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Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization.............................................................................2 8.1 Network Optimization Procedure.......................................................................................2 8.2 Network Optimization Tools...............................................................................................3 8.2.1 Test MS...................................................................................................................3 8.2.2 Drive Test Software.................................................................................................4 8.2.3 Signaling Analyzer..................................................................................................5 8.2.4 Network Optimization Software..............................................................................6 8.3 Network Performance Evaluation......................................................................................7 8.3.1 DT...........................................................................................................................7 8.3.2 CQT........................................................................................................................8 8.3.3 Network Operation Indexes....................................................................................9 8.4 Traffic Statistics Index Analysis.......................................................................................10 8.4.1 General Analysis Method......................................................................................10 8.4.2 High Call Drop Rate Analysis................................................................................11 8.4.3 High TCH Congestion Rate Analysis....................................................................13 8.4.4 High SDCCH Congestion Rate Analysis...............................................................15 8.4.5 Low Handover Success Rate Analysis.................................................................16 8.5 Network Problem Solutions.............................................................................................18 8.5.1 Coverage Problems..............................................................................................18 8.5.2 Interference Problems..........................................................................................31 8.5.3 Call Drop Problems...............................................................................................41 8.5.4 Handover Problems..............................................................................................53 8.5.5 Congestion Problems...........................................................................................61 8.5.6 Other Problems.....................................................................................................66
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
For internal use only
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
Radio network optimization aims to improve network performance and maximize the benefit of the existing network resources through parameter collection, data analysis, parameter adjustment, and necessary technical means. From the perspective of carriers, they hope to configure the system rationally, utilize network resources to the maximum, enhance network economic benefit, and reduce operation costs through network optimization. From the perspective of users, they hope to get satisfactory telecommunication services in terms network stability, speech quality, and so on. Therefore, the core task of radio network planning and optimization is to seek a balance among coverage, capacity, and quality based on rational investment and the limited frequency resources, thus achieving the best rate of investment return.
8.1 Network Optimization Procedure
8.1 shows the network optimization procedure.
Figure 1.1 Network optimization procedure Hereunder details the procedure:
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
For internal use only
Network information acquisition You are required to confirm the actual engineering parameters and network parameters, survey the local radio environment and hot-traffic spots, and understand customer requirement. Data collection You are required to collect OMCR traffic statistics data and alarm data; drive test data, and the objective reflection of MS. Data analysis You are required to analyze network performance, network parameters, and OMCR traffic statistics using network optimization tools. Network tuning You are required to tune engineering parameters and network functional parameters. Network optimization report A network optimization report must include optimization measures, fulfilled network performance indexes, and suggestions for network development.
8.2 Network Optimization Tools
8.2.1 Test MS
Test MS is a daily must for engineers to perform network test. The test MS can display the service cell of a mobile telecommunication network and the six neighbor cells. It can also be used to test network parameters. The test MS can be connected to a computer, so it can collect and analyze data with the help of drive test software. The functions of a SAGEM test MS are listed below:
View the IMSI of the SIM card Scan BCCH The SAGEM test MS can scan the BCCH, and it will provides the Rxlev and BSIC of the scanned BCCH in each cell. View network parameters The SAGEM test MS can display network parameters of the service cell of and the six neighbor cells when it is idle or in conversation state. Forced cell selection The test MS can be forced to reselect the designated cell for dialing test and
Geographic navigation 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page4. call interference test. Forced handover The test MS can be forced to hand over to the designated cell to analyze whether the handover is normal during conversation.2 Drive Test Software ANT. Foreground Data Collection Software The foreground data collection software is mainly responsible for collecting the uplink and downlink data at the Um interface of the GSM mobile network. and SAFCO are the GSM drive test software in common use.2. neighbor cell. TEMS. Interference test Interference aims to locate the BCCH same-frequency and neighbor frequency interference and TCH neighbor frequency interference within the same network in time. The functions of foreground data collection software are listed below: Test functions Test functions include call test. and the Um interface can be observed. Generally. Topical test Topical test is responsible for forced handover and frequency locking (call) test. and the main information of the service cell. bit error ratio. and band locking test. forced location update test. Frequency selection GPRS function test (The MSs of SAGEM OT96 support this function) 8. Total68 . frame error rate. If the BTSs and the landform map of the test areas are imported. dual-band comparison test. and MS selection test. double-network synchronization test. the radio parameters of each test point. BCCH frequency locking (standby) test. and various radio parameters of the cell need to be collected. dialing record test.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only handover test. the drive test software consists of two parts: foreground data collection software and background data analysis software. scan test. the track of the drive test. I. Parameter collection The field strength of the service cell and the neighbor cells.
Traffic statistics The foreground data collection software can be used for CQT traffic statistics. network resource data. Bachground Data Analysis Software The background data analysis software can geographically present the radio network test data and reflect the distribution of network parameters on the electronic map visually. In addition. Total68 . it is also responsible for recording call drop rate and congestion rate. Data record The foreground data collection software can record and store the test data of the test MS synchronously. and GSM signaling characteristics.2. In addition. SQI (Speech Quality Index) test SQI test aims to evaluate the speech quality experienced by mobile users. It can locate the problem cell by fully considering the drive test data. This section 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page5. real-time check of cell parameters is allowed. and can record and store the scanned data of the 900MHz and 1800MHz synchronously.3 Signaling Analyzer MA-10 and K1205 are the GSM signaling analyzer in common use. It enables the call setup. The functions of background data analysis software are listed below: Radio coverage evaluation and analysis Interference analysis Neighbor cell analysis Handover analysis Signaling analysis Speech record and analysis 8. digital frequency sweep receiver data. and call release to be recorded respectively. Competitive test The comparison between real-time field strength and speech quality is available. II. Scanning test Scanning test aims to test and record the field strength of the channels of the GSM 900MHz network and GSM1800MHz network.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only The foreground data collection software can be used to display the geographic navigation through combing the digital map and BTS resources. call duration. thus guiding engineers to evaluate and optimize the network rationally and effectively.
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only introduces the functions of the signaling analyzer.) MONITOR MSC offline (It is used to analyze the A-G interface signaling messages when it is off line. it can perform PCM BERT (bit error rate test) and GSM BERT. can deeply analyze GSM network by integrating OMCR traffic statistics. These means can help network optimization engineers have an overall understanding of the operation of the network. the A-G interface signaling messages. and INAP when it is on line. The functions of NASTAR are listed below: Import static traffic statistics data (import the traffic statistics files of the maintenance console into database) Import static traffic statistics data according to time Import dynamic Huawei traffic statistics Import BSC data configuration Display the geographic view of BTSs HUAWEI Confidential Page6.) PCM-BERT offline (It is used to analyze PCH BERT when it is off line.) With the help of MA-10 signaling analyzer. MA-10 signaling analyzer can test the Abis interface signaling messages. it can enable the signaling message files saved during on-line monitoring when it is off-line. configuration data. TUP. NASTAR. In this case. such as call drop. and so on. performance analysis. Furthermore. engineering data. and bit errors when it is on line. handover failure. and the SS#7 interface signaling messages of ISUP. view the whole signaling procedure.2. and congestion can be located.4 Network Optimization Software Good network optimization software can work as a platform for radio projects and maintenance personnel. and then compare the information with the downlink signals obtained from drive test.) GSM-BERT offline (It is used to analyze GSM BERT when it is off line. The MA-10 signaling analyzer has five sub-applications. it also provides the interfaces for network planning.) MONITOR ABIS offline (It is used to analyze the Abis interface signaling messages when it is off line. and obtain the measurement report. They are listed below: MA-10 control (It is used to test Abis interface signaling messages. the causes and places for the problems. Total68 2011-10-17 . alarm data. In addition. A-G interface signaling messages. 8. and geography conditions. In addition. alarm analysis. network optimization engineers can collect and analyze Abis interface data and A-interface data. Huawei network planning and optimization tool.
and voice quality for the main roads and transportation backbones in urban areas. 8. The traffic statistics data. and so on. voice quality. The indexes for transportation backbones include call drop rate per kilometer.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Cancel. column. including linear figure. call drop rate. Total68 .3 Network Performance Evaluation Before putting network optimization into practice. you should have an overall understanding of the network performance. Connected ratio Connected ratio = total connected times/attempted calls *100% Call drop rate Call drop rate = call drop times/total connected times *100% Coverage rate Coverage rate = (≥ -94dBm test road kilometers)/total test road kilometers*100% 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page7. The indexes for the roads include connected ratio. support 2D and 3D. 8. voice quality. and move the cells based on the geographic view of BTSs Record spectrum utilization and analyze idle channel number Check same-frequency BSIC Analyze neighbor cells Measure distance and azimuth angle Display navigation window and legend Query performance analysis tasks in common use Make performance analysis task Query network optimization tasks in common use Make network optimization tasks Perform tasks and alarms automatically Import and export tasks Display task result and site view Query traffic statistics inversely from the cell set selected by site view Display the traffic tasks in direct views.) Export electronic table (Excel) for query results. connected rate. DT (drive test) data. pie (support the display of double y-axis and the simultaneous display of multiple indexes.3. coverage rate. and CQT (call quality test) data are necessary for network performance acquisition. call drop. add.1 DT DT is used to evaluate the connectivity. and so on. coverage rate. coverage.
from 1 to 5. Total68 . voice quality can be divided into 8 classes. Each class matches its bit error rate range. The calculation of voice quality depends on actual conditions.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Voice quality According to bit error rate. For the evaluation standard.8 + Rxqual (class 5)%* + Rxqual (class 6)%*0. from 0 to 7.5 + Rxqual (class 7)%*0. It enables you to experience the network quality from the perspective of users. Coverage rate Coverage rate = (≥ -94dBm test points)/total calling test points)*100% Connected ratio Connected ratio = total connected times/attempted calls *100% Call drop rate Call drop rate = call drop times/total connected times *100% Voice discontinuity/background noise rate Voice discontinuity/background noise rate = (total voice discontinuity occurrence times + total background occurrence times)/total connected times*100% One-way audio/echo/cross-talking rate = (total one-way audio times + total echo occurrence times + total cross-talking occurrence times)/total connected times*100% CQT enables you to use the MOS (mean opinion score) to evaluate the voice quality from the perspective of people’s objective feeling.2 Call drop ratio per kilometer Call drop ratio per kilometer = (≥ -94dBm test road kilometers)/total call drop times 8. the following method is in common use: Voice quality = [Rxqual (class 0)% + Rxqual (class 1)% + Rxqual (class 2)%*1 + Rxqual (class 3)%* + Rxqual (class 4)%*0. Generally. see Table 5-2 of Chapter 5 GSM Radio Network Planning of GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization. The MOS can be divided into five classes. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page8. This section introduces the indexes used to evaluating the CQT.2 CQT CQT is applied to the important spots in urban areas.3.
and so on. With the expansion of network scale. These indexes include toll circuit utilization rate.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 8. Hereunder introduces the methods to calculate the indexes used to evaluate network operation at the radio side. traffic channel availability. networks with high performance but low cost are encouraged. Traffic call drop ratio Traffic call drop ratio = total TCH traffic volume *60%/total TCH call drop times (all busy) 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page9.3. Service hold capacity indexes Service hold capacity indexes include call drop rate. busiest and idlest cell ratio. Total68 . The number of the worst cells varies with network scales. Radio connected ratio Radio connected ratio = (1 – SDCCH congestion rate)*(1 – TCH congestion rate (all busy))*100% Call drop rate Call drop rate = TCH call drop/successful TCH seizures (all busy) Worst cell ratio A cell with TCH congestion rate higher than 5% at busy hours or a cell with TCH call drop rate higher than 3% is defined as a worst cell. short message connected ratio. In this case. Therefore. you should collect as more network operation indexes as possible. worst cell ratio. the network structure becomes ever more complicated. and IP telephone connected ratio. DT and CQT cannot test the overall network. The indexes evaluating network operation quality are listed below: Service access capacity indexes Service access capacity indexes include toll network connected ratio. To give an overall evaluation towards the network. (GPRS) PDP activation ratio. handover success rate.3 Network Operation Indexes Though DT and CQT can detail network problems. traffic call drop ratio. The indexes on network utilization can be used to evaluate whether the cost to run a network is low. and short message gateway transit success rate. they are restricted from test routes and time.
and alarm information for the overall analysis. you should consider related DT information. you should employ DT equipment and signaling analyzer for help. The radio coverage quality. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page10. Attention that in addition to check the percentages of the indexes. you should register the corresponding traffic sub-items and analyze them in detail. Total68 . If the traffic statistics analysis cannot contribute a correct judgment. If it is a common phenomenon. In addition. because the percentages may sometimes hide some cell problems. engineers’ operation. capacity. and other external causes. If it is really an abnormal case. and cell parameters are the internal factor to affect the network quality. call drop rate. 8.4. Since the mobile network is a complex system. the traffic statistics indexes are the basis for network performance optimization. First you should have a rough understanding of the network performance through BSC performance analysis. are in common use. such as congestion rate. signaling messages. and cell parameters. you should also check the absolute numbers of the indexes. TCH call drop rate.1 General Analysis Method Traffic statistics analysis is performed from BSC overall performance to cell performance. First you should judge if the abnormal index is a common phenomenon or it is really an abnormal one.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Handover success rate Handover success rate = successful handovers/attempted handovers*100% Traffic channel availability Traffic channel availability = the available traffic channels at busy hour/configured traffic channels*100% 8. These indexes are the external representation of network quality. from primary indexes to secondary indexes. The traffic statistics analysis aims to look into these internal factors through external factors. you should begin the analysis from the perspective of coverage. you should also make an overall judgment through collecting the information about alarm.4 Traffic Statistics Index Analysis At the network optimization stage. you should analyze the indexes for each cell if finding abnormal indexes. Here the indexes such as THC traffic intensity. channel capacity. After having understood the indexes about the overall network performance. frequency planning. the KPIs. and inter-cell handover success rate should be considered. and handover success rate. TCH congestion rate. For network optimization.
optimization measures can be adopted to reduce the call drop rate. you can judge whether the high call drop rate occurs in several cells or in all the BTSs. If the call drop is a common phenomenon. whether the configuration of the path failure counter is rational. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page11. In addition. cell parameter planning. the conversation will be disconnected. you should also check the BSC hardware.2 High call drop analysis When the call drop rate of the BSC overall performance is found abnormal. However.2 shows the flow chart for high call drop rate analysis.4. you can check TCH performance to judge whether the call drop is just a common phenomenon or it is an individual phenomenon.4. 8.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 8. and frequency planning to analyze whether the link budget meet the requirements. and then perform drive test to check the network coverage. call drop always exists in a mobile network. and whether the network interference is too great. After that. This is defined as call drop. you should make an overall check towards the coverage planning. Figure 1.2 High Call Drop Rate Analysis If the uplink and downlink quality deteriorates to a level that cannot hold normal conversation. Total68 . Since the user mobility and radio propagation is uncertain.
3) Handover failure will prevent the MS from moving to the best cell. and handover. The distribution of TA (timing advance) values can help you estimate the radius of subscriber distribution.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only If it the abnormality is caused by the severe call drop in individual cells. The poor handover ratio can be seen arising through inter-cell handover performance measurement. Generally. Here the frequency hopping. The increase of the Rxqual class can be seen through the Rxqual measurement task and Rxlev measurement task. there are areas with poor coverage. Through checking the received channel strength of the neighbor cells. It is normal that the idle TCHs drop into interference band 1 and interference band 2. You can judge if the Rxlev is adequate through the mean Rxlev of the power control measurement task and the power class. PBGT handover and coverage control must be considered. you can take the mean Rxqual and Rxlev during call drop as a reference. The path unbalance can be seen from the path balance measurement task. 1) Interference is divided into uplink interference and downlink interference. Total68 . so you can take equipment failure as a reference. You can analyze the uplink interference according to the number of interference bands into which the idle TCHs drop. If the idle TCHs drop into interference band 4 or above. If the Rxlev is still low when the transmitter power reaches the maximum. you should carefully check the interference. For the network with aggressive frequency reuse. you can add neighbor cell relationship and balance the traffic within the cells. Acting as the point-to-point signaling channel. If the uplink coverage and downlink coverage are unbalance. RF component failure or cable connection problem will occur. In addition. you can analyze the cell coverage. the handover re-establishment failures will result in more handover failures. After the equipment failure is excluded. the SDCCH is more 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page12. you can analyze the call drop rate from the perspective of interference. the call drop will also be resulted. In this case. 2) If the coverage is inadequate or it is unbalance on the uplink and downlink. power measurement task. To solve this problem. At this time. cross-cell handover and target cell congestion may cause call drop. it is acceptable that the idle TCHs drop into interference band 3. the alarm information and user complaint also deserve your attention. Meanwhile. Generally. you should confirm whether it is equipment failure that caused the call drop. In addition. drive test is needed for a detailed analysis. alarm messages are always come together with equipment failure. the interference within the network increases with the traffic volume. and call drop measurement task. coverage. Generally. The high SDCCH call drop rate analysis is similar to high TCH call drop rate analysis. call drop may be resulted.
4.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only sensitive to the interference than TCH. or hardware problem through considering the alarm information. Total68 .4. you can discover the problems through analyzing each functional sub-item of the TCH performance statistics of this cell.3 High TCH Congestion Rate Analysis This section discusses TCH congestion. the common method to reduce the call drop rate is to adjust the access threshold and reduce interference.3 shows the flow chart for high TCH congestion analysis. In addition. In this case. including the congestion caused by TCH seizure all busy and the congestion caused by TCH seizure failure. 8. clock problem. In this case. you should check whether there is transmission problem. you can find out the cells with high congestion rate through checking the TCH performance statistics. 8. It is a must to analyze the load according to the TCH traffic intensity and the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page13.3 High TCH congestion rate analysis When the congestion rate of the BSC overall performance is found abnormal. Figure 1.
you should analyze the relationship between TA value and Rxlev through querying the power control mean level. check if any abnormality is present from the interference band 1 to interference band 5 in the traffic statistics. In most cases. you can judge if the reason for the TCH seizure failure is that the downlink power is greater than the uplink power. you can balance the traffic through adjusting coverage scope. and the SDCCH congestion rate will increase accordingly. or enabling load handover. If the congestion is caused by heavy traffic.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only configured TCH capacity. and TA. Moreover. The incoming cell handover performance measurement will show that many handovers towards this cell are failures. many cells will be seized. In addition. 2) Check if the TRXs of the congestion cell work normally. you should query the statue of each TRX within each cell through querying the Rxlev performance measurement task or Rxqual performance measurement task. namely. In this case. 1) Check if the THC congestion rate is caused by TCH seizure all busy through analyzing the TCH performance measurement of the cell. you can check if the ratio is rational. Through querying the incoming and outgoing ratio. you should also use drive test to define the coverage area of the cell. which will cause congestion. 5) Frequent handovers can also cause TCH congestion. go on with the check. If it is beyond the optimization capability to enable other cells to share the traffic. the mean level during call drop. Through querying the TCH availability of the neighbor cell. you should predict the real traffic of the cell and check if other cells can share the traffic. adjusting CRO and handover threshold. In addition. the call drop rate of the cell will be high. The damage or performance decline of the uplink channels may prevent the MS from accessing other cells. adjusting access threshold. you should consider expanding the capacity of the network. 3) Check if the congestion rate is related to interference. The adjustment measures for traffic balance may not be consistent with the principle of minimum radio path loss. the RACH in the random access performance measurement may be congested. Through querying path balance performance measurement. so they are applied to emergent causes only. In this case. the congestion of some cells is a result of large coverage. you should find out which TRX is related to the abnormality through querying the uplink and downlink measurement reports of the same TRX. If the congestion is not caused by TCH seizure all busy. and the immediate assignment success rate will decrease. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page14. you can confirm if the congestion is caused by neighbor cell failures. Total68 . you can check if the congestion is caused by irrational handover. Through querying the ratio of the handovers to the call seizure successes. If the interference is present in a cell. In this case. 4) Under some conditions.
you should analyze it from the perspective of equipment. If it is just an individual phenomenon.4 shows flow chart for high SDCCH congestion rate analysis. 2) Check the messages for SDCCH bearer location update. you can define if the congestion is caused by board problem. 1) From the perspective of equipment. Irrational location area planning will cause frequent location update.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 8. You are required to analyze of the edge of the location is set at the areas with a great number of subscribers by checking the location area planning and actual drive test.4. In addition.4 High SDCCH congestion rate analysis The SDCCH congestion rate is mainly caused by heavy traffic. which will result in SDCCH congestion. After that. If it is a common phenomenon.4. you should first check the TRX sound ratio in the BSC overall performance measurement and the SDCCH availability in the SDCCH performance measurement. Figure 1. location area. First you should define if the congestion is a common phenomenon or if it is just an individual phenomenon. you are also required to check if the location update messages accounts a too larger percentage of the SDCCH seizure 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page15.4 High SDCCH Congestion Rate Analysis 8. Total68 . you should analyze if the location update timer is irrationally set. and then calculate the SDCCH capacity to see if it meets system requirement. and then check the TCH activation NACK/TIMEOUT in the TCH performance measurement. and interference.
5 Low handover success rate analysis 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page16. which causes SDCCH congestion.5 shows the flow chart for low handover success rate analysis. Figure 1. the paging success rate will decrease. The network will allocate a SDCCH for each random access.4. Especially for the networks in which the distance between BTSs is small and the BCCH frequency is aggressive.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only requests at the edge. and the RACH in the random access performance measurement may be overloaded. the system may receive more interference random access signals. In this case.5 Low Handover Success Rate Analysis 8.4. Total68 . The method is to query the ratio of the successful SDCCH seizures (location update) to the total SDCCH seizure successes in the SDCCH performance measurement. the immediate assignment success rate will decrease. 3) Interference also causes SDCCH congestion. 8.
signaling. because it involves capacity. you should check the problem from the perspective of handover parameters. If these two causes are excluded. And this can be proved by the intra-BSC handover failures. After that. If the handover success rate is far smaller than the radio handover success rate. 3) Check if any problem is present at the Um interface through comparing the handover success rate and radio handover success rate. Generally. you need to monitor the signaling messages and data configuration between BSCs and analyze the radio link budget and clock of each carrier.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only The analysis for handover success rate is quite complicated. 1) 2) If the handover success rate of all cells is low. and “TCH congestion rate (all busy)” of all the incoming handover failure cells. you should check if it interoperability problem by comparing the inter-BSC handover success rata with the intra-BSC handover success rate in the handover performance measurement. Filter the cells with poor handover. In this case. Total68 . 4) Analyze if it is incoming handover failure or it is outgoing handover failure through querying the incoming cell handover success rate and outgoing handover success rate in the handover performance measurement. so the handover can never occur. Confirm if the poor handover is caused by target cell congestion through analyzing the “incoming cell handover failures”. the BSIC cannot be decoded. and TCH activation NACK/TIMEOUT of the target cell. 6) Check if any ground link equipment fails through querying the A-interface failures and the ground link breaks during TCH seizure. In addition. and BSC clock. 5) Check if any equipment fails through querying the TRX sound ratio. you need to check if the clock is normal and analyze the call drop rate. “TCH traffic intensity”. the inter-BSC handover success rate is a little lower than the intra-BSC handover success rate. clock. you should analyze the ground link and capacity. If a network is run by the equipments of different carriers. equipment. TCH availability. and even MS. Analyze if the TRX performance decreases through querying the Rxlev performance measurement of the target cell. analyze the outgoing cell handover performance measurement and incoming cell handover performance measurement of the problem cell so as to find out the incoming handover failure cells from the outgoing cell performance measurement. A-interface circuit. you need to consider the interference. When the microwave is used for the transmission or during inter-BSC handover. If the difference between the radio handover success rate and the handover success rate. The radio handover success rate is equal to or greater than the handover success rate. you need to make adjustment from the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page17. coverage. the clock deviation is another cause for poor handover. For the cells where the clock synchronization is unavailable.
The shrink of the coverage is not only related to the technical indexes (such as the BTS sensitivity and power). Total68 . The factor concerning the BTS problems are as follows: Transmitter output power decrease Receive sensitivity decrease Antenna azimuth angle change Antenna tilt change Antenna gain change 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page18. half years). In this case.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only perspective of coverage and interference. geographic factors. The interference will also affect the handover success rate. the coverage of the BTS may become smaller or even dead zone may appear due to various causes. For the networks in which better cell algorithms are enabled. It is better that the percentage it accounts 60% of the handover causes.5. equipment condition. you should check the mean Rxlev and TA value of TCH call drop in the call drop performance measurement and analyze drive test to see if the coverage distance of the cell is too long and if the signal is not strong enough.1 Coverage Problems I. you can leave a margin for the Rxlev and Rxqual during handover. the voice quality will decrease and the call drop rate will increase. Handover problems are rather complicated. the signaling analyzer. Solutuon Procedures [Problem: the coverage is becoming smaller after the BTS is enabled] After a BTS has run for a period of time (for example. and drive test into consideration. 8. the system performance will be affected. and the electromagnetic environment.5 Network Problem Solutions 8. When the interference is present. you should check the “attempted handovers (better cell)”. To solve the problems arising in actual work. you are supposed to integrate the methods introduce above. To reduce call drop rate and enhance handover success rate. If the Rxlev of a cell is lower than -90dBm during handover. but also related to the engineering quality.
4) Check if the standing wave ratio is smaller than 1. you need to check if the water has penetrated into the antenna or feeder connector.5% The tolerance of the standing wave alarm threshold of the CDU or EDU is great. Generally. you should check the corresponding antennas and feeders. so the subscribers cannot enjoy the service. or if it is lightening protector problem. the climate and other natural factors also have some effect against the electromagnetic waves. 3) Check if there is standing wave alarm and main diversity reception alarm at the operation and maintenance console This problem can be checked according to the standing wave alarm messages and the diversity reception alarm messages. the propagation of the electromagnetic waves depends on the reflection of mountains. you can tune the azimuth angel of the corresponding antenna or change the antenna height. If the alarms of this kind occur. In this case. and so on. The maximum loss can reach 30 dB. 5) Check if the tower amplifier work normally Check if tower amplifier alarm is present at the operation and maintenance console. the problems are the low noise amplifier was damaged or the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page19. trees. the areas in the remote cannot be covered. Therefore. In addition. after checking that the set-top power is normal. Total68 .Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Feeder loss Coupler loss Working band change Propagation environment change Diversity effect change. billboard. Especially the high buildings near the BTS have a great effect against the propagation of electromagnetic waves.5%. Especially for mountains. If the standing wave ratio is abnormal. If new buildings prevent the propagation of the electromagnetic waves and weakens the signals. the change in the vegetation of the mountain will reduce the coverage of the BTS. or glass walls standing around the BTS antenna. you can further check if the standing wave is smaller than 1. These barriers may exert a negative effect against the antenna reception and transmission. The propagation loss varies with wood intensity. 2) Check the change of the propagation environment The change of the propagation environment of the electromagnetic wave will weaken the signals received by radio terminals. season. You can check the problem according to the following procedure: 1) Check the conditions around the BTS antenna You are required to check if there are other antennas (such as micro antenna). For example. thus affecting the coverage of the BTS. decorations.
no alarm will be generated. Therefore. but the RF loss is great. 2) Check if the antennas are rationally selected Suitable antennas must be selected for project installation and network planning so that the best coverage can be achieved. you should replace the problem hardware. It must be pointed out that you should use zero-point filling antenna or the electrical title antenna when the antenna height is great. the combiner configuration deserves special attention during BTS expansion. you should fully communicate with customers. In addition. After that. In this case. 8) Check if the receiver sensitivity is normal Check if the coverage distance is shortened by the low receiver sensitivity. in addition to making the previous checks. In addition. The amplifier alarm always comes together with the damage of the low noise amplifier. omni antennas cannot be widely used for the large area coverage. and 10) Check if the high back noise in the coverage area is caused by interference and 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page20. the coverage problem can be solved by directional antennas. however. 1) Check if the combiner keeps the same before and after expansion The loss of different combiners varies greatly Therefore. azimuth angle. 7) Check the set-top output power of the transceiver First you should check if the lines are well connected.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only water has penetrated into the amplifier. If the water has penetrated into the tower amplifier. 9) Check if the parameters affecting the coverage are rationally set poor electromagnetic environment. Total68 . If it not normal. 6) Check the engineering parameters (including antenna tilt and azimuth angle) The increase of the antenna tilt or the deviation of the azimuth angle will reduce the coverage of the BTS. you can get the value of the level when the bit error rate is 2%. antennas must be firmly fixed so that they can stand strong wind and storms. This means. the receiver sensitivity will decrease dramatically. If different combiners are a must. you are supposed to check the following items. 3) Check if the installation of the newly-added antennas are qualified You should first check if the design of the antenna height. [Coverage problem caused by BTS expansion] If the coverage of the BTS shrinks after expansion. and then check if the settop power is normal. only applies to the situation that when the receiver sensitivity drops dramatically. In this case. you can monitor the messages at the Abis interface and find out the relationship between level and bit error rate.
Total68 . As a result. Meanwhile. To reduce the coverage shadow caused by the tower. 5) Check if the tilts and the azimuth angles of the directional dual transmitter antennas are consistent with each other If the tilts and azimuth angles of the directional dual transmitter antennas are inconsistent. In this case. In this case. the old BTS can only be swapped after the new antenna is installed. Moreover. Therefore. and handover failure will easily occur. since the tower effect is present. the BCCH transmitter antenna must be installed at a side of the important coverage area. the coverage distance of the BCCH will be longer than that of the TCH. the important coverage areas cannot be perpendicular to the diversity direction of the antenna. the coverage area of the BTS will become small. In this case. In this case. assignment failure. the important coverage areas cannot be bared by tower. you should pay attention to the distance between the antenna and the tower. In addition. the important coverage area cannot be perpendicular to the diversity direction of the antenna. the pole of the omni antenna and the RF part of the antenna cannot be overlapped. the coverage shadow can be avoided. To prevent the assignment failure caused by the inconsistence of the BCCH coverage and TCH coverage. the important coverage area cannot be perpendicular to the diversity direction of the antenna. you can use the concentric channel allocation algorithm. the TCH assignment failure will be caused. Moreover. When the maximum coverage is pursued. the azimuth angle 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page21. In this case. [Coverage problems caused by BTS swap or construction] 1) Check if the azimuth angle and the antenna height are the same before and after the BTS swap If all the antenna and feeder components are newly constructed. the antenna diversity effect can be excavated to the maximum. the TRXs are required to be combined in various ways. so the concentric technology is needed. 6) Check the set-top output power of various TRXs if the scheme for the maximum coverage is used. In addition. 4) Check the position of the BCCH transmitter antenna Since the tower effect is present. Generally. the coverage shadow can be avoided.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only antenna tilt is qualified. call drop. the BCCH transmitter antenna must be installed at a side of the important coverage area. The channel assignment failure caused by low transmit level in the inner circle and the channel congestion in the external circle can be avoided if the TA values of the inner circle and the external circle are correctly set and allocated to the inner circle and external circle according to the right priority.
Check if the installation of the antennas is qualified after the BTS has been enabled or swapped. In this case.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only and the antenna height may be different from that of the old antenna. 3) 4) 5) 6) Check if the set-top power of the swap BTS is the same as that of the old BTS. Total68 . 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page22. Check if the receiver sensitivity of the BTS is normal. you can connect the antenna feeders of the neighbor cells where there is no interference to the test cell. antenna. the coverage area may decrease. you can consider increasing the tilt. or event the power amplifier will be disabled. That is. If any problem is found. As a result. 14) Check the set-top power for various TRXs when the configuration scheme for the maximum coverage is pursued. you should change the antenna. 10) Check the position of the BCCH TRX transmitter of the omni dual transmitter II. Water penetration means that the water enters the RF internal channel. 12) Check if the antennas and feeders of the cell are inversely connected. 11) Check if the tilts and the azimuth angles of the two directional antennas keep the same after the directional dual transmitter antenna is used. the tilt must keep the same. [Antenna passive intermodulation] The passive intermodulation of the antenna and various connectors will cause interference. the coverage area will decrease. Check if any standing wave alarm message or diversity reception alarm message is generated for antenna and feeder at the operation and maintenance console. If you need to control the coverage area due to new BTSs are added to urban areas. Problems Affecting Coverage and Solutions [Antenna water penetration] It is quite accidental that the water penetrates into the antenna. the antenna loss will increase. 7) 8) 9) Check the parameters that will affect coverage are rationally set. 2) Check antenna tilt problems caused by network swap Generally. The exclusive method can be used for the check. 13) Check if the tower amplifier works normally. Check if it is the interference or the poor electromagnetic environment that makes the back noise of the whole area too high. Check if the right type of antenna is selected. the voltage standing wave ratio of the antenna will increase. In this case. you should check if the azimuth angle and the antenna height are the same before and after the bas station swap.
the gain of the two neighbor sectors will be low. the area under the tower cannot be covered by signals. In this case. In this case. [Tower effect against Omni antenna radiation] The tower effect against omni antenna radiation deserves enough attention. If the antenna tilt is great. As the frequency reuse becomes more aggressive. if the antenna height exceeds 50m and if the first zero point under the main antenna beam is not filled. The damage varies greatly with the distance between the tower and the antenna. In this case. If three-sector directional antennas are used for vast coverage. If the half power angle is small.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only [Improper antenna selection] Generally. you should select the fixed “electrical tilt + mechanical tilt” antenna or the “continuous adjustable electrical tilt (0 to 10 degrees) + mechanical tilt” antenna. you should select the antenna with zero point filling function. Figure 1.6 Omni antenna directional diagram without barrier 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page23. you should select the antennas with greater front-to-back ratio. the antennas must have a high gain and their half power angle must be greater than 90 degrees. That is. as shown in II and II. the “shadow under tower” may occur. Therefore. It is hard to estimate the damage of the omni antenna directional diagram caused by the tower. the coverage radius is small. the front-to-back ratio of the antenna may not meet the requirement of a single BTS or several BTSs. Total68 . the all mechanical tilt antenna is not a suitable choice.
[Directional antenna installation problem] Two problems may occur for directional antenna installation: The antenna is inversely or wrongly connected. make sure that the distance between the antenna and the nearest end of the tower is greater than 6 wavelengths.7 Tower effect against antenna far-field If the antenna is installed on the tower and metal tube. If the error is too great. the error scope of the azimuth angle cannot exceed 5 degrees. The azimuth angles and the tilts of the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna are inconsistent and or the error is great. the coverage of the transit antenna and that of the receiver antenna will be different. In this case. Engineering causes are the explanations of the two problems.5 degrees. The omni dual transmitter technology is not recommended. Generally.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Figure 1. The antenna must be perpendicular to 1/8 of the half power beam width at least. Take measures to avoid installing the whole antenna on the metal tube. and that of the tilt cannot exceed 0. you should pay special attentions to the following items: The metal tube and the effect radiation part of the antenna cannot be overlapped. If the antenna is installed on the tower. Total68 . it is hard 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page24.
the antenna height must be great enough. the diversity distance between the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna is required to be greater than 4m. Generally. When installing a directional antenna. it is required to be greater than 2m. otherwise the radiation will be affected. The problems concerning antenna diversity distance and isolation between antenna and tower. In this case. Generally. the coverage will be poor. such as high buildings and mountains. If the antenna diversity distance or the isolation between antenna and tower is not great enough. From the perspective of installation. you should install it at the edges of the building so as to avoid the shadow. If you intend install the BTS on the roof of a high building.5m away from the tower. there is a jacket installed at the bottom of the omni antenna and the jacket is used to connect the omni antenna and the antenna pole. the top of the jacket must be at the same level with or higher than the top of the pole. you should make sure that there is no shadow within the coverage area. Total68 . The coverage of the antenna will be affected if the diversity distance between the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna or the isolation between the antennas and the tower is not great enough. For GSM 900MHz system. Though the tower effect against the omni antenna radiation is unavoidable. [Omni antenna installation problem] The radiator of the omni antenna is barred by antenna pole. For GSM 1800MHz system. shadows may appear.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only to make calls the coverage edges. however. you can increase the isolation between the antenna and the tower to reduce the effect. Since the environment around the roof is quite complex. the receiver sensitivity will reduce. Meanwhile. the antenna mount must be installed within the 45-dregree protection areas of the lightening protector. If the antenna diversity distance is too small. Problems concerning the diversity distance between the transit antenna and the receiver antenna or the isolation between the antennas and tower. In this case. The coverage will be affected if the radiator of the omni antenna is barred by antenna pole. It is suggested that the isolation between the omni antenna and the tower is 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page25. if there are huge barrier. The antenna mount must be at least 1. There are shadows in coverage areas. you should consider the ability of the antenna to stand the wind and storm. it will reduce diversity gain. around the BTS.
the coverage area and the conversation quality will be affected. the areas 45-dregee under the lightening protector top are the protection areas. In this case. the coverage area of the BTS will also be affected.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only greater than 2m. the tower amplifier will be short-circuited. In this case. the front module will be damaged. Water penetration occurs at the various connectors of the antenna and feeder system. the coverage area will be affected. deteriorate the standing wave ratio. In this case. The transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna are inversely connected due to inconsistent configuration of the set-top jumper and data. In this case. The connection between the jumper and feeder is not tight. and for various RF cables are not tightened. the standing wave ratio will increase. The input end and the output end of the tower amplifier are inversely connected. both the reception performance and the transmit performance of the system will decrease. the antenna directional diagram will be distorted in the coverage area. In this case. Various connectors are not tightened. the performance of the antenna and feeder system will be affected. the coverage will be affected and interference will be caused. The omni antenna is not perpendicular to the horizontal plane. If the short circuit lasts for a long time. make sure that the mount is still in the protection areas of the lightening protector. Total68 . Generally. [Tower amplifier problem] Water penetration will increase the loss. If water has penetrated into the connector and feeder. and the horizontal diversity distance of the 1800MHz antenna is greater than 2m. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page26. In this case. the horizontal diversity distance of the 900MHz omni antenna is greater than 4m. which results in high loss and standing wave ratio. [Connection problems of antenna and feeder. The damage of the LNA (it is in the tower amplifier) will decrease the gain or even decrease the gain to a negative value. and CDU] If various connectors of the antenna and feeder system are not connected according to requirement. the coverage of the antenna will be affected. It is suggested that installation plane of the antenna mount be perpendicular to the horizontal plane. If the connectors for set-top jumpers. combiner and splitter. for the cables from TRX boards to combiner and splitter. If the mount extends beyond the tower. If the omni antenna is not perpendicular to the horizontal plane. and decrease the receiver sensitivity.
If the valid antenna height is 120m. Moreover. Therefore. The Rxlev in the small town 800-1400m away from the BTS is about -90dBm. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page27. the town is too far away from the mountains around. Coverage Cases Case 1: Use down tilt omni antenna to improve coverage [Problem description] In a suburban area. Through checking the fluctuation of the Rxlev according to the drive test map. [Problem analysis and solution] On-site survey shows that the antenna height is too great. the coverage in the area near the BTS is poor.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only [BTS front module problem] Isolator problem Duplexer and other filter damage Standing wave ratio error alarm LNA (low noise amplifier) damage Low TRX or amplifier output power [Parameter configuration problem] The parameters affecting coverage are listed below: TRX power class Tower amplifier attenuation coefficient MS maximum transmit power control power MS minimum Rxlev RACH minimum access threshold III. The first judgment is that the phenomenon of “shadow under tower” has been caused. the omni antenna with a gain of 11dBi is used for the BTS. the Rxlev in this town is quite slow. this town is not in the coverage area of the BTS. so it cannot get the signals reflected by the mountains. However. However. This coverage distance can reach 9km in plain environment. so the town is 120m below the antenna. Further analysis of the collected data finds that omni antenna is used for the BTS. The height of the tower on which the antenna is installed 50m. Total68 . The antenna gain is 11dBi. engineers found that this town locates within the radiation area of a zero power point of the BTS. the tower is established on a small mountain. and the vertical half power angel is 7 degrees. Therefore. the half power points of the antenna major lobe are scattered in the area about 2000m away from the BTS.
engineers retested the Rxlev and found that it increased by 15-20 dB in the areas 3km within the BTS.8 Comparison of the Rxlev before and after antenna replacement Case 2: Improper installation of omni antenna has effect against the coverage [Problem description] A new BTS has been enabled for a local network. Users complain that the coverage area become smaller after that. as shown in III. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page28. Apparently. In addition. the Rxlev is already lower than -90dBm. the Rxlev is increased by 30 dB. the major transmitter antenna must be located at one side of the road. [Problem analysis and solution] Through surveying the environment around the BTS. The correct way is to install the major transmitter antenna and the diversity receiver antenna in a plane perpendicular to the road. Therefore. the coverage has been improved remarkably. as shown in III. Total68 . engineers found that the major transmitter antenna and the diversity receiver antenna are installed in a plane parallel to the road.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only After having replaced the antenna with an omni antenna with 5 degrees of the down tilt angle. In some areas. For the low narrow areas 2km away from the BTS. this kind of installation does not meet the criteria. Figure 1.
According to the frequency sweep test. in conversation mode. the strength of the Fa signal is about -95dBm. it will choose A-3 cell to camp on. Theoretically. and the strength of the Fb signal is about -80dBm. When the MS moves from the urban area to the suburban area. the MS cannot keep the conversation in A-3 cell. When it arrives at this 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page29. so the difference between the theoretical Rxlev and the measured Rxlev is great. In the cell neighbor relationship list. the A-3 cell and B-3 cell cannot work as the neighbor cell for each other. and the Fb is not configured in the neighbor channel numbers of the A-3 cell listed in BA2. Therefore. it is covered by three cells of the BTS A and BTS B that are installed in the urban area (the BCCH frequencies are Fa and Fb). Through checking data. because the Fb is not configured in the neighbor channel numbers. engineers found that the Fb is not included in the neighbor channel numbers of the A-3 cell in the BA1. There is no abrupt change in terms of landform within this section. a cell of the BTS C installed at the remote suburban area also covers the section (the BCCH frequency is Fc).Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Figure 1. In this case. For this section. the MS cannot reselect the B-3 cell to camp on. engineers found that the signals at a section of the road in the suburban area are quite poor. Total68 . [Cause analysis] This section locates in the suburban area and is about 3km away from the urban area. In addition.9 Installation position of omni antenna Case 3: Improper configuration of data causes poor coverage [Problem description] During the optimization for a place. the Rxlev here should be about -80dBm. The measured Rxlev is -95dBm.
you can increase the antenna height accordingly. Considering that coverage for the scenic spot 2km away (the scenic spot locates behind a hill) is poor. To solve this problem. The antenna of the swapped BTS cannot be too great. the coverage is still not to users’ satisfactory even increase the antenna height to 30m. otherwise the coverage for this area will become weak dramatically. [Solution] Enable the A-3 cell and B-3 cell to work as neighbor cell for each other. If the BTS is installed among resident buildings. and the antenna height is 15m. engineers found that the indoor signals of this area are too poor to hold the conversation. After the BTS swap. the signals are poor. the signals are quite weak when arriving at the bottom of resident area. [Cause analysis] The buildings of the resident area are densely distributed and the average height is 8m. so is the voice quality. though the signals falling at the top of the building is good.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only section. Case 4: Irrational BTS swap affects coverage [Problem description] In an urban area. tuning the azimuth angle of the antenna. the cell used for this area is only 100m away. Total68 . This area can be seen clearly from the tower on 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page30.8km away. a BTS must be swapped for the building on which the BTS was installed were to be moved. However. You can solve the problems concerning cross area coverage can through controlling the power class of the BTS. so engineers intended to install the BTS on the top of the hill. the cell used this area is 1. If the BTS is installed beyond the resident buildings and the buildings are high. you should pay attention to the following items: It is suggested that the distance between the BTS and the resident area is equal to or smaller than 150m. or tuning the tilt angle of the antenna. Therefore. however. you can only increase the output power of the transmitter antenna or increase the antenna gain. it cannot hand over to the B-3 cell. the antenna height is suggested to be 7-10m. the whole city and the scenic spot can be seen. the indoor conversation quality can be guaranteed. users complaint that there were no signals in the indoor environment of the cells near the site where the old BTS was installed. when swapping or constructing a BTS at the densely populated area. Therefore. after the BTS swap. However. Therefore. Before the BTS swap. and the antenna height is 30m. On the top of the cell. [Solution] According to on-site survey. In this case.
but also it will be interfered by the other BTSs and MSs within the system. it will not only be interfered by other telecommunication equipments. you need to tune the antenna tilt for the best coverage. engineers found that it increased by 6-12dB. and between them are vast farmlands. call drop. including conversation quality. 8. Through retesting the indoor signal level. you can use the following methods: Replace the common antenna used for this cell (its gain is 15dBi) with the highgain antenna used for the scenic spot (its gain is 18dBi) There are 4 TRXs in this cell. To solve this problem. I. as shown in I. Total68 . Intra-network interference If the frequencies are improperly planned. replace the SCU mode with the dual-CDU mode. The distance between the BTS and the area is only 1.2 Interference Problems Interference is a key factor affecting network performance.10 Schematic drawing of mobile telecommunication interference Hereunder introduces the interference sources affecting the GSM system. and so on. Interference Sources In the mobile telecommunication system.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only which the BTS is installed. After the antenna replacement. congestion. If the coverage is not yet improved. Figure 1. After the above methods are done. handover. or the frequency reuse is too 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page31. when the BTS is receiving the signals from a remote MS.5. all in SCU mode. And even the common MS can keep normal conversation.8km. the antenna gain for this area can be increased by 6dB. you can attempt to tune the azimuth angle and the tilt angle of the antenna.
the BTS near the repeaters will be interfered. and interference band of a cell deteriorate to a bad level abruptly. will generate intermodulation. II. In this case. the BTS to which the repeaters attach will interfered. Repeater interference At the early stage of network construction. CDU problem or splitter problem: Active amplifier is used in the CDU splitter and splitter module. traffic volume.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only aggressive. the passive equipments. and other telecommunication equipments using the same band. intra-frequency interference or neighbor cell interference will be caused. Hardware problems TRX problem: If the performance of the TRX decreases. or the isolation of the transmission and the reception of the CDU duplexer is too small. Meanwhile. If the repeaters are not installed according to requirement. Interference Positioning and Elimination [Positioning and elimination procedure] 1) Find out the interference cell according to KPI If the call drop rate. repeaters are widely used for extending the coverage distance of the network. Total68 . However. that is. the system may also be interfered. you can also check the historical record of operations made in this cell. if the repeaters are improperly planned. the greater the intermodulation will be. Therefore. the intermodulation indexes are far greater than that required in the protocols. the connection channel will be interfered. Interference from other big-power telecommunication equipments These equipments include radar. check if the hardware and software of the BTS has been 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page32. the greater the power is. For example. analog BTS. handover success rate. In this case. When any problem occurs. the system may be interfered. Stray and intermodulation: If the out-band stray of the power amplifier or the TRX of the BTS go beyond requirement. it means that interference may exist in the cell. congestion rate. For the repeaters enabling broadband non-linear amplifier. the network will be interfered. there is not enough isolation left between the donor antenna and the subscriber antenna. such as the feeder and the antenna.
3) Check frequency planning If the interference is doubt in a cell. There are two drive test methods: idle mode test and dedicated mode test. the test equipment can test the signal level of both the signal level and the neighbor cells.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only added or increased and if the data of the BTS has been modified. it will result in frequent handover. such as CRO. the interference may be from the hardware itself out outside factors. and high congestion rate may be related to equipment problems. you are required to make clear the distribution of the antennas. If the CRO is set to a great value. may have interference against the system. interference will be caused. If the P/N is too small. For this check. handover duration. you are also required to compare the planned channel numbers with the configured channel numbers in the BSC. According to the accurate frequency planning topology. Once the conversation is started but the C/I cannot meet the threshold requirement (12dB). In addition. you should check outside factors. the MS may be guided to an idle cell whose level is lower than its surrounding cells. If it is not. If these parameters are not adjusted. These records are related to the deterioration of these indexes. the appearance of interference is related to these operations. find out the azimuth angle of each cell. threshold. the MS cannot hand over to a cell with better signal level and quality. the test equipment can also perform the frequency sweep test for the designate channel numbers or bands. you can check OMC alarm records. In this case. 4) Check cell parameter configuration The cell parameters. the handovers between cells are unavailable. 5) Drive test Drive test is an effective method to position the interference. neighbor cell relationship. If the handover threshold and the P/N are too great. In this case. In this case. you can make sure if the intra-frequency interference or neighbor frequency interference is present in the network. you are suggested to check if it is hardware problem. In this case. If neighbor cells are missing. however. and mark the BCCH/TCH channel numbers. low handover success rate. Total68 . In this case. For idle mode test. both the call drop rate and the system load will be increased. the interference will also be generated. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page33. 2) Check OMC alarm Sometimes high call drop rate. Meanwhile. Generally. you can check the frequency planning for the cell and the neighbor cells of the cell. and so on. draw the topology.
In this case. TRX problem. if the antenna is damaged or its performance declines. In the near end. CDU. If the antenna is inversely connected. CPU problem. the inverse antenna connection has great effect against network quality. the voice quality will become poor. In the remote end. Total68 2011-10-17 . the TA. if the FER is greater or equal to 25%.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only the interference caused by cross-cell coverage signals can be discovered. For dedicated mode test. TRX problem HUAWEI Confidential Page34. and then evaluate the elimination through KPI and drive test. and handover difficulty will be resulted. the channel numbers used by the cell and the planned channel numbers are completely inconsistent. 6) Interference elimination You can eliminate the interference according to the above checked results. water penetration. inter-frequency interference. Antenna connector problem GSM RF signals are micro wave signals. you should check if there is antenna problem. you should first check if the BTS where the cell locates works normally. and antenna have any problem. and so on. intra-frequency interference. Antenna performance decline Antenna a passive component and its damage probability is small. However. That is. the conversation will not be continuous. so they are often wrongly connected. or BTS clock alarm generated. it can be confirmed that the interference exists in the area. feeder (jumper) damage. high call drop rate will be resulted. wrong jumper connection or clock problem occurred. you should check if there is antenna alarm. feeder. In this case. TRX alarm. the Rxqual. Some test equipment can display the FER (frame error rate). If the Rxlev is equal to or greater then -80dBm and the Rxqual is equal to or greater than 6 in an area. Generally. Especially for the networks that have inadequate frequency resource. the interference exists. Inverse antenna connection The inverse antenna connection is a commonly seen problem. the interference will be resulted. both the standing wave ratio and the intermodulation will increase. [Hardware problem positioning and elimination] When the interference is doubted in a cell. Jumper problem Many jumpers locate between antennas. the test equipments can test the signal level of the service cell and neighbor cells. If the connections between TRX. In this case.
which will result in bit errors. Especially when the interference appears without any modification of network data. but it is the transmission errors that make the voice quality decrease. and the access is difficult. 6 shows the cellular structure. When C/I is smaller than 12dB or the C/A is smaller than -6dB. feeder. CDU. the aggressive frequency reuse technology will increase of the occurrence probability of interference. samefrequency interference will be easily caused. you should check the hardware of the BTS. the frequency reuse is unavoidable. if interference appears. It is easy to solve the hardware problems through changing the boards or adjusting traffic data. Total68 . the interference is unavoidable. When the frequency reuse distance of two cells using the same frequency is smaller than cell radius. the BTS cannot understand the signals of the BTS. However. BTS clock failure will also cause interference and call drop. if the clock deviation is too great. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page35. Therefore.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only If TRX problems occur. the coverage distance area will decrease. In addition. jumper. and connector may cause interference or call drop. Conclusion Any problem concerning the TRX. the interference will increase. you can position the problem more efficiently. or the MS cannot camp on any cell of the BTS. [Intra-Network Interference] The intra-network interference is mainly from intra-frequency interference and neighbor cell interference. it is hard for the MS to lock the frequencies of the BTS. Past experiences show that the frequency reuse must be avoided in many cases. so the handover failure always occurs. Clock failure If the clock deviation is too great. the clock failure will not really introduce interference. Same-frequency and neighbor frequency interference In GSM system. you should focus on checking the hardware. If there is spectrum analyzer available. However. In addition. antenna.
B1. D2. The interference against the uplink channel numbers can be judged by the interference band data in the traffic statistics. C2. C1. C2. and D3. A2. If cross coverage occurs. this channel number cannot be allocated to A-1. and handover failure may arise. B1. B2. and D. Interference caused by cross coverage In a properly designed network. each cell covers the areas around the BTS only and the MS camps on or holds conversation in the nearest cell. D1. B. the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page36. congestion. A2. call drop. it is likely that the same-frequency is present in this area. D1.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Figure 1. there are 4 BTSs. In urban areas. A3. Cross coverage means that the coverage of a cell is too large and the cell can cover the areas under the control of other BTSs. interference. And the channel numbers N±1 cannot be allocated to A1. If the channel number N is allocated to A3 cell. and D2 (no frequency hopping). Interference caused by aggressive frequency reuse Capacity and quality always contradicts to each other. C. Total68 . A. the existing drive test equipments can be indirectly used to measure if the same-frequency interference is present. C3. First you should lock the test MS in the service cell and enable make the MS work in conversation mode during drive test. If you find that the Rxlev in an area is high but the Rxqual is low. irrational traffic absorption. For the interference against the downlink channel numbers.11 Cellular structure As shown in this figure.
micro wave. if a repeater is not qualified or it is not properly installed. 5) There was no interference in one cell. Therefore. analog BTS. but the interference in another two cells was strong. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page37. Interference Cases Case 1: Interference cause by antenna performance decline [Problem description] There are 5 BTSs in a county. the network quality will surely decrease. Therefore. However. The interference band 5 reaches 15 according to the TCH performance measurement of the most cells. engineers found that the interference band 5 mostly appeared at day time. III. and so on. and it seldom appeared at early morning. high voltage wire. It is not related to other telecommunication equipments. such as TV station. so the interference is not related to the frequency planning. it will cause interference. The configuration type is S4/4/4 or S6/6/6. Interference caused by outside environment Outside environment. engineers found that the interference bands of these cells appeared in the early morning. Through replacing the antenna feeder of the cell with no interference with the antenna feeders of the cells with interference and sending idle BURSTS. engineers found that the broadband interference was strong and the back noise was rising. There is no alarm found at the OMC. it can be proved that the interference came from the network. In the areas where BTSs are irrationally distributed. In this case. Through surveying the RXM test interface of the CDU using the spectrum analyzer during the traffic peak at day time. these interference bands disappeared. it can be decided that the problem occurred at the antenna and feeder system. radar. If the sending of these idle BURSTS stopped. will cause interference. [Problem positioning and solution] 1) Through monitoring and registering the interference band traffic statistics for the problem cells all day. big-power radio station. engineers found that the interference went with the antenna feeder. 3) 4) The frequencies and other data were not adjusted before the interference appeared. 2) Through sending the idle BURSTS of all the BTSs. the aggressive frequency reuse technology may cause the collision of same frequency and neighbor frequencies. Total68 .Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only aggressive frequency reuse technology must be used for the number of subscribers in urban areas are great. Interference caused by repeater It is convenient to use repeater for special coverage.
2) 3) Through testing the CGI of channel number 12 using test MS. 96. engineers found that this channel number was one of the BCCH number of D3. 106. Through replacing the old antenna of another BTS with a new one. Figure 1. 115. 112. 102. Case 2: Call drop caused by intra-network interference [Problem description] Customers in a place complaint that call drop happen frequently. Total68 2011-10-17 . the problem is likely present at the antenna. the interference from channel number 112 caused the call drop. 124. Through replacing the antenna with dual polarization antenna. 104. engineers found that the strong interference disappeared immediately. and 108 are TCH channel numbers. When the MS seized channel number 11. and 113 are BCCH channel numbers.12 Topology for BTS distribution and frequency planning In this figure. 101. engineers found that the interference also disappeared. 98. 100. engineers found that there were 12 channel numbers gathering at the call drop spot and Rxlev reached -73dBm. 116. Through surveying BTS D. [Problem analysis and solution] 1) Through a careful test. Therefore. 111. 114. 110. 107. 118. 120. engineers found that the antenna of D3 is installed at HUAWEI Confidential Page38. 122. engineers found that the interference went with the antenna. 7 shows the topology for BTS distribution and frequency planning. 109.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 6) 7) Through changing the antenna.
cell1. to avoid the interference caused by channel number 111 after the interchange. the voice quality was quite poor. And the call drop disappears. In fact. the possible reasons include transmission problem. the traffic volume of the two BTSs dropped sharply from the perspective of traffic statistics indexes. Two BTSs are installed in this area. level 4. a house made of glass was found 8m away and 4m under the antenna. and the signal strength at near the glass was -30dBm. 3) Through on-site dialing test. 5) Test shows that everything is normal after the adjustment. In addition. 4) It is suggested to change the antenna installation place and channel number. Though the signals for the conversation were strong. Total68 . Even if a call was put through. Case 3: Interference caused by repeater [Problem description] Users in an area complaint that the MS cannot seize a channel to hold conversation. the traffic volume of cell1 and cell3 also dropped sharply. the BTS in this area ran normally and the network indexes met the requirement. In addition. In addition. In addition. You should interchange the channel number 111 and channel number 114 of BTS A and increase the down tilt angle of A3 cell. engineers found that it was hard to make calls in the areas covered by cell1 and cell3. Therefore. no alarm messages were generated at the OMC. On the contrary. cell2. Before user complaint. According to traffic statistics. The channel number 113 of BTS C has no effect against channel number 114. engineers found it was hard to hear the voice clearly. and level 5. or the noise is great after channel seizure and the channel and the MS signal is strong. they could hear the voice from the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page39. [Problem analysis and solution] 1) According to user feedbacks. and outside interference. However. which was beyond the expectation of engineers. 2) The uplink interference signals in the northwest direction might strong. hardware problem.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only the top of a building. the cause was that the signals reflected by the glass were reflected to the call drop spot. After the problem arisen. Through using MS to call a fixed phone. the interference bands of the four cells were of level 3. and cell3 of the two BTSs were interfered. The antenna azimuth angle of cell1 rightly directs to the north. and 95% of the channels were interfered. Engineers tested that the signal strength near the antenna was about -45dBm. the voice was discontinuous and the interference was strong. intra-network interference. other channels were interfered to some extent. In addition. antenna feeder problem. in which cell1 and the cell3 were seriously interfered. the voice quality was quite poor. you should adjust the direction of channel number 113 of C1 cell.
Case 4: Microwave interference [Problem description] During network maintenance. it can be judged that the interference existed on the uplink only). the conversation became normal. so did the call. engineers found that cells of the BTSs near the BTS and the cells of the cell2 and cell3 of the BTS were interfered to some extent. Around 10:00. Therefore. engineers found that the call drop rate of the cell2 and cell3 of a S2/2/2 BTS arisen abruptly. the TRX problem can be excluded. A new repeater was found in this area. one board was changed in case of abnormal conditions. or the standing wave problem was occurring at the antenna (from this perspective. the agreement to shut down the repeater was reached. Because the probability for the four boards to be damaged simultaneously is quite small. but the interference was not eliminated. and it was located two kilometers away from the BTS in the northwest direction. the number of subscribers determined that the probability for all the SDCCHs to be seized simultaneously is quite small. the interference might be from the outside. however. engineers found that the interference existed at the four boards of the cell2 and cell3 of the BTS. This has proved the above analysis. That is. engineers found that the number of idle TCHs was increasing at the interference bands 3-5 around 8:30. Around 22:00. 2) 3) Because the BTS ran normally. Onsite test found that the BTS became normal state once the repeater shut down. However. the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page40. it could be judged that the interference existed. In addition. At last. the idle TCHs were found at the interference band 1. According to the TRX management messages. Moreover.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only fixed phone clearly. However. 4) Through using antenna feeder analyzer to perform on-site test. it was hard to make calls and the interference was strong. After that. it could be judged that the uplink was interfered by outside factors. through analyzing BSC traffic statistics. 4) Through checking all the BSC traffic statistics data. If the repeater was enabled. and the value even reached 20% at some time. [Problem analysis and solution] 1) Through checking BSC traffic statistics. However. the idle TCHs were found at the interference band 4 and interference band 5. engineers also found that the SDCCHs (16 SDCCHs in total) of the seriously-affected cells were seized at sometimes. the interference appeared just when the repeater was enabled. Therefore. the problems cannot be related to frequency planning. and the interference bands also became normal. Total68 . engineers found no problem was existing at any BTS.
In this case. Through using the spectrum analyzer to perform the measurement at the output interface of the BTS splitter. the signals will be barred. engineers found that there was a microwave antenna outputting big-power at the channel number 904. the interference was found at cell1. Call Drop Resasons and Solutions i) Call drop due to coverage reasons [Reason analysis] Discontinuous coverage (dead zone) For a single BTS. call drop is users’ major worry and the call drop rate is an important index evaluating network quality. the interference was not related to channel number. 8. the penetration loss is great and the indoor signal level is low. 6) 7) Because the interference was not related to channel number. I. Total68 2011-10-17 . If the landform of the coverage areas is complex or fluctuates greatly. engineers found that the big-power signals existed at the 904MHz channel number (it has an interval of 5M between the used channel number. the coverage is discontinuous and call drop will occur. And if the walls of the buildings are thick. Therefore. the quality of the signals at the edge of the station is quite poor.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only interference might be related to direction only. Poor indoor coverage If the buildings in an area are densely populated. 9) The interference disappeared after the microwave equipment was shut down.5. the signal attenuation is great. 5) To further position the problem. it could be judged that it was this signal that affected the BTS. the signal level was about -50dBm. Isolated island effect HUAWEI Confidential Page41. engineers interchanged the jumpers of cell1 and cell3 at the set top.3 Call Drop Problems For the GSM network. it might be the bigpower signals that caused the interference. 8) Through using the spectrum analyzer to scan the areas near the BTS. For other BTSs. but the interference was disappearing from cell3. the signal level can reach as high as about -25dBm. the call drop may easily occur. In this case. For the BTS where the interference was strong. the call drop occurs. so the MS cannot hand over to another cell. In this case. Therefore. In this case. or the radio transmission environment is complex.
it cannot find a suitable cell. the call drop will occur. and then you should perform the drive test in a larger scope to check if the signal level and the handover are normal and if the call drop exists.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only As shown in I. Total68 . but the cell A does not define the neighbor cell C. At this time. the hardware equipment of a cell may fail. the antenna is barred or the TRX failure occurs (the power amplifier part). [Judgment methods] First you should find out the areas where the coverage is inadequate according to user complaints. In this case. the MS still seizes the signals of the service cell A after moving to cell C. the service cell forms an isolated island due to various reasons (for example. In this case. Furthermore. if the MS still performs the handover according to the neighbor cell B provided by neighbor cell A. the power is too great). Figure 1.13 Call drop caused by large coverage Small coverage If the coverage is too small. you can still make the analysis and judgment by referring to other traffic statistics items. Hereunder lists some ones: Power control performance measurement (to check if the mean uplink and downlink signal strength is too low) Rxlev performance measurement (to check if the ratio of the low Rxlev is too great) Cell performance measurement/inter-cell handover performance measurement (to check if the level class and the mean Rxlev are too low) Call drop performance measurement (to check if the signal level is too low during call drop and if the TA value is normal before call drop) 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page42. In addition. you can employ the traffic statistics recorded at the OMC to check the BSC overall call drop rate and find out the cell with great call drop rate. For example.
underground railway entrance. change the antenna azimuth angle. In addition. change the antenna tilt angle. and so on. and change the antenna height. Generally. Total68 . and antenna problem are commonly seen. diversity unit problem. you can consider using the indoor antenna distribution system. underground parking lot. the downlink problems may occur. To strength the outdoor signals. you should make sure that the outdoor signals are strong enough. and low-lying places. you can reduce the tilt angle of the BTS. If the indoor call quality is still not improved remarkably. you should also analyze if the call drop is caused by landforms. TRX problem. change the antenna tilt. For an isolated BTS or the BTSs installed in mountain areas that cannot form seamless coverage. To eliminate the isolation island effect. Or you can improve the coverage through other means. call drop can easily occur at tunnels. For improving the indoor coverage of office buildings and hotels. In this case. you can configure the neighbor cells for the cell so as to reduce the call drop rate. you can use the micro cell to solve the coverage problem. 3) For the cells having no neighbor cells. change the antenna azimuth angle. you should check if the neighbor cells of this cell work normally. you can consider adding BTSs. If the call drop rate of a cell arises dramatically but all other indexes are normal. you can add BTSs to these areas for seamless coverage. you can enhance the maximum transmit power of the BTS.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Defined neighbor cell performance measurement (to position the cell with low mean signal level) Undefined neighbor cell performance measurement (to check if the undefined neighbor cells with high signal level exist) Power control performance measurement (to measure the greatest TA value between the MS and BTS) [Solutions] 1) Check the areas where the coverage is inadequate You can find out the area where the coverage is inadequate through drive test. 2) Ensure indoor call quality To ensure indoor call quality. (Generally. the outgoing handover failure rate of the old cell will be high. you can increase the maximum BTS transmit power.) ii) Call drop due to handover reasons [Reason analysis] 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page43. If the uplink fails. and so on. 4) Eliminate hardware problems You can check if there are hardware problems and if the coverage area is too small through drive test. For example. big shopping market. change the antenna height. For example.
T3103 is used to hold the channel long enough for the MS to return to the old channel. the level of the handover candidate cell is too low. frequent re-establishment failures. no TCH will be available in the target cell. If the signal level of the neighbor cell deteriorates dramatically just after the handover. the T3103 will stop. the MS cannot necessarily return to the old channel. Total68 . you can find out what causes the handover. and high call drop rate through analyzing traffic statistics indexes. If the T3103 is set to a too small value. In this case. If there is a problem cell. call direct retry can cause handover. the call drop will occur if no suitable cell is available for the handover. In this case. Hereunder lists the indexes concerning call drop: 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page44. T3103 expiry The T3103 will be started when the network sends a handover command. you must correct the BTS clock to eliminate clock problem. BTS clock lost synchronization If the BTS lost synchronization. power budget can cause handover. For example.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Irrational parameter configuration If the signal level at the cross-area of two cells is quite low. In this case. In this case. Traffic congestion If the traffic is unbalance. the MS will hold the conversation in the existing cells until it moves beyond the edges of the cell but cannot hand over to a stronger cell. and if the handover threshold is too low. [Judgment methods] You can judge if the cells with low handover success rate. the uplink and downlink Rxqual can cause the handover. You can check if there is handover problem through drive test. and also handover can be initiated by traffic reasons. Upon the reception of the message to complete the handover or the message to remove the command. you can check if the any alarm is generated for the BTS clock. the handover failure will occur. the call drop will occur if handover fails. you should perform drive near the cell for several times. Neighbor cells with same BCCH and same BSIC exist. call drop may occur during handover. After the judgment. If necessary. To check if the BTS clock runs normally. the call drop will occur. the uplink and downlink Rxlev can cause the handover. Incomplete neighbor cell definition If the neighbor cell definition is incomplete. some MSs will hand over to the neighbor cell when the signal level of the neighbor cell is higher than that of the service cell. the frequency offset will go beyond the requirement.
high reestablishment rate) Undefined neighbor cell performance measurement (the undefined neighbor cell level and the number of measurement report go beyond the standard) Outgoing cell handover performance measurement (find out the reasons for low outgoing cell handover from the handover target cell) Low incoming cell handover success rate. The following methods can be used to position the interference. and so on. In this case. you can use CRO to guide the MS to camp on other idle cells. the call quality will become poor. For example. or it cannot receive the measurement report from the MS correctly. the conversation will be interfered. To balance the traffic volume. each handover hysteresis.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Inter-cell handover performance measurement (frequent handover failures. you can check the hierarchical and level setting. the cell handover parameters are improperly set. 3) Calibrate the problem BTS clock to enable the synchronization of the clock. the handover happens too frequent) [Solution] 1) Check the parameters affecting the handover. the MS cannot demodulate the BSIC code of the neighbor cells accurately. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page45. the target cell is congested. 2) If the call drop is caused by unbalance traffic volume or if the call drop occurs due to no handover channel is available at the target BTS. and call drop will occur. In addition. or it may exist in the uplink signals or downlink signals. iii) Call drop due to interference reasons [Reason analysis] If the MS receives strong same-frequency interference signals or strong neighbor frequency interference signals in the service cell. the minimum access level of the handover candidate cell. the bit error rate will deteriorate. you can solve the problem by expanding the TRX directly. handover duration. or you can set the hierarchical and level priority to guide the MS to hand over to the idle cell. you can adjust the project parameters. As a result. For example. Total68 . TCH performance measurement (the handover times are not proportional to the TCH call seizure successes. handover time. each handover threshold. to control the coverage scope of a cell. such as antenna tilt and antenna azimuth angle. [Judgment methods] The interference may be from the network itself or the outside network. frequent re-establishment failures) Inter-cell handover performance measurement (frequent handovers. you can solve the problem by adjusting the traffic volume.
You can find out if there is a place where the signal is strong but the call quality is poor through drive test tools. If it is intra-network interference. If the frequent handover is caused by poor signal quality. Exclude the interference caused by equipment. the interference is present. If the previous methods fail to eliminate the interference. you can use the spectrum analyzer to scan the frequencies to find out the interfered channel number and the interference source. Hereunder lists several traffic statistics indexes used for interference analysis: Interference band You can check the uplink interference through analyzing the interference band in the traffic statistics. Rxqual performance measurement 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page46. it is not related to traffic volume. Total68 . If the current channel is busy and cannot report RF resource indication message. Generally. and outside interference) is present at the channel numbers of the TRX board. It must be pointed out that the interference bands are reported to the BSC by the BTS TRX channel (when in idle mode) through RF resource indication messages. Adjust the channel numbers that might be interfered to see if the interference can be avoided or reduced. it will increase as the traffic volume grows. If an idle channel appears at the interference bands 3-5. if it is outside interference.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Find out the cells might be interfered through checking traffic statistics. In addition. Check the frequency planning to see if same-frequency interference and neighbor frequency interference occur in the area where the frequency is improperly planned. it means that the interference (same-frequency interference. or the outgoing cell handover performance measurement records the outgoing handover attempt times. Poor quality handover ratio The cell performance measurement. Rxlev performance measurement The Rxlev performance measurement provides the matrix relationship between the signal level and quality. intra-frequency interference. you must consider the traffic volume for the measuring the interference bands. inter-cell handover performance measurement. you can use a test MS to perform dialing test to check if a channel number is interfered. If the signal level is high but the quality is poor. Perform the call drive test for the areas that might be interfered and check the uplink and downlink interference according to user complaint. it means that the interference is present.
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only It is related to the mean Rxlev and Rxqual during call drop. 2) Use DTX technology. the BTS will reduce its transmit power. During the conversation. the BTS will increase its transmit power after the call is established. iv) Call drop due to antenna feeder reasons [Reason analysis] Engineering problem may be one of the reasons. When signals received by the MS are poor. a cell had two sets of antennas. and call difficulty will be found in the areas far away from the base station. Total68 . one-way audio. the interference against other BTSs will be reduced. Exclude the outside interference. you should adjust the DTX according to the actual radio environment and the neighbor cell relationship. In this case. For example. DTX is divided into uplink DTX and downlink DTX. Frequent handover failures and frequent re-establishment failures It means that the interference may be present in the target cell. and diversity technology These technologies can be used to reduce the system noise and enhance antiinterference capacity of the system. As far as the actual conditions are concerned. such as the self-excitation of TRX boards and the antenna demodulation interference. you can adjust the BTS transmit power and antenna tilt of the related cells or adjust the channel number planning to avoid the interference. In this case. the call drop. the use of the DTX will result in call drop. the level of the uplink signal will be far poorer than that of the downlink signal. However. frequency hopping technology. 3) 4) Solve the equipment problems. the conversation quality will decrease or the call drop may even occur in the areas where the Rxlev is low but the interference signal is strong. In this case. the transmit time can be reduced and the interference level of the system can also be reduced. If the downlink DTX is enabled. power control. the downlink DTX will deteriorate the conversation quality. [Solutions] 1) Check the interfered road and the distribution of signal quality through dive test. If the tilt angles of the two antennas are inconsistent with each other. the call drop will 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page47. however. When the BTS reduces its transmit power. If the interference is present near the BTS. If polarization antennas are used. if the transmit antennas between two cells are inversely connected. Call drop performance measurement It records the mean Rxlev and Rxqual during call drop.
if there is connector problem. To solve hardware problem. you must shut down the problem hardware component to prevent it from affecting network quality. or water penetrates into the antenna. Perform drive test and dialing test. In this case. In this case. and if the feeder is damaged. you can check if the BCCH numbers of the service cell are consistent with the planned ones. If the azimuth angles of the two antennas are inconsistent with each other. If the tilt angles of the two antennas are different. Here the installation of the azimuth angle and the tilt angle of the antenna must be checked. During drive test. [Problem positioning and solution] 1) 2) 3) 4) Check if any alarm concerning the combiner. The problems concerning antenna feeder will also cause call drop. you can position the problem through dialing test. Thus the call drop is resulted. 6) Judge if it is BTS hardware that causes path unbalance and call drop.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only occur. namely. the MS can receive BCCH signals but cannot seize the SDCCH when starting a call. the BCCH and the SDCCH of the cell may be transmitted through the two antennas respectively. you must replace it with a sound one. you should also check if the feeder and jumper are correctly connected. Once a problem hardware component is found. CDU. but it may be assigned with the TCH. tower amplifier. Total68 . Further analyze if the path balance is realized through monitoring the messages sent across the Abis interface. To find out the problem TRX. or connector problem is present. the MS can receive the SDCCH signals. the call drop will occur. If no sound one is available. Furthermore. and standing wave is generated and check if the BTS boards are normal in the OMC. the call drop will occur. call drop may also occur. the coverage scope of the two antennas will be different. Analyze if the path balance is realized according to traffic statistics. you must still check if the standing wave is normal. That is. If a directional cell has a master antenna and a diversity antenna. you can check the standing wave ratio. you can either change the components that may have problems or disable other TRXs in the cell. if the transmit antenna of the antenna is correctly installed. 5) Check and test the on-site BTSs. To confirm the problem. Hereunder lists several traffic statistics items for path balance analysis: Path balance measurement (to analyze if the path balance is realized) Call drop performance measurement (to analyze the uplink and downlink level and quality during call drop) 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page48. For example. the transmitter power and the receiver sensitivity will decrease. In addition. In this case. if the antenna is damaged.
When the MS fails to decode the SACCH. 3) Check the traffic statistics to see if the frequent call drop is caused by transmission problems. If this parameter is set to a too small value. the value of T3109 must be greater than 8 seconds (you can set T3109 to 9 seconds or 10 seconds). For example. it will use this parameter to decide when to disconnect the call. the radio link failure will happen frequently and the call drop rate will be resulted. if the value of the radio link failure counter is 16 (about 8 seconds). and check if the equipment grounding is rational to ensure stable transmission quality and reduce call drop rate. call drop may occur. The BSS side judges the radio link failure according to the bit error rate on the uplink SACCH. If the following parameters are not irrationally set. because it can indicate if the A-interface failures during TCH seizure is normal. If this parameter is set to a too small value. SACCH multiframe number This parameter acts on the uplink. For dead zones or the areas where the call drop frequently happens. the call drop may be resulted. the radio link failures will easily occur and cause call drop. Check the transmission channel. When changing the radio link failure counter. test the bit error rate. The T3109 must be set to a value great enough for the MS to detect a radio link failure. vi) Call drop due to parameter reasons Here you should focus on checking if the parameters related to call drop are irrationally set.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Power control performance measurement (to analyze mean Rxlev on the uplink and downlink) Call drop due to transmission reasons v) If the transmission quality across the Abis interface and A-interface may be not good and stable. and if the ground link call drop times are great. if the TCH utilization is normal. Total68 . The BTS uses this parameter to notify the radio link connection failure message to BSS. Radio link failure counter This parameter acts on the downlink. The following methods can be used to solve the problem: 1) 2) Check the transmission alarm and board alarm and analyze if there is transmission intermittent and board failure. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page49. you are recommended to set this parameter to a greater value. Especially you should check TCH performance measurement. check 2M connectors. you should change the corresponding T3109.
T3107 is started when the BSC sends an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the BTS. However. the allocated channels will be removed. the system will not have enough time to send the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the BSC. Or it can also be used by the MS to release a channel. Total68 . the call drop will be easily resulted. and SDCCH) and service types (signaling and messages). TCH half rate. the value of T200 must be set as small as possible and the value of N200 must be set as great as possible. If the access control parameters are irrationally set. the message should be retransmitted. the timer must be restarted. the call drop will occur if the timer expires. If the opposite acknowledgement is not received after a period of time. T3107 T3101 is started when the BSC sends a CHANNEL ACTIVATE message to the BTS. this call drops. N200 is the maximum retransmission times allowed. If the retransmission times exceed the maximum allowed times. RACH busy threshold. T200. T3101. That is. If T3101 expires. and so on. If the two timers are set to a too small value. For the messages needing opposite acknowledgement. T200 and N200 have different types depending on channel types (TCH full rate. The given channel type and service type matches a pair of T200 and N200. In GSM system. N200 T200 is an important timer used for the LAPDm (Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel). In this case. It stops when an ESTABLISH INDICATION message is received. It prevents the deadlock from occurring when the data is transferred across the data link layer. This timer monitors the immediate assignment procedure. In this case. the T200 cannot be set to a too small value and the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page50. the message will no longer be retransmitted and the link will be released. Once the BSC receives the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message from the BTS. this timer will reset.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Access control parameters The access control parameters include the Minimum RACH Rxlev. The call drop rate can be reduced if the message is retransmitted as early as possible before the opposite acknowledgement is received. a T200 must be started once the message is sent. the messages transferred across radio interfaces can be divided into two types: the messages needing opposite acknowledgement and the messages not needing opposite acknowledgement. That is. T3107 is used to hold the channels long enough so that the MS can return to the old channel.
Call Drop Cases Case 1: Call drop caused by frequency hopping collision [Problem analysis] A BTS uses 1 x 3 RF frequency hopping. As far as the test MS was concerned. In addition. Therefore. engineers found that the MAIO of the new carrier was the same as that of the old carrier. Therefore. it can be judged that the problem may arise during TCH assignment or the channel numbers or timeslots seized by the call are interfered or unstable. According to drive test. the TCH allocation failure rate is still high due to radio link problems. [Problem positioning and solution] Because high call drop rate and high incoming handover failure rate come together with the TCH allocation rate. Through on-site dialing test. 2) It is estimated that the service cell belongs to BTS B. engineers found that the conversation quality was poor. it was always in the service area of the other BTS (hereunder called BTS B) other than the local BTS (hereunder called BTS C) before the call drop. After modifying the MAIO. Case 2: Call drop caused by isolated island effect [Problem description] Users complained that call drop always occurred above the fifth floor of a building. engineers found that call drop rate became normal. but the non-BCCH carriers and non-BCCH numbers may be greatly interfered. to reduce the call drop rate. [Problem analysis] 1) Through on-site test. you can adjust the T200 and N200 according to actual radio conditions. Total68 2011-10-17 . Through checking the hardware. The SDCCH call drop rate is normal. II. engineers found that the signal level was high but the quality was poor.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only N200 cannot be set to a too large value. which is 3-4 kilometers HUAWEI Confidential Page51. the retransmission will make nonsense. it can be judged that the call drop was caused by the frequency hopping collision. After capacity expansion. Because the SDCCH call drop rate is normal. it can be judged that the probability for the BCCH carriers and BCCH numbers to the interfered are small. the TCH call drop rate and incoming handover failure rate are high. engineers found no problem. engineers found that call drop and noise existed here. and transmission. antenna feeder. Through checking engineering parameters. If the opposite party has acknowledged that the link had been removed.
you can optimize and adjust the handover parameters: 1) 2) If no ping-pong handover is present and the conversation is continuous. The signal level of the target cell is about -80dBm in the cave. and neighbor cell relationship list. Therefore. either the cell 2 or cell 3 of the BTS A is not an ideal candidate cell for the cell 2 of BTS B. and if the cell 2 of BTS B has no neighbor cell relationship with the cell 3 of the BTS A. you should also further optimize the engineering parameters. you can make the PBGT handover happen as easily as possible. but the signal level of the old cell drops below -100dBm. Therefore. when signals (from BTS B) received by the MS became poor dramatically. To eliminate the isolated island effect.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only away from the building. [Problem analysis and solution] The cave is near the BTS. engineers found that only the cell 2 of BTS A has the neighbor cell relationship with BTS B. an area similar to an isolated island is formed. so the handover cannot be initiated. emergent handover may be initiated. For the parameter modification. Total68 . In this case. however. the signal level deteriorates dramatically in the cave. To reduce the call drop rate. the MS may hand over to other BTS (hereunder called BTS C). After that. so the call drop occurs before the measurement time is arriving. the call drop problem can be solved. For example. [Solution] You are recommended to change the data in the BA1 (BCCH) list. 3) Through checking data configuration. see 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page52. Therefore. As a result. you can configure the cell 3 of BTS A as the neighbor cell of cell 2 of BTS B. call drop occurs. if the signals in cell 3 of BTS A were strong. it can be judged that the signals from the BTS B are reflected signals. when the MS is using the signals in cell 2 of the BTS B. Set the threshold to trigger the emergent handover rationally so that the emergent handover can be triggered before call drop. The signals from the cell 2 of BTS B are reflected many times. The downlink power of the two cells outside the cave is good. but the MS cannot receive the signals from BTS C. the handover cannot be performed. BA2 (SACCH) list. However. Therefore. As a result. Case 3: Reduce call drop rate through optimizing handover parameters [Problem description] The drive test in an area found that the call drop rate at a cave near the BTS high because the handover cannot be performed in due time.
8. Therefore. engineers find that the conversation held several seconds before the call drop is just process for call re-establishment. for dual-band handover.5. and then gradually disappears to none.1 Handover parameter optimization Parameter Name PBGT handover measurement time PBGT handover duration PBGT handover threshold Uplink quality threshold for emergent handover Minimum downlink power for handover candidate cell Before Modification 5 4 72 70 10 After Modification 3 2 68 60 15 Case 4: Call drop caused by clock problem [Problem description] The cell A of an 1800MHz network has been cutover. the clock of the GSM900 MHz BTS and that of the GSM1800 MHz BTS must be synchronous. the MS must measure the quality of the channels of the surrounding channels without stop. After that. the test MS shows that the call has been handed over to the GSM900 MHz cell. If the handover is from a GSM900 MHz cell to a GSM1800 MHz cell. To ensure channel quality. Through monitoring signaling. To solve this problem. Therefore.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Table 13. the abnormal call drop disappears. the calls made in the cell handing over to the GSM900 MHz cell that shares the same BTS site drops in the GSM900 MHz cell. Total68 . [Problem analysis and solution] Engineers find that the clock of the GSM900 MHz BTS and that of the GSM1800 MHz BTS are asynchronous. it can be judged that the clocks are seriously asynchronous.4 Handover Problems The MS is always moving during conversation. After the establishment of a cell at site B. And the call drop rate is great. The BSC will perform radio link control according to the signal level and quality contained in the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page53. the drive test data shows that the FER arises dramatically first. and then send the measurement report to the BSC through the service cell. When the calls established on the GSM1800 MHz cell intend to hand over to the GSM900 MHz cell. However. this phenomenon is also present. the carrier concerned and the GSM900 equipment provider cooperate with each other on clock calibration.
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
For internal use only
measurement report. If the MS moves to another cell, the new cell will replace the old cell to ensure the continuity of the service. The handover enables each cell to form a seamless network.
I. Handover Problem Positioning Steps
1) Find out if the problem occurs at an individual cell or all cells and find out the characteristics of the problem cells. For example, if the cells are the neighbors cell of a cell, or if they are co-BSC cells, or if they are co-MSC cells. If the handover between two cells fails, you should focus on checking if the data of the two cells is correctly configured. In addition, you should also check the hardware of the two cells. If the problem is found in all the neighbor cells of a cell, you should focus on checking of the data of this cell is correctly configured. In addition, you should also check the hardware of the cell. If the problem is found in all the cells under the same BSC, you should focus on checking the data configuration between the BSC and MSC. If the problem is found in all the cells under the same MSC, the cooperation between the local exchange and the opposite exchange may fail. For example, the signaling is incompatible and the timer setting is irrational. 2) Check if the data has been modified before handover problems occur. If the problem is found in an individual cell, you should focus on checking if the data configuration for this cell has been modified. If the problem is found in all the cells under the same BSC, you should focus on checking the data configuration for the local BSC and the opposite MSC has been modified. If the problem is found in the cells under the same MSC, you should check if the data configuration for the opposite MSC has been modified. 3) 4) Check if it is the hardware failure that causes the handover problem. Register the related traffic statistics items, such as the handover performance measurement and TCH performance measurement.
Check if the TCH seizure of the problem cell is normal. For example, if the call drop rate is high. Check if the outgoing handover success rate is normal. Find out the causes for the handover failure. Check if the radio handover success rate is normal. Check if the uplink and downlink of the problem cells are balanced,
HUAWEI Confidential Page54, Total68
Perform drive test for the problem cell and analyze the drive test signaling.
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
For internal use only
because unbalanced path may cause handover problem (BTS problem may cause the unbalance).
Check if the measurement report for the problem cell contains correct neighbor cell list. Check if a call can hand over from a problem cell to a neighbor cell correctly and check if it can hand over from a neighbor cell to the problem cell.
Analyze if the signaling procedure for the handover is normal.
II. Handover Problem Analysis Methods
i) Handover cannot be initiated
If the MS is in a cell where the signal is poor, it cannot hand over to another cell. In this case, you should consider of the handover conditions are met and if there is an outgoing cell available. Hereunder details the possible reasons:
The handover threshold is set to a low value For edge handover, the handover triggering condition is that the Rxlev must be smaller than the handover threshold. If the edge handover threshold is set to a too small value, the signal level of the neighbor cells will be far higher than that of the service cell. In this case, the handover cannot be initiated. As a result, the conversation quality will be affected, or even the call drop will be resulted. The setting of the handover threshold depends on the coverage scope of the cell. You can change the size of the service area of the cell through changing the handover threshold. Neighbor cell relationship is not set Though the signal level in the neighbor cells of the service cell is high, the MS will not report the neighbor cells if the neighbor cell relationship is not set. In this case, the MS cannot hand over to a neighbor cell. Through performing cell reselection or dialing test, you can check the neighbor cell list reported by the MS. If the MS has moved to the major lobe of a cell but this cell is not found in the neighbor cell list, you should check if the correct neighbor cell relationship has been correctly set. During the drive test, you can use another MS to scan the BCCH numbers to check if the strong BCCH numbers are in the service cell or in the neighbor cell list. Handover hysteresis is irrationally set If the difference between the signal level of the handover candidate cell and that of the service cell is greater than handover hysteresis, the cell can work as a target cell. If the hysteresis is set to a too great value, the handover is hard to be
Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization
For internal use only
The best measurement time “N” and “P” are irrationally set During normal handover, the MS uses N-P rules to list the handover candidate cells in a certain order. If a candidate cell is the best cell within P seconds out of N seconds, it will be treated as the best cell. When there are two cells become the best cell alternately, the MS may find it hard to select a best cell through N-P rule, which makes the handover difficult. In this case, you can adjust the values of N and P and reduce the measurement time to make the handover decision more sensitive to level change. If the landform and the ground objects of the service cell are quite complicated, the signals received by the moving MS will fluctuate greatly. In this case, the handover candidate cell cannot meet N-P rule, which will make the handover difficult.
Handover problem caused by hardware failure If the data configuration for the problem cell and the neighbor cells has not been modified recently but the handover problems occur abruptly, you should first consider if the problems are caused by BTS hardware equipment. If the cells sharing the same base station with the cell have similar problem, you should consider if the problem is caused by the common hardware of the cells. If the problem is found in only one cell under the base station, you should consider if it is the hardware of this cell that causes the problem. For example, if some of the carriers are damaged. To test the problems of this kind, you can disable some of the carriers. If the handover success rate returns to normal state after a carrier is disabled, you can check if the problem is present at this carrier or if the CDU and antenna feeder part related to this carrier fails. If signals of a cell on the uplink and downlink are seriously unbalanced, frequent handover will be caused and the handover success rate will decrease. To check if the signaling flow of the cell is normal and if the uplink Rxqual and downlink Rxqual are good, you can monitor the messages sent across the Abis interface. If the Rxqual is poor, it means that the hardware equipment of the fails or serious interference is present in the cell. In this case, the signaling exchange is unavailable and the handover problem will occur.
Handover problem caused by irrational data configuration For stand-alone networking mode, if the outgoing MSC or incoming MSC handover is abnormal, you should check if the signaling cooperation of the two MSCs is correct. In addition, you should also check if the data configuration for
If the timer fails before receiving any correct frame from the MS. the MS will stop T3124. the MS will start T3124. but it may be wrongly configured in other cells. Generally. and then check if the data configuration for the BSCs has been modified. in addition to checking if the data configuration for this cell is correct. Upon receiving a piece of PHYSICAL INFORMATION. otherwise the MS cannot perform successful handover. you should also check if the hardware equipment of the cell is normal. Check the timers (such as T3105. If the channel type allocated in the HANDOVER COMMAND message is SDCCH (+SACCH). the network will resend the PHYSICAL INFORMATION and restart the timer. you need to analyze the abnormal handover according to actual conditions. when the handover is abnormal. the CGI of this cell may be correctly configured. or even the handover does not occur. T3103. Here the product of Ny1 and T3105 must be greater than the sum of T3124 and delta (“delta” indicates the interval between the expiry of T3124 and the reception of the Handover Failure message of the old BSC).Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only the opposite MSC and the local MSC has been modified recently. If the abnormal handover is found at a cell only. Here the data configuration includes both the data configured for this cell and the data configured for other cells but is related to this cell. Furthermore. you should check if the data configuration for this cell is correct. T3124 is a timer waiting for the PHYSICAL INFORMATION from the network side during asynchronous handover. the T3124 is set to 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page57. For co-MSC networking mode. If the incoming handover of a cell is abnormal. you should also check if the data configuration for the neighbor cells is correct. and T3142) related to the handover. Total68 . you need first check if the incoming handovers to this cell is abnormal. If all the incoming handovers to this cell is abnormal. The methods to analyze the abnormal outgoing handovers are similar to the methods to analyze the abnormal incoming handovers. you should first check if the signaling cooperation between the BSCs is normal. The network will start T3105 for the sending of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION. T3105 indicates the interval for continuous PHYSICAL INFORMATION to be sent to the MS. For example. When sending the HANDOVER ACCESS message on the DCCH for the first time. if the handover is performed within the BSCs of different providers and the inter-BSC handover is abnormal. If there is only one incoming handover to a cell is abnormal but other incoming handovers to this cell are normal. A piece of PHYSICAL INFORMATION can be sent Ny1 times to the maximum. the handover success rate is low. Ny1.
and then force the MS to hand over to cell B. the BSC should activate the TCH of the service cell. the BSC must make the handover decision. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page58. the data may be incorrectly configured for the cell. 3) The handover procedure requires the MS detecting the neighbor cell signals and reporting the detected signals to BSC with a measurement report. In this case. Handover Cases Case 1: No handover candidate cell is available due to CGI error [Problem description] The handover in an area is abnormal. the signals in cell B are stronger than that of cell A. but the handover does not happen. [Problem solution] 1) 2) Use the test MS to lock the BCCH numbers of cell B. the MS hands over from cell A to cell C. BSIC. and then send a handover command to the MS. Make a call after locking the BCCH umber of any neighbor cell of cell B. 5) If the cell B works as the target cell but the TCH cannot be activated. you can check if the CGI. the BSC that contains the cell cannot find the target cell. but the handover does not happen. The MS can hand over to any other cell by force. Case 2: Unbalanced path causes low handover success rate [Problem description] The incoming BSC handover success rate is quite low for the two cells under a BTS. 6) The CGI error is found in cell B through data checking.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 675ms. The handover is normal after the CGI is changed to correct value. III. the T3124 is set to 320ms. Total68 . BCCH number of the cell are correct. For other cases. After the MS moves from cell B to cell C. 4) If the signals of cell B are far stronger than that of cell A and the handover conditions are met (the PBGT handover threshold is 70). If the handover conditions are met. but no handover command is sent. Upon receiving the measurement report. The call is normal. it means that errors occur during the activation of the target cell TCH. When the MS moves from cell A to cell B. because no handover command is seen in the drive test software. [Cause analysis] If a cell can work as a service cell and can hand over to other cells. so the TCH cannot be activated and no handover command can be found in the service cell. but the incoming handover is unavailable.
2) The BTS locates at the eastern side of a south-north road and is 700m away from the road.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only ranging from 10% to 30%. exists and if there is dead zones in heavy-traffic areas. 80°and 160°. During the handover. [Solution] 1) The BTS hardware is normal and no alarm concerning handover parameters is generated. engineers found that frequent handover attempts were made in the area 2km away from the BTS. such as CGI error or intra-frequency interference. Even if a successful handover was made. For the handover from cell1 to cell3 and the handover from cell2 to cell3. Through checking traffic statistics items. they can be connected but cannot be called out. For the answering calls. engineers found that the downlink level was about -85dBm. Engineers made 10 dialing tests with frequency locked. 5) After changing the CDU. They three cells direct to the two directions and the open resident areas lying under a 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page59. The azimuth angles of the three cells are 0°. or improper antenna planning. engineers found that all incoming cell handover success rates were low. engineers found that the incoming handover success rate increased to 95%. but the handover always failed. [Solution] 1) 2) 3) The cell data is found normal. Case 3: Improper antenna planning causes low handover success rate [Problem analysis] The handover success rate among the three cells under a BTS is quite low according to traffic statistics. In this case. low handover success rate is caused by board failure. handover data error. so the hardware problem and parameter setting problem can be excluded. 4) It is estimated that the CDU uplink channel loss is great. or if it is hard for the MS to access the cell due to poor uplink signals. all the originating calls failed. the uplink signals will be poor. Through drive test. or the jumpers are incorrectly connected at the BTS top. call drop occurred immediately. if the data problems. [Cause analysis] Generally. [Cause analysis] Generally. the success rate is lower than 30%. the incoming BSC handover success rate is low. which causes the problem. Total68 .
engineers found that the dual-band handover success rate was low. engineers found that the MSC of the GSM1800 MHz network would send back a Handover Reject message to the BSC of the GSM1800 MHz network when the BSC sent a Handover Required message to the MSC. For example. the cells of the BTS are seriously overlapped in the east. After the two networks completed cell reselection and handover parameter setting. the MSC of the GSM900 MHz network sent back an Abort message. and 350°. Among the three cells. In addition. However. the success rate of the handover from the GSM900 MHz network to the GSM1800 MHz network was higher than 92%. 2) The MSC of the GSM1800 MHz network sent a Prepare Handover message to the MSC of the GSM900 MHz network. When it moves to the west. 3) After setting the azimuth angles of the three cells to 60°. For the areas just in the west. [Solution] 1) Through using signaling analyzer to analyze the message flowing across the Ainterface and E-interface. when the MS is moving on this road. To make the coverage as specified as possible. and that’s why the frequent handover failure occurs. the coverage is provided by the side lobes and back lobes of the three cells. first it is covered by cell1. the down tilts of two cells are 7°. [Cause analysis] For a dual-band network. Case 4: Problems concerning the cooperation of different carriers’ equipment cause low outgoing BSC handover success rate [Problem description] There is a dual-band network in which the GSM900 MHz network and the GSM1800 MHz network are stand-alone. you must know the data configuration of the equipment. Upon receiving the message. Therefore. ranging from 60% to 80%. 3) Because the success rate of the handover from GSM900 MHz network to the 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page60. if the equipment supports Phase 2+ and EFR. engineers concentrated the antenna azimuth angles of the three cells in design. Total68 . especially the success rate of the handover from the GSM1800 MHz network to the GSM900 MHz network was low. if the problems concerning the cooperation of different carriers’ equipment are found. however.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only hill in the east respectively. since the handover measurement time and the handover duration is set to a small value. In this case. engineers found that the handover success rate of among the three cells increased to 95%. 180°. the handover is rather sensitive. the signals of the three cells are poor and fluctuating greatly.
the dual-band handover success rate was greatly increased. MSC of provider A does not support the PHASE 2+. you can adopt traffic sharing technologies to ease the congestion. One is TCH seizure all busy. in which TCH congestion indicates SDCCH seizure all busy. However. the most efficient method to solve the problem is to expand the capacity of the network. 4) Through modifying the MSC data of the circuit MSC data at the A-interface and selecting the full rate version 1 only. and half rate version 1. but some measures can be taken to ease the congestion. when short messages are sent at a concentrated time. SDCCH congestion cannot be completely avoided. If the congestion is caused by heavy traffic. For example. so the handover failure is caused. you can modify the CRO. or enable the dynamic conversion between SDCCH and TCH. As a result. The other one is that the TCH assignment fails after an assignment is sent due to various reasons. the SDCCH congestion may be caused by burst traffic. For example.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only GSM1800 MHz network was high. SDCCH congestion caused by burst traffic If the SDCCH congestion rate is high and the traffic is heavy but the TCH traffic is normal. In addition. but the voice versions carried in the Prepare Handover message (from GSM1800 MSC to GSM900 MSC) are full rate version 1. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page61. enable direct retry or load handover function. the SDCCH congestion will also occur easily. After that. when the train moves fast along the railways or stops at a railway station. full rate version 2. For this case. The TCH congestion has two cases.5 Congestion Problems This section introduces the methods to handle SDCCH congestion and TCH congestion. the real channels cannot be allocated to the MS. engineers found that the voice versions carried in the Prepare Handover message (from GSM1800 MSC to GSM900 MSC) are full rate 1 and 2. which will result in SDCCH congestion. Total68 . The SDCCH congestion always occurs at BTSs along railways and tunnel exits. you can add the number of SDCCHs. I. so the MS will fail to request the channels.5. which belong to PHASE 2+. In addition. engineers found that the voice version carried in the Prepare Handover message (from the GSM900 MSC to GSM1800 MSC) is half rate version 1. 8. because the BTSs are installed in remote places and the capacity of a BTS is small. most of MSs failing to capture a network will perform location update. Congestion Problem Solutions Congestion caused by heavy traffic You can check if the SDCCH traffic and TCH traffic are normal through viewing traffic statistics.
Total68 . If yes. In this case.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Congestion caused by TRX problems When a carrier configured in a multi-TRX cell cannot provide services. which will result in channel assignment failure. CBA. you can reduce the SDCCH congestion rate by planning the location area properly. For dual-band network. you should check if the antenna feeder connection is correct and if the antenna standing wave is normal. you can properly set the parameters (such as CRO. the channel assignment failure will easily occur. and cell reselection hysteresis) to reduce the SDCCH congestion rate. If the timers. SDCCH congestion will also be caused. are not properly set. To solve this problem. T3122. the transmit power of the TRXs within the same cell will be inconsistent. Congestion caused improper data configuration If the congestion is caused by improper location area planning. and T3111. Channel assignment failure caused by inconsistent coverage If the concentric technology is not used. if the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna of a cell is not in the same plane or the antenna tilt angles are inconsistent. If the TRX problem cannot be positioned. To solve the problem. such as T3101. you can reduce the SDCCH congestion rate by enabling the SDCCH dynamic allocation function. In this case. you can calibrate the antennas to solve the problem. you should replace the problem TRX with a sound one. If the congestion is caused by the problems concerning SDCCH dynamic allocation. recheck the TRX where the problem may be generated. T3107. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page62. In this case. Hereunder are the solutions to the previous problems. you should solve the interference problem first. When a cell uses multiple transmitter antennas. you should make the coverage of each transmitter antenna as consistent as possible through engineering adjustment. In addition. T3212. the channel assignment failure will also be caused. the channel congestion will also occur. T3103. Congestion caused by interference The interference present across the radio interfaces will also cause congestion. which will result in inconsistent coverage. To position this problem. you can check if the connection between the splitter and connector and if the connection between CDU and SCU are correct. inconsistent coverage will be inconsistent.
86Erl. To fully use the radio resources. the radio resources will be seized for a long period of time. great SDCCH congestion rate may be caused. It is found that the SDCCH congestion rate for 2 cells reaches as high as 8%. therefore. T3212 stands for the time limit value for periodical location update. Generally. and the congestion rate reaches 8%. the location update messages sent under the idle mode. and other short messages. the requests for SDCCH seizure are great. If the MS sends channel request messages frequently. you can increase the T3122 to a larger value. reaching 3032 times during busy hours. Only after the T3122 expires. Total68 . The value of T3111 must be consistent with that of the T3110 at the MS side.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only You can ease the congestion caused by SDCCH dual allocation through reducing the T3101 to a smaller value. the RACH load and CCCH load will increase. it should be 2 seconds.2Erl. However. Congestion Cases Case 1: SDCCH congestion caused by wrong LAC configuration [Description] A BTS is configured as S1/1/1. T3103 and T3107 are set to about 5 seconds. The SDCCH traffic reaches 1. [Problem analysis and solution] 1) Through checking the measurement indexes for TCH and SDCCH. The traffic volume for each cell during busy hours is lower than 2. It is used for the deactivation of the latency channels after the major signaling link breaks. To solve this problem. engineers found that the TCH traffic was not heavy. If the T3111 is set to a large value. Generally. T3111 can be initiated during either TCH release or SDCCH release. T3111 is related to release latency. If the T3101 is set to a large value. you can reduce the T3101 value. The T3122 must be stopped once the MS receives an IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. II. the SDCCH congestion may be caused by a large number of location 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page63. Therefore. the requests for TCH seizure (including handover) are normal (318 times). 2) The main reasons for SDCCH seizure include the messages sent before call setup. the MS can send a new channel request message. and the handover requests are also normal (146 times). the messages sent during handover. 3) The TCH traffic is normal. You can ease the SDCCH load by increasing the T3212 to a larger value. You can save the TCH resources through reducing the T3103 and T3107 to a rational value.
Taking the BTS location into consideration. In this case. Therefore. Therefore. the SDCCH traffic was 0. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page64. the SDCCHs can be seized by 400 times.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only update messages or short messages. Through querying the train time table. Therefore. if the BTSs are installed at the railway intersections. engineers found that there were 4 to 5 trains passing by within the five seconds. most of the SDCCH seizures were caused by location update. 4) The LAC of the BTS is 0500. 3) To verify if it was the burst location update that caused the congestion. it might be the burst location update that caused SDCCH congestion. Here the BTS was configured as S1/1/1 and each cell was configured with 8 SDCCHs. engineers found that the requests for SDCCH seizure during busy hours were 298. and the congestion rate reduced to 0. 2) As far as the registered traffic statistics items were concerned. According to traffic statistics analysis. engineers found that the SDCCHs of the congested cells were seized for 300 to 400 times during busy hours. When the trains passed the intersections. engineers found that most of the BTSs were installed at the intersections of two railways.27Erl. After changing the LAC of the BTS to 0520. you are suggested to enable the SDCCH dynamic allocation function and configure a suitable margin for the SDCCH. the congestion was caused. Case 2: SDCCH congestion caused by burst location updates [Problem description] The radio connected ratio of a local network is lower than average level. [Problem analysis and solution] 1) Through analyzing traffic statistics. it is found that the SDCCH congestion happened at several BTSs. engineers registered the traffic statistics items in 5 minutes and found that most of the location update happened within the five seconds. a large number of location updates were generated in a short time. Total68 . but the SDCCHs were congested for tens of times during busy hours. and the LACs of other cells of the surrounding cells are 0520. Case 3: Great TCH congestion rate caused by the inconsistent tilt angles of two antennas under the same cell [Problem description] It is found that the TCH congestion rate of a cell is great (greater than 5%) according to traffic statistics.
it can be judged that the 10% of congestion rate is caused by the downlink interference of some areas. [Problem analysis and solution] Because all the interference bands fell within the interference band1. Through monitoring Abis interface. According to the registered traffic statistics items. Generally. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page65.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only [Problem analysis and solution] 1) 2) Through checking BSC traffic statistics. Total68 . if the MS is far away from the BTS. it can receive the BCCH signals but cannot receive the TCH signals. However. If the TCH is assigned to the MS when the MS starts a call. and the probability for the assignment failure rate for the No. no alarm was generated. Therefore. engineers found that most of the TCH assignment failure occurred at the No.5 TRX.4 TRX and No. engineers found that it was the TCH seizure failure that directly caused the great TCH congestion rate. the probability for the channel numbers of the downlink areas and the cell to be interfered is high. Through further optimizing the channel numbers. 4) To solve the problem. you can enable the tilt angel of the TCH antenna and that of the BCCH antenna to be consistent with each other. Therefore. engineers found that when the traffic volume was lower than 1Erl. the uplink interference is impossible. the TCH congestion of the cell reached 10% at some time.4 TRX was near that for the No. Considering that the coverage distance reaches 60 to 70 kilometers and multiple normal cells are present along the coast. All the interference bands fell within the interference band1 and the hardware and RF connections were normal. engineers found that the TCH congestion rate was improved. TCH seizure failure is caused by TCH assignment failure. In this case. engineers found that the tile angle corresponding to the transmitter antennas of the two TRXs were too great (it is 10 degrees than that of the antenna for BCCH. Case 4: High TCH congestion rate caused by downlink interference [Problem description] A cell of BTS is responsible for covering a large area of sea surface along the coast. the TCH congestion rate can be reduced to 2% or lower.5 TRX. 3) Through checking the antenna feeder part. because the antenna nuts were found loosen. engineers found that the TCH congestion rate was lower than 1%. Through modifying the channel numbers of the cell. the TCH seizure failure will occur.
To position the problem. Parameter setting If the subscriber is not in service area. the occurrence probability for the problem must be lower than 1%. access. In this case. If the coverage. Subscriber Is Not in Service Area When a subscriber is not in service area. HDB overload. the subscriber may not in the service area. otherwise it is other causes that result in the problem. Generally. or capacity overload during busy hours). the following causes may be present: Coverage problem If the subscriber complaint happens at cell edges. the messages sent through these links may be missing. if a subscriber is not in the service area. If yes. To solve this problem. CPU overload. and data configuration of a network are good. you can check the alarms. Transmission problem If the links between systems (such as the LAPD link of the Abis interface and the links of the each network entity) and the links within a system (such as the link among the modules of BCS/MSC) are not stable. the probability of “subscriber is not in service area” will increase. subscribers may not in the service area. the problem may be related to coverage. In this case.6 Other Problems I. and SDCCH overload are generated through querying traffic statistics and alarms. In this case.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only 8. Total68 2011-10-17 . operation. System capacity limit or overload If system capacity limit or overload occur (for example. the probability for the calling party failure is equal to the probability for the “subscriber is not in service area”. MS causes HUAWEI Confidential Page66. the parameters concerning the paging. the system may fail to read the subscriber information. In this case. PCH overload.5. you can check if the messages concerning RACH overload. the subscriber may not in the service area. you can take measures to expand the system capacity. or subscribers cannot access the radio network. the MS works as the called party when the signals received by the MS are good and the calling party hears a voice saying that the subscriber is not in the service area. and immediate assignment may be not properly set. Equipment causes If the designs concerning MSC and BSC are incomplete.
2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page67. you can adjust the antenna tilt and height and configure the data. the downlink frames may loss at the Abis interface. Voice Discontinuity Voice discontinuity stands for pauses or words loss occurs in conversation. If the voice continuity is remarkable. the signals of the MS will fluctuate because the signal strength of the old cell and that of the new cell are inconsistent. Antenna shake When the antenna shakes. Therefore. The following factors may cause voice discontinuity Frequent handovers Only hard handover is available in GSM system. even if the MS does not move.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only If the RF parts or the software parts of the MS have problems. this problem may also occur. In this case. the signal strength may fluctuate. Generally. Radio wave propagation The strength of the signals received by the MS is the amplitude of the sum of the vectors of various propagation paths. the frequency deviation goes beyond the requirements defined in the protocols. when the MS hands over from the source channel to the target channel. Therefore. frequent handovers may occur at cell edges or during cross coverage. such as uplink and downlink quality threshold and restriction properly. Cell reselection and handover When the MS moves from the old cell to the new cell through handover or cell reselection. for example. the voice discontinuity will become a headache of subscribers. the reception capability of the MS is poor. the voice continuity is unavoidable during handover. the antenna gain will change. The following factors may cause signal fluctuation. so the signals will also fluctuate. Signal Fluctuation Signal fluctuation indicates that change of the MS signal strength. the conversation quality will be affected. Location update or channel assignment occurs at non-BCCH TRX If the SDCCH is assigned to a non-BCCH TRX during location update and power control is available on SDCCH. As a result. the strength of the received signals will change. III. II. and the dual-band performance of the MS is poor. To avoid the frequent handovers. the attenuation of radio channels is ever-changing. Because the propagation environment is everchanging. Total68 .
For micro wave transmission. In this case. the signals always fluctuate greatly at cell edges. which will cause voice discontinuity. you should pay attention to the cooperation of the transmission impedance at the equipment interfaces. Poor network coverage If the network coverage is poor. so the conversation quality at the cell edges is bad. you should check if the optical headers are clean and if the transmission errors are great. Total68 . If there is large amount of dust in the equipment. 2011-10-17 HUAWEI Confidential Page68. If both micro wave transmission and optical transmission are used. the conversation quality may also be affected. you should check of the connection among the connector is good. TRX board failure Hardware problem will result in poor conversation quality. For connectors. you should replace the problem hardware with the sound one. BTS transmission problem BTS transmission problems will affect conversation quality. it may be affected by weather. In addition. the Rxlev and Rxqual will become poor. For optical transmission. thus the conversation quality will be affected.Chapter 8 GSM Radio Network Optimization For internal use only Radio link interference Radio link interference will increase the bit error rate.
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