmet need is also caused by the concern about side effects and the inconvenience of using contracep ves. women whose last birth was mis med. 1991 1994 Spacing 1997 Limi ng Total 2002/3 2007 Unmet need varies greatly among provinces. Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children (IDHS 2007).

delaying pregnancy broadens opportuni es for pursuing educa on and expanding access to employment opportuni es. the risks for both mother and child increase.33 in 1991. 9/2008 Adolescent Birth Rate is counted using the ASFR aged 15-19 (number of birth by married women aged 15-19 years divided by number of married women aged 15-19) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 83 . in some provinces. Since abor on is illegal in Indonesia. early child birth raises fer lity rates. a decrease from 0. par cularly during the perinatal and neonatal period. This risks increasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abor ons. and points to the need to promote be er understanding of adolescent reproduc ve health. as well as the provision of family planning and reproduc ve health services for couples in reproduc ve ages. as well as complica ons during pregnancy and childbirth. From a health perspec ve. pregnant women seek unsafe abor on services. especially in rural areas4. Policy Brief. TFR is significantly higher due to the high Adolescent Birth Rate. Demographically. revealed the presence of teenagers who approved of having intercourse before marriage.000 married women (IDHS 1991) to 35 births per 1. and s llbirth. The Indonesia Youth and Adolescent Reproduc ve Health Survey (IYARHS. low birth weight. which is due to the low median age of the first marriage of women. while the disparity among provinces and regions and socio-economic is s ll the main challenge. which result in elevated infant and maternal mortality rates. The Age Specific Fer lity Rate for individuals aged 15-19 has decreased from 67 births per 1. BPS) in 2007. The TFR is currently 2. which in turn lead to termina on of pregnancies.The CPR and unmet need contribute to the Total Fer lity Rate (TFR). 2 3 4 MDGs countdown. in addi on to increasing maternal mortality. while the lowest is in Yogyakarta (7 births). The high adolescent birth rate is caused by lack of access to quality reproduc ve health services and reliable informa on on sexual and reproduc ve health Adolescent fer lity raises both health and demographic concerns. 16 provinces s ll have ASFR aged 15-19 above the na onal average. profile Indonesia Abor on in Indonesia Gu macher Ins tute. Furthermore.3 in Indonesia (IDHS 2007). Adolescent births risk reproduc ve health system injuries. In addi on. Furthermore. with an es mated 62 -163 per cent caused by unsafe abor on prac ces.000 married women (IDHS 2007). The highest ASFR aged 15-19 is found in Sulawesi Tengah (92 births). 2005. The need for family planning is further underlined by the high adolescent birth rate in Indonesia. Unmet need leads to unwanted and unintended pregnancies. babies born to teenage mothers are more prone to injury during birth. Knowledge and awareness of youth and couples in reproduc ve age about family planning and reproduc ve health is s ll low.

). quality and their distribu on. medicines and blood supplies that are crucial to handling obstetric emergencies. The current health care facili es are not preferred loca ons for giving birth due to limited access. which s ll are common problems in most of places in Indonesia.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Challenges 1. as well as the lack of medical equipment. The percentage of women of reproduc ve age (15-45 years old) who suffer from chronic protein energy malnutri on is rela vely high. Community mo va on and mobiliza on becomes a par cularly important tool in an environment of uncertain service provision. cultural issues and lack of necessary facili es and materials. 4. In addi on. Low nutri onal and health status of pregnant women. 3. infec ous diseases. from community to primary to referral facili es. remote. especially midwives. 5 The educa on and training programs with crash program approaches some mes poorly resulted with insufficiently skilled health workers. in addi on to escala ng health risks for pregnant women. especially for the poor in disadvantaged areas. 13. etc. especially midwives. where risks to pregnancy and child births are par cularly high. (iii) too old. Some socio-economic indicators. such as affordability and educa on. Health workers are some mes inadequately trained. Lack of knowledge and awareness on the significance of safe motherhood. the referral system is weak. Limited availability of health personnel both in terms of quan ty.5 access to trained health personnel. such as availability and quality of Basic Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC) and Comprehensive Emergency of Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEONC). The low nutri onal status.6 percent (Riskesdas 2007). posyandu and blood transfusion units. Limited access to quality health care facili es. especially in remote and poor areas. or (iv) too young (age of the mother). especially with the diversity of condi ons that exist in Indonesia. (ii) too close (interval between pregnancies). This is exacerbated by geographic and transporta on barriers to access health facili es and health workers. is one cause of high prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) among infants. and cultural factors. The risk of maternal death is even greater for mothers with the “4 TOOes”: (i) too many (children). are low. Due to the inadequate number and distribu on of midwives. border and island areas area (DTPK). is cri cal for a successful safe motherhood program. especially when they have to work in difficult circumstances where in fact they are most needed. as well as cultural factors. which may constrain demand and contribute to the maternal deaths figure in Indonesia. 2. communi es come to depend on tradi onal birth a endants (TBAs) and o en dangerous tradi onal prac ces. This risk is exacerbated when other underlying condi ons are present (anemia. 84 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

village health posts (poskesdes). which. a complete vital sta s cs model should be compiled through registra on. Policies and Strategies Considering that the decline in maternal mortality has been slow with complex problems faced in achieving the target for 2015. (b) increasing the use of skilled health personnel in deliveries. Therefore. 3. and (d) increasing the percentage of deliveries in a health facility. the following policies will ensure improvements: (a) increasing the frequency of antenatal6 contacts between skilled health personnel and pregnant women. This has been the case since 1994. improving facility-based and outreach services by improving quality and quan ty of puskesmas. UN guidelines recommend a minimum of one comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility and four basic emergency obstetric care facili es per 500. including partnering with TBAs. The effects of these policies are not narrowly focused on maternal health. CEONC. The Maternal Mortality Ra o remains uncertain. that is they are key interven ons that accelerate achievement of the full range of health MDG targets. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 85 . The high IMR and MMR. too young). To obtain accurate death rates and causes of death. that is 102 per 100. and low contracep ve use – are indicators of the weakness of family planning services which are an important driver in reducing maternal mortality. mother’s age at child birth (too old. Low rates of contracep ve use and high unmet need remain major challenges. and strengthening the community based care through TBA-midwife partnership. Mother and Baby Friendly Hospitals (CEONC8) and posyandu revitaliza on.5.. as the system for recording causes of maternal deaths is not robust. if it is func oning. integrated health posts (posyandu). The surveys collect informa on on the survivorship of all live births of the respondent’s natural mother (i. BEONC. expanding the village midwife func on. by means of expanding the service network (coverage and access) and integra ng family planning with other reproduc ve health programs with a focus on the poor and underserved areas. high abor on rates. 6. the future policies and strategies to be pursued are:7 1. The rate is currently obtained from a survey using a direct es ma on procedure drawing on the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS).e. the respondent’s brothers and sisters). 2. 6 7 8 Antenatal care is a poten ally important way to connect a woman with the health system. increasing access to family planning services. (c) increasing access to emergency (basic and comprehensive) obstetric care for highrisk deliveries. but are systemic. will be cri cal for saving her life in the event of a complica on.000 popula on.000 live births. or a popula on census with the cause of death recorded needs to be implemented immediately.

and childhood. Improving promo on and community mobiliza on by: α.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Con nuing family planning revitaliza on in order to control the popula on is one of the key features of policies to achieve universal access to reproduc ve health by 2015. δ. BOK (subsidy for non-salary opera ng cost for primary health facili es). improving commitment and par cipa on across sectors and local governments in popula on and family planning program implementa on. developing media communica ons and intensifying informa on. to reduce the “three delays” and to save women’s lives by giving adequate care on me. NGOs. communica on and educa on for popula on control and family planning. focusing to fulfill needs in remote. addic ve drugs use. that includes integrated service delivery for mothers and children from pregnancy to delivery.500 government and private family planning clinics. 4. improving human resources capacity in the family planning program at all levels. HIV/AIDS. improve the con nuum of care. through pre-service and in-service training of key health personnel and implemen ng the contractual service provider scheme. 6. strengthening the referral system. free contracep ve devices/drugs and free family planning services for the poor. 7. by providing material support for the clinics. β. increasing the availability of health workers (general prac oners. improving adequate micronutrient intake by pregnant women by ensuring adequate 86 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . village midwives. life skills educa on and family life educa on for adolescents. 5. Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 (RPJMN 2010-2014). family planning and reproduc ve health. reducing financial barriers through: PKH (condi onal cash transfers). χ. improving knowledge. in the aforemen oned 23. raising awareness about safe motherhood at the community and household level by strengthening public health educa on. 2. and communi es in family planning program implementa on. quality and distribu on. border and islands areas. 9. Supervising and building self reliance to par cipate in family planning by: α.500 clinics in order to assist and develop self-reliance in family planning. paramedical staff) in term of quan ty. β. promo ng and strengthening partnerships with the private sector. increasing par cipa on and self-reliance training for family planning through 23. including: 1. a tudes and behavior related to popula on control. specialists. χ. improving knowledge. a tudes and behavior of teenagers related to adolescent reproduc ve health. the immediate postnatal period. underserved. and will be pursued through a series of strategies. Jamkesmas (social health insurance for the poor). 8.

nutri on intake. In addi on. Outputs. while focusing targe ng of interven ons in poor and underserved areas. 12. monitoring. and promote collabora on among programs and sectors as well as between public and private sector en es. to ensure the achievement of health MDGs at all levels. (ii) focusing on groups and areas most at risk of maternal death. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set annual targets as follows: Table 5. addressing par cular issues related to decentraliza on and strengthening and sharpening the tasks in achieving health Minimum Services Standards (MSS).1. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled birth a endant (PN) 2010 84% 2011 86% 2012 88% 2013 89% 2014 90% Improve quality of maternal and reproduc ve health services Percentage of pregnant mothers with at least 4 ANC visits (K4) Percentage of health care services that provides standardized family planning services Number of puskesmas that implement standardized midwifery services based on guidelines 84% 86% 90% 93% 95% 10% 40% 75% 90% 100% Improve expansion of nursing and midwifery services 70 140 210 280 350 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 87 . in par cular by: (i) introducing analy cal methods to measure maternal deaths drawing on diverse sources of varying quality. evalua on and financing. including developing linkages with communi es to achieve synergies in advocacy and service delivery. In emphasizing the aforemen oned strategies. 10. improving the informa on system. 11. provincial and district authori es and introducing be er program oversight and management through surveillance. and Targets to Improve the Quality of Maternal and Reproduc ve Health Services. building effec ve partnerships across programs and sectors to make use of synergies in service provision and advocacy. and (iii) developing models for iden fying effec ve safe motherhood strategies. 13. Priori es. strengthening coordina on mechanisms by defining modali es for sharing roles and responsibili es among central. providing an enabling environment to support management and stakeholders’ par cipa on in policy development and the planning process.

000 72.7 12. Priori es.500 2012 7.500 2011 7. and independence in ge ng family planning service from 23.5 29 3.4 49.700 35 4.8 3.1.700 100 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Improving human resources capacity of the family planning providers in 23. Number of self-reliant users (in thousands) d.3 28.2 3.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 3.500 public and private exis ng clinics) 20 35 50 70 85 88 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .97 4.0 23.000 76.6 23.500 Popula on and Family Planning 3. 2010-2014 Priori es Outputs Contracep ve Prevalence Rate/CPR (%) a.500 2013 7.5 3.500 2014 65 7.1 4.0 23. Percentage of current users for long term contracep ve method g.Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Table 5.000 Source: Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2014 Table 5.500 public and private clinics 2.000 74. Number of public and private clinic providing family planning service 2. Percentage of new par cipants for long term contracep ve method f. par cipa on and independence in family planning 1.500 public and private clinics (in millions) 4.8 3. Outputs.8 13.2 12.7 3.2 3. Number of new par cipants (in millions) b. and Targets for Popula on and Family Planning Programs.500 public and private clinics 11.9 25.700 45 4.3 23.75 3. Percentage of current self-reliant users e.700 75 4. Percentage of trained family planning human resources in 23.6 51 13.05 Increasing guidance. Percentage of family planning clinic providing family planning services based on the proper Standard Opera ng Procedure (SOP) (from the whole 23.5 50.2 27.89 3.500 public and private clinics in promo ng guidance. par cipa on.4 49.000 78. Percentage of new male par cipants 1.7 4.4 48.5 12.6 12. Number of public and private clinics receiving infrastructure support 2010 57. Number of new poor (KPS/family within below prosperity level and KS-1/ prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23.700 90 4.6 29.1 4. Number of poor current users (KPS/ family within below prosperity level and KS-1/prosperity level-1) and other vulnerable par cipants receiving guidance and free contracep ve from 23. Con nued Priority Improve support for management and implementa on of technical tasks in Nutri on and Health programs for Maternal-Child Outputs Number of func oning Poskesdes (village health posts) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 70.4 12.6 27.6 23.5 25.5 5.2.1 24.2 26.9 13.1 26.4 7.9 12.9 4. Number of current users (in millions) c.

750 3.343 2.373 53 67 15 115 2 12.450 2.140 62 76 30 30 5 15. HIV/AIDS Promo ng adolescence knowledge.065 1. Planning family life 2. Percentage of Informa on. Technical Training 1.700 2.016 38 65 84 100 100 Promo ng people’s knowledge.157 1. Family Planning Counselors/PKB): a. General Basic Training (LDU) b. reproduc ve age women and adolescence obtaining informa on on popula on and family planning from printed and electronic media and outdoor media Number of trained family planning field worker (Family Planning Field Workers/ PLKB.500 3. Refreshing c.253 56 70 20 30 3 13. manner and a tude toward popula on control and family planning 95 95 95 95 95 Improving NGO. Educa on and Communica on (IEC) media and materials produced 2. Percentage of reproduc ve age couples.1. Percentage of adolescence knowledge about: a. Number of adolescence/student Informa on and Counseling Center (PIK) established and guided 1. Number of PKBR trainer receiving training 3. manner and a tude about planning family life among adolescence (PKBR) c.342 2.018 1. Adolescence reproduc ve health b.350 3.700 950 50 64 10 1 9.300 1. private sector and community par cipa on in maintaining popula on and family planning program Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 89 .195 59 72 25 30 4 14. Number of center of excellent PKBR (per province) 4.

90 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Malaria and Other Diseases .“Stop AIDS. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Start Running”.

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases 92 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

17 percent of the popula on.598 cases). The provinces with the greatest number of AIDS cases are West Java (3. East Java (3. and Bali (1.22% in 2008. Cumula vely. although the percentage of HIV-infected individuals in Indonesia is s ll rela vely low at 0.5 percent and it is es mated that some 193.973 cases.4 percent among the general popula on aged 15 – 49 (IBBS.828 cases). are shi ing to a generalized epidemic with a prevalence of 2.615 cases).227 cases). During the period 1996 to 2006. Cases of HIV and AIDS are found in all areas of Indonesia. the number of HIV cases increased by some 17.1. but the number of cases varies by province (Figure 6. universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it Current Status The number of new HIV infec ons has been increasing in Indonesia. In 2009 there were 19. Malaria and Other Diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve. the number of AIDS cases has tended to increase. Although in most parts of Indonesia the AIDS epidemic is generally concentrated among high-risk popula ons with an es mated na onal adult prevalence of 0. Papua (2.194 cases recorded in 2006 (Figure 6.2). more than double the number compared with the 8. by 2010. CDC MoH 2007). DKI Jakarta (2.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.000 people are currently living with HIV in Indonesia. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 93 .).808 cases). two provinces. Papua and Papua Barat.

141 3. About 91 percent of AIDS cases have occurred in the reproduc ve age group (15-49 years of age).3 percent).1 percent of cases. which will increase the number of people with AIDS from some 404.000 - 19. together with their partners represent most reported new HIV cases (50.3.639 2.2. Number of AIDS Cases in Indonesia.000 500 - 2.000 Popula on in Indonesia. Modes of transmission are indicated in Figure 6.500 4. HIV infec on in Indonesia would con nue increasing over the next decades as people increasingly engage in unprotected sex.) es mates increasing HIV prevalence in the popula on aged 15-49 years from 0.000 2.973 16.6 percent are perinatal infec ons resul ng from mother-to-child transmission. 2009.500 3.171 316 Source: MoH. DG of CDC and EH.863 8.3 percent and 3.3.947 4.000 10.828 3.110 11.682 1.000 1. 21 Source: MoH.000 18. 2009 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Number of AIDS Cases Cumula ve AIDS Cases 3. 19892009 20.21 percent in 2008 to 0. and blood transfusion transmission cause about 0.000 8. DG of CDC and EH.969 2.195 5. by Province.1.000 12.600 people by the 94 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Sulawesi Barat Gorontalo Maluku Utara Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Selatan Aceh Papua Barat Bengkulu Bangka Belitung Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Jambi Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sumatera Selatan DI Yogyakarta Banten Sumatera Barat Kepulauan Riau Riau Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Bali Papua DKI Jakarta Jawa Timur Jawa Barat 0 3 10 11 12 21 27 43 58 91 117 119 138 144 165 173 192 219 290 318 330 333 475 485 591 717 794 1. 2009.615 Figure 6.227 .598 4.194 1.000 2.500 1.000 3.3 percent from homosexuals (men having sex with men – MSM).321 2.808 2.873 2. followed by injec ng drug users (IDUs) at 39. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6.500 2.000 4.000 14. At current rates. about 2. Heterosexual groups such as female sex workers (FSW) and transsexuals.000 16.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. The projec on of this modeling (Figure 6. and the spread of HIV through injec ng drug use accelerates.4 percent in 2014. AIDS Cases per 100.000 6.

0 <1 1-4 5-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 Unknown Figure 6.3% Source: Surveillance reports. the percentage of young unmarried people repor ng condom use during their most recent sexual encounter is only about 18.5 3. Another related factor in HIV/AIDS transmission is the failure to use condom. 2009 Age Group By residence.3.7 Cumula ve Percentage on AIDS Cases by Age Goup.5) 1 Mathema c modeling of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia.5 0. 60.3 30. 2009 8. 2009 Heterosex.3 percent of young unmarried women (IDHS 2007). Unknown. men in urban areas are more likely to use a condom during high-risk sex than men in rural areas. 4. Different pa erns are found in women.6% MSM.4% Distribu on of HIV Infec ons.0 Percentage (%) 40. 48. 3. 0.0 1. NAC Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 95 .800 cases in 2014.1% Perinatal. 39.3% Note : MSM=men who have sex with men.1 2. Indonesia.400 cases in 2010 to 86.0 10. Figure 6. 50. Condom use is also posi vely correlated with level of educa on (Figure 6.2 Source: DG of CDC & EH Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health. In total. 2.0 20.720 by 20141 ().4 percent of young unmarried men and 10. by Popula on Group.4. Na onal AIDS Programme.0 50.end of 2010 to some 813. IDU=injec ng drug user.3% IDUs. Blood Transfussion.9 1.2 0. where women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to report condom use in their last high risk intercourse. 2010-2025.6 3.0 30. that in turn will result in the increased need for an retroviral therapy (ART) from 50.

0 10. The es mated number of eligible PLWHA for ART per year is based on “cut of point” of the result of CD4 <200/ mm3 is about 10 .5 9.0 30.8 percent.0 4. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. Who Use Condom at Last Sex.5 percent (married men) and 21.0 Knowledge about HIV and its preven on is an important prerequisite for adop ng healthy behaviors. educa on and socio-economic status. In Indonesia. and is being offered to 38.3 8. only 1.9 percent for married men and married women.20% from the total PLWHA in that period. only 14. respec vely. Knowledge of married men and women in urban areas was higher than in rural areas. knowledge in the highest wealth quin le was 27. 2 3 UNGASS.4 percent of unmarried men and 2.3 18.4 12.8 21. less than 50 percent2 (Figure 6. The higher the level of educa on.0 25.1 10. the higher the percentage of correct and comprehensive knowledge about AIDS. this falls far short of the 95 percent target set by the United Na ons and is the lowest in the region. urban). While most youth (15-24 years of age) in the country are aware of HIV/AIDS. residence (rural vs.7.6 13.5 percent of married women have comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV.2 20.0 20.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.7 15. 2007 15-19 Age 15.7 percent (married women). This coverage increased from ART interven on coverage in 2006 by about 24. Total - 5. The equivalent numbers for the lowest quin le are 3. There are also dispari es in knowledge among regions. while the number of PLWHA is es mated based on the Asian Epidemic Model (AEM).6 percent of unmarried women have correct and comprehensive knowledge of AIDS (Figure 6.0 28.6).0 15. Among youth who are unmarried. 96 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . with regard to socio-economic status. Percentage of Unmarried Women and Men Age 15-24 Who Have Ever Had Sex. IYARHS 2007. an retroviral therapy (ART) is available at 180 facili es.4 percent3 of the total es mated cohort of eligible people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (calculated from MOH report 2010) as presented in Figure 6.0 7.7 percent of married men and 9. Likewise.1 percent and 1.7). country reports: HIV / AIDS in the South-East Asia Region 2009.6 11.3 20-24 Residence Urban Rural Less than completed primary Men Women Education Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Source: BPS.5.4 24. According to Background Characteris c.4 10.

Indonesia 2007 Residence Urban Rural no educa on Some primary 14.6 1.9 1.0 2.7.0 20.4 0.9 3.1 0.0 35.6 2.9 8.100 in 2008 to 86.1 1. the trend and projected cases of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia is es mated to increase uncontrollably.0 5.8 Married Men* Married Women* Unmarried Men 4.2 3. The number of children needing ART will also increase from 930 in 2008 to 2.1 0.0 15.8 1.2 1.5 14. except when describing marreid women by age group Total 1. except when describing married men by age group. Coverage of ART Interven ons in Indonesia.0 10.5 15.3 9.1 12.4 2. Figure 6. Source: Country reports. IDHS and IYARHS 2007.6 0.0 30.6 0. the need for ART among the 15-49 age group is projected to increase three fold from 30.7 27.9 Quin le 21. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 97 .7 9. **) covering age group of 15-49 years old for married women.2 10. by Background Characteris c.800 in 2014 (Na onal AIDS Strategy Ac on Plan .2 1.5 15-19 Age 1.6 20-24 15-24 Propor on of Men and Women Aged 15-24 with Correct of Comprehensive Knowledge about AIDS.7 18.9 10.7 3. 2006–2009 Note: An retroviral treatment (ART) is given to individuals with advanced HIV infec on as per na onal treatment protocols. Without adequate interven ons.7 10.2 5. 5.3 2.2 2.7 28.8 Unmarried Women Educa on 2.9 3.5 Note: *) covering age group of 15-54 years old for married man. Without effec ve preven on.1 Figure 6.2 2.660 in 2014 (MoH 2010).2.8 1.4 2.1 2.2 22.0 Completed primary Some secondary Secondary + Lowest Highest 1.0 25.NASAP 2010-2014).0 Source: BPS.6.

While much effort has gone into se ng up good governance prac ces at the na onal level. 3. they may not be sufficiently effec ve nor well-targeted. The availability and sustainability of funding remain major obstacles in tackling the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. Policies and Strategies 1. This places the emphasis squarely on preven on strategies and infec on control. care and 4 Protocols would be for managing STIs. While behavioral change communica ons (BCC) and informa on. immigra on) and places great demands on effec ve coordina on of strategies and interven ons. Community values shape a tudes. There are some constraints due to s gma and discrimina on of PLWHA in the community as well as the existence of gender inequali es and viola ons of human rights. voluntary counceling and tes ng (VCT) is not yet available in all regions. educa on and communica ons (IEC) programs are being pursued as part of the HIV/AIDS strategy. diagnosis. 4. they may not be keeping pace with the spread of the disease. the military. through: (i) improving the number and quality of health-care facili es in providing sustainable promo on. Limited access to health services related to HIV/AIDS. as it spreads na onwide. The health-care system needs to be strengthened in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases in preven on. diagnosis. treatment. Malaria and Other Diseases Challenges The basic challenge in HIV/AIDS is to halt and reverse the upward trend in the incidence/ prevalence of the infec on and the disease. The weakness of inter-sectoral coordina on as well as monitoring and evalua on systems.4 and (iii) improving coverage of preven on. Strengthening the health-care system is crucial in dealing with HIV/AIDS cases. preven on. infec on and disease management protocols. Tackling the disease involves par cipa on by a number of sectors (health. The limited budget alloca ons and sustainability of funding in controlling HIV and AIDS. coordina on within the Na onal Aids Commission (NAC) itself needs further improvement. and conserva ve a tudes may serve as a significant barrier to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Some of the crucial challenges in AIDS mi ga on are: 1. educa on.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. currently. care. transporta on. 2. and sociogeographically. preven ng mother-to-child infec ons. safe blood transfusions and universal precau ons. the penal system. (ii) strengthening the ability to apply preven on. 5. harm reduc on for IDUs. treatment and care. Improving access by strengthening public health services so that they have the necessary skills and resources to an cipate and respond to the epidemic. Limited facili es and human resources as well as limited availability of ART in term of quan ty and quality. HIV tes ng 98 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

and (iii ) development of public private partnerships (PPP). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 99 . (vi) human resource planning that recognizes the increasing demands of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (management and provider skills). second genera on surveillance. (iv) assuaging prejudices – among health workers. and for the clinical management of treatment and care for people living with HIV. through: (i) integra ng HIV/AIDS into development programs both at the na onal level (financed through the na onal budget/APBN) and local level (financed through the local budget/ APBD). (iii) social marke ng of condoms. In underlining the strategies. Improving cross-sectoral coordina on and good governance. in the community. including mobile units. high-risk groups. by: (i) establishing a concerted system within government that synergizes various levels of organiza on and ins tu ons to contribute towards an integrated strategy. nongovernment and private sector organiza ons. counseling. and (v) adap ng them to specific situa ons (stage of epidemic. and among pa ents. capacity. and (ii) providing informa on to policy makers on the socio-economic costs of HIV/AIDS and on scaling-up interven ons. care and treatment interven ons through: (i) providing IEC services on incurring HIV infec ons and preven ng transmission. resources). Mobilizing addi onal financial resources for a successful HIV/AIDS strategy. and (v) crea ng an enabling and conducive environment to reduce s gma za on and discrimina on. (ii) mobiliza on of addi onal financial resources in controlling HIV/AIDS. through: (i) conduc ng health monitoring and analysis including. subsequently tailored to the par cular environment. and (vi) pursuing an inclusive approach that promotes complementarity among government.2. Strengthening informa on and monitoring and evalua on systems. and maintaining an effec ve coordina ng mechanism (NAC). treatment including ARV coverage. preven ng the progression of HIV to AIDS. treatment and care services in drop-in centers and similar loca ons. in par cular. (ii) strengthening the role of Na onal and Local AIDS Commissions. 3. the Na onal Medium-Term Plan (2010-2014) has set targets to control the spread of HIV/AIDS as follows: and counseling. provincial and district health authori es in tackling the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. 5. (iii) strengthening cross-sectoral partnerships by escala ng the role of HIV/AIDS planning and budge ng forums. (ii) undertaking community outreach that focuses on the most-at-risk popula ons and includes HIV tes ng. (iv) defining the respec ve roles of central. (iv) developing na onal guidelines for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. gender inequity and human rights viola ons in implementa on of HIV/AIDS programs. 4. Enhancing community mobiliza on to improve HIV/AIDS preven on. (v) formula ng na onal guidelines for BCC programs and IEC messages. while encouraging community ac on.

Inpres 3/2010 and MOH Strategic Plan 2010-2014.000 700.000 600. Malaria and Other Diseases Table 6.000 500.5 65% 75% 85% 90% 95% 300.000 Reducing morbidity and mortality rates of communicable diseases (HIV/AIDS) Percentage of districts that implement appropriate guidelines for preven on of HIV transmission Use of condoms in high-risk sex groups (based on the report by the user) Percentage of people living with AIDS(PLWHA) who receive an retroviral therapy (ART) Percentage of public hospitals provide referral service for people with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% - 35% (f) 20% (m) 45% (f) 30% (m) 55% (f) 40% (m) 65% (f) 50% (m) 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. Priori es.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.5 2012 <0. 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .5 2014 <0. Outputs and Targets of HIV/AIDS Mi ga on Program.1.000 400.5 2013 <0. 2010-2014 Priority Outputs Prevalence of HIV Percentage of Popula on above 15 years have correct and comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS The number of people aged ≥15 who received HIV counseling and tes ng 2010 0.2 2011 <0.

the highest being in the provinces of Papua Barat (26. 4. The malaria incidence rate during the period of 2000-2009 shows that malaria cases tended to decline: in 2000.83 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 2.62 3.50 1. it had declined to 1.33 3. In the outer islands.23 3.1 2006 2007 Source: Ministry of Health. Nusa Tenggara Timur.62 cases per 1.36 Annual Parasites Incidence of Malaria.000 popula on. Bengkulu. Sulawesi Tengah. Provinces in Jawa and Bali have the lowest (clinical) prevalence.000 popula on. Only some 20 percent of pa ents with symptoma c malaria seek treatment at public health facili es.00 Figure 6.000 popula on 3.89 2. Nusa Tenggara Barat.45 3.50 3. Jambi.Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases Current Status Incidence and death rate associated with Malaria.1 percent).81 2003 2004 2005 4.4 percent) and NTT (12.1 percent among regions. 2010. by 2009. Almost half the popula on lives in endemic areas.0 percent).50 5. There are 15 provinces where malaria prevalence is above the na onal average (Aceh. Maluku Utara.54 3. malaria in Jawa and Bali is hypo-endemic. and some 35 percent of this popula on is malaria posi ve.50 2. the incidence was at 3. 3. The highest prevalence rates are to be found in eastern Indonesia. The na onal prevalence based on clinical diagnosis5 is 2. treatment-suscep ble plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are equally common. Papua (18.7 Posi ve per 1.18 3.53 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 3. Indonesia 1990-2009 2.89 percent (Riskesdas 2007). where the highest number of malaria cases are reported. Gorontalo.50 0.66 3. Maluku.8. with the rate varying between 0. 5 Based on diagnosis results by health professionals and respondent complaints.00 0.85 cases per 1. Bangka Belitung.00 2. Papua Barat and Papua).74 4. about 0. Sumatera Utara. making it difficult to es mate the actual malaria incidence among the popula on.00 1.50 4.68 5.63 3.85 2. and drug-resistant plasmodium vivax malaria predominates.2 percent and 26.85 2.5 percent. As a result. Kalimantan Tengah.47 2008 2009 1.00 3.00 1990 3. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 101 .

and 3. 6 7 8 An insec cide-treated net (ITN) is 1) a factory-treated net that does not require any further treatment. or 3) a net that has been soaked with insec cide within the past 12 months.3 percent have legi mate ITNs6.6 percent. Appropriate IEC and BCC messages are a crucial element. 102 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. indoor residual spraying with insec cides (IRS). respec vely. virtually three mes that of urban households. In general. uses and manages the environment is involved. larviciding and environmental management) are also used. rice field draining) can work well only if the community that lives in. but ownership of treated nets is very low– only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net (ITN). and it will have the desired impact if messages are standardized and pay sufficient a en on to the local epidemiology. It is mainly through interac ons between well-informed communi es at risk and health authori es that results can be accelerated. geography and socio-economic condi ons. In preven on efforts. access to treatment. and intermi ent preven ve treatment for pregnant women (IPTP). Insufficient understanding of appropriate preven ve ac ons and the need to seek prompt care pose challenges to effec ve infec on control and disease management at the community level. and community awareness about mely treatment is important.7 is s ll inadequate on a na onal scale.5 percent and 1. However. Ineffec ve malaria preven ve ac ons. vector control and the limited supply of malaria-related informa on systems. malaria can be prevented. The primary preven ve tools are long-las ng insec cidal nets (LLINs). Case management (diagnosis and treatment) emphasizes prompt interven ons. while provision of an malarial medicines by public health services has increased over me. especially of ACT. Households in rural areas are more likely to have insec cide treated bed nets.8 Other constraints may also be due to ineffec ve implementa on of epidemiological surveillance. Financial factors become essen al in ensuring availability. distribu on and monitoring and evalua on of an malarial drugs. diagnosed and treated with a combina on of available tools. Other vector control measures (for example. Some 30 percent of households own some type of mosquito net. 4. or 2) a pretreated net obtained within the past 12 months. the use of insec cide treated bed nets is an important interven on. ACT: Artemisinin-based Combina on Therapy. Underlining the par cular circumstances that may have led to the posi ve results of the MOH study is the conclusion of the 2007 IDHS study that only 50 percent of communi es na onally were aware of essen al an malarial strategies. Malaria and Other Diseases Today. Larval control and environmental management measures (for example. the use of ITN is almost non-existent. Propor on of children under 5 sleeping under insec cide-treated bed nets. Prompt malaria treatment (that is within 24 hours) occurs in some 48 percent of cases. management of salinity in aquaculture and coastal lagoons. Challenges 1.

a financial mobiliza on strategy for both interna onal and domes c funding will be expanded for medium and long term programs. The transfer of responsibility for implemen ng the malaria program may not have paid enough a en on to limited capaci es at local levels. Health services may not be sufficiently equipped and staffed to respond promptly to needs. improving and strengthening the implementa on of universal coverage RBM strategy are crucially needed. Interna onal financial contribu ons need to be balanced with the increment of domes c financial resources. Limited capacity at local level. monitoring and evalua on ac vi es are insufficient to allow good planning and budge ng for the na onal malaria program. Developing strategies for social mobiliza on that focus on promo ng community awareness about preven on interven ons and in malaria control. Therefore. (vii) strengthening epidemiological surveillance and outbreak 9 The par cipa on of malaria cadres. through: (i) developing IEC and BCC messages that are designed with par cipa on by service providers and user representa ves. Policies and Strategies To accelerate efforts to achieve the MDG targets related to malaria. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 103 . Oversight capabili es remain limited. (iii) increasing a en on to a strong malaria informa on system by collec ng adequate malaria-related morbidity and mortality data. 3. (ii) developing social mobiliza on strategies that focus on increasing public awareness about malaria preven on efforts. domes c financing–through na onal and sub-na onal budgets–has been rela vely modest. In some instances. human. 4. and TBAs in malaria control efforts are key parts of the response strategy. so that they are tailored to specific regional and community situa ons (that is client orienta on)9. and there may be shortages of necessary technical exper se (for example. Inadequate monitoring and evalua on system. the workforce may not have the appropriate training. entomologists and monitoring and evalua on specialists). and financial resources. through: 1. Expanding malaria preven on and treatment along the lines set out in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program will require addi onal physical. (iv) strengthening monitoring progress at local levels and undertake local situa on analysis.2. (vi) improving vector control that is suitable to local condi ons. community health workers. especially in the high malaria endemic areas. So far. with the program encountering bo lenecks at the service level. (v) providing and promo ng the use of insec cide treated bed nets. Case management may suffer from weak logis c planning at the facility level with interrup ons in the availability of drugs and the means to carry out diagnos c tests.

and (ix) developing a capacity to assess the efficacy of the malaria control efforts. Improving financial support. (viii) developing cross-sectoral interven on models such as larvaciding and biological control. Some improvements are needed in: (i) promo ng preven on and control in the community. Strengthening health services in preven on. in par cular by strengthening partnerships with research and technical en es to conduct opera onal research on the effec veness of drugs. (iii) responding to the need for case management in a mely manner. through: (i) strengthening program oversight with well-designed monitoring and evalua on systems that draw on a good understanding of community dynamics. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set out some crucial targets that also are specified in the Presiden al Instruc on No. Improving management structures and governance that include strategies. (ii) ensuring early detec on and care seeking. (iii) ensuring be er use of donor support by placing it in the context of comprehensive na onal strategic planning for malaria. and entomology. technical assistance and targeted training programs will be provided to ensure increased capacity at all levels. To accelerate reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of emerging communicable diseases. and (iv) integra ng malaria program with maternal and child health program interven ons. Health services have a central role in raising awareness. especially in awareness raising. and allow the incorpora on of local differences into strategic planning. To ensure sustainability of control programs. insec cides and preven ve tools. 104 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the human resources need to be equipped with the appropriate skills in: advocacy. To be able to carry out the strategies. concerning Equitable Development Programs. 3/2010. through the private sector and the interna onal community. Long-term and predictable funding will be needed to maintain the sustainability of the programs. (iii) strengthening of village malaria posts (posmaldes) to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with malaria. Malaria and Other Diseases control systems. control and treatment. 3. par cularly in remote areas. especially related to improve malaria case detec on. 5. malaria detec on and rapid treatment. work programs. and (iv) controlling drug quality and use. (ii) developing opportuni es for collabora on between public agencies and exploring public-private synergies. and informa on systems that allow monitoring for be er planning and targe ng of malaria interven ons.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Improving capacity of human resources. 2. control and treatment. supply chain management. 4.

Priori es. 3/2010. The TB case detec on rate has increased rapidly – from 30.2. Both exceed the MDG targets of 70 and 85 percent respec vely. and avoid interrup ons in medica on cycles. ensure drug quality.2008. Case detec on now exceeds 70 percent. The treatment success rate has been above 85 percent since 2000. 2010-2014 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. 85 percent treatment success. to improve prescrip on prac ces.50 50 100 2013 1.75 40 100 2012 1. and to reduce incidence rates and halve 1990 prevalence and mortality rates by 2015.25 60 100 2014 1 70 100 Table 6. increased focus on capacity building in human resources in health services. be er logis cs and a stronger TB monitoring system. In order to increase the effec veness of TB control.9). to ensure that the incidence rate con nues to fall through 2015. Inpres No.000 popula on and mortality of 91/100.000 popula on/year. 10 Targets are 70 percent case detec on of smear-posi ve cases under DOTS. Outputs and Targets in Malaria Control Program.Priority Reducing the morbidity rate and the mortality rate of Malaria and other communicable diseases Outputs Malaria case detec on rate per 1.10 and treatment outcomes show a success rate of 91 percent (2006).7 percent in 2006. more focus needs to be placed on measures that adhere to interna onal standards for TB care. there remains a need to face the high incidence of Mul drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB). Es mates for 1990 are prevalence 443/100.6 percent in 2002 to 75. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 105 . MOH Strategic Plan 20102014 Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases (Tuberculosis) Current Status The na onal surveillance report on TB prevalence shows that the number of people infected by TB is declining (Figure 6. resul ng from inadequate treatment of TB.000 popula on Percentage of District/Municipality conduct vector mapping Percentage of Outbreak reported and tackled 2010 2 30 100 2011 1. With an increasing threat of MDR-TB. and it reached 91 percent in 2005 . Although the achievement of TB case detec on and treatment success has been rela vely sa sfactory. This performance reflects increased collabora on between sub-na onal offices and private health services. as well as community-based TB care providers. Indonesia was the first high TB burdened country in the WHO South-East Asia Region to achieve the global targets for case detec on (70 percent) and treatment success (85 percent). Indonesia has made progress by strengthening of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) program as a na onal policy.

6 69. reduce demand for services and consequently lower effec veness of na onal strategies. The high case detec on rate has not been followed by the availability of adequate health care services. In addi on. Only 16 percent of respondents could correctly iden fy the signs and symptoms of TB. field-level implementa on needs to pay par cular a en on to strengthening of health services and dissemina on of informa on. communica on and social mobiliza on (ACSM) are being pursued as part of the TB strategy.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. 106 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 2009 . reflec ng a combina on of the following factors: (i) ACSM11 coverage is s ll low and messages may not be effec ve.9. (iii) most of the community does not know that an -TB drugs are free and provided by local health facili es (only 19 percent knew). and a consequently 11 ACSM is s ll a new area in TB program strategy and much more guidance and technical support is necessary. Involvement of communi es in TB care is essen al.5 86 86. Directorate CDC. partnerships between public and private en es need to be established. Poor awareness of the TB program.4 4.8 72. Detec on and treatment services for TB are not yet rou nely delivered in all health services facili es (98 percent of Puskesmas do that rou nely. The low household and community awareness and behaviors that increase the risk of infec on.6 7. 3. Advocacy.8 54 58 87 89. DG of CDC&EH.1 1. and (ii) access to services is limited. which will require strong commitments of stakeholders.7 68 54 37.8 73. The Na onal Case Detec on Rate (CDR) and Success Rate (SR) of TB (%) 1995-2009 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 81 73. SR CDR Challenges 1. Malaria and Other Diseases Figure 6. including professional associa ons. but only some 38 percent of hospitals. 2009. To be successful.7 91 91 91 91 Percentage 75. A tudes and Prac ce (KAP) conducted recently reported the following findings: (i) knowing what is TB (76 percent) and knowing that TB can be totally cured (85 percent). but results are s ll modest and understanding of the issues remains weak. A survey of Knowledge. Moreover. (ii) s gma za on according to TB (keep TB a secret if a family member had TB) is low. Interven on guidelines and ACSM need to be fi ed to local circumstances. and only about 2-3 percent of private prac oners. private health facili es and peniten aries do so. 2.5 12 19 20 21 30. there is significant varia on between regions. Insufficient TB control policies with appropriate local strategies. about 13 percent.6 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: MoH-RI.1 86.

Policies and Strategies Mee ng the challenges in TB preven on and control program depends on strengthening some strategies: 1. and (viii) improving the evalua on and monitoring system and measuring the impact of treatment under DOTS. providers and stakeholders. however.weak commitment to it. Funding so far has mainly come from donors. 4. ACSM. Improving capacity and quality in the TB program by: (i) strengthening laboratory diagnos c capacity in all health care facili es. including through ini a ves that draw more a en on to TB. NGOs and the private sector in an integrated movement for na onal TB mi ga on (Gerdunas TB). currently characterize many situa ons at the local level and are reflected in insufficient resources being allocated to the TB program. the informa on base needs to be improved so that policy making can be based on facts. (iv) expanding access to health care and free of charge medicines. par cipa on of care providers. There is a shortage of financial resources available to combat TB in Indonesia. family and community as well as work environment in influencing behavior. Beyond distribu ng informa on about TB. 5. The situa on may be par cularly challenging in remote areas where the combina on of poverty and TB can be more devasta ng. there is a need to increase mobiliza on of local resources. However. informa on is sparse and insufficient to support strong policy making. (v) improving logis c and effec ve drugs management systems.(ii) improving poli cal support and strengthening decentraliza on programs for effec ve implementa on of DOTS. Some surveillance has been conducted. resource use is neither efficient nor effec ve. increasing awareness and promo ng passive case finding. (vi) improving ac ve promo on of TB control. because data on the former is limited). implementa on of some components in the TB Strategy–health systems strengthening. (iii) improving partnerships involving government. and would be used. for results management. In the absence of integrated planning and budge ng for TB ac vi es. (iii) intensifying involvement of private and public services. including the produc on of informa on that can be used. and by means of efficiency improvements in current program spending. (vii) improving effec ve communica on to people with TB. (v) Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 107 . At the present me. research (is less well understood than DOTS expansion and TB/HIV and MDR-TB rela onships. Expanding DOTS coverage through health services by: (i) expanding and intensifying ACSM and facilitate access. 2. (ii) implemen ng the Interna onal Standards for TB Care (ISTC) to all services. (iv) ensuring availability of adequate health personnel both in quan ty and quality.

while strengthening partnerships with other sectors and the private sector. (iii) suppor ve advisory services that facilitate adop on of correct prac ces. (vi) improving collabora on in TB/HIV programs. Strengthening the health informa on.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. (ix) outreach that applies appropriate remote area strategies. diagnos c. enforcement of regula ons. The local commitment in alloca ng funds to local government budgets (APBD) to TB as part of MSS (Minimum Services Standards) as well as the MDGs is crucial since both are na onal and local priori es in health development. It will require: (i) further strengthening the capacity of the health system to prevent and control infec ous disease – reviewing surveillance and case-repor ng systems and se ng up alert and response mechanisms to lower the case fatality rate. and (xi) providing standardized facili es and infrastructure for TB services. (vi) drug quality control: (vii) public-private collabora ve arrangements. (v) periodic surveys to iden fy special risks (emergence of MRD-TB or outbreaks in prisons or health facili es). (x) expanding case detec on rate and coverage of TB treatment and care services in all health services. Therefore. (ii) improving coverage of laboratory services. through periodic studies about efforts to improve provision of services. strong surveillance. monitoring and evalua on system. 5. and (iv) increasing availability of an effec ve health informa on system. (iii) implemen ng surveillance to iden fy specific risks (such as the emergence of MDR TB). vector control and other locally based preven ve interven ons. the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) sets targets for the following ac vi es and indicators as described in the table below: 108 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . through promo ng an appropriate alloca on of resources. Malaria and Other Diseases ensuring the availability and sustainability of drug supply. Promo ng the alloca on of funds to finance the Stop TB program. and promo ng evidence-based planning and decision making. strengthening policies and fostering local ownership are key strategies to ensure the sustainability of the TB Program by reducing dependency of the local level on central transfers and external funds. and implementa on of the DOTS. both at the central level and among local authori es. 4. Enforcing policies and regula ons to build effec ve sector leadership and governance by establishing strong poli cal commitment. and (viii) establishing TB control capacity as a district level priority. (viii) promo ng community-based treatment. and treatment delivery schemes to local condi ons and resources. reduce delays in diagnosis. (vii) strengthening public health services in providing effec ve responses to the Stop TB program. as well as cross-sectoral collabora on and a monitoring and evalua on system. through: (i) expanding research related to TB. In order to accelerate the achievement of the targets in reducing the incidence and death rate related to TB. 3. (ii) reviewing and adjus ng the design of case detec on. (iv) periodic evalua on at na onal and local levels to increase accountability and mo va on to perform.

Priori es. 2010-2014 Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of TB 85 86 87 87 88 Source: NMTDP 2010-2014. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 109 .Priority Indicators Prevalence of TB per 100. Inpres No. 3/2010.000 popula on Propor on of Tuberculosis cases detected under directly observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS) Propor on of Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) 2010 235 73 2011 231 75 2012 228 80 2013 226 85 2014 224 90 Table 6.3. Outputs and Targets in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rate Related to TB.

110 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

Maintaining replanted mangrove trees Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .

.

Degrada on of Indonesia’s forests and reduc on in biodiversity occurred on a large scale prior to 2002 due to unsustainable forest management prac ces. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 113 .Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7A: Integrating the principles of sustainable development in national policies and programs and reversing the loss of environmental resources Current Status The ra o of actual forest cover to the total land area based on the review of satellite imagery and aerial photographic surveys was 52. forest fires. The Percentage of Forest Cover of the Total Land Area of Indonesia from 1990 to 2008 Source: Ministry of Forestry (1990-2008). illegal logging. Figure 7.1.43 percent in 2008.97 percent. a reduc on of forest cover as compared with the baseline year of 1990 when forest cover was 59.

2. the availability of non-renewable energy is becoming more limited.000 6. Ozone Deple ng Substance Consump on in Indonesia from 1992 to 2008 10. This in turn increases the threat of an energy crisis in the future. The rate of forest degrada on between 2000 and 2005 was es mated to be 1.089 million hectares per year. MBr) HCFCs 114 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . the use of nonrenewable energy in Indonesia more than doubled between 1990 and 2008.1997 and 2.000 4. CTC. Figure 7. Total Energy Use of Various Types for the Years 1990-2008 (Equivalent to Barrels of Oil (BOE) in Millions) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.000 7.000 5.000 9. The Indonesian government ra fied the Montreal Protocol through Presiden al Decree No. This reflects the increasing efficiency in the use of energy. Nevertheless. TCA. 23 of 1992 on the Elimina on of the Consump on of Figure 7.000 3.000 Consump on in ODP tonnes 8. Besides causing emissions that affect climate change.3.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and conversion of forest lands to other uses.1 million hectares between 1997 and 2001. The ra o of energy use per GDP in Indonesia has tended to decline.6 million hectares per year during 1985 .000 1. a reduc on as compared to 1.000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Ministry of Environment.000 2. Halon. The consump on of ozone deple ng substances (ODS) has been significantly reduced in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. ODS was phased out (CFC.

there are s ll indica ons of illegal importa on and trade in ODS.Ozone Deple ng Substances. more variable rainfall pa erns that can cause floods and droughts. development policies will be directed to achieve a sustainable pa ern of natural resource use and environmental management. Na onal plans and policies will be focused on improving coordina on among the ins tu ons directly involved in environmental management. and reduced produc vity of coastal ecosystems. In addi on.5 million hectares during 2010-2014. forest fires and encroachment on forest lands. ini a ves are being taken to reduce deforesta on and forest degrada on through preven on of illegal logging. Although since 1998 the import of CFCs and goods related to the CFC has been officially banned. Policies and Strategies In accordance with the Na onal Long-Term Development Plan (2005-2025) and the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). declining crop yields. Indonesia announced the target to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 percent from Business as Usual (BAU) condi ons in 2020 in the forum of the United Na ons Framework Conven on on Climate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009. and Indonesia is commi ed to cooperate ac vely with the world community in dealing with the important issues related to climate change. building capacity for these ins tu ons at all levels. The government is working to increase forest cover through rehabilita on of 2. and na onal ac ons are needed. both to mi gate global climate change and implement steps to empower the people of Indonesia to adapt to the nega ve impacts of climate change. As the largest archipelagic country in the world. The target will be increased up to 41 percent with interna onal assistance. illegal importa on and use of ODS is very difficult. including sea level rise. Reduc on of global warming requires interna onal partnerships. and other environmental changes. The steps that the government has already implemented include the following: To overcome Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 115 . many regions in Indonesia will experience water supply shortages. and a regula on prohibi ng the importa on of ozone deple ng substances was enacted in 1998 and revised in 2006 by the Ministry of Trade. and strengthening the enforcement of laws and regula ons governing environmental management in Indonesia. control over the smuggling. If appropriate steps are not taken. Indonesia is vulnerable to the nega ve impacts of climate change. Challenges Global warming is leading to climate change and having nega ve impacts on the environment.

000 Ha 60. Through the ozone layer protec on program. The government has also launched a na onal movement of rehabilia on of forests and cri cal lands.000 Ha 100.000 Ha 295.000 Ha 116 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .000 Ha 120. the government has and will con nue to maintain the ban on the use of materials that have been legally banned.000 Ha 300.000 Ha 4.000 Ha 2.1. in 2008 the government increased the total area of protected forests and protected aqua c waters significantly. and implementa on of this law will become the responsibility of central and local governments. The policy framework and strategy have been translated into programs and ac vi es in the Na onal Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) as follows: Table 7.000 MW electricity program Phase II which has renewable energy as its main energy source.000 Ha 1.000 Ha 295.000 Ha 480. environmentally friendly and renewable alterna ve energy sources. Annual Implementa on Targets from the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Improve Natural Resource Management Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rehabilita on of cri cal lands and forest reclama on Implementa on of Forest and Land Rehabilita on Facilitate the rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha Reduced area of cri cal lands through rehabilita on and reclama on of forests Facilitate and implement forest rehabilita on in priority catchment areas Implementa on of Land Reclamaon and Forest Rehabilita on in Priority Watersheds Facilitate land rehabilita on in the priority catchment areas Facilitate development of the urban forest areas Facilitate rehabilita on of mangrove forests.000 Ha 240.000 Ha 640. Comba ng illegal logging is being carried out in various areas to maintain the forest cover and protect conserva on areas.000 Ha 180.000 Ha 200. The government. the government is socializing and providing fiscal and non-fiscal incen vies to promote energy saving measures and use of more efficient.000 Ha 800. peat and swamp areas (295 000 ha) 60. peat and swamp areas 160.000 Ha 3.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability the rate of deforesta on. has already launched a 10.000 Ha 240. Law Number 30/2007 has mandated increased use of New and Renewable Energy as an effort to diversify.000 Ha 320.000 Ha 180.000 Ha 400. In addi on.000 Ha 5.000 Ha 120. especially geothermal energy which comprises 39 percent.000 Ha 500. for example.

000.000 ha 150.000 ha 2.1.000 ha 200.600.000 ha 1.000 ha 100. BPN and Local Governments Number of conserva on policies finalized to control forest destruc on and land use issued (the criteria and guidelines) are coordinated among the concerned ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Control of Forest and Land Degrada on Data on hotspots in eight provincial land and forest fires that are desseminated to the concerned ministries and ins tu ons An implementa on mechanism for land and forest fire preven on in eight provincial land and forest fires are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons 3 3 3 3 3 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 8 8 8 8 8 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 117 . Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Improved forest management through community empowerment Facilitate establishment of community forest management areas (HKM).000 ha 1. covering 2 million ha. with the Ministry of Forestry.000 ha 300.000 ha 200.Con nued Table 7. Facilitate 500 group / unit management business license HKM Facilitate 50 partnership units HKM Social Forestry Development Facilitate ins tu onal support food security in 32 provinces Facilitate community forest development partnership for industrial wood raw materials covering 250 000 ha Facilitate establishment and func oning of the center at 30 HHBK districts Targeted working area of 500.000 ha 6 Districts 12 Districts 18 Districts 24 Districts 30 Districts 100.000 ha of village forests 400.000 ha Increased quality of conserva on policies and forest damage control and integrated land management with various ministries and ins tu ons including.000 ha 100 groups 200 groups 300 groups 400 groups 500 groups 10 Unit 20 Unit 30 Unit 40 Unit 50 Unit 4 Prov 8 Prov 16 Prov 22 Prov 32 Prov 50.000 ha 500.000 ha 800.000 ha 250.000 ha 400.200.

8% 59. mangrove and 15 species of endangered aqua c biota Sea and freshwater conservaon areas and sustainably managed brackish areas Number of conserva on areas and protected aqua c biota species iden fied and mapped accurately 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha 900 thousand Ha Management and Conserva on Development Areas 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types 9 areas / 3 types Improved system blackout preven on. impacts to land and forest fires Hotspots on the islands of Borneo. and Sulawesi reduced by 20% each year The area of forest fire is reduced compared to 2008 condi ons 20% 36% 48.2% Forest Fire Control 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Adequacy of policies. Sumatera. seagrass. to monitor the success of the implementa on mechanisms for the preven on of forest fires 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% Implementa on of integrated watershed management in priority watersheds Integrated watershed management plan in 108 priority watersheds (DAS) Build a base line data on the 36 watershed management BPDAS Provision of data and maps of cri cal land in 36 BPDAS 22 DAS 44 DAS 66 DAS 88 DAS 100 DAS Development of Watershed Management 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 7 BPDAS 14 BPDAS 21 BPDAS 28 BPDAS 36 BPDAS 118 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . data and informa on to control land and forest fires is integrated and coordinated with the concerned ministries and ins tu ons Conserva on and Improvement of Forest and Control of Land Degrada on Data on the distribu on of hotspots/ forest fires in eight Provinces disseminated to the ministries/ departments. Priori es Output / Indicators Detailed data on land and forest damage in 11 priority watersheds and and areas poten ally prone to landslides are coordinated among the concerned ministries and ins tu ons The data of land cover and land use change (landuse change) compiled through the Program Go Green Indonesia Number of provinces (ecosystem approach) that are monitored according to the data and the poten al for disaster % of conserva on policy recommenda ons and control of forest destruc on and land area of the provinces implemented are monitored each year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 10 15 20 25 30 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Management of the 20% area of coral reefs.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Con nued Table 7. mi ga on.2% 67.1.

1 1 27.53 0 0 1 24. with coordina on across the concerned ministries.PLTS 50 Wp .000 MW geothermal power plants in the phase II program Total installed capacity of geothermal power plants.9 5. Priori es Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Availability of integrated water quality management policy tools among the concerned ministries and ins tuons % Se ng classifica on of water at the district/ municipality level for 13 rivers in 119 priority districts and ci es.795 The realiza on of new renewable energy and energy conserva on op ons Lisdes (EBT) .261 1.Number of Pilot Projects genera ng electricity from ocean energy resources DME 3.000 5.49 10.94 5.59 10.Biomass (MW) .55 1.42 5.1 1 24.64 0.260 3.2.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 50 50 50 50 50 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 119 .The number of ocean energy feasibility studies .1.Con nued Table 7.1 1 24. ins tu ons and local governments Management of Water Quality and Peat Areas Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons Number of technical assistance to 119 water quality management districts / ci es in 13 watersheds coordinated with the concerned ministries / ins tu ons 25% 25% 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% The physical model for CO2 absorb on.38 5. Amoun ng to 5795 MW in year 2014 1.PLTMH (kW) .69 11.55 0.PLT Wind (kW) Managing the provision of EBT and Implementa on of Energy Conserva on .32 0.419 2. Selected Annual Implementa on Targets in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan to Achieve Sustainable Use of Energy Resources Contribu on to achieving the target of 10. perfec ng and tes ng produc on Technology for Control and Mi ga on of the Impacts of Global Warming Policy recommenda ons to reduce emissions and increase carbon sinks and pilot plant photobioreactor for CO2 absorb on 1 1 1 1 1 Priori es Increased use of renewable energy including geothermal energy to reach 2000 MW in 2012 and 5000 MW by 2014 the commencement of coal bed methane produc on to generate electricity in 2011 accompanied by the u liza on of solar energy poten al Output / Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Table 7.16 0.78 11.

Since not all gene c erosion occurring in wild species is known. par cularly species of wild animals and plants. development of the database. Indonesia may have lost "pearls" without a chance to know the value and benefit lost. and providing support to the management of sustainable natural resources. the percentage with 50 percent live coral reef popula ons has declined from 36 percent to 29 percent. Between 1989 and 2000. 120 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . damage to coral reefs has increased from 10 percent to 50 percent. a significant reduction in the rate of loss Current Status Indonesian biodiversity is threatened due to the u liza on of natural resources in unsustainable ways. is not well documented. residences. Discussions on gene c erosion in the field of agro-ecosystems may also be true for wild species. BAPI aimed to preserve biodiversity through reduced degrada on of ecosystems. achieving. Reduc on of biodiversity has occurred. Challenges Deprecia on of gene c diversity. During the last 50 years.09 million hectares per year. 5 / 1994. The average rate of degrada on of forest ecosystems in the period 2000-2005 reached 1. Interna onal Union for Conserva on of Nature (IUCN) Red List data reports that 772 species of flora and fauna are threatened with ex nc on. Policies and Strategies The Indonesian government launched the Indonesian Biodiversity Ac on Plan (BAPI) in 1993 as a document to set priori es and investment in biodiversity conserva on and this plan was used in preparing the fi h and sixth Five Year Development Plans (un l 1999). not only at the level of ecosystems. but also at the level of species and gene c diversity.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. transporta on and other uses has had a nega ve impact on biodiversity. by 2010. Meanwhile. This document was published before the ra fica on of the United Na ons Conven on on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) through Law No. Transfer of some ecosystems into areas to be used for industry. approximately 240 rare plant species have been declared endangered and some fish species are also threatened with ex nc on.

etc. namely: 1. Improving biodiversity conserva on a) Biodiversity conserva on policy b) Monitor the implementa on of biodiversity conserva on c) Facilitate the development of Biodiversity Parks 2. IBSAP was built through a par cipatory process and addressed more current environmental problems. BAPI was updated into the "Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and Ac on Plan (IBSAP)". IBSAP iden fied a number of needs. b) Iden fica on and mapping of marine conserva on areas and protected species Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 121 .Ten years later. In order to address the various issues specified in the UNCBD and learning from the BAPI experience. Efforts to conserve biodiversity and expand protec on of endangered species is illustrated with clear indicators and targets to be achieved. mangroves. Conserving biodiversity is one of the priori es in natural resources management as contained in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014). opportuni es. ac ons. Forest fire control a) Reduce the number of hot spots b) Reduce the burned area c) Improving human resource capacity in controlling forest fires 6. Development of species and biodiversity conserva on gene cs a) Enhance biodiversity and endangered species popula ons b) Cap ve c) Interna onal and regional coopera on 5. Environmental services and ecotourism development 7. Management and development of ecosystem and species conserva on in coastal zones and marine areas a) Improved management of ecosystems of coral reefs. sea grass. Development and conserva on of essen al ecosystems a) Reduce conflict and pressure on na onal parks and other conserva on areas b) Improving the management of essen al ecosystem c) Improved management of problems resul ng from encroachment of conserva on areas d) Recovery of conserva on areas 3. Inves ga on and security protec on forest a) Reduce forest crime b) Finaliza on of cases of crime in conserva on areas 4. new challenges and obstacles in implemen ng biodiversity conserva on.

73 percent of households in 1993 to 47.8 54.3 % 68.6 47. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Current Status The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and sanita on has con nuously increased.2 37.0 43.9 % 58.0 50. Figure 7. To achieve the MDG target by 2015.9 40. 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: BPS. many water supply facili es are not operated and maintained well.9 35. Susenas.0 42.8 60 65.7 .71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.19 percent respec vely.5 51. DRINKING WATER Improved drinking water is defined as water from a protected water source located more than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina on.2 Percentage 50 40 46.5 30.3 41.0 41.8 55.6 34.2 57.8 47.4).Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 7C: Halve.8 20 10 37.8 48.4 40.7 38.7 42. greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets for access to improved drinking water (68.7 48.7 31. the number of households who have sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47.1 70 53.8 % TARGET MDG 35.71 percent and 51.7 53.5 75. The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reflects the slow rate of development of drinking water infrastructure.0 41.5 30.3 46. However.4.3 47.3 30 35. Propor ons of Rural. par cularly in urban areas where development has not matched the growth rate of popula on.41 percent) in 2015.7 49.7 37. Access to improved sources of drinking water tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas.2 Notes: Data does not include Timor Timur.3 42.5 48.6 54.6 31. TOTAL URBAN RURAL 122 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 47.6 51. Urban and all Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources in Indonesia (1993-2009) 80 Urban+Rural: 59.7 50.9 52. priority should be given to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies.7 48.9 42.87 percent) and sanita on (62. both in rural and urban areas.6 54. In addi on. Access to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37.7 43.3 56. by 2015.0 45. Therefore. several years.5 42.

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 7.47 30.1 50 27.81 percent in 1993 to 51.60 33.6 32.0 35.12 59.02 55.5 20 17.5 24.97 54.29 40.3 18.2 49.6 10 0 17.1 51.3 56.2 27.50 55. Banten. Aceh.3 17.6 60 51.9 40 32. Figure 7. progress has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic development.85 44.6 56.02 34.8 20.44 36.62 47.30 59.08 48.4 34.74 40.8 62. urban and total rural and urban.5 28. hygienic.49 44.4 45.96 45.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.5. the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta.2 70 53.51 40.9 57.4 12. and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources.45 46.89 37. 100 90 66.9 25.70 55.1 14. The propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than doubled.7 69. Susenas 1993 – 2009.6 The propor on of households with access to adequate sanita on in rural.0 44.3 35.7 34. Bali and Southeast Sulawesi.96 42.6 35.13 51.7 22.92 43.7 59.81 35.84 36.Significant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.2 Note: Data does not include Timor Timur Source: BPS.53 50.6).1 9.0 20.7 76. SANITATION Improved sanita on is defined as facili es that are safe.7 56.71 58.71 48.5 MDGs TARGET 80 57.4 55.6 38.2 48.19 51.7 54.6 31.2 11.5. from 24.75 44.2 15. Percentages of Households with Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources by Urban and Rural Popula ons by Province (2009) 27. As shown in Figure 7.6 12. and comfortable and that can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces.99 60.38 Percentage Banten Aceh Bengkulu DKI Jakarta Papua Bangka Belitung Kalimantan Tengah Kepulauan Riau Lampung Jawa Barat Riau Sulawesi Barat Maluku Utara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Gorontalo Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Barat INDONESIA Papua Barat Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Barat Maluku Jawa Timur Kalimantan Timur Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Tenggara Bali DI Yogyakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL Source: BPS. URBAN RURAL TOTAL Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 123 .1 64.6 53. 1993-2009 51.6. However.6 28.0 30 21.04 51. Susenas 2009.36 44.

17 52.91 51. especially in urban areas where the popula on growth rate is higher than the na onal popula on growth rate. and this gap varies among provinces.48 58.06 57.93 41. with the largest gap found in the provinces of Kepulauan Riau.75 54.66 38.59 75.58 58.35 45.12 40.16 41.63 34.84 45.18 43.69 39.98 21. Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to achieve the MDG target in 2015. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and sanita on.02 42.51 percent of urban popula ons have access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33. 2.03 43. Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat.66 63. Act No. for example.37 20 .83 40. Figure 7.48 42. There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved 124 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur Papua Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Bengkulu Lampung Maluku Sumatera Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Jambi Kalimantan Selatan Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Aceh Maluku Utara Gorontalo Sulawesi Barat Kepulauan Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Jawa Timur INDONESIA Sumatera Utara Jawa Barat Riau Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Selatan Kalimantan Timur Banten Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara DI Yogyakarta Bali DKI Jakarta TOTAL URBAN RURAL 80.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on. Na onwide. 69.19 51.07 51.92 52.82 60.21 39. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over the years.78 45. making it difficult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate.96 percent in rural areas. Propor ons of Households with Access to Improved Sanita on Facili es by Rural/ urban Areas by Province (2009) 100 90 80 70 Percentage 60 50 40 30 14. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised.65 28. Challenges The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include the following: 1. Susenas 2009.7.43 38. there are 21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average. In terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas.78 32.35 75.95 10 - Source: BPS.

especially in urban areas with development of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita on. 2010). Similarly. and this is reflected in the low budget alloca ons of regional governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking water and sanita on. Planning and budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a priority of local governments. 4.drinking water and sanita on. storage. processing. An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly owned water companies are func oning properly. The low financial performance of the municipal water Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 125 . 5. There are s ll many households that rely on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality. although the provision and management of improved drinking water and sanita on has become the responsibility of the local governments. which reached 411 per 1. The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector is limited. some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas. centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems have been less than adequate. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water. especially in urban areas. Determina on and se ng of tariffs does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery). Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for development of drinking water and sanita on. 7. Unsanitary behavior is reflected in the high incidence of diarrhea. Hand washing with soap is s ll not common. and this increases the likelihood of contamina on of water sources. some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E. 8. is not in balance with the rate of urban popula on growth. and although almost all households boil water for drinking. Diarrhea Morbidity Survey.000 inhabitants (MOH. including both Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional). This results from a tendency to rely on central government funding. and there is a need for more intensive coordina on. The level of investment in the provision of piped water connec ons. especially at the level of program implementa on. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water.51 percent of the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariff below the cost of water produc on. both from the government and the private sector. At the same me there are many on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment in infrastructure. 6. investments in the provision of water service connec ons. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low. Lack of balance between popula on growth. and about 55.coli bacteria. 3. and disposal of fecal waste. especially in urban areas.

through the addi on. construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). including the government. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water and sanita on are as follows: 1. and the community. the future policy of investment is aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. In rural areas. The central government will also encourage and facilitate the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance and financing. especially in urban areas. 2. the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of all par es. Funding from the private sector. DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS). Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support provision of improved drinking water and sanita on. the development of drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Health. Investment will be focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale basis (off-site). To increase access of households to improved sanita on. the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK) for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns. development and improvement of transmission and distribu on networks. and deregula on of the laws. remote. either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale. 126 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . donors. Efforts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved drinking water and sanita on. To increase the pace in the provision of sanita on services. 3. and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014. At the same me. In addi on. the private sector. revision. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement of water systems.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve financing. Alloca on of funding from Central Government will give priority to the poor. coastal and rural areas. maintenance.

through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM) based on community based ini a ves. especially regarding the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has been defined in the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan. and among government. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and basic sanita on that is focused on services for urban popula ons. and (d) op mizing the u liza on of financial resources. through the control of ground water use by domes c and industrial users. and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems. Ensuring the availability of drinking water. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on systems.4. protec on of ground and surface water from sources of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services. 9. prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK). between government and society. (b) increasing coopera on among government agencies. both for ins tu ons and communi es. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior. through communica on. implementa on of corpora za on. 8. aligned with the RIS-SPAM. between government and the private sector. asset management and human resource capacity building. Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private sector and the community through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water and sanita on facili es in schools as part of efforts to improve the hygienic behavior of students and communi es. the private sector and the public. (c) improving the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the government. Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of business plans. 7. The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. especially the poor. as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on. as well as the applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water reclama on. as presented in the following table: Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 127 . 6. 5.

Priori es Outputs Percentage of households with access to improved drinking water source Percentage of drinking water quality that meets the requirements 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 62 62.000 villages 360 areas 32 areas and 700 villages 11 districts/ ci es 11 11 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan ( RPJMN 20102014) and Inpres no.500 5.5 63 63.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Table 7.000 218 area 31 areas and 1.000 20. Annual Implementa on Targets to Improve Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources and Basic Sanita on 2010-2014.500 11.5 67 85 90 95 100 100 Improving surveillance and monitoring of environmental quality Percentage of popula on that have access to basic sanita on 64 67 69 72 75 Number of villages where Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) will be implemented Number of urban areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of rural areas facilitated to improve water sources Number of areas with improved infrastructure developed for syistem off-site sewerage Number of areas with infrastructure development and waste water facili es with on-site sewerage systems 2.165 villages 11 districts/ ci es Improve the development of drinkig water supply systems 260 areas 30 areas and 500 villages 315 areas 30 areas and 1.3.3/2010 Improve the development of sanita on infrastructure 30 districts/ ci es 35 districts/ ci es 40 districts/ ci es 50 55 districts/ districts/ ci es ci es 128 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .472 villages 9 districts/ ci es 244 areas 30 areas and 1.000 16.

The Government of Indonesia has implemented many programs to improve the lives of slum dwellers.10 percent (DI Yogyakarta) while the highest propor on is 28. the Urban Poverty Project (UPP). including: the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP). Jawa Tengah and Kalimantan Barat. the provinces where with the highest percentage of slum households are found are Nusa Tenggara Timur. including the Na onal Community Empowerment Program (PNPM Mandiri) with technical support from various na onal ministries. Papua and DKI Jakarta. the Community-Based Ini a ves for Housing and Local Development (CoBILD). but 12. The lowest propor on of slum households for a province is 5. In addi on. and the Neighborhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Program (NUSSP). urban renewal. As seen in Figure 7. by 8. several ini a ves to empower those who live in urban slums are being implemented. Source: BPS.8). urban slums in Indonesia has declined The Propor on of Urban Households Living in Slums.9. Susenas. The provinces with the lowest propor ons of slum households are DI Yogyakarta. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Current Status The propor on of households living in Figure 7.12 percent of urban households are s ll found to be living in slums (see Figure 7.Target 7D: By 2020.85 percent (Nusa Tenggara Timur). Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 129 . Significant disparites are found among provinces in the propor on of the urban popula ons categorized as slum households. 1993 and 2009 Many ini a ves have been carried out to improve the welfare of urban households.8.63 percentage points from 1993.

and microcredit for housing and na onal housing savings. Susenas.7 9. Other priori es are to improve the quality of residen al environments through the provision of infrastructure.7 17. facilita on of development of new housing and improvement in the quality of selfhelp housing and the provision of infrastructure. Several steps have been taken to improve the provision of decent and affordable housing for low-income communi es through development of public housing for rent.5 10.6 8.Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Figure 7.1 5. Limited access of low-income households to land for housing in urban areas. basic facili es.9. 2009 Percentage 35 5.6 7.9 8.1 14.7 10. Limited access to housing finance.7 7.3 14. and adequate public u li es. Challenges Aside from the regional dispari es. Addi onal ini a ves will increase access of low income households to decent and affordable housing through a liquidity facility.7 7.0 14.3 13. as well as facilita ng the provision of land. facili es and u li es for self-help housing.8 19.4 24. Previous programs have produced less than op mal results in improving the lives of slum dwellers. the major challenges in reducing the propor on of urban slum households in Indonesia are as follows: 1. 2. Limited provision of basic facili es for urban se lements. Limited capacity of the government and the private sector to build affordable houses.1 25.4 DI Yogyakarta Jawa Tengah Kalimantan Barat Maluku Utara Jambi Sumatera Utara Bangka Belitung Sumatera Barat Sulawesi Selatan Jawa Timur Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Aceh Riau Sulawesi Tenggara Lampung INDONESIA Gorontalo Bali Kalimantan Tengah Bengkulu Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Tengah Kepulauan Riau Jawa Barat Banten Sulawesi Utara Maluku Sulawesi Barat Papua Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat DKI Jakarta Papua Nusa Tenggara Timur 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: BPS.5 13.5 8.6 9. Policies and Strategies The direc on of policies and strategies is to fulfill the needs of the urban poor for adequate. and 5. 130 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 28.8 10. integrated with real estate development to realize ci es without slums.0 25.1 12.1 21. 3.9 12.1 14.9 .3 13.6 5.0 9.5 8.0 18.6 15. 4. safe and affordable housing. The Propor on of Urban Slum Households by Province.

The Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-2014) has set priori es and targets to reduce the number of households living in urban slums in order to accelerate the achievement of this MDG.500 12. facili es and u li es Number of mul -story low rent housing units built (Rusunawa) 100 150 175 180 95 95 3. Efforts to achieve these targets will be implemented by the Ministry of Public Works. 2013 30 30 5.500 12.500 12.041 50 7. Control and Opera on in the Development of Se lements Urban slum areas to be improved Units of apartment dwellings built up with suppor ng infrastructure Se lement infrastructure improved in low income residen al areas Facilita on and promo on of environmental planning for slum areas Facilita on and promo on of development of self-help housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp improvement of housing Facilita on and promo on of selfhelp infrastructure Number of slum areas facilitated 50 Number of self-help new housing construc on ini a ves Number of self-help improvement of exis ng housing ini a ves Number of ini a ves to facilitate and s mulate self-help improvement of infrastructure.500 16. Guidance.200 15 2014 22 22 3.458 21 Implementa on Targets to Reduce the Propor on of the Popula on Living in Slums Targets Priori es Indicators 2010 Prepara on of ac on plans on urban slums at district/ municipality level Regula ons. Table 7.500 16.500 6.500 7.500 7.250 Development of mul -story low rent housing units* 100 100 180 0 0 Source: Na onal Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014.250 7.2.041 50 2012 30 30 7.4.960 104 2011 30 30 7. district / city governments and urban communi es.250 16. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 131 . provincial governments.250 7. the Ministry of Housing.250 7.500 6. as shown in Table 7. Note: *) Simplified Rental Housing Development es mated 30 percent for low-income communi es.250 6.

132 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .

2009 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .G-20 Summit in Pi sburgh. September 24-25.

.

Public – private partnerships are encouraged to promote economic growth and improve provision of public services. In financing na onal development. Indonesia also par cipates with the interna onal community in many interna onal and regional forums including the Group of Twenty (G-20) and the Asia Pacific Economic Coopera on Forum (APEC) to promote collabora on on issues related to economic development and trade between emerging economies and developed economies. including south-south and triangular coopera on. the Government of Indonesia will con nue to rely on foreign grants and loans. Netherlands. Indonesia. Indonesia is commi ed to achieving produc ve partnerships with the private sector while maintaining a conducive investment climate to increase domes c and foreign private investment. Mozambique. including the United Na ons. the World Trade Organiza on (WTO). UK. Australia. Brazil. the government will proceed with cau on and borrow from interna onal sources that provide the most favourable terms and condi ons while protec ng Indonesia’s interna onal posi on. along with other Sherpa’s from ten countries (Norway. the government works to strengthen interna onal partnerships and to improve the effec veness and efficiency in u liza on of foreign grants and loans to support na onal development. the Interna onal Monetary Fund (IMF). Indonesia works to achieve a more equitable and dynamic pa ern of global partnerships as a member of mul lateral ins tu ons. investment and transfer of technology to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. the Associa on of Southeast Asian Na ons (ASEAN). To support u liza on of foreign loans. To best accomplish this approach. The United Na ons Conference on Trade and Development recently ranked Indonesia as one of the top ten most a rac ve des na ons for foreign direct investment globally. The goal of the government is to seek quality investments that create jobs and reduce social inequality.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Indonesia is ac vely engaged with the interna onal community in working to improve governance of interna onal trade. Tanzania. although funding from interna onal sources is expected to decline as a propor on of the na onal budget. Chile. Liberia and Senegal) have established a Network of Global Leaders for Global Campaign on Health MDGs (NGL 45) with the sole purpose of garnering interna onal support on one of the most neglected and cri cal social MDGs. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 135 . child and maternal mortality. the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Indonesia has built a wide network of strong bilateral partnerships to promote equitable development and trade.

rule-based. At the same me Indonesia supports a Special Safeguard Mechanism to reduce the short term nega ve impacts of trade liberaliza on on those involved in the agricultural sector. covering wide-ranging coopera on in investment. Besides regional trade agreements. the NAMA 11. ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand FTA and the ASEANEuropean Union FTA. The agreement is expected to reduce threats of rising protec onism and to provide a s mulus to global recovery. ASEAN is now in the process of nego a ng other ASEAN FTA such as: the ASEAN-India FTA. ASEAN is also moving toward the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2015 and the goal of regional economic integra on. 136 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . Indonesia has also par cipated in various interna onal nego a ng forums related to interna onal trade including: APEC. The Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) was signed on 20 August 2007 as the first Indonesian bilateral trade agreement. especially the rural poor. predictable. the CAIRNS Group. and it went into effect on 1 July 2008. Indonesia has par cipated in the Doha Development Round and remains commi ed to reaching an agreement to maintain confidence in the mul lateral trading system. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Current Status Star ng in the 1950s Indonesia par cipated in global discussions on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) to improve the global trading system and was a founding member of the World Trade Organiza on (WTO) in January 1995. and movement of individuals 1 ACFTA creates the world’s largest free-trade area in terms of the popula on of the na ons which are signatories to the agreement (1. and W52 Sponsors. Indonesia is one of the founding member states of ASEAN which established the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992. trade. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA)1 and the ASEAN Korea Free Trade Agreement (AKFTA) are among the free trade agreements which have been entered into force. In addi on.6 trillion) a er the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8A: Develop further an open. Indonesia has also entered into bilateral agreements for free trade with several other countries. the G-33.9 billion) and the third largest in terms of GDP (USD 6. ASEAN has also reached out to enter into free trade agreements with other Asian na ons as well as na ons outside of Asia. The objec ve of this agreement is to strengthen bilateral economic rela ons.

including strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reduc on of bank vulnerabili es through higher capitaliza on and be er supervision.8 percent in 2009.5% 200 100 - Level of Economic Openness IMPORTS EXPORTS GDP at Current Price (billion USD) Sources: BPS and the World Bank. The recent data for the indicator of economic openness reveals a long-term trend to greater openness in the management of the Indonesian economy. The deposits of rural banks also increased from Rp 8. Exports. Trade has increased substan ally since 1980 and has led to growth of the na onal economy and the expansion of employment opportuni es. 100% Percentage (level of economic openness) 600 Figure 8. 2009. GDP Growth and the Ra o of Imports Plus Exports to GDP as the MDG Indicator for Economic Openness 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 500 400 Billion USD 300 37. The indicator for banking for MDG 8 is the Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR) for commercial banks and rural banks. Comprehensive reforms in Indonesia’s banking sector have been ins tuted based on the difficult lessons learned from the economic crisis of 1997/1998.Indonesia has been successful in developing greater openness in trading with the global community.9% 39. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 137 . The LDR for commercial banks has increased steadily from a level of 45. The Trends for Imports.1.0 percent in 2009.3 percent in 2003 to 109.868 billion in 2003 to Rp 28. An improved regulatory framework for trade has yielded substan ve economic benefits.8 percent in 2000 to a rate of 72.001 billion in 2009 while the LDR for rural banks also increased significantly from 101. The level of nonperforming loans (NPL) at commercial has been improved during the repor ng period while the NPL at rural banks is considered to have been maintained at a safe level.

• Ability to track and trace consignments. • Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure. and • Frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected me.0 49.2 107.2 72.1 53.7 69.0 Percentage 80 61. • Competence and quality of logis cs services.7 64. 2010.5 109.2 2 World Bank. Among the factors in determining the logis cal performance of a na on on trade are the following: • Efficiency of the customs clearance process and border procedures.9 111. 2000 . A er eight years of nego a ons on the Doha Development Agreement.8 60 45. • Ease of arranging compe vely priced shipments. especially mari me ports. logis cs and freight-forwarding services) and overall logis cs infrastructure. Loan to Deposit Ra o (LDR in percent) of Commercial and Rural Credit Banks. LDR Rural Banking LDR Commercial Banking Challenges The fragility of the global recovery underlines the importance of s mulus packages and the need to maintain the certainty of open trade and a rule-based mul lateral trading system.8 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Bank Indonesia Economic Report 2009. “Connec ng to Compete in Indonesia”. the challenge now is to conclude an agreement that will provide a strong founda on for global recovery and sustained growth.8 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 45.3 100 108. The Logis cs Performance Index (LPI) survey highlighted the need for Indonesia to take further ac on to improve border management.7 77. The survey iden fied the need to give special a en on to improve customs and especially quality and standards inspec ons agencies.7 109. 138 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia .4 120 101.2. service sector performance (transport.2009 140 119.2 64.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8.

footwear and leather products. Policies and Strategies Various steps will be taken to further develop an open. tex les. In terms of microfinance. The low composi on of investment credit cannot be separated from the structure of deposits in banks which are short-term funds with a maturity of one to three months so that there is the poten al for funding mismatches in the long term. Increase non oil and gas exports of products that are high value-added. Therefore. the magnitude of the spread between lending and deposit interest rates is an cipated to be one cause of low investment lending in the banking industry. 7. and high demand. 5. The advantages of rural banks compared to commercial banks are the services they provide to SMEs and low income people who priori ze in macy through direct services (door to door). due to a lack of informa on about the businesses owned by their customers.BPR) has improved. nondiscriminatory trading system. development of Indonesian exports will be focused on agriculture and fishery products. Secondly. Improve trade ac vi es in border regions which are func on as the front gates for economic and trade ac vi es with neighboring countries. mining. and a personal approach with a en on to local culture. Encourage exports of crea ve products and services.There is a need to control the intermedia on func on of the banking system. 4. natural resourcebased. Emphasize efforts on expansion of market access. Strengthen trade ins tu ons and foreign trade financing that can induce effec veness of non-oil export development. 2. However. promo on and export facilita on in Africa and Asia. electrical equipment. foods. there is a tendency for rural banks to focus on clients considered to be more bankable. chemicals. predictable. par cularly of small and medium enterprises. rules-based. 6. Support u liza on of trade schemes and interna onal trade coopera on that are more beneficial to na onal interests. including the following: 1. machinery. 3. chemical products. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 139 . beverages. the performance of rural banks (Bank Perkreditan Rakyat . Encourage efforts of market diversifica on to reduce export dependency on certain markets.

3. Enhance efforts to protect the consumer and investors. expand the scope of financial services. especially financial services to support micro. diversifica on of sources of development funding through non-bank financial ins tu ons (LKBB). Strengthen the regulatory framework and further improve supervision of commercial and rural banks. small and medium enterprises. 2. and d. Accelerate strategic intermedia on and distribu on of public funds to increase access to financial service ins tu ons (LJK) for low income groups through the following ini a ves: a. develop appropriate banking products and Islamic borrowing arrangements. 140 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . improve the suppor ng infrastructure of financial services ins tu ons. Strengthen the quality of management and opera onal services of all banking ins tu ons. The strategy to strenghten the performance and stability of the banking sector includes the following ini a ves: 1.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The Government of Indonesia will also con ne to work to maintain a healthy. b. stable and efficient banking system to be er support achievement of the goals of na onal development. c. 4.

Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
Current Status
In the decade following the economic crisis of 1997/98 the Government of Indonesia ins tuted a comprehensive set of reforms to strengthen the na on’s economic fundamentals, including a reduc on of interna onal debt and strengthening of the banking sector. These reforms have provided a strong founda on for the Government to implement policies to recover from the crisis and also to achieve growth with equity. Mul lateral and bilateral coopera on has assisted Indonesia to work towards achievement of the MDGs while a decade of sustained economic growth has enabled the Government to reduce dependency on interna onal borrowing to a sustainable level. The success of Indonesia’s economic reforms and improvements in the management of the na onal debt are reflected in the reduc on of the debt to GDP ra o which had declined from a peak of 89 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2009. While the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP has been reduced from 24.59 percent in 1996 to only 10.89 percent in 2009 (see Figure 8.3).
Billion Rupiah

(% ) 120%
Debt Service Ra o

Figure 8.3.
The Trend of Foreign Debt to GDP and the Debt Service Ra o (DSR) During 1996-2009

6,000 5,000 4,000
60.0% 57.9%

Ra o of foreign debt to GDP

100% 80%
56.8%

3,000 2,000 1,000 0

50.7% 47.3% 37.9% 24.6%

60%

41.1% 39.4% 33.1% 34.1% 39.9% 41.9% 37.2% 40% 27.1% 24.8% 24.2% 21.9% 31.3% 29.0% 27.8% 19.2% 17.3% 22.4% 20% 16.8% 14.8% 14.7% 10.9%

0%
1996 DSR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 GDP Foreign Loans 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Outstanding Debt Ra o of Debt to GDP Ra o of Foreign Debt to GDP

Source: Economic Report Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, 2008, Sta s cs of Foreign Debt, Ministry of Finance and Bank Indonesia, 2010, Ministry of Finance, 2009.

The ra o of debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services or the na on’s Debt Service Ra o (DSR) also declined during the same period, having reached a maximum in the crisis years of 60 percent. A level of 19.4 percent was recorded in 2007 and a level of

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

141

Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

22 percent was recorded in 2009. Both these rates are about 50 percent of the MDG baseline figure of 51.0 percent in 1996 and reflect the success of the Government in applying improved prac ces of debt management as well as prudent fiscal policies. The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the Monterrey Consensus (2002) and the Paris Declara on on Aid Effec veness (2005), and is commi ed to the principles of aid effec veness. Indonesia was also an ac ve par cipant in the regional prepara ons for the Third High Level Forum on Aid Effec veness (2008). In 2009, the Government and 26 key interna onal development partners3 signed the “Jakarta Commitment: Aid for Development Effec veness - Indonesia’s Road Map to 2014”. The Jakarta Commitment supports Indonesia’s efforts to maximize the effec veness of its aid in suppor ng development and defines the policy direc on to achieve greater development effec veness to 2014 and beyond. The roadmap for aid effec veness sets out the strategic vision to which Indonesia, along with development partners, have commi ed. The agenda is based on the principles of the Paris Declara on and the Accra Agenda for Ac on. The program will work to: (i) increase the u lity of interna onal assistance in support of implementa on of the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan; (ii) increase na onal ownership of development assistance; (iii) encourage and assist development partners to follow regula ons and mechanisms established by the Government; (iv) support inclusion of development assistance in the na onal budget (APBN); and (v) encourage development partners to adopt “un ed” systems.

Challenges
The main constraint facing Indonesia in addressing the challenges and achieving its planned development outcomes is to strengthen capacity to u lize all resources effec vely. Maintaining the current debt por olio is one of the focuses while working to achieve cost efficient and manageable risks within the dynamic of financial markets. The Government has worked to increase effec veness in use of interna onal grants and loans in providing support to achievement of na onal development objec ves, but there is s ll room to improve aid effec veness. Various reviews of programs and projects funded by

3

Development partners signing the Jakarta Commitment include: the Asian Development Bank; the Government of Australia; the Government of Japan; the Government of the Netherlands; the Government of the Republic of Poland; the World Bank; the Austrian Embassy; l’Agence Française de Développement; the Canadian Interna onal Development Agency; the Department for Interna onal Development of the United Kingdom; the Delega on of the European Commission; the Embassy of Finland; the Embassy of France; the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany; the Embassy of Italy; Japan Interna onal Coopera on Agency; Korea Interna onal Coopera on Agency; the Royal Norwegian Embassy; the New Zealand Agency for Interna onal Development; the Embassy of Sweden; the United States Agency for Interna onal Development/Indonesia; the United Na ons System in Indonesia; the Islamic Development Bank; the Danish Interna onal Development Agency; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera on.

142

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

interna onal finance ins tu ons and the donor community have found that common challenges exist in increasing the effec veness of aid in Indonesia. These include the following: a. a low sense of ownership of loan and grant funded programs by those responsible for implementa on; b. procedures of the donors are not always fully aligned with those of the Government; c. programming of loans and grants are not always fully harmonized with Government planning and priori es; d. development programs are not always managed to achieve op mum results and the sense of mutual accountability is some mes less than required; and e. weaknesses exist in suppor ng management informa on systems as well as in the human resources assigned to manage informa on on development programs.

Policies and Strategies
Priori es of the Government in the management of loans and grants from mul lateral and bilateral ins tu ons as well as commercial credit ins tu ons for the coming years are as follows: 1. Foreign loans and grants will be used to support achievement of the na onal priori es, goals and objec ves in accordance with the Na onal Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2010-2014) and in harmony with Indonesia’s commitment to achieve the MDGs; 2. Con nuous efforts will be made to reduce the ra o of interna onal debt to GDP while con nuing to maintain a situa on of nega ve net transfers; 3. Further improvements will be made in the regula ons and laws rela ng to interna onal loans and grants; 4. Increased na onal ownership for programs funded by interna onal loans and grants will be promoted as will applica on of improved na onal procedures for management of interna onal funding; 5. Improvements will be made in the ins tu onal coordina on mechanisms, transparency and accountability at all stages, from planning and implementa on to monitoring and evalua on; and 6. Strengthening na onal capacity to manage programming and u liza on of development funding effec vely will be priori zed. The Jakarta Commitment4 is based on the spirit of mutual respect, support and accountability and will be implemented to achieve greater benefits in the achievement of Indonesia’s development objec ves, including the MDGs. It enjoins upon the Government and development partners to make available appropriate resources, knowledge and capacity to

4

Jakarta Commitment, Aid for Development Effec veness – Indonesia’s Roadmap to 2014 (January, 2009).

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

143

org/ 144 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . and to create an enabling regulatory/policy environment to achieve the goals agreed at the World Summit on the Informa on Society. The three main components of the Jakarta Commitment5 are as follows: • • • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development. The Government has established a Secretariat for Aid for Development Effec veness (A4DES) to support implementa on of the Jakarta Commitment and to ensure that government ins tu ons have the capacity to take full ownership and to lead aid coordina on and management processes. and Delivering and Accoun ng for Development Results. Ongoing ini a ves include those to improve infrastructure for ICT.a4des.4 presents the rapid increase in the percentages of the popula on owning cellular telephones in recent years as compared to the rela ve decline in the use of fixed line telephones (Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN). The expansion in the use of personal computers has grown at a slower rate than cellular telephones due to the rela vely high cost of their purchase and the need for a minimum level of competency to u lize them. make available the benefits of new technologies. especially information and communications Current Status The government is commited to expanding collabora on with the private sector to ensure that all Indonesians are able to benefit from the opportuni es that Informa on Communica on Technologies (ICTs) offer in building an inclusive Informa on Society. Building More Effec ve and Inclusive Partnerships for Development.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development implement the Jakarta Commitment. Figure 8. Only 8. the complete text is available at the website of the Secretariat for Aid Effec veness in Jakarta: h p://www. Telecommunica ons in Indonesia have expanded rapidly in the period since the economic crisis. to build capacity of users of ICT.32 percent of Indonesian households owned personal computers in 2009. Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector. although the use of computers is common in businesses. civil society 5 The following is a summary adapted from the Jakarta Commitment.

Infrastructure and internet use is expanding rapidly in the major urban centers. With the increased investments in ICT industries. Access to the internet has expanded rapidly since 1998 when it was es mated that only 512. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 145 . By 2009 the number of internet users had risen to 11. there exist major dispari es in the use of telephones. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ministry of Communica ons and Informa on Technology.51 percent of the na onal households. especially in eastern Indonesia. government and civil society. 2010. computers and the internet among regions. Awareness and capacity to use ICT effec vely is developing rapidly including among SMEs. including those providing services for users.5). Figure 8. In a na on as large and diverse as Indonesia. there is a need to build a more compe ve environment for the provision of ICT services as well as a more conducive environment for collabora on in all ICT industries. equipment manufacturers and user solu ons. wireless access and land lines. Percentage of Popula on in Indonesia Owning FixedLine Telephones or Cellular Telephones During 2004-2009 Fixed Telephone Cellular Phone Challenges One of the primary challenges for the future is to close the gap in access to ICT communica ons by improving the telecommunica ons infrastructure to provide broadband access throughout Indonesia.000 Indonesians were able to u lize the internet. with the lowest rates of use occurring in the remote eastern provinces (see Figure 8. Investment in ICT industries has exceeded expecta ons. As a result. but suppor ng infrastructure is far weaker in rural areas. while capacity building is s ll required to increase the na onal e-literacy rate. ICT communica ons play a strategic role in trade. government and in community-based organiza ons.4. The exis ng na onal infrastructure in support of telecommunica ons has been based on a system of satellites.organiza ons. so ware and device applica ons. Most remote areas do not yet have access to modern ICT and the quality of access in many areas is basic.

At present the popula ons of the larger urban centers of Indonesia have far greater access to ICT. Corporate social responsibility will also be encouraged to contribute to the achievement of community objec ves. including remote and isolated regions. 146 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia . including achievement of the MDGs. but government policy is to make informa on available to communi es in all areas. In order to create a more conducive environment for investors. the government will work to strengthen the regulatory framework for investors and harmonize the regula ons of na onal and regional government on investment. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Deployment. Susenas 2009. Improvement of ICT Infrastructure: The Palapa Ring Program. At the same me the government will con nue to cooperate with the private sector and the public in implemen ng four components of a comprehensive ICT blueprint for Indonesia: 1.5. Transi on to Digital Television. It is the government’s objec ve to transform Indonesia into an informa on-based society driven by the free flow of informa on. 3G Implementa on.Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Figure 8. Percentage of Households Owning Personal Computers and Having Access to the Internet by Province (2009) 40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Lampung Sulawesi Tengah Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Barat Sulawesi Tenggara Maluku Utara Kalimantan Tengah Maluku Jambi Aceh Papua Barat Papua Sulawesi Selatan Sumatera Utara Jawa Tengah Sumatera Selatan Kalimantan Selatan Gorontalo Jawa Timur Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Utara INDONESIA Bengkulu Jawa Barat Sumatera Barat Riau Kepulauan Riau Bali Banten Kalimantan Timur DI Yogyakarta DKI Jakarta Source: BPS. The government will also expand direct collabora on with the private sector through public-private partnerships while suppor ng the development of special economic zones for specialized products. Community Access Points (CAP). Computer Internet Policies and Strategies The government is commi ed to the promo on of private sector investment to achieve the objec ves of na onal development.

improvement of the ICT Convergence Law. to achieve a more efficient alloca on of resources and public goods. E-Educa on under the Ministry of Na onal Educa on: • The na onal educa on network (www. ICT will be used as an instrument to re-engineer the provision of public services to all Indonesians. 3. to improve the management of educa on. • At the end of the current Na onal Medium Term Development Plan it is expected that the score of the na onal system of e-government will have reached 3. educa onal ins tu ons.net) has been established to integrate ICT in learning. It is planned that: • E-services and e-procurement will be applied by all government agencies. and crea on of an investment climate to promote private sector investment in ICT. 4. It is expected that online public services will be available for e-ci zen. The development of human resources for ICT will be focused on the target groups within government.Jardiknas. • Support interna onal coopera on ini a ves in the field of e-government. • The applica on of e-budge ng by government agencies will increase the transparency and efficiency of government planning and budge ng. businesses and communi es. and • The government will formulate a dra Na onal e-Government Master Plan in 2010 and each government ins tu on will be required to prepare a their own e-Government Master Plan. e-procurement and e-licensing services by the end of 2014. • Develop na onal e-government ini a ves and services. adapted to the needs of ci zens and business. accountability and efficiency at all levels of government. E-Government: Various decrees and regula ons of the government have been issued to support adop on of innova ve prac ces of e-government through public-private partnerships and coopera on between central and regional governments and private sector service providers. • Implement e-government strategies focusing on applica ons aimed at innova ng and promo ng transparency in public administra ons and democra c processes. Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia 147 . in order to enhance transparency. improving efficiency and strengthening rela ons with ci zens. at all levels. prepara on of government regula ons on the dessemina on of informa on and electronic transac ons (RPP PITE).2. and to make use of ICT in research and development of educa on. ICT Industry Development which will include: implementa on of the Electronic Informa on and Transac ons Law. The government is preparing an Electronic System at the central and regional levels of government to support a na onal system of e-government. • Building capacity for ICT will be accomplished through a public-private partnership model to be developed in such a way that all the par es involved will benefit.4.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful