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Fruit juices could not be packed in PET bottle so far, because of its sensitivity towards Ox
The barrier level in Monosorb bottles can be metered by percentage to customize protec
Other new technologies also complement the burgeoning market for oxygen-scavenging
1 A simple approach for barrier
An innovative 7/14/2005
PET
inkjet bottles indicator
printable to enhan has been introduced by VTT Technical Research C

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Articles

</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Export value (approx)</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Rs.56,369,000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Export Growth</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">35% average</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Revenue to Government (approx)</font></td
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Rs.800 crores (Rs.8 bln)</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Contribution to Total Exports</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">0.277%</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
</font>
<p align="center"><strong><font face="Arial" size="2">Demand Estimates For
Machinery</font></strong></p>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" cellPadding="0" width="74%" bord
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
Molding</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
Molding</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" bordercolor="#000000"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</center>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</center>
3 An Overview
</div>
of Pakistan's
7/18/2005
Plastics Industry

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Articles

concluded that Metallocene Polyolefins (PE/PP) in USA will grow from 772 KT in
2004 to almost 2 million tons in 2009. Western European consumption of
metallocene PE saw an increase from 350,000 tons in 2002 to 483,000 tons in
2004.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">MLLDPE that has already reached a level of 612 KT
in 2004 will strengthen its premier position by reaching a level of 1340 KT.
MHDPE will also gain from 90 KT to 318 KT while MPP having the smallest volume
of 70 KT in 204 will grow highest and reach a level of 261 KT. The share of
MLLDPE in 2009 will reduce from 79% to almost 70% while MHDPE and MPP will gain
market shares.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The summary of Metallocene PE/PP in USA is given
below:</font></p>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="91%" border="1" bordercolor="#0000
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#99ffcc">
<td colSpan="6" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" height="16">
<p align="center"><span class="style11"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#
Polyolefins in USA</b></font></span></p>
</td>
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<td colSpan="3" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" height="19" align="center">
<div class="style11 style5" align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080"><b>2004</b></font>
</div>
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Articles

<div align="justify">
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Fruit juices could not be packed in PET bottle
so far, because of its sensitivity towards Oxygen. Packaging of fruit juices
and other oxygen-sensitive drinks in single-serve PET (polyethylene
terephthalate) has commenced production in Monosorb barrier bottles. These
bottles are made from PET resin blended with a modified formulation of BP's
Amosorb DFC additive. Unlike other barrier technologies, which involve adding
a coating or creating multiple layers, the barrier in Graham Packaging’s
Monosorb bottle is achieved by blending Amosorb DFC into the PET resin
immediately prior to moulding using Graham Packaging’s proprietary process.
This development now makes it possible for oxygen-sensitive beverage products
to be packed in mono-layer barrier containers.<br>
<br>
The barrier level in Monosorb bottles can be metered by percentage to
customize protection on an as-needed basis. For certain products with extreme
sensitivity to oxygen, Monosorb technology can be supplemented with coating
technologies, creating yet another barrier option. Monosorb bottles can be
recycled the same way as any other PET container and can be re-used for food
grade packaging. While the other approaches to achieve barrier such as coating
or multi layer bottles will continue, this new technique would provide
simplicity and will be cost effective.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Other new technologies also complement the
burgeoning market for oxygen-scavenging packaging.<br>
An innovative inkjet printable indicator has been introduced by VTT Technical
Research Centre of Finland, containing a reactive substance that is oxygen
sensitive. The sensor, which can be printed onto plastic materials will aid in
identifying package leakage by indicating the presence of oxygen in perishable
foods that have been packaged in a modified atmosphere. This innovative
packaging that that signals if oxygen is present in a package will serve a
dual purpose- on one hand it will help food manufacturers preserve food for
longer and on the other, help consumers recognise that a particular product
has reached its sell-by date.</font></p>
6 A simple approach
</div> for barrier
7/26/2005
PET bottles to enhan

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<div align="justify">
<font face="Arial" size="2">Ticona has introduced a second generation cyclo
olefin copolymer (COC) with a broader processing window than prior grades,
enabling processors to run it on their standard extrusion lines without any
equipment modification. This opens up an application for COCs in multi layer
blown films. The new Topas 8007F-400 is an excellent choice for multilayer
films in which it may be used in discrete or COC-rich layers. In blown films,
it can be used in applications such as pouches, flow-pack, lidding and twist
wrap. Twist wrap film manufacturer will benefit from this new grade of cyclo
olefin copolymer.<br>
<br>
This COC not only gives blown film producers greater processing flexibility,
but also the ability to make highly transparent films that are practically
free of gels. It runs well on a wide range of blown film technologies, as well
as on more challenging lines that involve small-scale extruders or extruders
with grooved feed zones. Whatever the machinery or equipment, COC film quality
and robustness has significantly improved in all cases. Topas 8007F-400 is a
clear cyclo olefin copolymer that adheres well to polyolefins, especially
linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), can be metallised and coloured
easily, and has an inherent moisture barrier that can extend product shelf
life. It also has good thermoforming characteristics, a modulus of 2,500 MPa
and a glass transition temperature of 80°C. This new grade when used in a
multilayer blown film for twist wrap applications provides excellent
stiffness, twist retention and dead fold. Unlike Cellophane, it does not need
a moisture barrier coating and offer overall cost benefits.<br>
</font>
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">Compared to polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), it stretches less in wrapping, does not yellow at the twist and has no
environmental issues. And, versus oriented high-density polyethylene (HDPE),
it has better dead fold, is cut easier, and does not require changes in
wrapping equipment. Topas COC complies with U.S. and EU food contact
regulations. It is used in many types of packaging, including flexible films
for food, pharmaceutical blisters, medical overwrap, shrink film, and medical
bottles, vials and syringes. COC demonstrates outstanding clarity, a very high
moisture barrier, excellent purity and good processability, making it an
excellent material alternative for glass or clear PP, particularly when high
clarity is required.</font></p>
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">Ticona has also introduced two
iproved Optical Grades of Topas® COC for injection molded lenses and other
optical components. The new grades, Topas TKX-0001 and 5010L-01 COC have the
following feature:<br>
Excellent clarity and transparency<br>
Flow well in molding<br>
Precision in replicating small features<br>
Dimensionally stable as humidity changes as water absorption is just 0.01%.<br>
<br>
Topas TKX-0001 COC is designed for such uses as printer f-theta lenses,
telephone camera lenses and light guide plates. It has a heat deflection
temperature of 127°C, a glass transition temperature of 140°C and releases
well from the mold. It can also be used in many thin-walled injection molding
applications that need high flow and good release properties.</font></p>
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">Topas 5010L-01 COC has a heat
deflection temperature of 95°C and a glass transition temperature of 110°C.
It offers excellent processing freedom and can be injection molded at a much
lower temperature than Topas TKX-0001 COC. It also has higher melt flow, so it
fills larger and more complex components. It can find application in large
light guide plates and large diffusion plates, such as those found in LCD
televisions, notebook computers and other displays.<br>
<br> Page 5
The properties that make these two grades suitable for optical applications,
also position them for a variety of medical, diagnostic and drug discovery
devices, particularly for microtiter plates having a high well density and
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">leading market research company has recently


concluded that Metallocene Polyolefins (PE/PP) in USA will grow from 772 KT in
2004 to almost 2 million tons in 2009. Western European consumption of
metallocene PE saw an increase from 350,000 tons in 2002 to 483,000 tons in
2004.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">MLLDPE that has already reached a level of 612 KT
in 2004 will strengthen its premier position by reaching a level of 1340 KT.
MHDPE will also gain from 90 KT to 318 KT while MPP having the smallest volume
of 70 KT in 204 will grow highest and reach a level of 261 KT. The share of
MLLDPE in 2009 will reduce from 79% to almost 70% while MHDPE and MPP will gain
market shares.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The summary of Metallocene PE/PP in USA is given
below:</font></p>
<table cellSpacing="1" cellPadding="1" width="91%" bgColor="#000066" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#99ffcc">
<td colSpan="6" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><span class="style11"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Meta
Polyolefins in USA</b></font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#f2fee7">
<td colSpan="3" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div class="style11 style5" align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2004</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td align="center" colSpan="2" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
<td align="center" width="26%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#f2fee7">
<td width="12%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font><
<td align="center" width="12%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
<td align="center" width="17%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
<td align="center" width="14%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
<td align="center" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style11"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#f2fee7">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial" size="2">LLDPE
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#f2fee7">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial" size="2">HDPE
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#f2fee7">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP</f
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span
Page 6 class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style13"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">China’s stupendous economic growth and


insatiable demand for all petrochemical products will continue in 2005, despite
escalating oil prices leading to a a tremendous increase in prices of almost all
feedstock. The Chinese economy is expected to grow by 8.5 % in 2005 if not by
9%, with petrochemical products expected to show growth of at least 8.5% over
2004.<br>
<br>
Plastics will have the largest share with 33 million tons in 2004, while
synthetic fibers would have a demand of 15 million tons. Even elastomers are
expected to grow despite attaining levels of near-maturity.<br>
Consumption of engineering plastics that stood at about 250 KT in 1998, reached
the level of 1.13 million tons in 2004, and is expected to reach a level of 1.3
million tons. Almost 30% growth was achieved between 1998 and 2004, and atleast
9 Petrochemicals
15%in growth
China7/26/2005
is
will
expected
continue
toto
ingrow
the next
well few years.</font></p>

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Articles

demand, India has been a net exporter of commodity polymers for the last 4-5
years. This situation will continue for atleast the next 3 years, particularly
for LLDPE, HDPE, PP and Polystyrene. However, there is a need to import some
polymers like LDPE and EVA as well as some specialty products. These specialty
products are from the group of polymers that infact have an excessive capacity.
However, the domestic requirement of these grades is not large enough for the
local producers to manufacture them in cost-effective manner.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">According to our data bank, the overall trade
balance in 2004 was as follows</font></p>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" height="228" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td colSpan="5" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size=
Demand in India</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size=
<td align="center" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><strong><font face="Arial"
Production</font></strong></td>
<td align="center" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><strong><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><strong><font face="Arial"
<td align="center" width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b><font face="Arial" size=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">LDPE</font><
<td align="middle" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">EVA</font></
<td align="middle" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">LLDPE</font><
<td align="middle" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">HDPE</font><
<td align="middle" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP</font></td
<td align="middle" width="21%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle" width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
<td align="middle"Page 8
width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC</font></
Articles

total</font></b></span></td>
<td align="middle" width="25%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style3"><b><
<td align="middle" width="25%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><span class="style3"><b><
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<div align="justify">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
The packaging sector is expected to grow very well in this decade. Since the
growth of the masterbatch sector is pegged to the growth of the packaging
sector, the masterbatch business is poised for good growth. It is estimated to
grow by 12-14%, if not higher, in the next few years.-</font>
11 Non-Vinyl Masterbatch
</div> Scenario
7/26/2005India - 2004.
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastic pipes are increasingly used for pressure
applications such as potable water supply etc. Higher pressure ratings,
particularly of PE pipes, have been increasingly gaining higher market share.
For instance, most of the recent PE pipes fall in the category of P100 pressure
ratings. To meet the requirements of enhanced pressure rating, weathering is the
most crucial property primarily dependent on the quality of Carbon black. All
the major Carbon black suppliers have been developing improved grades. The
critical requirements of Carbon black are:</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Long-term weatherability</strong><b
The end product is required by utility companies to provide long service life
without failure, despite being exposed to ultraviolet light. This requires very
fine prime particles, which present more surfaces to incident light, and hence
have greater UV light absorbing efficiency than a coarser particle size.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Extremely low levels of moisture
absorption<br>
</strong>Compounds containing carbon black usually absorb moisture when exposed
to air. This can create processing problems, surface defects or internal
cavities in the finished part. The high purity of the carbon black grades
developed for this application has resulted in very low moisture absorption
during the compounding process.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Dispersability</strong><br>
This performance measure depends primarily on the fundamental characteristics of
carbon black and relates to the attractive force needed to separate the
agglomerates into discrete carbon black aggregates. It is also an indicator of
the relative yields that can be achieved on compounding equipment with different
carbon black grades. The P-types show much better dispersability than a
conventional grade, resulting in better wetting with the polymer and subsequent
de-agglomeration.<br>
<br>
<strong>&nbsp;Microscopic dispersion</strong><br>
Undispersed carbon black agglomerates in the pipe wall can lead to premature
failure and also reduce fluid flow properties. These problems are recognised in
the industry, and most standards for pressure pipes specify a microscopic
dispersion rating of no greater than 3 under ISO 11420, NFT51 - 142.
Conventional blacks typically rate between 5 and 6.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong>&nbsp;Chemical cleanliness</strong><br>
Chemical impurities, particularly sulphur, ash and toluene extract, when present
in the compounds used to make pipes for drinking water, can impart unpleasant
tastes or odours. All carbon blacks include some residues of these materials,
but in the P-type grades the amounts have been greatly reduced. For example,
sulphur content - typically around 10,000 ppm in a conventional black - is some
12 5 key characteristics
600 ppm in of the
7/27/2005
Carbon
new black
grades.</font></p>
grades to me

Page 9
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">BPTFE, commonly known as Teflon, as well as PVDF


coatings, are well known for very hard surfaces that are very difficult to
scratch and have resistance to a very harsh environment.<br>
<br>
Victrex, the major producer of PEEK thermoplastic has collaborated with an
American coating company Techtrex to develop a coating of PEEK that has
excellent properties with respect to resistance to harsh environment as well as
excellent scratch resistance. The coating can withstand very high temperature
due to PEEK.<br>
<br>
TECHTREX coatings are specified for applications requiring FDA compliance,
improved release characteristics, lower co efficient of friction and enhanced
abrasion resistance. They can be applied in 0.5 mil to 6 mil thicknesses.<br>
<br>
The TECHTREX formulations have demonstrated superior hardness, abrasion
resistance and adhesion with one application as compared with PFA, PVDF, and
ECTFE multilayer based coatings.<br>
<br>
The new coatings are processed at similar conditions to PTFE and PFA. They use
standard processing equipment and require oven temperatures of between 370 - 400°C
to melt and flow out the coatings.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Victrex PEEK is typically injection molded or
extruded into stock shapes, films, and fibers for components requiring a
combination of abrasion, thermal, chemical resistance while also providing
13 A PEEK coating
superior
as a mechanical,
replacement
7/27/2005electrical,
of Teflon or
and
PVDF
tribological performance.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Phillips, a major electronic producer has
recently introduced a new Philshave Coolskin shaver from a transparent casing
from MABS (Methacrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer) produced by BASF under
the brand name of Terlux.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Coolskin, manufactured by means of two-component
injection molding, is a product that combines Polycarbonate and MABS for the
first time. The housing is made of Polycarbonate that is then covered with a
casing of the transparent Terlux. In addition to its good resistance to
chemicals, Terlux has also proven to be considerably more impact-resistant than
other transparent plastics such as SAN. Moreover, it provides good adhesion to
the housing made of Polycarbonate.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">At first glance, Terlux captivates with its
sparkle and transparency. Closer scrutiny reveals its outstanding toughness and
rigidity, important pre requisites for its use in sports and recreation in
14 Transparentaddition
ABS fortocasing
7/27/2005
the of electrical
personal careshavers
products such as shavers.</font></p>

Page 10
Articles

<p><font size="2" face="Arial">British and Russian surgeons rebuilding faces of


children involved in accidents have used a new honeycombed polymeric implant.
The material bonds with the bone without causing adverse reactions. The
made-to-measure implants are light, tough, flexible and cheap, providing an
excellent alternative to traditional titanium. They are easier to adjust and
re-shape and give much more flexibility. These implants allow carrying out many
more operations than before.<br>
<br>
When a child is assessed for an operation at the St. Vladimir Children’s
Hospital, Moscow, scientists use X-rays and tomography images to create a
three-dimensional plastic cast of the damaged area. These solid biomodels, built
by a high-tech process called laser stereolithography allow surgeons to plan
operations with great precision before they even lift a scalpel. Having assessed
how much bone needs to be removed, the scientists in Troitsk use
stereolithography to make the individual PolyHap implants. The technique, which
can be completed in a matter of hours, can be used to make the most intricate
shapes that are then sent to the hospital. The outline of the implant is
initially “drawn” by a laser beam, which leaves a very fine coating of
polymer. This process is repeated hundreds of times until the model is complete.<br>
<br>
Although the PolyHap implants have produced good results there is a possibility
the implants might have to be replaced as the child grows and the bones develop.
In order to make these ‘vanishing’ implants, a new Surface Selective Laser
Sintering technique is being developed. This involves using a laser beam to melt
just the polymer surface, leaving the bioactive inner section intact – a
crucial factor in creating a biodegradable implant.<br>
<br>
(<font color="#000000">The ‘PolyHap’ implants have been developed by teams
led by Professor Steve Howdle in Nottingham and Dr. Vladimir Popov from the
Institute of Laser and Information Technology in Troitsk, near Moscow, whose
15 A new polymeric
work is implant
7/27/2005
helps
described in rebuild facesissue of Advanced Materials</font>)</font></p>
the current
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Automotive OEMs have been seeking
to save painting costs by using PP interior compounds with improved scratch
resistance for quite some time. New blends with nano clay at 5% level could
provide a viable answer. A recently developed PP/PS blend- Elan XP 515 compound,
is expected to substitute painted ABS in automotive interior applications due to
its superior scratch resistance.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The first mass-produced part to use the new Elan
XP 515 compound is a foot well heater vent for various Volkswagen and Audi
models. Both the companies are developing car seating trim applications and are
expected to commercialize by mid-2005.<br>
The compound uses 5% of a Süd-Chemie Nanofil SE 3000 modified nanoclay additive
to aid dispersion of 15%-25% of the PS into the PP. It has a uniformly matte
surface and high scratch resistance. The mass coloured compound offers cost
savings over painted ABS parts in volume production. Putsch offers three
ready-coloured, UV and heat stabilized PP/PS blend grades that can be injection
moulded with processing parameters similar to those for unfilled or
mineral-filled PP.<br>
(Developed by well-known nanoclay producer Süd-Chemie along with German
16 Novel use ofcompounder Putsch Kunststoffe)</font></p>
nano clay increases
7/27/2005 scratch resistanc

Page 11
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">In recent times, speedy traveling


has increased significantly with a need to meet the dynamics of a faster
business. A shift of manufacturing bases to Asia from the high cost developed
regions of North America and Europe, resulting in increased movement of humans
as well as materials and finished products, further calls for low airfares. At a
time when oil prices constantly hovering over US$50 that do not show signs of
waning, and have triggered a rise in fuel cost, causing tremendous problems for
airlines all around the World.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Newer designs of air crafts have been
incorporated using higher amount of polymeric material to reduce the overall
weight of the aircrafts, providing some fuel economy. The light weight of the
polymeric material helps to shed almost 15 tons (5-7% of the total weight) of
the aircraft will help to overcome problems caused by rising fuel costs. Carbon
fiber reinforced polymeric composites as well as glass fiber reinforced material
are widely used in air crafts. Higher usage of polymeric materials call for
careful design considerations and some modifications of the existing designs to
incorporate the typical characteristics of this material compared to the
conventional material.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">In the new A 380 with a carrying capacity of 555
passengers by leading aircraft manufacturer Airbus, polymeric material
constitutes 22% of the total weight of the aircraft. This aircraft contains 61%
of Aluminum alloys and another 10% of steel titanium alloy.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">With escalating oil and fuel prices, will the
future air crafts increase the use of polymeric material beyond 22%? Most of the
17 Need for low
pundits
cost air
feel
fare
7/27/2005
very
enhances
confident
thethat
usethey
of pol
will.</font></p>

Page 12
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2004 has been a very challenging year for the
petrochemical sector due to unprecedented price fluctuations, ultimately leading
to almost 25-40% increase in prices of feedstock as well as some of the
petrochemical products such as polymers. For the past two decades, the global
petrochemical industry has been struggling with the dual challenge of growing
its business in a mature market while managing costs. But these concerns have
become particularly acute during the latest increase in oil prices.<br>
<br>
To cope with the new realities, petrochemical producers are pursuing diverging
paths of consolidation on the one hand and divestitures on the other. The
equation of profit and loss spells out only two possible solutions for companies
seeking to improve their bottom line: boost revenue or cut costs. In the case of
petrochemicals, producers have been pursuing a mix of both. On the revenue side,
companies have been attaching greater importance to enhancing shareholder value
to seek quantum growth through external acquisitions or IPOs. R&amp;D
innovations leading to internal organic growth have declined in importance. On
the cost side, efforts to streamline operations have been motivated by the
growing sensitivity of petrochemical prices to crude oil prices, with cost
savings being the key word in various spin-offs.<br>
<br>
Price sensitivity of petrochemicals in co relation to crude oil prices is
increasing over the past decade. From an average of 50% in the last decade of
the 1900s, the correlation between WTI crude and global ethylene prices have
climbed to over 80% by 2004. This stronger connection implies higher volatility
in petrochemical prices corresponding to current volatile oil prices. This is
indicated in increased volatility in ethylene prices, from as low as 6% in the
early 1990s to over 10% in 2003 and 2004.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Notwithstanding these factors, the petrochemical
industry has prospered as end-product prices have climbed at a pace faster than
oil prices. With more profits at their disposal, petrochemical companies are now
in a position to pursue large-scale acquisitions to achieve new growth targets,
taking mergers and acquisitions (M&amp;A) to a new level, and even renewing
pursual of acquisitions that may have been shelved in the early 1990s. Perhaps
the most active center of M&amp;A activity this year has been Europe, with 2004
being dubbed as the year of European spin-offs. Oil majors such as BP, Shell,
and Total, and chemical giants such as Bayer and BASF are all looking to divest
their petrochemicals portfolios to escape the cyclical and generally low-margin
business of commodity chemicals.<br>
<br>
An overview of global M &amp; A scenario :<br>
Producers that have undertaken M&amp;A to improve their bottom line:<br>
&nbsp; Blackstone take over of Celanese, and Lyondell's plans to acquire
Millennium Chemicals. Both are producers of acetyls in USA and both are short of
ethylene feedstock.<br>
<br>
&nbsp;Saudi Arabian petrochemical giant SABIC bought DSM’s petrochemicals
business in 2002, signalling the exit of DSM from basic polymers to developing
its high-value-added specialty and fine chemicals segment.<br>
<br>
&nbsp;In Korea, Honam and LG Chem bought out Hyundai Petrochemical. The process
will continue with the buying out of KP Chemical. Atofina’s purchase of a
stake in Samsung Petrochemical is the largest foreign investments in Korea’s
petrochemical sector.<br>
Producers seeking to shed unprofitable parts of their business, changing over
from commodity plastics to higher value chemicals:<br>
Shell and BASF announced plans to sell their stakes in Basell, a 50/50
polyolefins joint venture.<br>
<br>
Many of the issues facing the13
Page petrochemical industry today have been a
continuation from the past several decades: the highly cyclical nature of the
commodity chemicals markets, periodic capacity gluts, matured/maturing markets
in the developed economies, and the trend toward globalization. The difference
Articles

<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Economic growth in China in the year 2005 is


expected to be at a slower pace, mainly due to uncertainty in oil prices. If oil
prices continue to keep spiking to a higher level and beyond US$55/barrel,
economic growth will slow down. Asian Bank however predicts that China will grow
at 8.7% in 2006 and possibly almost 9% in 2007. Inflation is expected to remain
at 3.6% in 2005 and could be lower in the next two years. The Chinese Government
has taken steps to ensure that prices do not rise beyond 4%. Higher industrial
growth due to higher investments and tighter economic controls could provide the
required boost to economic growth.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">The plastics industry however, is expected to
show double digit growth for the year. Rising demands for petrochemicals from
the domestic and international markets will fuel further expansion of the
Chinese petrochemical industry, estimated to have a robust growth of at least
15% this year. After an all-time high of industry sales revenue and profits in
China in 2004, this year too seems poised for robust growth. China's
petrochemical industry collected revenue of 24.2 trillion yuan (US$2.9 trillion)
in 2004, up 32.5% year-on-year, and profits rose by 58.7% ; to 2.8 trillion yuan
(US$337 billion). This indicates that the growth of the Chinese petrochem
industry is almost twice the average level of industrial growth in the country.
Fast growth is also projected for China's petrochemical related sectors
including automotive, electronics, textiles and property in 2005. These sectors
are the major contributors to the estimated 8% GDP increase, and will further
19 After slowerboost
growth in 2005,
7/27/2005
domestic Chinese economy to gr
demand.</font></p>

Page 14
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The global beverage packaging sector is expanding


rapidly, particularly for PET, at the expense of both glass and aluminium, which
are losing market share to innovative forms of packaging. PET is gaining an
increasingly firm grip on the global beverage packaging market. The material has
enjoyed so much success in recent years that it now accounts for almost 40% of
the global pack mix and is nearly twice as popular as its nearest rival.<br>
PET (PolyEthylene Terephthalate) is a strong but lightweight form of clear
polyester. It is used to make containers for soft drinks, juices, alcoholic
drinks, water, edible oils, household cleaners, and other food and non-food
applications. Bottles now represent the most significant use of PET molding
resins.<br>
<br>
Consumption of beverages packaged in PET containers has increased spectacularly
across all sectors, most conspicuously for packaged water. The global packaged
water market has grown at a phenomenal rate and, as the sector’s leading pack
type, PET has benefited greatly. Beer, nectars, still drinks, iced/RTD tea and
coffee and energy drinks have all seen volumes increase by over 50% since 2000.<br>
<br>
Strong gains have also been made in each major region of the world. The largest
market by beverage volume for PET is Western Europe. The trend is akin in North
America, where PET finally dislodged cans as the most widely used material in
2004. Eastern Europe, although the smallest market in terms of volumes, has been
the region to witness arguably the most impressive performance for PET- with PET
enjoying more than 50% of the pack mix.<br>
<br>
Cartons and pouches/sachets have also performed well, buoyed by juice and
nectars and fruit powders respectively, whilst bottle can volumes have risen
sharply albeit from a very small base.<br>
<br>
Despite its decline, glass is still by far the second most popular material.
Beverage volumes packed in glass have only decreased slightly during the last
four years. However, market share of glass has been surrendered due to the fact
that growth of traditional strongholds such as beer, carbonates and juices have
not matched the explosive growth seen in packaged water. In 2004, only around
13% of packaged water was sold in glass. Cans also account for a tiny percentage
of the packaged water market and usage has declined in majority of the sectors.
Beer, though, has provided some cause for optimism with market share of cans
increasing slightly, whilst the growing popularity of multi-serve cans has been
very promising. Beer cans appear to be making a recovery from the downturn in
2003, when volumes were not helped by the introduction of Germany’s
controversial deposit scheme. Iced/RTD coffee and energy drinks have both
delivered welcome growth.<br>
<br>
The major advantage of PET is the strength of the material. Carbonated soft
drinks can generate pressure inside the bottle reaching upto 6 bar. Such high
pressure, however, thanks to the alignment of macro molecules (crystallization)
occurring both during the resin spinning process and the blow-moulding process,
is not capable of deforming the bottle nor can it make the bottle explode.<br>
Another striking feature of PET is that it is fully recyclable. PET bottle
recycling rates have continually increased, with the number of European PET
bales offered to the recycling markets jumping from 449,000 tons in 2002 to
20 PET bottles 612,000
continuetons
to 7/27/2005
outgrow other competitive
in 2003.</font></p>

Page 15
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Indian Plastics Institute (IPI) organized a two


day conference on Styrenics at Mumbai recently. This was probably the first time
that a conference devoted entirely to Styrenics was held in the Asian region.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Styrenics products, although quite old, have not
kept pace with Polyolefins as well as Vinyls due to the inherent higher costs of
feedstocks. In fact, Styrenics constituted only 21 million tons of the total
global plastics consumption of 165 million tons in 2004. Indian Styrenic
consumption was less than 300KT in 2003 and lagged behind when compared to
Polyolefins and Vinyls.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This conference brought about the confirmation of
the news that Reliance Industries is setting up a 550KT capacity Styrene Monomer
plant at Jamnagar using the Ethyl Benzene process of ABB Lummus/UOP, likely to
be commissioned by the end of 2006.<br>
<br>
Highlights of the conference:</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Alpha Methyl
Styrene dimer was shown to produce narrower molecular weight distribution
in Polystyrene compared to the other chain terminating agents.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Mounting is simple for
different moulds</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%" height="28"><font face="Arial" size="2">Reduced
clamping forces</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Subsequent assembly is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The major usage of Styrenics is in the fields of
automobile (ABS), white goods (HIPS/ABS), electronics (PS/HIPS). Disposable
rigid packaging is possibly the application that constitutes 40% of the global
Styrenic consumption. However only 10% of Styrenics consumed in India finds
usage in packaging. Another interesting application of foamed Polystyrene is in
the area of construction where it provides excellent insulation. Expandable
Polystyrene as well as extruded foams are used in this application with each
providing some advantages compared to the other. Both routes are widely used.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">While General Purpose Polystyrene and High Impact
Polystyrene as well as ABS have a major share of 21 million tons consumption,
other specialty products such as SBS/SIS/SEBS/SEPS as elastomeric polymers and
ASA, MABS and blends of PC/ABS, PPO/PS also have a very interesting
applications. These specialities are expected to have about 10-15% share of the
total market of Styrenics.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">With 3 large producers of Polystyrene and 2
producers of ABS, India is self-sufficient and can provide the current needs of
the Indian industry. In fact, almost 100KT of Polystyrene is exported from
India. This situation will continue for at least another 3-5 years. It is
expected that with the local availability of Styrene monomer in 2007, the Indian
21 ''Global World of Styrenics
market 7/27/2005
would Conference''
show shows pro
better growth.</font></p>

Page 16
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Every Kunstoff exhibition introduces some new develo


<br>
Two unusual dies with rotating core elements, said to make tougher film for down-gaugin
<br>
DR-Pack also developed an adjustable IBC system, which opens like an umbrella with air
<br>
The second revolving die element at the show was a "rotating distributor" developed by
<br>
The show was packed with new equipment for pipe and profile, including extruders redes
PE and PVC pipe extruders are raising outputs. Maillefer SA in Switzerland showed a mor
Single-screw extruders for polyolefin pipe are getting longer to provide higher throughpu
Krauss-Maffei's new KME extruder for polyolefin pipe has 36:1 L/D compared with 30:1 fo
<br>
22 New developments
This K showin extrusion
7/27/2005
was the systems
first to see
shown
significant
at K 2 numbers of new-generation synchronous torq
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Typically High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or
Polypropylene (PP) are used as liners in steel pipes for natural gas
distribution. However both the materials are prone to failures due to high
temperatures and aggressive hydrocarbon environment.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Atofina - a producer of Polyamide 11 has recently
conducted a research project to replace HDPE by a Polyamide 11 liner. This new
liner is being tested in gas pipe mains in different American towns of Choctaux
and Salt Lake City.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Polyamide 11 (PA11) piping - can allow gas
distribution companies to operate plastic pipes at higher pressures and
temperatures than possible with current plastic materials. With regulatory
changes expected to permit the use of plastic piping at higher than the
currently allowed 100 psig limit, GTI and Atofina Chemicals have performed
comprehensive evaluations on PA11 (designed to operate at pressures between 100
to 300 psig) to validate its use at higher pressures. Additional evaluations are
underway to address the effects of various climate and geographic environments.</font
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The objective of this project was to characterize
the material, physical and chemical properties of Polyamide 11 (PA11) in both
laboratory and field environments. Additional research has focused on economic
and institutional factors critical to the successful deployment of PA11 piping
systems for the distribution of high-pressure natural gas in North America.
Tests were also conducted on field-applied tools and techniques to shut off gas
flow in PA11 pipe; PA11-compatible fittings; pipe coiling; and rapid crack
propagation.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">In today's utility environment, there is a
growing interest on the part of those distributing natural gas to optimize the
value of their assets, and to operate their distribution systems in a more
flexible manner for enhanced energy service options. Gas companies could enhance
their system operations throughput if lower cost plastic piping systems could be
used at higher pressures.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">At present, use of steel pipe is the only
accepted alternative for the distribution of natural gas at pressures of 100 psi
or more. With steel pipe, companies must use straight sticks of pipe and
adjacent sections must be welded and/or mechanically coupled. This not only adds
to the cost of installation, but also creates potential leak sources. The cost
of corrosion protection and maintenance for steel mains can be as high as US$700
per mile pa. In comparison, PA11 offers most of the benefits of polyethylene
(PE) plastics pipe while extending the range of operating pressures and
temperatures. Because of its lower expected life-cycle cost, PA11 provides an
ability to also capture new markets that otherwise would be lost to competing
23 Polyamide liner
energyin steel
sources.</font></p>
7/27/2005
pipes allows for better t

Page 17
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A Research team has discovered a bacteria


(Pseudonomas Putida) which could convert styrene, an inherently toxic monomer of
polystyrene (PS), to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a biodegradable
plastic: the bacteria converts the styrene into simple carbon units which are
then polymerized to form PHA. According to the researchers, the biodegradable
plastic thus obtained can be used in a wide range of applications including
medical implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, heat resistant plastic, etc.
The team is improving the converting process before its commercialization.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate
(mclPHA, monomers from C6-C14) is a water insoluble, biodegradable and
biocompatible polymer that it is well suited for medical applications. For this
purpose the polymer needs to be highly pure, especially with respect to
pyrogenic compounds. Most commonly mclPHA is produced by certain Gram-negative
bacteria like Pseudomonas putida. To obtain pure PHA, the intracellular
PHA-inclusion bodies must be separated from the other cell components. The cells
first have to be disrupted and then the PHA-granules can be isolated. However,
cell components like nucleic acids, lipids, proteins etc. can contaminate the
PHA. Especially lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the outer cell membrane are the
main culprit for pyrogenic contamination A very small amount of LPS causes
serious problems in pyrogenic contamination</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Several recovery processes have been established
for short chain length PHA (sclPHA, C2-C5 monomer) that has quite different
physical properties compared to mclPHA, whereas less attention has been paid to
the recovery of mclPHA.<br>
In general recovery processes can be divided into two categories: solvent
extractions and aqueous digestions. Both have to fulfill several conditions:
high purity of the end product, avoidance of halogenated solvents, no
24 A new biodegradable
degradationpolymer
7/27/2005
of the derived
polymerfrom
and high
Styrene
efficiency.</font></p>

Page 18
Articles

moulding process for producing multicomponent parts from two or more polymers
with multidaylight principle.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Recent Advancements in Over moulding are:
Horizontal mould rotation and Over moulding with a single injection unit.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">A novel development in Over moulding is the
'Horizontal mould rotation' technique. Existing systems rotate the moulds on an
axis perpendicular to the machine platens. But in this new technique, the mould
is rotated horizontally with a rotating device, about an axis parallel to the
platens.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Compared to traditional vertical turn table Over
moulding, this new technique possesses the following advantages :</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font size="2" face="Arial">Smaller moulds
and machines can be used</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font size="2" face="Arial">Mounting is simple for
different moulds</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font size="2" face="Arial">Reduced clamping
forces</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font size="2" face="Arial">Subsequent assembly is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font size="2" face="Arial">Possibility of
combining materials that do no weld together</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font size="2" face="Arial">Decreased production costs</font><
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font size="2" face="Arial">Less floor space</font
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font size="2" face="Arial">Need for two machines is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font size="2" face="Arial"><br>
<b>Process Principle<br>
</b><br>
In Over moulding, injection takes place in two phases. The first shot is
injected into a cavity in the area of a front parting line. After the cycle is
complete, during mould opening, the part formed remains on the side of the
moving centre plate and can be transferred to second parting line by a 180°
rotation of the centre plate. Thus the part is facing the opposite direction.
Here, the second material is injected in to the cavity, to produce the two
-component part. At the same time, another first shot is being injected at the
front parting line. When the mould opens, the part is demoulded before centre
plate rotates further.</font>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">&nbsp;<b>Applications<br>
</b><br> Page 19
Car lamp lenses, Large surface area parts (e.g. for automotive industry) and
various housings for personal care and medical parts.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Few examples of applications are :</font></p>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The last decade has seen stupendous growth of PET
bottles. PET bottles grew at about 12-15%. The major markets of carbonated
drinks have now attained almost complete substitution of glass and aluminium
tins. The Mineral water market has further potential of providing some growth in
the next few years. Raw material suppliers have started developing newer
applications to provide further impetus to growth.<br>
<br>
Beer is one of the possible segments that may provide some growth opportunity.
Recently, a large beer manufacturer Zhongfu invested US$10 million to set up a
project for PET bottles. It is the first Chinese company that will consume
almost 1000 tonne of PET for beer. The beer industry in the developed economy is
however slow in adopting PET bottles.<br>
<br>
A leading PET bottle producer in Germany called SchmalbachLebeca has developed a
heat set process that will produce PET jars with high temperature resistance.
These jars have been successfully used for pasteurization as well as retort
capabilty of 121°C. These developments would help PET to grow well in the next
few years. Infact Maack Business Services a leading consulting company predicts
12% growth until 2005. It is expected that PET bottle market would reach 12
million tonnes in 2005 from the present 7 million tonnes. Demand could outstrip
supply in the next few years. It is therefore not unlikely that new capacities
will come onstream. Even some fiber manufactuers could modify and convert their
26 PET bottles polymerization
penetrate into
7/27/2005
newer areas
plant to make ofbottle
beer and
chip grades.</font></p>

Page 20
Articles

is extremely low and does not meet the required demand. As per Government
Statistics, the import bill of all plastics raw material reached Rs.6.7 Billion
in the year 1993. Uptil 1994, almost all plastics raw material consumed in
Pakistan was imported, amounting to about 0.45 millions tons of plastics raw
material imports annually, exerting a great burden on the national economy.</font></p
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">Various entrepreneurs in Pakistan
considered setting up of hydro-cracker plants in Pakistan. In the corresponding
period, in neighbouring India, about 5 raw material producers had commenced
production of indigenous plastics raw materials catering to the local industry,
as well exporting the surplus. This acted as a trigger for the speedy
implementation and commencement of petrochem projects in Pakistan.<br>
In 1984, to achieve self sufficiency in PVC and to save foreign exchange, FCCCL
in a joint venture with FECTO (Pakistan) Limited had the opportunity to submit a
feasibility report and application for setting up a 20,000 tpa plant in Kala
Shah Kaku near Lahore. The formal approval was granted in January 1986, but the
plant could not be set up due to unknown reasons.<br>
It was Engro Asahi Chemicals Pakistan, who took the lead and set up a PVC Plant
in Karachi- the first of its kind in Pakistan. It was a joint venture with
Japanese companies that took the initiative and established this mega project in
the country. Similarly 3 more plants producing PET, High Impact Polystyrene,
Melamine Formaldehyde and Expandable Polystyrene were also set in Karachi.</font><
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">No statistics are available on the
exact consumption of plastics raw materials in the country, but a modest
estimation indicates that more than one million tons of different plastics are
required every year. The present production capacity of the four raw material
producers is about 288,000 tons. This can barely meet 28% of the estimated
demand, leaving a shortfall of 722,000 tons. This gives room for imports and
constitutes a burden on the national economy. The following table shows the
present production of raw material producers in Pakistan.<br>
</font></p>
<table borderColor="#000080" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="99%" bgColor=
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#ecffd2">
<td colSpan="3" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div class="style17" align="center">
<strong><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics Raw Material Production
in Pakistan</font></strong>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ecffd2">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style17"><font face="Arial"
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style17"><font face="Arial"
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</tr>
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<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style21"><font face="Arial"
Industries</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style21"><font face="Arial"
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Tons</font></span></td>
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<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style21"><font face="Arial"
Asahi Polymers</font></span></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><span class="style21"><font face="Arial"
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Tons</font></span></td>
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Petro Chemicals &nbsp;</font></span></td>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2004 has been a good year for German plastic
machinery suppliers as they expect that export has grown by more than 7%.
Earlier they were expecting a solid 8-10% growth, but slower growth in the
second half of the year slowed growth. Business did not do as well as expected
in H2-2004. With the spiraling Euro, many of the German machine suppliers have
resorted to supply their equipment from their Asian production sites.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Asia has grown by almost 45% for plastic
machinery imported from Germany mainly due to tremendous increase in demand from
the Chinese market. It is estimated that the Chinese demand grew at a
spectacular 77%. Demand from India grew even stronger at 90%, and Korea showed a
growth of 65%. Interestingly Pakistan's imports grew by almost 400% - of course
on a relatively small base.<br>
The Middle Eastern region showed a healthy overall growth of levels marginally
lower than 45%. Iran, with its growth of 125% took the lead.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The German machine suppliers appear to be
satisfied with the business done thus far in 2005 business, although it may not
28 German plastic
be asmachinery
good as
8/19/2005
2004.</font></p>
has grown more than 7 in

Page 22
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The automotive sector has enhanced the use of


plastics in fuel tanks. An increasing trend of plastic fuel tanks in automobiles
is indicated in the fact that all European automobiles have almost fully
converted to these plastic fuel tanks. One estimate suggests that 92% of the
cars of European origin have plastic fuel tanks. North American automobiles are
lagging behind with 75% of the automobiles having plastic fuel tanks. Automotive
sector in the Asian region, however, is far behind its Western counterparts.
This could possibly be attributed to the smaller number of cars produced in
different parts of Asia as compared to Europe and North America. The use of
plastic fuel tanks is uneconomical at lower production level of an individual
automobile company. Mostly blow moulded or injection moulded multi layers HDPE
fuel tanks are quite common. Significant developments have been done by the
industry to meet the recent emission standards.<br>
<br>
Compared with existing rubber and steel fuel lines, plastic fuel lines are
lighter in weight, lower in cost and often less permeable. They are also
available in many colors, which make it easier to place, track and connect fuel
supplies. However, the automobile companies are very slow to adapt the plastic
lines that convey fuel from tank to engine compartment. The slower pace stems
from concerns by auto companies over the ability of plastic fuel lines to meet
strict air emission standards, and to resist electrostatic discharges (ESDs),
which could ignite flammable fuels. Automakers also need to be convinced that
fuel lines made of plastics can withstand the impact of crashes at low winter
temperatures and can resist degradation from alcohol fuels. But polymer
suppliers and Tier One auto manufacturers have developed new fuel line materials
and designs which they believe can meet these challenges.<br>
<br>
The most common polymer used in plastic fuel lines is polyamide. It is often
combined in multilayer structures with fluorocarbon polymer barrier resins.
Another low-permeability material that has been paired with polyamide in
multilayer structures is polybutylene naphthalate (PBN). Aliphatic polyketones
have also been promoted as fuel line materials. Some polymide based fuel line
formulations include low levels of carbon nanotubes, which enhance their ESD
properties without harming their physical properties. New ways for improving the
ESD properties of fuel lines are also emerging. The typical approach for making
a plastic fuel line static dissipative is to add graphite fibers to the resin
formulation. But this can degrade the polymer's properties, particularly its
impact strength. A newer practice is to make fuel line resins conductive with
much smaller particles called carbon nanotubes. One supplier of these
micron-size carbon additives, offers masterbatches of nylon 12 containing just
2-3% loadings of nanotubes. At these levels, the additives reduce the static
discharge properties of the polymer to safe levels, but do not affect its
physical properties.<br>
<br>
Complying with increasingly stringent anti pollution regulations is the biggest
challenge faced by developers of plastic fuel lines and other plastic fuel
components such as tanks, pumps, vapor recovery systems, filter pipes and fuel
rails. Of most concern to the global auto industry, are regulations in the U.S.
state of California that limit the levels of hydrocarbons auto fuel system can
release into the air. Among them are the ZEV (zero emission vehicle), PZEV
(partial zero emission vehicle), and the CARB (California Air Resource Board)
LEV (low-emission vehicle) II standards. Some of these rules have already taken
effect; others will be phased in over the next few years. Because California has
traditionally set the pace for air pollution regulations in the rest of the U.S.
and elsewhere, most of the world's car manufacturers are striving to meet the
29 Automobilesstandards
slow in adapting
in8/19/2005
that state.</font></p>
to plastic for fuel l

Page 23
Articles

growth every year is marching ahead in the consumption of plastics. The


consumption of the five commodity polymers (LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PVC &amp;
Polystyrene) in 2003 had reached a level of 26.8 million tons. Almost 13 million
tons or 48% of the total consumption was met by imports. China accounts for
nearly 65% of all polymer demand and approximately one-third of production,
indicating the considerable shortfall in polymer supply in China .&nbsp; China
's dependence on imported polymer indicates that the country's polymer markets
have become integrated with international markets and follow global trends.
Prices of domestically produced and imported materials are being driven up by
high international prices for raw materials, as well as oil and naphtha. This is
leading to some pain for processors, particularly smaller ones. The following
table summarizes the consumption of commodity plastics in China during 2003.</font><
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="200" border="
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="15" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Polymer</b></
<td height="15" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Consumption
(MMT)</b></font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">PE</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">8.80</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">7.00</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">6.25</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">PS</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">2.50</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">ABS</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">2.25</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#ffffff">
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">Total</font></td>
<td height="16" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">26.80</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</center>
</div>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">China 's consumption is reported to have grown
from 23 million tons in 2000 to 31 million tons in 2004. China continued its
strong hold on plastics demand in 2004, despite the increase in polymer prices
triggered by higher oil prices. In fact, it continued to show the best growth
globally. The domestic production of polymers in 2004 has also shown a healthy
growth of more than 10%. PVC surprisingly showed the highest growth because of a
few new projects that went on stream in 2004. One of the reasons for the
stupendous growth of PVC was an 18% growth over 2003 in pipes and profiles
sector. This was possible because of a mandate introduced a couple of years ago
Page 24
by the Chinese Government, making usage of PVC for pipes and window profiles
mandatory. Rising incomes and improvement in life styles also led to a good
increase in the consumption of household plastic products. Apparently the
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Self reinforced plastics (SRPs) combine the


versatility and easy recyclability of a thermoplastic with the high performance
of a fibre-reinforced composite. SRPs are in the nascent stage of development.
With their growing use in automobile sector, SRPs could see a good boost in
demand. The automotive industry is a huge and growing market for plastic and
composite materials, and gives SRP suppliers the best opportunity to gain
critical volumes of business at an early stage.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Their low weight, high stiffness and impact
resistance are proving suitable for a wide range of semi-structural and
structural automotive applications. SRPs are being actively sought after for
making lighter and smaller cars that save on fuel. The weight of mid-size cars
is likely to fall from 1,400 kg to 1,150 kg by 2010, providing further impetus
to the SRP market. In order to meet the new design requirements, automobile
manufacturers are in search for low density plastics with good mechanical
properties. Automobile manufacturers are now evaluating SRP products,
particularly PP for non-structural components in upcoming car models.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">With the automobile sector looking at them as a
possible alternative to save weight to achieve fuel economy, stimulus to their
growth could be provided. However, gaining a stronghold in cost demanding
sectors will not be easy, especially in high volume automotive markets, where
standards are extremely stringent and price pressure high.<br>
The automotive market also exposes SRP products to intense competition
particularly from glass mat thermoplastics (GMT) and long glass-fibre reinforced
thermoplastics (LFT) across a range of thermoformed automotive applications.
While SRPs are a clear favourite over GMT and LFT in terms of mechanical
properties, high prices of SRPs are a significant limitation to immediate
commercial usage. SRP suppliers need to reduce their cost structure to levels
that permit more competitive pricing. A price range of EUR 4-EUR 6 per kg is
considered more realistic by end users.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">SRP manufacturers need to make a strong impact as
early as possible in key segments of the automotive market where the potential
volume of business is likely to be highest. For optimum revenue generation, SRP
suppliers should target semi-structural and structural parts in the low to
medium volume car segment. These include crossbeams where the SRP products
adequately meet head impact requirements or A-pillars that perform well with an
SRP shell. Roof liners made from SRP products with a fabric covering and a
number of under-body parts are other potentially lucrative application areas.</font></p
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">For SRP manufacturers who consider automotive
applications a very demanding sector to penetrate, in terms of stringent cost
considerations as well as application development, it may be advisable to
identify more profitable niche markets where SRP product benefits hold more
value, and therefore automatically command a premium price. Understanding that
there is a market for SRP products beyond automotive applications is vital.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">In the future, SRP manufacturers can look towards
orthopaedic braces and ballistics protection equipment. These have the potential
to offer tremendous scope for growth. There is also significant potential to use
SRPs in other application areas, especially where a combination of weight saving
and toughness is an important requirement - such as sports and personal
protective equipment, machine casings and housings, transport containers and
31 Good opportunity
industrial
for cladding.</font></p>
self
8/19/2005
reinforced plastics in a

Page 25
Articles

<font face="Arial" size="2">Tetrapack, a world-renowned packaging company has


recently commercialized a new package called Tetra Brick Mini package for milk.
These new packages available in 2 sizes (200 ml &amp; 250 ml) have been well
received in the European retail stores. The new packages feature a distinctive
cubic design that the firm believes will attract consumers and provide practical
advantages over traditional gable top packages and plastic bottles and cups.<br>
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The problem with plastic cup containers and even
some rectangular portion packs is that children can accidentally spill or
squeeze the liquid out of the top, whereas it is more difficult to spill or
squeeze the liquid due to the design and shape of the Tetra Brik Square Mini.
Interest in the new package has been particularly strong in Asian LDP (Liquid
dairy products) producers seeking more convenient or attractive packaging.
Testing is already underway at Haruna Dairy in Japan, using the package for
school milk and a new niche product called ‘beauty milk' marketed to Japanese
women.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Another selling point of the Tetra Brik Square
Mini is that it is easy to produce. The Tetra Pak C3/Flex can handle the
production of these two portion packs as well as the Tetra Brik Square 1000 ml
and 500 ml and Tetra Brik Base 1000 ml and 500 ml. With the Tetra Pak C3/Flex,
LDP producers can switch between different sizes with the same bottom format in
as little as 15 minutes, which reduces the risk for producers, because they are
not tied to just one package size.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The liquid dairy product manufacturers are very
cost conscious. The acceptance and wide usage in future of this new package,
32 A new flexible
willtetrabrick8/19/2005
package
be determined for liquid
largely by thedairy
fulfillment of their cost expectations.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">China’s stupendous economic growth and
insatiable demand for all petrochemical products will continue in 2005, despite
escalating oil prices leading to a a tremendous increase in prices of almost all
feedstock. The Chinese economy is expected to grow by 8.5 % in 2005 if not by
9%, with petrochemical products expected to show growth of at least 8.5% over
2004.<br>
<br>
Plastics will have the largest share with 33 million tons in 2004, while
synthetic fibers would have a demand of 15 million tons. Even elastomers are
expected to grow despite attaining levels of near-maturity.<br>
Consumption of engineering plastics that stood at about 250 KT in 1998, reached
the level of 1.13 million tons in 2004, and is expected to reach a level of 1.3
million tons. Almost 30% growth was achieved between 1998 and 2004, and atleast
15%in
33 Petrochemicals growth is expected
China8/19/2005
will continuetotoingrow
the next
well few years.</font></p>

Page 26
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Elasticity in spunbond fiber is a great


advantage. Elasticity so far was mainly governed by composite structure of
material and other mechanical means. Exxon has introduced its elastomeric
Metallocene catalyzed (Exxpol process) Polyolefin with excellent elasticity as
well as good processability. Two new Vistamaxx grades, VM-2125 and VM-2120, have
been developed. They have 80 MFR and density ranging from 0.865-0.868. Both
grades, besides offering good elasticity, offer very good recovery. Both of them
have excellent processability. The main advantage of these two grades is that
they provide elasticity to non wovens directly without any further
modifications. Last year Exxon had introduced a Metallocene grade for melt blown
process. With the latest introduction of grades, Exxon now can offer elastic
grades for complete nonwoven process range.<br>
<br>
For nonwoven converters using spunbond technology, the latest Vistamaxx products
offer an innovative way to provide cost-effective elasticity in nonwovens
fabrics. They can be spun in most spunbond lines to produce fabrics at typical
PP processing conditions and rates. Web properties can be tailored by the
selection of resin spinning condition and downstream treatment, resulting in
fabrics over a wide range of elasticity that are soft, drapeable and
tear-resistant. In addition to being compatible with a wide variety of polymers,
Vistamaxx can improve the elasticity, flexibility, adhesion, softness and
34 Metallocenetoughness
Polyolefinic
of8/20/2005
materials
products.</font></p>
to enhance elas

Page 27
Articles

transfer decorating is the use of a preprinted graphic on a carrier (either


paper or mylar) that is applied to a substrate (usually plastic) with the use of
a hot stamp machine. Heat transfers are usually printed by one of three printing
methods: Screen Printing, Rotogravure or Flexography.<br>
There are advantages and disadvantages to each method, but the most popular and
most cost effective for the majority of the projects is Screen Printing.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Heat transfers offer unique performance and
appearance advantages superior to all other means of decorating. The application
of heat transfers is a simple and efficient production process that is highly
cost effective. Multi- color, high performance transfers can be applied
permanently in a few seconds utilizing low cost hot stamping equipment. The
entire operation requires a minimum amount of floor space and uses unskilled
labor. Since it is a completely dry process- unlike other wet decorating
methods- the decorated product can be handled and moved to its next process
immediately. Also, as a dry process, heat transfers pose no environmental
concerns within your facility.<br>
Characteristics of heat transfers:<br>
* Cleaner, faster, more cost efficient, provide more graphic flexibility<br>
* Always applied automatically to the plastic part versus manually applied
labels<br>
* Ability to reproduce the most complex design with strict registration
accuracy, consistency and in crisp sharp detail.<br>
* Ability to adhere to many substrates such as virtually all plastics:<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp; ABS, Acrylic, PP, Polycarbonate, polyphenylene, HDPE, LDPE, PVC and
Styrene (GP &amp; high impact), Polymides &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(nylon),
Urethanes, Polyester (including glass filled), Vinyl<br>
* Successful adherence to apparel, various fabrics, wood and metal.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Heat transfers find application in various
industries including :<br>
<strong>Consumer Products</strong><br>
L awn and garden products, power tools, sporting goods, protective gear, POP
displays, footwear, leather goods, protective equipment, consumer electronics,
kitchen appliances, etc.<br>
<strong>Automotive Products</strong><br>
Dashboard, seatbelts, visors, disclaimers, auto parts, batteries, etc<br>
<strong>Cellular Phones</strong><br>
In-mold applications, lenses, leather and vinyl cases, battery packs,
accessories, etc.<br>
<strong>Computer Products</strong><br>
Monitors, mouse, towers, keyboards, software packaging, cables, networking
hardware, etc.<br>
<strong>Fabric Systems<br>
</strong>Shoe inner sole, fabric bags, special nylon medical products, baby
products, etc<br>
<strong>Medical</strong> <strong>Products</strong><br>
Medical equipment, synthetic braces and casts, specialty containers, etc.<br>
<strong>Baby Products<br>
</strong>Toys,<strong> </strong>swings, high chairs, strollers, car seats, etc.</font><
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">There are many challenges to be faced when the
decision is made to use heat transfer decals as the decorating method for your
project. These challenges are not necessarily unique to heat transfer decals but
are also present to some degree within the hot stamping family.<br>
The greatest challenge to both the company that produces the transfers and the
ultimate user of the product is the chemistry issue. If the ink chemistry is not
correct it will affect everything from the print quality of the image to the
ability to make the ink transfer and adhere properly as well as pass any testing
that may be applicable</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" Pagesize="2">Among
28 other challenges are:<br>
1) The correct choice of the type of hot stamp machine; either a roll on or a
vertical press with the correct tonnage.<br>
2) The correct stamping parameters for the particular ink system to ensure
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">A</font><font face="Arial" size="2">n


injection moulding technology for magnesium alloys called “Thixomoulding”
was very prominently displayed by an American manufacturer at the recently
concluded Chinaplas 2005. Thixomat from Ann Harbour Michigan USA owns the
worldwide patent rights to the process. Discovered more than 30 years ago, the
technology has caught on only in the last 7-8 years. Many companies are now
realizing the process provides them with a competitive edge.<br>
Magnesium is the lightest of the structural metals. Thixomoulding process
enables manufacturers to produce parts that are lighter, thinner and stronger
than possible with engineering plastics. People are surprised to see the
components that are very light in weight and yet quite strong.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Thixomoulding has become popular
in the consumer electronics industry since its commercial introduction and
continues growing as a favorite of manufacturers of cell phones, computers,
cameras, sporting goods, hardware and other consumer and industrial products.
Thixomolded parts exhibit greater dimensional stability and provide tighter
tolerances with far less porosity than possible with those components.
Thixomolding is environmentally friendly. There's no dross or sludge produced
and no harmful cover gases are released into the atmosphere. The process takes
place in a closed machine operated by a single person.<br>
<br>
Automotive companies, now mandated to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency,
are looking to lightweight magnesium as one solution. Thixomolded(R) magnesium
36 Thixomoulding was
offers prominently
8/20/2005
advantages positioned
over at Chinap
magnesium components produced by die casting process.</font>

Page 29
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastic pipes are increasingly used for pressure


applications such as potable water supply etc. Higher pressure ratings,
particularly of PE pipes, have been increasingly gaining higher market share.
For instance, most of the recent PE pipes fall in the category of P100 pressure
ratings. To meet the requirements of enhanced pressure rating, weathering is the
most crucial property primarily dependent on the quality of Carbon black. All
the major Carbon black suppliers have been developing improved grades. The
critical requirements of Carbon black are:</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Long-term weatherability</strong><b
The end product is required by utility companies to provide long service life
without failure, despite being exposed to ultraviolet light. This requires very
fine prime particles, which present more surfaces to incident light, and hence
have greater UV light absorbing efficiency than a coarser particle size.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Extremely low levels of moisture
absorption<br>
</strong>Compounds containing carbon black usually absorb moisture when exposed
to air. This can create processing problems, surface defects or internal
cavities in the finished part. The high purity of the carbon black grades
developed for this application has resulted in very low moisture absorption
during the compounding process.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Dispersability</strong><br>
This performance measure depends primarily on the fundamental characteristics of
carbon black and relates to the attractive force needed to separate the
agglomerates into discrete carbon black aggregates. It is also an indicator of
the relative yields that can be achieved on compounding equipment with different
carbon black grades. The P-types show much better dispersability than a
conventional grade, resulting in better wetting with the polymer and subsequent
de-agglomeration.<br>
<br>
<strong>&nbsp;Microscopic dispersion</strong><br>
Undispersed carbon black agglomerates in the pipe wall can lead to premature
failure and also reduce fluid flow properties. These problems are recognised in
the industry, and most standards for pressure pipes specify a microscopic
dispersion rating of no greater than 3 under ISO 11420, NFT51 - 142.
Conventional blacks typically rate between 5 and 6.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong>&nbsp;Chemical cleanliness</strong><br>
Chemical impurities, particularly sulphur, ash and toluene extract, when present
in the compounds used to make pipes for drinking water, can impart unpleasant
tastes or odours. All carbon blacks include some residues of these materials,
but in the P-type grades the amounts have been greatly reduced. For example,
sulphur content - typically around 10,000 ppm in a conventional black - is some
37 5 key characteristics
600 ppm in of the
8/20/2005
Carbon
new black
grades.</font></p>
grades to me

Page 30
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Biodegradable polymers were developed several


decades ago, but have been slow to reach commercial maturity. Growth rate of bio
degradable polymers is slower because they are higher in costs and have less
robust physical properties than conventional plastics. Insufficient incentives
for downstream processors to incorporate biodegradable materials into their
products, at least until the 1990s, have also been an important factor
contributing to their slow growth.<br>
<br>
However, things are changing. New large-scale production systems are bringing
down the costs of biodegradable polymers, and sophisticated polymerization and
blending techniques are making such materials stronger and more durable. In
addition, food and beverage producers, seeking goodwill from an increasingly
environmentally conscious public, have begun to employ biodegradable plastics
for a variety of packaging applications. In some cases, local and national laws
are also encouraging the use of degradable materials.<br>
<br>
Biodegradable polymers, especially those derived from biological sources, are a
minor factor in the world plastics market. A recent report on bio-based
degradable polymers concluded that these materials would have a 1-2% market
share of all polymers in Europe by 2010, and estimated no more than a 5% share
by 2020.<br>
Food packaging is among the leading applications of biodegradable plastics.
Containers, films and foams made of these materials are used to enclose meats,
dairy products, baked goods and produce. Disposable bottles and cups for water,
milk, juices and beverages are other common uses. The other major market is for
plates, bowls and trays. Bags for collection and composting of food waste, as
well as supermarket bags, are other outlets for these materials. Agricultural
films are a growing application for these products<br>
<br>
Unlike most other plastics, biodegradable polymers can be broken down in the
environment by micro organisms such as bacteria and fungi. A polymer is usually
considered biodegradable if all its mass breaks down in soil or water within 6
months. In many cases, the degradation products are carbon dioxide and water.
Any other breakdown products or residue must be tested for toxicity and safety.<br>
<br>
Biodegradable plastics can be made from renewable resources, such as
corn-derived sugars, or they may be made from petrochemical feedstocks. They may
be used alone or in combination with other plastic resins or additives.
Biodegradable polymers can be processed with most standard plastics fabricating
technologies, including thermoforming, extrusion, injection molding and blow
molding.<br>
<br>
Most biodegradable plastics belong to the polyester class, although a few are
made of other materials such as modified starch. While aromatic polyesters such
as PET have good mechanical properties, they tend to be resistant to microbial
attack. Aliphatic polyesters, on the other hand, are more easily degraded, but
are not as strong as their aromatic counterparts. To improve the physical
properties of degradable aliphatic polyesters, developers have sometimes added
other monomers - either aliphatic or aromatic - to their molecular chains.<br>
Some of the common biodegradable polymers are:<br>
· Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)<br>
· Polylactic Acid (PLA)<br>
· Synthetic aliphatic polyester<br>
· Modified PET<br>
· Modified starch<br>
<br>
Biodegradable polymers are advancing on many fronts, but are unlikely to
constitute more than a small fraction of the total plastics market in the near
future. However, growing environmental
Page 31 awareness by consumers, and government
policies that favor conservation of natural resources are encouraging sales of
biodegradable polymers. In particular the growing popularity of
&quot;green&quot; packaging offers many opportunities for innovation and market
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Almost every plastic out there, from the


polyester in clothing to the plastics used for food packaging and electronics,
uses petroleum as a building block.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A research group has made a sweet and
environmentally beneficial discovery -- how to make plastics from citrus fruits
such as oranges, and carbon dioxide. A paper published in the Sept. 2004 issue
of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, described a way to make
polymers using limonene oxide and carbon dioxide, with the help of a novel
&quot;helper molecule&quot; -- a catalyst developed in the researchers'
laboratory.<br>
<br>
Limonene is a carbon-based compound produced in more than 300 plant species. In
oranges it makes up about 95% of the oil in the peel. The other building block
used was carbon dioxide (CO2), an atmospheric gas that has been rising steadily
over the past century and a half -- largely due to the combustion of fossil
fuels, becoming an environmentally harmful greenhouse gas. By using their
catalyst to combine the limonene oxide and CO2, the Coates group produced a
novel polymer, called Polylimonene Carbonate, that has many of the
characteristics of polystyrene. Polystyrene is a petroleum-based plastic
currently used to make many disposable plastic products. The polymer is a
repeating unit, much like a strand of paper dolls. But instead of repeating
dolls, the components alternate between limonene oxide and CO2, in the polymer.
Neither limonene oxide nor CO2 form polymers on their own, but when put
together, a promising product is created.<br>
<br>
The Coates research team is particularly interested in using CO2 as an
alternative building block for polymers. Instead of being pumped into the
atmosphere as a waste product, CO2 could be isolated for use in producing
39 Can oranges provide
plastics polymers?
such8/20/2005
as Polylimonene Carbonate.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">BPTFE, commonly known as Teflon, as well as PVDF
coatings, are well known for very hard surfaces that are very difficult to
scratch and have resistance to a very harsh environment.<br>
<br>
Victrex, the major producer of PEEK thermoplastic has collaborated with an
American coating company Techtrex to develop a coating of PEEK that has
excellent properties with respect to resistance to harsh environment as well as
excellent scratch resistance. The coating can withstand very high temperature
due to PEEK.<br>
<br>
TECHTREX coatings are specified for applications requiring FDA compliance,
improved release characteristics, lower co efficient of friction and enhanced
abrasion resistance. They can be applied in 0.5 mil to 6 mil thicknesses.<br>
<br>
The TECHTREX formulations have demonstrated superior hardness, abrasion
resistance and adhesion with one application as compared with PFA, PVDF, and
ECTFE multilayer based coatings.<br>
<br>
The new coatings are processed at similar conditions to PTFE and PFA. They use
standard processing equipment and require oven temperatures of between 370 - 400°C
to melt and flow out the coatings.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Victrex PEEK is typically injection molded or
extruded into stock shapes, films, and fibers for components requiring a
combination of abrasion, thermal, chemical resistance while also providing
superior
40 A PEEK coating as a mechanical,
8/20/2005electrical,
replacement and
of Teflon or tribological performance.</font></p>
PVDF

Page 32
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Phillips, a major electronic producer has


recently introduced a new Philshave Coolskin shaver from a transparent casing
from MABS (Methacrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer) produced by BASF under
the brand name of Terlux.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Coolskin, manufactured by means of two-component
injection molding, is a product that combines Polycarbonate and MABS for the
first time. The housing is made of Polycarbonate that is then covered with a
casing of the transparent Terlux. In addition to its good resistance to
chemicals, Terlux has also proven to be considerably more impact-resistant than
other transparent plastics such as SAN. Moreover, it provides good adhesion to
the housing made of Polycarbonate.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">At first glance, Terlux captivates with its
sparkle and transparency. Closer scrutiny reveals its outstanding toughness and
rigidity, important pre requisites for its use in sports and recreation in
41 Transparentaddition
ABS fortocasing
8/20/2005
the of electrical
personal careshavers
products such as shavers..</font></p>

Page 33
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Every Kunstoff exhibition introduces some new


developments in the plastics processing equipment segment. K 2004, with several
new developments in extrusion technology, was no exception. Some of the newer
developments exhibited at K 2004 are:<br>
<br>
Two unusual dies with rotating core elements, said to make tougher film for
down-gauging were the highlights for extrusion blown film systems. These blown
film dies have unusual rotating cores, a technique commonly used in pipe and
tubing dies to prevent weld lines, but not previously used in blown film. The
core of the die rotates in contact with the melt surface, orienting it and
making thinner film with 10% better elongation at break and modestly better tear
properties.<br>
<br>
DR-Pack also developed an adjustable IBC system, which opens like an umbrella
with air coming out of the spokes tangentially onto the inside of the bubble.
The air ring outside the bubble blows tangentially in the opposite direction,
keeping the bubble more stable than a conventional air ring and IBC.<br>
<br>
The second revolving die element at the show was a &quot;rotating
distributor&quot; developed by the University of Paderborn in Germany. This is a
slow turning disk driven by the melt at only about 3 rpm, just enough to put a
slight orientation into the melt, and to prevent weld lines. This has been
scaled upto 100 mm diameter for extruding 160 lb/hr of blown film in tests in
the University's laboratory last year. It will also be tested for pipe
extrusion.<br>
<br>
The show was packed with new equipment for pipe and profile, including extruders
redesigned for higher outputs and/or lower cost, plus new ways to adjust die and
calibrator diameters or switch dies and calibrators more quickly.<br>
PE and PVC pipe extruders are raising outputs. Maillefer SA in Switzerland
showed a more powerful 60 mm single-screw extruder for PE pipe. Model MEH 60-30D
with 30:1 L/D has a more powerful 145 hp AC motor capable of up to 350kgs/hr of
PE pipe vs. 200kgs/hr for Maillefer's previous 60 mm extruder with only a 75 kw
DC motor. It also has a quick-change die on a swing arm.<br>
Single-screw extruders for polyolefin pipe are getting longer to provide higher
throughput. Rollepaal B.V. from the Netherlands showed a new 120 mm, 55:1 L/D
single-screw for compounding and extruding highly filled polyolefin pipe. Its
output reportedly competes with that of a co rotating twin-screw. It can add up
to 60% filler with two side feeders and hold 6000 kg/cm2 die pressure for direct
pipe extrusion.<br>
Krauss-Maffei's new KME extruder for polyolefin pipe has 36:1 L/D compared with
30:1 for its predecessor. Greater length plus a water-cooled inlet and
low-temperature screw give the KME 30% higher output. Krauss-Maffei has built a
75 mm prototype that runs up to 1580 lb/hr. The KME comes in a vented version
42 New developments
for processing
in extrusion
8/20/2005
PS, PCsystems
and PMMA.</font></p>
shown at K 2

Page 34
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Indian Plastics Institute (IPI) organized a two


day conference on Styrenics at Mumbai recently. This was probably the first time
that a conference devoted entirely to Styrenics was held in the Asian region.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Styrenics products, although quite old, have not
kept pace with Polyolefins as well as Vinyls due to the inherent higher costs of
feedstocks. In fact, Styrenics constituted only 21 million tons of the total
global plastics consumption of 165 million tons in 2004. Indian Styrenic
consumption was less than 300KT in 2003 and lagged behind when compared to
Polyolefins and Vinyls.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This conference brought about the confirmation of
the news that Reliance Industries is setting up a 550KT capacity Styrene Monomer
plant at Jamnagar using the Ethyl Benzene process of ABB Lummus/UOP, likely to
be commissioned by the end of 2006.<br>
</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Highlights of the conference:</b></font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Alpha Methyl
Styrene dimer was shown to produce narrower molecular weight
distribution in Polystyrene compared to the other chain terminating
agents.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Mounting is simple for
different moulds</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top" width="97%" height="28"><font face="Arial" size="2">Reduced
clamping forces</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Subsequent assembly is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The major usage of Styrenics is in the fields of
automobile (ABS), white goods (HIPS/ABS), electronics (PS/HIPS). Disposable
rigid packaging is possibly the application that constitutes 40% of the global
Styrenic consumption. However only 10% of Styrenics consumed in India finds
usage in packaging. Another interesting application of foamed Polystyrene is in
the area of construction where it provides excellent insulation. Expandable
Polystyrene as well as extruded foams are used in this application with each
providing some advantages compared to the other. Both routes are widely used.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">While General Purpose Polystyrene and High Impact
Polystyrene as well as ABS have a major share of 21 million tons consumption,
other specialty products such as SBS/SIS/SEBS/SEPS as elastomeric polymers and
ASA, MABS and blends of PC/ABS, PPO/PS also have a very interesting
applications. These specialities are expected to have about 10-15% share of the
total market of Styrenics.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">With 3 large producers of Polystyrene and 2
producers of ABS, India is self-sufficient and can provide the current needs of
the Indian industry. In fact, almost 100KT of Polystyrene is exported from
India. This situation will continue for at least another 3-5 years. It is
expected that with the local availability of Styrene monomer in 2007, the Indian
43 ''Global World of Styrenics
market would8/20/2005
Conference''
show shows pro
better growth.</font></p>

Page 35
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Recently, US scientists


discovered that a commercially sold polymer - used to coat bowling pins, helmets
and golf balls, displays a curious property when shot at: it can immediately
&quot;pave over&quot; the bullet holes. &quot;Surlyn&quot; the well-known
ethylene-acrylic copolymers, generally used in packaging applications or for
providing dispersion of pigments in masterbatches, is found to have a new
application. Traditionally Surlyn makes golf balls tough. In it's new found
application, Surlyn helps a product heal under bullet shots instead of
fracturing. A sheet of Surlyn when shot by bullets, has found to self heal
without breaking.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A team of materials engineer at the US Naval Air
Systems Command is trying to understand why the polymer self-heals. Apparently
melting properties of the material may explain why it self-heals. The speeding
bullets heat the Surlyn to temperatures close to its melting temperature. The
melting properties appear to depend on Surlyn's polyethylene chains and
methacrylic acids. These comprise a random mixture of ionic and nonionic regions
that each want to stay with their kind. The polymer however disintegrates when
it touches fuel. The other navy research teams are working on ways to bond it
with a fuel-resistant material such as urethane, which could bring it to the
market relatively quickly.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Once the solution is found, Surlyn or its variant
44 Surlyn findscould
an interesting
play a8/20/2005
very
new
important
application
rolethat
in the
c construction of fighter aircraft.</font></p>

Page 36
Articles

on nanoparticles and their contribution in the field of plastics. They are still
in the infancy stage, but if the forecasts are right, nanocomposites could turn
out to be the biggest little thing to hit plastics in decades. Polymers
reinforced with as little as 2% to 5% of these particles via melt compounding or
in-situ polymerization exhibit dramatic improvements in thermo-mechanical
properties, barrier properties and flame retardancy. They also can outperform
standard fillers and fibers in raising heat resistance, dimensional stability
and electrical conductivity. Dispersion of nanoscale reinforcements in polymers
are already entering the marketplace in automotive and packaging applications,
albeit in a low-profile manner and slower than anticipated. But that pace is
expected to speed up dramatically.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Three recent conferences on this special product
had more than 200 presentations on various aspects of nanotechnology. A report
from market research firm Business Communications Co. Inc., estimates the total
worldwide market for polymer nanocomposites at about 10,000 MT in 2003, valued
at US$90.8 million. It also projects the market to grow at an average annual
rate of 18.4% to reach US$211.1 million by 2008. Even if nanodevelopments hit
some snags, the rate of growth in a few applications will be faster than 20% pa.<br>
</font></p>
<font face="Arial" size="2">The leading nanoscale fillers in R&amp;D and
commercial projects are layered silicate nanoclays and nanotalcs, plus carbon
nanotubes and graphite platelets. But other candidates are being actively
investigated, such as synthetic clays, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane
(POSS) and even natural fibers like flax and hemp.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The two types of nanofillers that have been most
widely discussed and the first to break into commercial use are nanoclays and
carbon nanotubes. Both must be chemically modified with surface treatments in
order to achieve the fine dispersion and resin coupling required to derive
maximum benefit. Both of these nano-fillers have demonstrated improvements in
structural, thermal, barrier and flame-retardant properties of plastics. Carbon
nanotubes also enhance electrical conductivity.<br>
</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">So far, nanoclays have shown the broadest
commercial viability due to their lower cost of US$5-7/kg, and their utility in
common thermoplastics like PP, TPO, PET, PE, PS and nylon.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The leading nanoclay is montmorillonite, a
layered alumino-silicate whose individual platelets measure around 1 micron
diam., giving them an aspect ratio of 1000:1. The two major producers are
Nanocor with its Nanomer line, and Southern Clay Products with its Cloisite
line. Both companies have formed alliances with suppliers of resins and
surfactants, compounders and automotive OEMs and packaging firms. While much of
their work is proprietary, they have disclosed several commercial successes.<br>
</font></p>
<font face="Arial" size="2">While nanoclay adds muscle to plastics, carbon
nanotubes impart electrical and thermal conductivity. The commercial potential
of nanotubes has been limited by their high price tags, reportedly in the range
of US$100/gram, although they are available in masterbatches for US$100/kg.
Still, nearly every car produced in the U.S. since the late 1990s contains some
carbon nanotubes, typically blended into nylon to protect against static
electricity in the fuel system. Static-dissipative compounds containing
nanotubes are also protecting computer read/write heads.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Carbon nanotubes include both single and
multi-walled structures. The former have a typical outside diameter of 1 to 2 nm
while the latter have an OD of 8 to 12 nm. They can range in length from the
typical 10 microns to as much as 100 microns and have at least a 1000:1 aspect
ratio. Carbon nanotubes have 50 times the tensile strength of stainless steel
(100 GPa vs. 2 GPa) and 5 times the thermal conductivity of copper. When
incorporated into a polymer matrix, they have the potential to boost electrical
or thermal conductivityPageby orders
37 of magnitude over the performance possible
with traditional fillers such as carbon black or metal powder.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The suppliers of nanotubes include Hyperion
Catalysis with its Fibril multi-walled nanotubes and a newcomer Zyvex Corp. with
Articles

with multidaylight principle.</font></p>


<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Recent Advancements in Over moulding are:
Horizontal mould rotation and Over moulding with a single injection unit.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A novel development in Over moulding is the
'Horizontal mould rotation' technique. Existing systems rotate the moulds on an
axis perpendicular to the machine platens. But in this new technique, the mould
is rotated horizontally with a rotating device, about an axis parallel to the
platens.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Compared to traditional vertical turn table Over
moulding, this new technique possesses the following advantages :</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Smaller moulds
and machines can be used</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Mounting is simple for
different moulds</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Reduced clamping
forces</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Subsequent assembly is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Possibility of
combining materials that do no weld together</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Decreased production costs</font><
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Less floor space</font
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Need for two machines is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<b>Process Principle<br>
</b><br>
In Over moulding, injection takes place in two phases. The first shot is
injected into a cavity in the area of a front parting line. After the cycle is
Page 38
complete, during mould opening, the part formed remains on the side of the
moving centre plate and can be transferred to second parting line by a 180°
rotation of the centre plate. Thus the part is facing the opposite direction.
Articles

<font face="Arial" size="2">The younger generation influences the packaging


systems for many personal care products. To sell a personal care or cosmetic
product, the packaging has to have a sense of newer fashion. With demographic
changes, particularly in the large Asian population, the hunger for innovative
packaging products is on the rise. Some of the newer trends seen in cosmetic
packaging are:<br>
<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">lass-like clarity
in thicker molded plastic packaging products like containers or tubes.<br>
A Copolyester polymer that can be converted into glass-like clarity in
thicker section has been introduced by Eastman Chemicals. The new
polymer is aptly called &quot;Glass Polymer&quot;. The containers from
this glass polymer have found applications in the luxurious cosmetic
packaging segment as a replacement for glass. The advantages offered by
the &quot;Glass Polymer&quot; containers as compared to glass are very
obvious - safety due to non-breakability.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Attractive colors and color
combinations are two major attributes that are essential for cosmetic
packaging. GE Advanced Materials with their Visualflex resins have a
very wide range of attractive colors and color combinations including
the pearlescent effect, also very popular in the cosmetic industry.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Increased aroma and perfume
retention are key requirements form the new plastics materials expected
to replace clear glass. The newer polymers such as copolyester provide
these and hence find more usage in the cosmetic industry.</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
47 Cosmetic industry
</table>selects
8/20/2005
newer plastics with bett

Page 39
Articles

<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"


50/ kg</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
flooring</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
60/ kg</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
mixer with Plastic body</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
exchange resin</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
acid cation exchange resin</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
Ketonic Resin</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
Printer Film (Polyester Based) (Thickness 100 Micron)</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
Houses - 100% Polyester Filament Yarn Jacketted Synthetic Rubber Lined</font></
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="53%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial" siz
lacketted Synthetic Rubber Lined Fire Hoses</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" align="center"
Page 40 width="18%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
</tr>
<tr class="content">
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="11%" bgColor="#ffffff"><font face="Arial"
Articles

<font face="Arial" size="2">A leading and well known supplier of automotive


parts - Lear Corporation, USA, has recently developed and introduced two new
plastic composites for automotive parts. These composites are more enviornmental
friendly, as they are constituted of natural fibres such as Hemp, Jute &amp;
Kenof.&nbsp;These natural fibres are obtained from plants and can be recycled.&nbsp;
The first material is based on Polypropylene, while the second material uses
Acrylic Polymer.&nbsp;Coupling agents are normally used to enhance the
compatibility of natural fibres with polymeric materials and are added to
Polymers at as high a level as 70%.&nbsp;&nbsp; Some of the applications which
are being evaluated are:<br>
<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Interior door
panels</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Door panel trimmings</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Package trays</font>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Trunks</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
49 Eco Friendly</table>
Plastic Composites
8/20/2005for Automotive usa

Page 41
Articles

industry experts, AMI Consulting, highlights the emergence of China as a major


market for thermoplastic masterbatches. Despite the economic recession which
engulfed much of the rest of the South East Asian region during 1997-1998, the
Chinese economy continued to forge ahead, resulting in strong demand and
production growth for masterbatch products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">In the year 2000, masterbatch
production in China accounted for 33% of the total production in the South East
Asian region and the Chinese market accounted for 35% of all masterbatch demand.
Thus, <font color="#000080">China has surpassed South Korea as the leading
masterbatch producing nation in the region</font>, and is on course to become
the largest country market in the world. Demand has grown from just under 89,000
tonnes in 1990 to nearly 300,0000 tonnes by 2000, which amounts to year on year
increase of around 13%. Increases in production capacity have been equally
impressive and in 2000 the region produced over 250,000 tonnes of masterbatch
products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">This growth has been fuelled by
the increasing levels of investment in plastics processing, which are often set
up by foreign-owned investors to supply European or Japanese customers, and who
specify the use of masterbatch products. Growing local demand has also seen a
comparable increase in masterbatch production, again often involving foreign
companies.<br>
<br>
Despite the financial crisis of 1997-1998, the South East Asian masterbatch
market has been one of the most dynamic and fastest growing in the world. In
addition to the growth in plastics processing in China, there has also been
substantial investments in other countries such as Thailand and Malaysia, and
the region has generally seen a rapid uptake in the use of masterbatch through
the 1990s.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000000">The region
therefore is a net importer</font>,<b> </b>although obviously there are marked
variations between the import requirements of individual countries and within
each of the main masterbatch types. The region is actually a net exporter of
white products but has a substantial import requirement for additive and
coloured types.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">South Korea, Singapore and
Philippines all have a trade surplus in masterbatch products, while Taiwan and
China have substantial net trade deficits in masterbatch.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Despite continued investment in
new production capacity over the next five years, the region will continue to
import more than it exports, and the level of imports will increase at a greater
rate than exports. Opportunities for non-Asian companies to supply into the
region will mainly occur in the colour and additive area.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">South East
Asia represents a highly diverse market for masterbatch products</font>, with
the individual markets within it ranging from the highly sophisticated and well
developed such as in Singapore to the small, but rapidly developing such as
Vietnam. Markets are also very different in their adoption of masterbatch usage,
with some countries continuing to have a significant use of dry pigments and
compounds while others use masterbatch to a greater extent. Methods of colouring
used by processors vary, depending on tradition, costs and availability.<br>
<br>
There are though a <font color="#000080">number of factors working in favour of
masterbatch and contributing to its growing use, </font><font color="#0">like</font><
</b></font></p>
<p>&nbsp;
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
Page 42
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Many plastics
processors in South East Asia are supplying to Western or Japanese OEMs
who will have a very tight specification in terms of colour match and
performance. Often these companies will tell the processor which
Articles

<font face="Arial" size="2">A leading and well known supplier of automotive


parts - Lear Corporation, USA, has recently developed and introduced two new
plastic composites for automotive parts. These composites are more enviornmental
friendly, as they are constituted of natural fibres such as Hemp, Jute &amp;
Kenof.&nbsp;These natural fibres are obtained from plants and can be recycled.&nbsp;
The first material is based on Polypropylene, while the second material uses
Acrylic Polymer.&nbsp;Coupling agents are normally used to enhance the
compatibility of natural fibres with polymeric materials and are added to
Polymers at as high a level as 70%.&nbsp;&nbsp; Some of the applications which
are being evaluated are:<br>
<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Interior door
panels</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Door panel trimmings</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Package trays</font>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Trunks</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
51 Eco Friendly</table>
Plastic Composites
8/25/2005for Automotive usa

Page 43
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polypropylene (PP) is generally


quite difficult to convert into film on the conventional upward blown film
extrusion mainly due to poor melt strength, long cooling time and somewhat
inferior optical properties. The thicker or heavy-duty PP film is produced from
special PP grades of higher molecular weight with higher amount of other
comonomers. However, blown PP film is not yet commercially developed in place of
LDPE/LLDPE films.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Raw material producers have
developed some specific PP grades that can be processed on conventional upward
film extrusion. One of the grades called RB707F from Borealis is a terpolymer
with random distribution of comonomers. This grade has 1.8MFR and can produce
film with haze value less than 4-5. The clarity is much better than that can be
produced from LDPE/LLDPE. PP film, because of its higher stiffness provides an
opportunity to downguage compared to LDPE/LLDPE film. The lower thickness
further provides better clarity. Similarly Dow has introduced Inspire 114 for
upward blown film.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Earlier the melt strength of
conventional PP was enhanced by addition of SEBS at about 20% level. However,
the cost of this blend was high and hence the resultant film did not achieve the
competitiveness of LDPE/LLDPE film. The present grades are reactor made PP
elastomers and offer better cost economy. Of course PP offers higher heat
resistance and therefore more suitable for retort packing or packing of material
at higher temperatures. It also offers an opportunity for better grease
resistance compared to LDPE/LLDPE films.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">To achieve better processability,
conventional film extrusion requires some modifications. Some of the major
modifications are: higher L/D ratio (&gt;=30). Die gap should be at least
1.7-1.8mm. Typically blowup ratio of 2.25-2.5 is required. Internal Bubble
Cooler (IBC) and higher chilled air volumes (at temperatures of 8-10C) help in
achieving better quality. These modifications also help in achieving similar
outputs compared to LDPE/LLDPE. The typical LLDPE film equipments however, can
produce PP film from these newer grades but at about 25-30% lower outputs.
Interestingly all the major film equipment producers like Kiefel or Windmoller
are now supplying film extrusion equipment for PP.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP films can find increasing
usage in IV bags, retortable pouches, stretch hoods or heavy-duty bags. PP bags
can be used in hot fill packing of products. PP blown film can be used in place
of cast PP film for lamination to PET/PE film for reverse printing. With these
developments PP certainly will make inroad to the huge LDPE/LLDPE film market in
52 How blown the
Polypropylene
near future.</font></p>
8/25/2005
film is gaining greater sh

Page 44
Articles

53 Depb rates for Plastics 8/25/2005

Page 45
Articles

industry experts, AMI Consulting, highlights the emergence of China as a major


market for thermoplastic masterbatches. Despite the economic recession which
engulfed much of the rest of the South East Asian region during 1997-1998, the
Chinese economy continued to forge ahead, resulting in strong demand and
production growth for masterbatch products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">In the year 2000, masterbatch
production in China accounted for 33% of the total production in the South East
Asian region and the Chinese market accounted for 35% of all masterbatch demand.
Thus, </font><font color="#000080" face="Arial" size="3">China has surpassed
South Korea as the leading masterbatch producing nation in the region</font><font fac
and is on course to become the largest country market in the world. Demand has
grown from just under 89,000 tonnes in 1990 to nearly 300,0000 tonnes by 2000,
which amounts to year on year increase of around 13%. Increases in production
capacity have been equally impressive and in 2000 the region produced over
250,000 tonnes of masterbatch products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">This growth has been fuelled by
the increasing levels of investment in plastics processing, which are often set
up by foreign-owned investors to supply European or Japanese customers, and who
specify the use of masterbatch products. Growing local demand has also seen a
comparable increase in masterbatch production, again often involving foreign
companies.<br>
<br>
Despite the financial crisis of 1997-1998, the South East Asian masterbatch
market has been one of the most dynamic and fastest growing in the world. In
addition to the growth in plastics processing in China, there has also been
substantial investments in other countries such as Thailand and Malaysia, and
the region has generally seen a rapid uptake in the use of masterbatch through
the 1990s.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000000">The region
therefore is a net importer</font>,<b> </b>although obviously there are marked
variations between the import requirements of individual countries and within
each of the main masterbatch types. The region is actually a net exporter of
white products but has a substantial import requirement for additive and
coloured types.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">South Korea, Singapore and
Philippines all have a trade surplus in masterbatch products, while Taiwan and
China have substantial net trade deficits in masterbatch.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Despite continued investment in
new production capacity over the next five years, the region will continue to
import more than it exports, and the level of imports will increase at a greater
rate than exports. Opportunities for non-Asian companies to supply into the
region will mainly occur in the colour and additive area.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font color="#000080" face="Arial" size="3">South East Asia
represents a highly diverse market for masterbatch products,</font><font face="Arial"
with the individual markets within it ranging from the highly sophisticated and
well developed such as in Singapore to the small, but rapidly developing such as
Vietnam. Markets are also very different in their adoption of masterbatch usage,
with some countries continuing to have a significant use of dry pigments and
compounds while others use masterbatch to a greater extent. Methods of colouring
used by processors vary, depending on tradition, costs and availability.<br>
<br>
There are though a </font><font color="#000080" face="Arial" size="3">number of
factors working in favour of masterbatch and contributing to its growing use,
like<b><br>
</b></font></p>
<p>&nbsp;
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
Page 46
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Many plastics
processors in South East Asia are supplying to Western or Japanese OEMs
Articles

<br>
-do-<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
-do-</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">28</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Woven sacks / bags</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3923.90/ 3926.90</font></td
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">29</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Insulated wares</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3923.10/3924.10</font></td
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">30</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Doors Windows &amp; Frames &amp;
thresholds for doors</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3925.20</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">31</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Balconies, balustrades fencing,
gates &amp; similar barriers</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3925.99</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">32</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Other builders wares (Eg. Tanks,
vats, etc) other than of &nbsp;PU</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3925.10/ 30/ 99</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">33</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Nipples for feeding bottles</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3926.90</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">Nil</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">34</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Sheets for audio cassettes</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">3926.90</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">16</font></td>
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td>
</tr> Page 47
<tr class="content" bgColor="#ffffff">
<td align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2">35</font></td>
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Products of jutes and phenolic
Articles

with multidaylight principle.</font></p>


<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Recent Advancements in Over moulding are:
Horizontal mould rotation and Over moulding with a single injection unit.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A novel development in Over moulding is the
'Horizontal mould rotation' technique. Existing systems rotate the moulds on an
axis perpendicular to the machine platens. But in this new technique, the mould
is rotated horizontally with a rotating device, about an axis parallel to the
platens.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Compared to traditional vertical turn table Over
moulding, this new technique possesses the following advantages :</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Smaller moulds
and machines can be used</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Mounting is simple for
different moulds</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Reduced clamping
forces</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Subsequent assembly is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Possibility of
combining materials that do no weld together</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Decreased production costs</font><
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Less floor space</font
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Need for two machines is
eliminated</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
<br>
<b><font color="#000080">Process Principle</font><br>
<br>
</b>In Over moulding, injection takes place in two phases. The first shot is
injected into a cavity in the area of a front parting line. After the cycle is
Page 48
complete, during mould opening, the part formed remains on the side of the
moving centre plate and can be transferred to second parting line by a 180°
rotation of the centre plate. Thus the part is facing the opposite direction.
Articles

could never have been thought of before.<br>


<br>
Many of the engineering applications do not require heat resistance higher<br>
than 150° C and tensile strength above 700 kg/cm2, and thus engineering
plastics<br>
are well suited for these applications.<br>
<br>
The word ABS plastics is derived from the first letter of each of the following
three different monomers-<br>
<br>
</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Acrylonitrile</font></
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Butadiene</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Styrene</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">Acrylonitrile improves -</fon
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">The tensile
strength,</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Hardness,</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Heat resistance,</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Chemical resistance Etc.</font></td
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Butadiene improves the impact strength<br>
<br>
And Styrene improves the processability<br>
<br>
ABS plastics possess an excellent combination of mechanical,<br>
thermal and chemical resistance.<br>
Page 49
<br>
In short ABS plastics are termed as -<br>
Tough - Hard - Rigid materials.<br>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC is very widely used in the building and


construction industry due to excellent mechanical properties at a lower cost.
However, with heat distortion temperature of about 70 degree C, PVC cannot be
used at elevated temperatures. In fact, PVC tends to lose its mechanical
strength at 50 degree C and therefore PVC pipes are not recommended to be used
beyond 50 degree C.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC window profiles are required to withstand
higher temperatures, particularly in the tropical regions. Many times Acrylic
cap stock material is used over the PVC profiles to provide weather resistance.
However, to increase heat resistance, Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA)
modifier can be used. Recently a newer ASA grade called Luran S 778TE from BASF
has been developed and is commercially available. This grade of ASA has heat
distortion temperature of 105 degree C. It can therefore increase the heat
distortion temperature of PVC significantly from 70 degree C. This new grade
also has excellent outdoor resistance and therefore does not reduce the
58 A new impactweatheribility
modifier increases
8/25/2005
of PVC.</font></p>
heat resistance of
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The Wire show organized at
Dusseldorf, Germany in April 2004 illustrated that the wire and cable industry
is not yet dead but has good growth potential. This growth can mainly be
attributed to the increasing demands of infrastructure development in East
European and the old Russian countries. Asia also has good growth potential due
to the similar reasons. The markets in West Europe and North America have become
quite matured and are also under tremendous pressures of higher fixed cost.
These costs have made it necessary for North American suppliers to move
manufacturing base to Mexico and Central America, while the West European
suppliers are shifting to the Eastern European countries. PVC still continues to
be the major material, but Polyolefins are gradually snatching the market share
from PVC. Fire hazards and other environmental issues are the two major driving
forces of the shift from PVC to Polyolefins.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">World demand indicates 2/3rd
share in wire and cable industry for PVC, expected to grow only at a modest rate
of 1%. PP is expected to grow at 5% and the Polyethylenes at about 4 %. The
shift from PVC to Polyolefins is more prevalent in North America and Western
Europe, taking the share of polyethylenes to almost 75% of PVC. The overall
demand for wire and cables would grow at about 2%, compared to the overall
growth of GDP at 3-3.5%. Power sector will continue to consume major volumes.
Telecom and IT have become commodity items. Some of the newer developments still
continue to be in the areas of faster extrusion speeds (as high as
2500meters/minute) for telecom cables, PE low-tension cables with fire resistant
59 Polyolefin cables
characteristics.</font></p>
have a8/25/2005
higher growth potential a

Page 50
Articles

up nearly 55% from the start of the year. Fears abound that energy prices at
such a level can lead to inflation, restricting economic growth. Why the
inability to get runaway oil prices under control? For the answer to this, we
must first understand the factors esponsible for driving this biggest increase
in oil prices for 24 years.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">&nbsp;<b>RI
DEMAND</b></font><br>
<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">Stre
economic recovery</font><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong> </strong>leadin
to higher than expected demand from industrialised countries,&nbsp;specially
the US economy that devours 25% of world oil.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font color="#000080" face="Arial" size="3">China's
rapidly expanding economy : </font><font face="Arial" size="2">Chinese
crude imports are up 40% so far this year. Instead of slowing down, the
Chinese energy demand is forecast to continue rising even next year.</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">&nbsp;<b>NE
FOR NEW INVESTMENTS</b></font><br>
<br>
Most of Opec oil reservoirs are mature, most producers are producing flatout to
meet demand and the finds are smaller. There is a need for investments towards
development of costly technology for newer finds.<br>
<font color="#000080"><br>
&nbsp;<strong>OPEC STRATEGY</strong></font><br>
<br>
Opec holds around 70% of world oil reserves; almost 50% of the world's crude oil
exports and attempts to keep prices under control by sprucing or restricting
supplies to the market. In the past, Opec strategy was to wait for prices to
drop before agreeing to cut output. The time of seasonally weaker demand - when
prices were lower, was the time international oil companies traditionally
capaitalised upon, to rebuild stocks. But Opec has adopted a change in strategy
towards aggressiveness, announcing production cuts to pre-empt any weakening in
prices. Market experts erred on the lower side regarding oil consumption
forecasts because such a quick global economic recovery was not anticipated.
This miscalculation resulted in producers keeping supplies even tighter than was
needed to prevent rebuilding of stocks.<br>
Major OPEC opinion is divided in two groups :<br>
One group is countries like Venezuela that argue against appeasing big
consumers, particularly USA.<br>
The other group consists of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait that favour raising output
to ease prices. Among suppliers only Saudi Arabia has significant spare capacity
that it can make available to the market.<br>
<br>
<font color="#000080">&nbsp;<b>LOW OIL INVENTORIES</b></font><br>
<br>
Efficiency has been the key word for companies in recent years. In a bid to
attain efficiency, oil companies have started operating with lower inventories
Page 51
of crude oil, diminishing the cushion against supply interruptions. This is why
events like violence in the Middle East, ethnic strife in Nigeria, strike in
Venezuela, Hurricane Ivan have a greater effect on prices now, than might have
Articles

</td>
<td width="18%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Y</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="17%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Y</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="25%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Y</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080"><strong>Legend</strong> : L :
61 Plastics withLow;
low M
insulation
: Moderate;
8/25/2005
characteristics
H : High; Y :for
Yes;
t N : No</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Cleaner Blowing Agents” are required to have
Zero-Ozone Depletion Potential in Rigid Polyurethanes. The most commonly used
Hydrocarbon blowing agent HCFC 141b is being phased out in USA. Newer regulatory
norms are expected to be introduced and HCFC 141b will be completely eliminated
by January 1, 2005 in the USA. The phase-out date for production of HCFC-22 and
HCFC-142b, which have lower ozone-depletion potential, is Jan 1, 2007. The
latter two have had limited use in rigid PUR foam, mostly as blends with
HCFC-141b.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A newer agent, HFC 245fa, is relatively superior
as cost-effective formulation for building and construction, appliances and
automotive integral-skin foams. North American appliance makers and laminators
have been faster in adopting alternative blowing agents.The main contenders for
refrigeration foams are HFC-245fa and HFC-134a, the later in use in Europe along
with USA. A majority of appliance makers favor the non-flammable HFC-245fa, as
it has been shown to yield the lowest cabinet energy consumption. HFC 245fa is
very expensive but very effective in producing rigid foam for refrigerator with
good insulation characteristics. However, the advantages of superior physical
properties as well as cost of HCFC-141b cannot be matched by any of the
alternatives. As compared to HCFC-141b, the HFCs cost approximately 1.5 to 4
times more. Several new developments have been aimed to optimize the level of
expensive HFC 245fa to prevent significant cost increase of the formulation.
Apparently higher water level along with HFC245fa help in reducing the level. A
newly developed blowing agent enhancer also helps in lowering levels of HFC245fa
by at least 10-20% level. This new additive reduces the viscosity and thus helps
to reduce the level of HFC245fa. Great Lakes is introducing novel flame
retardants which can work more effectively with hydrocarbon blowing agents to
62 Developments meetin the
Polyurethane
8/25/2005
technology
flammability aim to
requirements ofmee
the flexible foam products.</font></p>

Page 52
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The miniaturization of


electronics has opened up a new market for lightweight corrosion resistant
plastic products. Miniaturization leads to excessive heat build up in the
product, which in turn reduces the product service life severely. Metal parts
are heavier as well as prone to corrosion. Plastics products having relatively
good thermal conductivity can fulfill the requirement for this new class of
products. These thermally conductive polymer products are made from the blend of
metallic fillers along with the base polymers. Two major types of metallic
fillers have so far succeeded in the development of thermally conductive
polymers. Graphite fibers and ceramic fillers like Boron Nitride or Aluminum
Nitride are more commonly used. While fibers provide different conductivity in
the matrix (more in the fiber direction) the ceramic fillers provide more
uniform thermal conductivity across the matrix of the components. These fillers
inherently have excellent thermal conductivity and therefore can impart some
thermal conductivity to the plastics compound in which they are blended.
However, both of them can impair the mechanical properties when incorporated at
a higher level. A compromise between mechanical properties and thermal
conductivity has to be attained.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Several internationally reputed
compounders like Cool Polymers, LNP, RTP, Polyone etc are developing engineering
plastic as well as PP, ABS conductive compounds. Thermally conductive compounds
containing metal fillers exercise more stress on processing equipment. All these
equipment parts are required to be more rugged compared to the normal machinery.
All the suppliers of thermally conductive compounds can guide the prospective
moulders on the equipment to be used for processing of thermally conductive
63 Thermally conductive polymers
8/25/2005expand applications
polymer compounds.</font></p>

Page 53
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This report is based on the latest findings from


a leading research group. This report has forecast growth in the polycarbonate
market in China (including Hong Kong) on a compounded basis between 2002 and
2008.<br>
<br>
Overall demand in China and Hong Kong is set for a 10.4% growth and is forecast
to rise from 293,000 tons in 2002 to 530,000 tons in 2008. The fastest growing
market is forecast to be optical media, where annual compounded growth of 16.7%
is expected. This application will benefit through increased production of
recordable media in China, while recorded disc piracy will continue to
contribute to overall demand. Construction sector will be a rapidly growth
segmnet as a result of increased infrastructure spending and private home
ownership, with growth forecast to average 15.7% through to 2008. Growth in the
electrical/electronic and office automation equipment sector will be slowest,
but supported by increased notebook computer and liquid crystal display and TV
production in China.</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="100%" border=
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td noWrap colSpan="2" height="18">
<p align="center"><b><font face="Arial" color="#000080" size="3"><br>
Polycarbonate Market Growth Rates in China (includes HK ) for the period
2002-2008</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" height="18"><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080"
<td align="center" height="18"><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080"
Growth Rate</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="393" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">E&am
<td align="left" width="255" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="393" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Packa
<td align="left" width="255" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="393" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Cons
<td align="left" width="255" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="393" height="1"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Optica
<td align="left" width="255" height="1"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#0000
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="393" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Trans
industrial, precision</font></td>
<td align="left" width="255" height="18"><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">With new polycarbonate capacity scheduled to come
on stream in 2006 in China and elsewhere, demand<br>
growth in China will play a key role in determining the global supply/demand
balance. Assuming the China based plants of Bayer and Teijin are operating on a
commercial basis in 2006, an average global operating rate (based on nameplate
capacity) of 62% in 2006, and 67% in 2008 is forecast.<br>
The agencies have updated Page their
54 recent report, &quot;Polycarbonate in China -
2004&quot; (initially released in 2003) to reflect these latest findings
gathered through extensive supplier, trader, and end user interviews in China in
November and December of 2003. Polycarbonate in China - 2004 is currently
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics film extrusion speeds have been


increasing over the last decade. Speeds of typical lines have increased by
atleast 70-100%. For instance, 10 meter wide large BOPP film lines with a
capacity of almost 30,000 Mta, are required to run at speeds of 600-800
Meter/Minute. The high running speeds exert more demand on winders.<br>
<br>
The winders today are expected to provide very low tension and yet maintain
uniform winding at such high speeds. This is possible because all the modern
winders are AC driven and not operated by DC drive. The maintenance of the AC
driven winders compared to DC drive is much low, making AC the preffered drive
for winders. In the current scenario, practically all winders have made the
switch to AC drive. Tremendous amount of development work has been carried on by
machinery manufacturers in the last 10 years to make them more efficient and
accurate.<br>
<br>
The prime advantage of AC drives is not the speed, but low maintenance. DC
drives have brushes that have to be replaced and can run at lower speeds only
with external air cooling. AC drives have no brushes, don’t need cooling, are
more precise and have greater speed range. More recently, AC servo drives have
been used instead of AC vector types to give more accurate speed and position
control. With DC drives, speed and torque are not linear, and at speeds below
10% there is no torque at all. On the other hand, AC motors—both vector and
servo—have absolutely linear torque development from zero to maximum speed.
That means that a DC drive has a usable speed range of about 80:1; and AC vector
or servo drives have a 2000:1 range. New-generation winders can also maintain
lower tensions at lower line speeds than ever before—an advantage with soft,
thin webs like prestretched stretch film and with blown films. Blown film is
inherently less even in gauge than cast, so it needs to be wound more loosely to
make a flat roll. If stretchy films are wound too tightly, thin areas get
thinner, and thick areas become ridges. With thin films, the gauge variation may
be smaller, but a roll accumulates many more layers, so the total effect of the
variation on roll quality may be greater. Blown film winds typically at 100
meters/minute and up to 200 meters/minute for thin HDPE blown film can wind at
up to 300 meters/minute.<br>
<br>
Older winders are being rebuilt with new drive motors, electronics and load
cells at two-thirds the cost of a whole new winder. All the film processors have
to look at improving the cost to remain competitive. High productivity is the
65 High speed way
film to
extrusion
go where
8/25/2005
demands
new generation
faster winders
winders play an important role.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Mitsubishi Rayon has recently launched a new
series of modified acrylic sheet moulding thermoset compound (SMC) as an
alternative to Polyesters. These new products have better weatherability, hot
water resistance and excellent gloss retention.<br>
<br>
These products can find applications in bathtubs, automotive and boat parts and
road barriers. They tend to provide an excellent marble effect. The new SMC are
filled with 30% glass fibers along with special compatibilizers for modified
Acrylics to achieve uniform bonding that exhibits uniform shrinkage.<br>
<br>
The new products are considered to be more expensive compared to Polyesters.
However, the longer lifetime could offset the higher cost. These products retain
mechanical properties over a long exposure to weathering. They also withstand
hot water better. The colour change in the hot water is significantly lower
66 A new Acrylic
compared
based Sheet
to8/25/2005
Polyester
Mouldingbased
Compound
SMC.</font></p>
has be

Page 55
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">As predicted, the processing power of a silicon


chip almost doubles every 18 months. Advances in silicon chips continue to
enhance the capability of computers. Industry experts believe that silicon
developments will reach their limit only around 2015. In the mean time,
scientists are developing several alternatives to increase the speed of
computers with very low power consumption.<br>
<br>
IBM has recently taken a very bold step by developing the first logic performing
computer circuit from a single molecule using tiny cylinders of carbon atoms.
These carbon nanotube transistors were possible by pouring a special polymer
coating and subsequently etching out part of it to change from Y-type to N-type
transistors. This new discovery helps to eliminate the wiring together of two
different types of transistors. This new technique would allow the scientists to
make as many transistors as required on one nano tube transistor on a single
nano tube.<br>
<br>
As others like Hewlett-Packard are conducting the research, Intel has built the
fastest silicon transistor from 80 atoms in width and 3 atoms in thickness. This
transistor is 1000 times faster than the existing microprocessor.<br>
Who will win in this race? Only time will tell. But one thing is certain that we
are going to continuously make smaller computers running at higher speeds and
67 Will single molecule
consuming computer
a8/25/2005
fraction
circuit
of the
clinch
energy
theused
r today.</font></p>

Page 56
Articles

the financial year 2002-2003 and despite a modest economic growth, plastics have
recovered well in 2003-2004.<br>
<strong><span style="font-weight: normal">PP</span></strong>, which was one of
the fastest growing polymers in the mid nineties, seems to have lost its sheen
in the last 1-2 years. In 2002, PP lost some business to HDPE due to higher
prices, but has currently arrested the shift. Yet the consumption of PP is
expected to be only around 1150KT.<b> </b><strong><span style="FONT-WEIGHT: no
seems to be having a negative growth or reached maturity. Of the Polyethylenes,
only <strong><span style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal">LLDPE</span></strong> seems to
grow well. In fact, LLDPE has achieved a share of more than 60-65% of the total
LD/LLDPE consumption. Only <strong><span style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal">PVC</spa
of 788KT seems to be lower than the expected consumption of about 850 KT in
2003. It could go up to 875KT if PVC pipes pick up in the first quarter of 2004.<br>
<strong><span style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal">PS</span> </strong>is also being
exported due to overcapacity.<br>
<br>
The industry expects the following consumption figures for commodity plastics in
2003-2004<br>
<br>
</font>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="721" border="
<tbody>
<tr align="left" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="169" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><strong><font face="Arial" c
<td width="548" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><strong><font face="Arial" c
in KT</font></strong></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 17.25pt" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
Bottle</b></font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
Film</b></font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center" width="548"><b><font face="Arial" color=
Page 57
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" width="169"><font face="Arial" size="2" c
Articles

<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">PE and PVC films used in fresh food
packaging as well as green houses, often turn opaque and lose clarity when
moisture gets trapped inside the films. Special additive systems are required to
prevent condensation of water droplets. Compared to the surface treatment, the
dosing of additive in the material is more effective and more long lasting. They
certainly enhance the attractiveness of packaging systems and also increase the
shelf life of the package.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Antifogging additives are typically surface
active agents that have both hydrophilic as well as lipophilic parts. Typically
Sorbian esters, polyoxyeytthylene esters, glycerol esters have so far been
effectively used as antifogging agents. Polyglycerol esters is a new family of
antifogging agents that have been introduced by Solvay S.A. These are
biodegradable and very efficient because of low content of residual glycerol.
They are in liquid form and are colourless and maintain the clarity and colour
of the basic polymer. One of the major advantages of these new products is their
controlled migration, which provides longer life to the film, making them more
effective for a longer time. Some of the typical products are based on lauric
acid or oleic acid.These agents can also provide antistatic properties in
70 New Polyglycerol
addition esters8/26/2005
have
to their better antifogging
antifogging p
characteristics.</font></p>

Page 58
Articles

Plastics Consultants, on the problems faced by the plastics industry,


specifically looking into waste management and environmental issues.</font></em><fo
<br>
</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">At various Seminars, Conferences and gatherings,
I often hear about plastics waste management and environmental issues. The
attack on the plastics industry is quite severe, particularly on plastic films.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Some introspection will reveal
that, we ourselves are to be blamed for inviting the wrath of Nature, Government
and Society. Hence it is our responsibility to think wisely for a solution.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Ours is a country of over one
billion people and we know that of our country's total population few are
literate. But does this really make a difference? Literate or illiterate, the
littering habits of most of our countrymen in metros, cities and villages are
the same. While I do not deny for the necessity for the spread of awareness,
there are many more important national issues needing awareness. Civic sense can
reach every citizen through education, media or legislation, for in order to
stop the menace of littering, we must start with ourselves.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">It is easy to blame someone else
and that is exactly what we do. People blame Municipal Corporations and the
Municipal authorities pass the blame back to the people and the industry. It is
easy to announce bans but very difficult to implement them, as plastics are so
much a necessity because of their user-friendliness. The Municipal authorities
have a task at hand just keeping the city clean with or without plastics. If
plastics were not there, paper, cloth, glass and other garbage would give enough
work for municipal authorities to deal with. <strong>Plastics only contribute
3-5% more to the total municipal waste; then why the hue and cry? </strong>Factually
speaking, there are more people damaging the environment than there are to clean
up and beautify our surroundings.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Let us face up to the facts and
shoulder our responsibility. Let all the Plastics Associations who are involved
in promoting growth of the industry join forces. Let us collaborate and find
ways of creating a work force to collect and clean plastics from wherever it is
found, littered by all of us: plastics people and citizens in general. Not only
will we help clean the environment but in the process we will also be creating
massive employment opportunities for millions of our countrymen who have no jobs
and livelihood.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong>Yes, the big question
that pops up is where will the funds come from. </strong>Where do you expect the
Municipal authorities to get funds from?<strong><br>
</strong>We plastics processors and raw material manufacturers must rise to the
occasion, we must open up our minds and see the long-term benefits of this
proposal. For 3.5 million tonnes of plastic produced and used by all of us, a
recollection levy of 1% (say about Rs.500/-) per Tonne, would automatically fund
the entire proposal, as well as create employment opportunities, and put aside
all arguments about plastics being harmful for the environment. It would also
give sufficient impetus for processors to use only virgin material instead of
using dirty, filthy recycled material and there would be no necessity for any
kind of bans by any authority.<br>
</font></p>
<p align="justify"><strong><font face="Arial" size="2">WORKING METHODOLOGY:</f
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">1. Flow chart:<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Plas
products - consumer - consumer waste/household waste - collection by waste
management organisation - transportation to waste collection dump
-washing/cleaning/segregation/crushing - supply as fuel for development of
energy OR supply as raw material for recycling - extrusion/production of
recycled products such as lumber OR part of compounded raw material for
Page 59
industrial products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">2. It is necessary to create a
waste management organisation which will function on a National level to employ
Articles

<p><strong><font face="Arial" size="2">PLASTICS, YOUR FAVOURITE SHOPPING BASK


:-</font></strong><font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
The milk delivered to your doorsteps everyday. The morning cup of tea. The
edible oil, vanaspati salt and atta in your daily diet. To packaging the mineral
water that is your travel companion. Plastics reach out to millions of people.
Ensuring quality, freshness, health, safety &amp; hygiene. From Groceries to
Water. Oil to farm freshness. They are all wrapped in plastics...<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, MULTI-TALENTS FOR MULTIMEDIA :-</strong><br>
No Movies without plastics. No Music without plastics. No Sports and Leisure
without plastics. Volumes of infotainment have been recorded on millions of
miles of plastic. The story of plastics has been very much the making of the
modern world. And it continues...<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, SAVING TREES FOR POSTERITY :-</strong><br>
Imagine felling millions of trees for your personal seating comfort. Or for that
matter to cart your favorite cold drinks. Everytime you munch an apple remember
that a tree has been felled somewhere for its packing. Step in plastics - From
Furniture to Crates and Boxes for Packaging to Doors and Windows. Ever wondered
about the number of trees plastics actually saves from ending up in your homes.
But we still have miles to go...<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, HIGH-TECH ON HIGHWAYS :-</strong><br>
Hi-strength-to-weight-ratio plastics have been the global auto-designers dream
solution. To create light-weight vehicles with lower pollution, lower emissions.
More fuel-efficient cars resulting in considerable savings in energy. And of
course the ultimate in aesthetics and passenger comfort. No doubt plastics are
&quot;behind the wheel&quot; of every quality auto brand- globally.<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, HARBINGER OF THE NEW AGE :-</strong><br>
Telephony and Fax, e-mail and the internet. The world is getting smaller,
linking various sectors to meet ecological and economic requirements. The
versatility of plastics has made all this possible, and through cost-efficiency
made it available to all virtually on the lap-top....<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, AN INEXHAUSTIBLE SOURCE OF TAILOR-MADE SOLUTIONS :-</strong
From increasing crop-yields through modern farming techniques. To bringing more
of what is produced more efficiently to the masses. And supporting highly
efficient water management systems. plastics help to secure the future of India.
From food security to water harvesting plastics play a key role.<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, PROVIDING SECURITY TO CURRENCY WOES :-</strong><br>
From Credit Cards and Smart Cards. To Banknotes and security documents. Plastics
have lent themselves to increasing soundness in the transaction world. Plastics
are trailblazers of Economical Progress....<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, GIVING FRESH IMPULSE TO MEDICAL SCIENCE :-</strong><br>
Plastics contribute to spectacular medical improvements. And help to put
contemporary medicine within the reach of millions. From disposable syringes. To
artificial implants and tailored medical packaging. To the not so distant
operating theatre of the 21st century of tele-operations via remote control.
Plastics truly save lives and make lives again worth living...<br>
<br>
<strong>PLASTICS, FOR A BETTER LIVING :-</strong><br>
Plastics have step-changed life styles &amp; conveniences in home cutting across
every strata of society - from refrigerators to mixies; from washing machines to
water filters; from the ubiquitous bucket to thermoware. Making life easier
72 Plastics enhance
betteryour
&amp;daily
8/26/2005
happier
life for the housewife. And of course the happy healthy family</font>.
Page 60
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">PLASTICS</font><b><font face="A


</font></b><font face="Arial" size="2">as a whole are being looked down upon as
environment unfriendly. But this is not true. The problem with plastic is its
waste disposal management. The Ministry of Environment &amp; Forests, Government
of India has in consultation with members of the Plastic Industry - more
particularly the Enviroplast Committee of the Plastindia Foundation, Mumbai,
after detailed study, worked out a way to minimise the effects of nuisance of
plastic waste, particularly Jabla Bags. The Plastic industry has agreed to
honour the national guidelines on Waste Management.<br>
<br>
The principal materials used for packaging are glass, paperboard, metals and
plastics. Modern packaging makes a major contribution towards reduction in
spoilage and wastage of resources.<br>
<br>
Plastics packaging represents a highly efficient use of resources. As the German
Society for research into markets for packaging, powerfully demonstrated, if
plastics were not used by the packaging industry then the weight of packaging
would increased by 300%, the volume of rubbish by 150% end the energy consumed
by the packaging industry 100%. Recent developments in Plastics Technology have
led to stronger materials so that less material is needed for particular
applications. <b>Plastics packaging achieves maximum mileage from minimum
resources and is therefore an excellent means of conserving natural resources.</b><br
<br>
Plastics are a highly energy - efficient form of packaging. Most plastics are
derived from crude oil. When plastic raw materials for packaging are
manufactured, they consume less than 2% of our crude oil. The biggest
contribution towards global warming comes from burning of fossil fuels, which
consumes more than 70% of the crude oil.<br>
<br>
<b>All plastics can be recycled.</b> More than 90% of manufacturing off cuts and
out-of-dimension products are reprocessed into primary products. Fortunately, in
our country Plastic Re-cycling is absolutely economy driven, and does not need
any subsidy.Unlike paper, textile, wood, etc. 65% of the plastics waste is
recycled in our country,which is much higher in comparison to, advanced
countries even like Germany.It not only enables poor people to buy items made of
recycled plastic at affordable prices, but also provides employment to millions
of people in our country.<br>
<br>
<b>Litter is not caused by packaging, but by the people.</b> Only a constant
awareness program or education to dispose of waste with responsibility will
reduce the problem. Like any other packaging materials some plastics would
unfortunately end up as litter. The plastics industry shares the public's
concern over litter and is a committed supporter of the work of the various
municipal corporations and NG0s. Provision of adequate refuse facilities, well
organized waste collection and industrial sponsorship of public education
programs call have a part to play in creating a cleaner environment. Changes in
73 Plastics andpackaging
the Environment
material,
8/26/2005however, will not prevent litter.</font></p>

Page 61
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Whether you are aware of it or not, plastics is a


very important part of your life. The versatility of plastics allows it to be
used in everything from automobile parts to doll parts, from soft drink bottles
to the refrigerators they are stored in. <b>Plastics is everywhere.</b> from the
car in which you drive to work, to the television you watch when you get back
home, plastics help make your life easier and better. So how did plastics become
the material of choice for so many varied applications?<br>
<br>
The simple answer is that Plastics is the material that can provide you with
what you want and need. Plastics have the unique capability to be manufactured
to meet very specific functional needs of consumers. So maybe there's another
question that's relevant: What do I want? Regardless of how you answer this
question, plastics can probably satisfy your needs.<br>
<br>
If a product is made of plastic, there's a reason. And chances are the reason
has everything to do with helping you- the consumer, get what you want: <b>Health,
Safety. Performance. Value</b>. Plastics help make these things possible.<br>
<br>
<b>Going Shopping</b> ..<br>
Just consider the changes we've seen in the supermarkets in recent years.
Plastic wrap helps keep fruits and vegetables fresh while protecting it from the
poking and prodding fingers of your fellow shoppers. Plastic bottles mean you
can actually lift an economy-size bottle of water. And should you accidentally
drop that bottle, it just doesn't break. All in all, plastics help make your
life easier, healthier and safer. At Home ... Plastics help make phones and
computers which are really portable. They help make major appliances - such as
refrigerators or music systems - resist corrosion, last longer and operate more
efficiently.<br>
<br>
<b>Packaging</b> ....<br>
Modern packaging -- such as heat-sealed plastic pouches and wraps -- helps keep
food fresh and free of contamination. That means the resources that went into
producing the food aren't wasted. It's the same thing once you get the food home
-- plastic wraps and resealable containers keep your leftovers protected. In
fact, packaging experts have estimated that each kg of plastic packaging can
reduce food waste by up to 1.7 kg. Plastics can also help you bring home more
products with less packaging. For example, just 1 kg of plastic can deliver 28kg
- roughly 28 litres - of a liquid such as juice, soda or water. You'd need 1.4
kg of aluminum to bring home the same amount, 3.6 kg of steel or 12.2 kg of
glass. Not only do plastic bags require less total energy to produce than paper
bags, they conserve fuel in shipping. Plastics make packaging more efficient,
which ultimately conserves resources. Without plastics, 400% more material by
weight and 200% more material; by volume would be needed to make packaging,
while the volume of packaging would more than double. Doing more with less helps
conserve resources in another way. It helps save energy. In fact, plastics can
play a significant role in energy conservation. Just look at the decision you're
asked to make at the supermarket check-out: &quot;Paper or plastic?&quot; Not
only do plastic bags require less total energy to produce than paper bags, they
conserve fuel in shipping. It takes seven trucks to carry the same number of
paper bags as fits in one truckload of plastic bags.<br>
<br>
<b>Constructing A House</b> ...<br>
Plastics can also help to conserve energy in your home. Vinyl siding and windows
help cut energy consumption and lower your heating and cooling bills. The same
principles apply to appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners.
Plastic parts and insulation have helped to improve their energy efficiency by
30 to 50 percent since the early 1970s. Again, this energy savings helps reduce
your electric and cooling bills. And appliances run more quietly than earlier
74 Plastics anddesigns
You that8/26/2005
used otherPage
materials.</font></p>
62
Articles

long back And, indeed today Mankind is turning out to be a bane for Nature's
treasure troves, thus turning the land into a wasteland. Man's own inventions
are now becoming his Frankenstein. With each new novelty that Man creates, comes
irrevocable damage to the surroundings, First it was the industrialization,
which added a feather in our cap but with it we also got grime, smoke and more
stretches of wastelands. There has not been any looking back every since and we
have gone from strength to strength in our ceaseless task of erosion and
plundering.<br>
<br>
The new age menace appears to be the ubiquitous Plastic bags. No modern age poet
has eulogized the plastic bag for; its culture has seeped in so deep into our
lifestyles that we dread to accept its non existence. Of course, pages have been
written about this sheep in wolf's disguise. Yet, we prefer to turn a blind eye.
And of course, the Wasteland continues to conquer fresher pastures each day.<br>
&nbsp;However, there is a glimmer of hope. For, some like minded individuals
have decided to raise the alarm. And how? Pune decided to take things in their
own hands when a group of people from various organizations realized the
menacing effect of the plastic bags and decided to find means of reducing the
use of the plastic carry bags. Thus, in December 1998 at the Dharti'98 Eco-fair
organized at the University of Pune, the One Million Cloth Bags (OMCB) campaign
was launched. The plan of action was clear. It was decided to substitute plastic
carry bags with cloth bags wherever possible.<br>
<br>
The core group consisted of Sanskriti Menon and Shreelatha Menon of CEE, Jaya
Gadgil of NIE, Danita Daniel and Jayshree Oberoi of WWF, Pune, Kranti Yardi of
the Kirloskar Cummins Nature club, Aishwarya Mavinkurve of the IE group, Shantha
Bhushan of Kalpavariksha, Radhika Bapat, a student and Sarita Pungaliya of the
Aksharnandan School. Coordinating this entire campaign was Aanchal Sondhi of
Kalpavriksha. The intial few months went in formulating the game plan. In June
1999, the campagin decided to go public and the main objective was to target all
the schools in Pune and also to involve corporate bodies to the extent possible
to get more cloth bags in use. For the past one year now, this campaign is
trying to convert people from plastic to cloth. Various methods have been
adopted. A set of 12 posters has been made targeting school children. Thus, they
are easy to read, informative and yet not loaded with statistics, informal and
of course fun, This of course entailed the need of funds. Help came from Rotary
Club, Pune Chapter who took up the expenses of the posters.<br>
<br>
The general public is now gradually noticing the campaign. Many vegetalbe
vendors are saying a firm NO to plastic bags and are insisting upon cloth bags.
This shift is heartening. But, on the other hand, many shop owners prove
reticent, as they fear the loss of customers. Besides cloth bags are more
expensive for them. This definitely proves to be the biggest impediment.
Therefore the customers have to be more conscious &amp; insist upon cloth bags
or better still, carry their own bags.<br>
<br>
As a team effort, the OMCB campaign seems to be gathering momentum each day as
they are gradually moving to the magic figure of 1 million cloth bags, which
they hope to achieve by December 2001. Aiding this campaign to reach its target
earlier all the members are individually pushing it in their respective
capacities.<br>
<br>
Danita Daniel (WWF) and Aanchal ( Kalpavriksha) organized a meeting of
principals and representatives of about thirty convent shcools of Panchagani. A
cloth bag campaign along the same lines of OMCB was launched in Panchagani. The
Kirloskar Cummins Nature Club has taken up the twin task of creating awareness
and getting the school students to make cloth bags. CEE has been instrumental in
making the poster set and the slides. They are also involved in dealing with the
Page 63
Plastic Manufacturers Association, Pune to have a positive interaction with the
manufacturers and maybe arriving at a solution that is mutually acceptable.<br>
<br>
Articles

bags are harmful to plants and the soil<br>


<br>
<b>Counter Point:</b> &quot;Saving The Planet With Plastics&quot;.<br>
Plastics are vital elements in the high-yield farming that can make rooms on the
globe for both people and wildlife. Far from being an insult to the environment,
plastics can do a great deal of environment good through agriculture. Plastics,
too can save wild life by raising crop yields and cropping intensity.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Point:</b> Plastics / Plastic bags are harmful
to plants and soil.<br>
<br>
<b>Counter Point:</b> &quot;Saving the planet with plastics&quot;.<br>
Polyethylene Sheetings/Films, Mulching Films (Laid Atop the Soil) promote rapid
crop development, protect tender young seedlings, promote transplantation,
prevent weeding without pesticides/insecticides, reduce water
losses/evaporation, are important in arid land farming, help reduce soil
erosion, reduce rotting in fruit/vegetable crops, ensure safer and more
effective use of fertilizers.<br>
<br>
<font color="#000080">Soil fumigation covers</font>: Combat nematodes/subsoil
pests, seal in soil fumigant, reduce chemical usage.<br>
<br>
<font color="#000080">Green house covers</font>: Less expensive and less damage
prone than glass sheets, tailored structures for dramatic increase in yield,
productivity and quality (Horticulture and Floriculture), latest technologies
permit use of sea/saline water for indoor crops.<br>
<br>
<font color="#000080">Silage Covers:</font> Protect green foliage for livestock,
replace expensive traditional silos and barns.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">Nursery bags:<b> </b></fo
in afforestation programmes.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><font color="#000080">Canal Linings:</font> Help
in reducing water evaporation/seepage losses and conserve water for agriculture.<br>
<font color="#990033"><br>
</font><font color="#000080">Plastics protect plant life in multiple ways: </font>Plas
prevent massive deforestation by offering wood substitutes e.g. furniture,
building materials, crates. Plastic pipes are used extensively in Irrigation and
Water Management, Food Irrigation, Sprinkler Irrigation, Micro Irrigation
(Drip/Trickle) etc. China uses one million of PE in agriculture applications
alone.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Point:</b> Plastics are not recyclable</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Counter Point:</b> Plastics are 100%
recyclable via various routes: Mechanical recycling: Plastics can be recycled
several times into economically useful low cost products e.g. Footwear, mats,
sewer pipes etc. Waste plastics are also recycled without sorting into synthetic
lumber/wood products like rails, fencing, posts, benches and land scaping
products, plastics can be thermally recycled/incinerated to recover energy,
plastics can be chemically recycled to recover monomer or reuse. In India we
already recycle 60% of plastics from both industry and urban waste stream vs.
world average of 20-25%.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Point:</b> Plastics deplete precious and
scarce fossil fuel</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Counter Point:</b> The different uses of
commercially produced oil. Plastics use globally only 4% of commercially
produced oil. The rest being accounted by transport, energy and others. Infact
plastics add value and extend life of fossil fuel instead of burning it
directly.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Point: </b>Plastics are toxic and are not safe
for usage<b><br>
</b><br> Page 64
<b>Counter Point:</b> Plastics are used world over safely for personal care
products, packaging of food and medicine, invitro medical applications and for
child care products like toothbrush, toothpaste tube, shampoo bottle, milk
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">It is well known that PP


manufacturers modify flow of Polypropylene by making adjustments of molecular
weight using peroxides to breakdown molecular chains. This process, known as
&quot;vis&quot; breaking helps PP producers to rationalize polymerisation
operation.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Most of these peroxides are
liquid and extremely hazardous. The producers of PP have excellent safety setups
capable of handling these peroxides. However, the converters, such as producers
of PP non-wovens using melt blown process or manufacturers of large moulded
products like bumpers, etc. would find it very difficult to handle peroxides
directly on the processing equipments. These peroxides can be developed in the
diluted solid form using one of the following methods.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Absorption in fillers:</strong><br>
<br>
Peroxides can be absorbed to almost 50% level by mineral fillers like CaCO3,
chalk or sillica. Since the amounts of peroxide required is quite small
(250-1000 ppm), the total usage of the peroxide concentrate in fillers is quite
small, making usage feasible. The dispersion of filler in the main product would
be difficult and can cause some quality problems (for instance, in melt blown
fibers).</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Absorption in Porous PP polymer:</str
<br>
Spheripol process has the ability to produce porous PP powder. Peroxides could
be absorbed in this porous PP polymer almost to the extent of 20%. This option
is more expensive than fillers, but offers better dispersion. There are some
ultraporous PE/PP/EVA powders that can absorb more than 50% of peroxides.
However these ultra porous polymers are very expensive.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;<strong>Peroxide Masterbatches:</strong><b
<br>
Peroxides have a very high flow characteristic, can be incorporated into a
polymer carrier upto 10%, hence can be extruded/compounded at very low
temperatures to avoid decomposition. There are very few suppliers of Peroxide
Masterbatches due to a difficult manufacturing process, causing the cost of the
peroxide masterbatches to be quite high.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">However, the masterbatch offers
significant advantages in terms of :<br>
<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Accurate dosing</font
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Excellent Homogenization</font></
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Absence of fine
powder</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Absence of special
legislation required for storage, etc. {Since below 10% peroxide is not
considered &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;dangerous}<br>
The converters can select
Page 65 one of the three products depending upon
requirements. However, the masterbatches possibilty offers the best
option.</font></td>
</tr>
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Solid phase polymerised PET,


commonly used for production of PET bottles, APET sheets and CPET sheets, has
attained consumption levels of almost 9 million tonnes in 2002. Almost 92-93% of
this consumption is dedicated to bottles manufactured by stretch blow moulding
process to produce crystal clear products. Only 7-8% of the consumption is used
for APET (Amorphous) or CPET (Crystalline) sheets.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The market of PET bottles is
predominantly driven by carbonated drinks, though this forthcoming decade is
likely to see higher growth from the mineral water segment. Infact, North
America, which is way behind Europe for mineral water consumption has been
showing significant growth in the last couple of years. Beer packing, which was
expected to provide a very strong demand surge, currently has a very small
share. It is expected that only about&nbsp;100KT&nbsp;of PET bottles are
presently used for beer. While sheet may grow much more than bottles, it is
unlikely that it would have more than 4%&nbsp;share of the total PET market by
2010. The strong growth of mineral water could help in increasing its share by
about 3-5%. The carbonated drinks although may lose some share, but would still
continue to be the major application of PET by 2010.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">North America presently is the
largest consumer of PET. However Asia is expected to match North America in
consumption by 2010, if not already achieved a few years earlier. Infact,
significant capacity additions are being developed, particularly in China. Other
Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, India etc are also building up more
capacities. Infact China will reach the levels of more than 1.3 million tonne
capacity by 2003. The enhanced capacity build up could have an adverse effect on
capacity utilization and hence prices. However this may help in providing growth
stimules in the second half of this decade.<br>
The capacity could increase from 11-12 million tonnes to almost 15 million
tonnes, by 2005 while demand could go up to 11-11.5 million tonnes. At this
capacity utlization, the polymer manufacturer may not be able to achive profits
for reinvestment.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Most of the experts in PET
78 Solid phasebelieve
polymerised
that 8/30/2005
PETdemand
PET - expected to grow
by 2010 by reach a level of 17 million tonnes.</font></p>
would
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The automobile industry is
undergoing various changes. Currently, it is in process of changing the hood
compartments that make engines more hotter. Increasingly, the seals are expected
to perform at temperatures higher than 200ºC, intermittenly rising to 270ºC.
The service requirements are also undergoing changes. Auto makers are aiming to
provide performance with almost no change in autofluids during the life of
automobiles. They demand permanent seals or provide 10 year warranties for no
maintenance.<br>
These demands exert stringent requirements on the elastomeric seals, which
cannot be met by the normal seals made from conventional Fluroelastomers. High
performance Fluroelastomers, costing between $40-$100/kg are needed to fulfill
these new requirements of high temperature resistance to oils containing alkali
amines and very low emissions (0.5gram/24hours) that are being introduced. These
speciality high performance Fluroelastomers have already reached a level of
about 2000 MT out of the total of about 15000 MT requirement of Fluroelastomers.
They are growing almost at about 7-8% compared to about 3-5% for total
Fluroelastomer demand. All the major Fluroelastomer suppliers like Ashai
Fluropolymers Dupont-Dow Elastomers, and Solvay have been developing these newer
79 Speciality Fluroelastomers
high performance
8/30/2005
- increasingly
Speciality Fluroelastomer
used to Products.</font></p>

Page 66
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Linear Polyolefins are known to


pose processing problem due to their short relaxation behaviour and narrow
molecular weight distribution. Among the Linear Polyolefins, LLDPE and MDPE are
found to be more difficult because of higher extrusion speeds. Generally
HDPE/HMHDPE are produced at lower extrusion speeds and in thinner guages. They
pose lesser problems because they are processed at lower shear rates.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">To eliminate problems of shark
skin (melt fracture), die deposits and poorer surface finish, Polymer Processing
Aids (PPA) are required. These PPA essentially coat the surface of the die to
prevent sticking of melt. These PPAs are incorporated into the grades. During
processing, PPAs migrate to die surface and coat it. PPA belong to
Fluroelastomer family of polymers. Recently rheologically modified
fluroelastomer grades have been developed. These grades spread easily and
therefore coat die surfaced more effectively. These modified grades contain
either Polyethylene Glycol or Polycaprolactone as interfacial agents to provide
better thermal stability. They improve efficiency of fluroelastomers. There is
also an interesting PPA grades based on Boron Nitride. It is claimed that Boron
Nitride is a very effective processing aid for Metallocene LLDPE. Some of HDPE
film grades also contain Fluroelastomer for better performance. All LLDPE / HDPE
film producers cannot ignore PPA since they provide better performance and
80 Enhanced performance 8/30/2005
withprofitability.</font></p>
therefore better polymer processing aids
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polyethylene film manufacturers
have been attempting to replace paper bags for the last several years but have
not been completely successful yet. One of the major reasons is that
polyethylene bag does not have good deadfold and crease retention,
characteristics that are offered by paper bags. The new developments of HM HDPE
grade has helped in improving these characteristics. Some of the polyethylene
bags of three-layer structure containing new HM HDPE grade in core structure
have crease resistance and deadfold characteristics similar to paper. Such
Polyethylene bags are increasingly used in American fast food chains as well as
other retail stores. These type of plastic bags are now manufactured between
15-100 micron thickness. The three layer co-extrusion system is found to be more
suitable. Generally the outerlayer contains paper like film while the rigidity
is derived from the core of HM HDPE. A major masterbatch manufacturer Schulman
is marketing a special masterbatch called Papermatch which provides paper like
81 Paper like PE
feel
bags
to polyethylene
have8/30/2005
a promising
in thefuture
skin layers.</font></p>

Page 67
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Egypt has significant reserves of


natural gas. Some estimates indicate that Egypt has almost 60 trillion cubic
feet gas reserves, mostly in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. So far
this gas is used for power generation. No major petrochemical investments have
yet materialised, despite the fact that almost 1.2 million tonnes of commodity
plastics like PE, PVC and PS are used in Egypt. Almost all these petrochemicals
are imported either from Saudi Arabia, Korea or India.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The Egyptian Government has been
contemplating the setting up of major petrochemical projects including:</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">A 1 million tpa
of Ethylene cracker and Polyethylene plant. The Government of Egypt is
in the advanced stage of developing a joint venture with Chevron
Phillips.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Another project is expected
to produce propylene and LAB</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">The other project
is expected to produce&nbsp;&nbsp;Methanol as well as
Styrene/Polystyrene.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">To support the carpet
factories of Oriental Weavers Group, there is a possibility of doubling
the capacity of PP Plant from the existing 160K tpa. Propylene for this
project would be obtained from the new 350K tpa dehydrogenation project.</font>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
82 Will Egypt invest
All these
in petrochemicals
projects
8/30/2005
are at in
anthe
advanced
near fu stage and could be finalized by 2004.</font>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polypropylene has been used in
washing machines for over two decades, though it has not yet received wide
acceptance in the interiors of dishwashers. Of course, PP has been used in the
US in dishwashers as door liners and interior walls. But the European dishwasher
manufacturers have not yet adopted PP in application for dishwasher parts.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Recent developments in PP grades,
with better properties will now widen the scope and usage of PP in dishwashers.
Borealis has recently conducted co-operative development with Bosch-Siemens
using talc modified PP composite. Infact, Borealis has developed a new grade
that has twice the impact of a conventional 30% talc filled PP compound.
Besides, it is designed to provide better scratch resistance. This grade is
specially stabilized to withstand hot water (75ºC) along with the aggressive
environment of detergents etc. without affecting stiffness-impact balance. As a
result of these developments, Bosch-Siemen plans to introduce complete tub
83 PP is gaining wider
floors foracceptance
8/30/2005
in dishwashers
dishwashers, weighing more than 3.5 kgs in the next couple of years.</font><

Page 68
Articles

<b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">The price of oil has stayed close


to record levels as Hurricane Katrina batters the US southern coastline.</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A barrel of US light crude was trading at $67.96
a barrel in New York, up 76 cents from its Monday close of $67.20.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">On Monday, the price surged to a record of $70.80
on concerns that Katrina would damage refining and extraction operations in the
Gulf of Mexico.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Meanwhile, in London, Brent crude caught up after
the UK Bank Holiday, rising $1.38 cents to $66.25 a barrel. <!-- E SF -->
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">While Katrina has lost some of its power,
estimates are that total damages may be as much as $25bn (£14bn).</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">An oil rig hit a bridge in Mobile Bay, Alabama,
after breaking free from its mooring in a dry dock, while another two rigs are
reported to be adrift in the Gulf of Mexico.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Hundreds of other platforms were closed and staff
evacuated.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Breaking point?</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Financial markets are nervous because supplies of
oil and refining capacity were stretched even before Katrina arrived.</font><!-- E IBOX
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Should a serious disruption occur, then analysts
have warned that the cost of a barrel of crude could break the $100 barrier.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">That would push up the cost of key products such
as petrol, and could have a negative impact on consumer spending and global
growth.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">However, the effects of the hurricane - which
weakened after making landfall - may not be as serious as first thought, and
several of the refineries that had closed operations are already up and running.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Analysts said that getting refining capacity back
on line was the key to minimising the problems caused by Katrina.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Bubble to 'burst'</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Meanwhile, Steve Forbes, the US publishing
executive, said Tuesday he expected the price of oil to fall as low as $35 a
barrel within a year, blaming the current price spike largely on speculation.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Mr Forbes, in Sydney for a conference of global
business said US inflation was helping fuel the rise &quot;and the rest of it is
a sheer bubble of speculation.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">He said that when the oil price
&quot;bubble&quot; eventually burst in could make the high-tech burst of 2000
&quot;look like a picnic&quot;.</font><!-- E IIMA -->
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;It's a huge bubble, I don't know what's
going to pop it but eventually it will pop - you cannot go against supply and
demand, you cannot go against the fundamentals forever,&quot; Mr Forbes said.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Emergency measures</font></
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">As the current crisis rumbled on, however, the US
government said it was considering releasing some of its strategic petroleum
reserve to help bring prices down.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Opec - the Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries - is considering raising its production ceiling at a meeting
next month, although analysts have said that this would be a mainly symbolic
gesture.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The group, which consists of countries including
Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Nigeria and Venezuela, is already busting its limits for
daily crude production and has little spare capacity.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Despite this, an increase of one million barrels
a day from Opec was proposed from Nigeria's top oil official Edmund Daukoru.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This would have a better effect on soaring prices
than the 500,000 barrel a day increase proposed by the cartel's president Sheik
Ahmad al-Fahd al-Sabah, he 69
Page said.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;At these prices maybe we should take a
bigger bite,&quot; Mr Daukoru said.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">On Tuesday, Hurricane Katrina was still lashing
Articles

bring only limited environmental benefits to Scotland, according to research.</font></b


<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The Scottish Executive ordered the study after a
bill by Lib Dem MSP Mike Pringle proposed such a levy.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Researchers said plastic bags accounted for less
than 1% of litter and would have a &quot;minor&quot; impact on the country's
overall litter problem.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">But Mr Pringle argued that such studies
underestimated the impact that changing perceptions could make. <!-- E SF -->
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The research said that although there would be
environmental gains, paper bags had a greater effect on the environment than
conventional plastic carrier bags.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;If paper bags are excluded from the levy,
as currently proposed, we estimate that paper bag usage will increase by 174
million bags per year to 213 million per year,&quot; said the report.</font><!-- E IBOX -
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;This will have associated environmental
implications in terms of increased energy use, transport costs, storage space
and waste disposal.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The levy would reduce the number of plastic bags
used each year by 697 million.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">There would be increased demand for long-lasting
bags, bin liners and paper bags, resulting in an estimated fall of 3,484 tonnes
of polythene used in Scotland.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">But it said there would be a rise of 8,893 tonnes
of paper.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Applying the levy to paper bags would result in a
reduction of 3,214 tonnes of polythene a year, and an annual decrease of 1,779
tonnes of paper.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Change perceptions</font></b
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The Lib Dem MSP welcomed the study but added:
&quot;Whilst studies such as this are useful, they can often underestimate how
big an impact changing behaviour and perceptions can make.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;The levy in Ireland has been phenomenally
successful in reducing unnecessary use of plastic bags. I believe my bill will
help change perceptions towards our use of resources in Scotland as well.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">However, store owners said the proposals would be
an &quot;administrative nightmare&quot; which would actually have the effect of
increasing waste.</font><!-- E IBOX -->
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The Carrier Bag Consortium said the report had
found that it could result in 700 jobs being lost.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">CBC chairman Barry Turner said: &quot;Emotive
misinformation and political spin has described plastic carrier bags as a
menace.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;But in the face of that, the experts
commissioned by the Scottish Executive have reached many robust conclusions.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;They effectively dismantle the
environmental myths surrounding the effects a plastic bag tax would have on
Scotland and its people.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The Scottish Retail Consortium (SRC) argued that
the official findings offered &quot;very little justification&quot; for
introducing a fee under the Plastic Bags (Scotland) Bill, which could become law
some time in 2007.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Scheme 'flawed'</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Spokeswoman Fiona Moriarty said: &quot;We see
this debate becoming extremely emotive to the point where delivering any true
environmental, social or economic benefit is becoming less of a priority.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;The scheme is flawed and we are not
convinced that it delivers genuine environmental benefits.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" Page 70
size="2">She added: &quot;The introduction of a levy on
carriers will unfairly penalise the innovative steps being made towards the
manufacture of bags from recycled plastics or using biodegradable plastics.</font><!--
Articles

<font face="Arial" size="2"><!-- E IIMA -->


<!-- S SF -->
<b><font color="#000080">Hurricane Katrina could cost insurers as much as $25bn
(£14bn), experts say, although the financial impact may be less severe than
first thought.</font></b></font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Katrina has left a trail of destruction in its
wake, claiming 50 lives and leaving a million homes without power.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">It has caused millions of dollars worth of damage
in Louisiana and Mississippi.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Experts said Katrina could be as expensive as
1992's Hurricane Andrew - which at $21bn in today's money is the most expensive
in US history. <!-- E SF -->
</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Differing estimates</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Although the storm was downgraded from category
five to three, winds reached up to 155mph (250k/ph), causing substantial damage
across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;Katrina is in a range comparable to Andrew,
cost-wise,&quot; David Bresch, head of the Atmospheric Perils Group at reinsurer
Swiss Re, said on Tuesday.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;But it will take another couple of days
before we have an estimate, as the flooding is still going on.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">US insurers have put the likely cost of claims at
up to $25bn while Munich Re, the world's top reinsurer, estimated a slightly
lower figure of $15bn-$20bn.</font><!-- E IBOX -->
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">However, experts also said Katrina's path - which
took it around the most densely populated areas - may have lessened its
financial impact.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;Projections that this is going to be the
worst ever are probably off... we're probably looking at something that's in the
top five,&quot; said Robert Hartwig, chief economist at the Insurance
Information Institute.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Oil impact</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Insurance consultancy Eqecat reduced its estimate
of damage-related claims from an initial $15bn-$30bn to a maximum of $16bn after
the eye of the storm passed veered away from the centre of New Orleans.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Eqecat said its estimate did not include damage
to oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico - many of which are more than 25 years old -
and warned that predicting damages could be tricky.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;We do know the storm path went through an
area where there are a number of production platforms,&quot; said Rick Clinton,
Eqecat's president.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;When you start looking at the older
platforms, built prior to 1980 and 1970, that will have a dramatic impact.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Shares in a number of Europe's leading insurers
and reinsurers - including Munich Re and Allianz - rose on Tuesday on
expectations that the size of claims would not be as high as initially thought.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Munich Re said its own share of the likely
insurance bill would be an estimated 400m euros and would not affect its
86 Katrina damage
profits.</font></p>
'could top
8/30/2005
$25bn.

Page 71
Articles

<b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Optimism over the possible


outcome of a general election in Germany has given consumer sentiment in the
country an unexpected boost, a survey has found.</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Figures from the Gfk market research group showed
that consumer sentiment for September has risen to 3.4, from an upwardly revised
3.2 in August.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The results were in direct contrast to analyst
forecasts of a fall to 2.7.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Gfk economist Rolf Beurkl said the uptick may be
a result of hopes that the election would boost the economy. <!-- E SF -->
</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Gfk polls around 2,000 people on their views
about the economic outlook, their hopes for income and the likelihood that they
will make big purchases in the future.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Election hopes</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;The fact that elections on 18 September are
starting to feel close now is boosting hopes of positive economic developments,
particularly among younger people ... and those in higher socio-economic
groups,&quot; Mr Beurkl said.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;Despite higher oil prices and discussions
about an increase in sales tax, German consumer sentiment has improved.&quot;</font
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Commentators and polls in the run-up to the
election have widely predicted defeat for Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder's
coalition of Social Democrats and Greens.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Weak growth and rising unemployment have made the
conservative opposition a more attractive proposition to the electorate.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">And one of the conservative's key strategies is
thought to be behind the unexpected rise in consumer sentiment.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Conservatives led by Angela Merkel have promised
to raise value added tax (VAT) to 18% from 16% in January - should they get into
power.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">In response consumers may be saying that they are
prepared to shell out more money for purchases ahead of the increase in an
effort to save money in the long run.</font>
<p><b><font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">Lasting upturn?</font></b>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;Whether private consumption really is
experiencing an upward trend will largely depend on the extent to which fuel
price increases and higher consumer taxes will affect the budgets of private
households,&quot; the Gfk said in a statement.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">However, experts were unsure about whether
improving sentiment would be maintained as sky-high oil prices could still crimp
growth.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Furthermore, an Ifo survey of German retailers
last week showed their mood had sunk to a five-month-low as their assessment of
current and future conditions worsened.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;We do not know how seriously to take this
increase in the indicator,&quot; Matthias Rubisch of Commerzbank said.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Mr Beurkl from Gfk added: &quot;For a lasting
upturn in consumer behaviour we need to see continued improvement in economic
growth and the labour market.&quot;</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The group also warned that a clear division
remained between East and West Germany with people in the East extremely
87 Mood of German consumers
pessimistic 8/30/2005
about improves
future prospects.</font></p>

Page 72
Articles

more than 4 million tonnes capacity of commodity plastics at the various plant
sites located in Saudi Arabia. It has more than 2.5% share of the global
capacity of these commodity plastic raw materials. The present capacity of the
commodity plastics is :<br>
</font></p>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<b><font face="Arial" color="#000080" size="3">Product</font></b>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<b><font face="Arial" color="#000080" size="3">KT</font></b>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" color="#000080" size="3"><b>%</b></font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" align="left">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">PE</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">2600</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">65</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" align="left">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">PP</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">900</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#000080">22</font>
</div>
Page 73
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
Articles

well during the first half of this financial year. In fact, figures indicate
some negative growth. However, the second half of the year could bring about
some moderate growth. The non-vinyl masterbatches sector continues to show at
least 10% growth in 2002-2003 despite the lull in commodity plastics
consumption.<br>
Processors have found the advantages of enhanced dispersion and improved
housekeeping at a very modest cost. The raffia sector still continues to be the
most dominating sector consuming almost 25-30KT of antifibrillation masterbatch
alone. Colour masterbatches continue to be the major component from the
remaining 42-43KT. In fact, white and black colours together account for almost
32KT (22KT for white and 10KT for black). Other coloured masterbatches could
account for almost 7-8KT. The additive masterbatches particularly used for BOPP
film or even Polyethylene and PET film are expected to develop volumes of about
4KT. While the masterbatch for PE telephone ducting has not been able to
maintain its growth in the last 2 years, the UV, cling, nucleation, stiffness
enhancing additives masterbatches have grown quite well. The consumption pattern
of masterbatches across various application sectors is:</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="100%" border=
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b><font face="Arial" color="#000080" si
<td align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b><font face="Arial" color="#000080" si
in 2002-2003(KT)</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Raffia/Fiber</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>28-32</b>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Film</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>22-25</b>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Pipe/Profile/Cable</font></td
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>3</b></f
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Blow Moulded Containers</fo
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>7</b></f
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Total</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>70</b></
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The industry continues adding
manufacturing capacities, since the entry barriers are quite low. In fact, the
manufacture of antifibrillation masterbatch has been very widely spread across
the country. While actual capacity of dedicated masterbatch manufacturing is
quite difficult to determine, it is estimated that the total capacity is more
than 175KT compared to almost 70KT consumption in 2002-3 financial year. There
are several small-scale producers with one or two manufacturing lines. Some of
them are quite happy to even utilize their capacity over 10-12 hours production
in a day.<br>
It is estimated that there are more than 200 producers of masterbatches out of
which only 20-25 have capacity more than 1000T/year.<br>
</font>
Page 74
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">G. E. Plastics has introduced in


2001, a new series of ETP blend under the brand name of XYLEX.<br>
Xylex is an interesting blend of polycarbonate with a new type of alphatic
polyester that GE Plastics has developed after several years of research.<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Xylex exhibits
clarity similar to polycorbonate, but has much superior chemical
resistance.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">It retains excellent impact
strength of polycarbonate, but has better flow characterstics that makes
it more widely suitable for several complex mouldings.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Xylex has chemical
resistance, particularly, resistance to stains of food products.</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
The first commerical usage of XYLEX was in sports sunglasses.Since then, it has
also found application in cell phones and other hand held devices. It's chemical
resistance and resistance to stains of food products have encourged Rubbermaid
Home Products, the largest producers of food storage containers to develop stain
shield food storage products. These products have been introduced in September
2002 in USA. These containers have glass-like clarity and are safe for use in
microwave as well as dishwasher. What is most interesting about these products
is that it is resistant to the most notorious stains of food including that
comes from tomato based products.<br>
Watch for these new aesthetically appealing, glass-like clear products and try
90 A new ETP blend
out them
of Polycarbonate
against
9/8/2005
the stains
and an
of Indian
alphatic
curry
P products.</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Union Carbide, before acquired by DOW, had a
significant business of Polyolefins Wire and Cable Compounds. DOW, with its
Inspire technology using Metallocene catalysts is now developing PE grades to
enhance processability, extrudability and uniformity of cell structure of PE
foam cables. The higher mechanical properties of Inspire PE polymers would also
allow cable manufacturers to reduce thickness of coating. DOW, after initial
introduction of HDPE power cable compounds at the recent Wire 2002 conference,
plans to introduce more grades to achieve higher temperture resistance, higher
91 DOW introduces
insulation
cableproperties
compound
9/8/2005 that will yield improved electrical performance.</font></p>

Page 75
Articles

growing at a lower pace compared to the other commodity polymers like


Polyolefins and PVC and have been replaced by PP in many applications. This
could possibly be because of comparatively higher price due to higher costs of
basic feedstocks like Benzene, Butadiene and Acrylonitrile. In fact, the total
consumption of Styrenic polymers scales to just about 17 million tonnes in 2001,
compared to 85 million tonnes of Polyolefins and about 25 million tonnes of PVC.
Styrenics have overall been found to grow at about 3-4%, compared to about 5% of
Polyolefins. PVC, despite the increasing pressures from the green lobby, has
been able to grow at slightly higher rate compared to Styrenics.</font>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">The total consumption of Styrenic
Polymer in 2001 compared to 1999 is lower mainly due to weaker demand. While the
figure of actual consumption in 2001 varies according to the research studies,
the average consumption is about 16.5-17 million tonnes. The consumption can be
divided as:</font></p>
<div align="center">
<center>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="0" width="100%" border="0" cellPadding
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font size="2" face="Arial">Types</font></b></p>
</td>
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font size="2" face="Arial">Million Tonnes</font></b><
</td>
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font size="2" face="Arial">(%)</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font size="2" face="Arial">Solid PS</font
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font size="2" face="Arial">Expandable
PS</font></td>
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font size="2" face="Arial">Copolymers
/ Terpolymers</font></td>
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font size="2" face="Arial">Modified
PS</font></td>
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
<td width="27%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="46%" height="2" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b><font size="2" face="Arial"
<td width="27%" height="2" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><b><font size="
<td width="27%" height="2" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><b><font size="
</tr>
</tbody>
</table> Page 76
</center>
</div>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Phillip Townsend Associates, a
Articles

more than 4 million tonnes capacity of commodity plastics at the various plant
sites located in Saudi Arabia. It has more than 2.5% share of the global
capacity of these commodity plastic raw materials. The present capacity of the
commodity plastics is :<br>
</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0" bgcolor="#F
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<b><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">Product</font></b>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<b><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">KT</font></b>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<b><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">%</font></b>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2">PE</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2600</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>65</b></font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2">PP</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="49%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>900</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="20%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center">
<div ?left?>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>22</b></font>
</div>
</td>
</tr> Page 77
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="31%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div ?left?>
Articles

well during the first half of this financial year. In fact, figures indicate
some negative growth. However, the second half of the year could bring about
some moderate growth. The non-vinyl masterbatches sector continues to show at
least 10% growth in 2002-2003 despite the lull in commodity plastics
consumption.<br>
Processors have found the advantages of enhanced dispersion and improved
housekeeping at a very modest cost. The raffia sector still continues to be the
most dominating sector consuming almost 25-30KT of antifibrillation masterbatch
alone. Colour masterbatches continue to be the major component from the
remaining 42-43KT. In fact, white and black colours together account for almost
32KT (22KT for white and 10KT for black). Other coloured masterbatches could
account for almost 7-8KT. The additive masterbatches particularly used for BOPP
film or even Polyethylene and PET film are expected to develop volumes of about
4KT. While the masterbatch for PE telephone ducting has not been able to
maintain its growth in the last 2 years, the UV, cling, nucleation, stiffness
enhancing additives masterbatches have grown quite well. The consumption pattern
of masterbatches across various application sectors is:</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0" bgcolor="#F
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Sector</b
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Consumpt
in 2002-2003(KT)</b></font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Raffia/Fiber</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">28-32</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Film</font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">22-25</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Pipe/Profile/Cable</font></td
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">3</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">Blow Moulded Containers</fo
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2">7</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Total</b></font></td>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>70</b></font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The industry continues adding
manufacturing capacities, since the entry barriers are quite low. In fact, the
manufacture of antifibrillation masterbatch has been very widely spread across
the country. While actual capacity of dedicated masterbatch manufacturing is
quite difficult to determine, it is estimated that the total capacity is more
than 175KT compared to almost 70KT consumption in 2002-3 financial year. There
are several small-scale producers with one or two manufacturing lines. Some of
them are quite happy to even utilize their capacity over 10-12 hours production
in a day.<br>
It is estimated that there are more than 200 producers of masterbatches out of
which only 20-25 have capacity more than 1000T/year.<br>
</font>
Page 78
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics labels made from either


shrink or stretch films have been used to provide protection and aesthetics to
packaging containers. These labels are quite commonly seen on carbonated drink
bottles. In fact, they provide attractive graphics to the plain PET bottles. In
the recent developments, these labels have found to cover the entire body of
containers mainly with a view to enhance the sales appeal of the products using
catching graphics. In fact, some of the recent market research studies conducted
in North America indeed clearly illustrate the advantages of these new full body
plastic labels. They have helped in achieving tremendous increase in the sales
of consumer products as well as of rigid plastic packaging, mainly of blow
moulded products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">It is also predicted that plastic
labels will grow at 20% over the next few years. It is therefore but natural
that plastics containers would also increase their markets by replacement of
card board tubes (Fritolys &amp; Wafers). These full body plastic bottles can be
easily used in place of transparent products without losing any sales appeal.
The black coloured container could be an economic alternative to the UV
stabilised transparent containers. While stretch and shrink film labels can be
used, shrink labels offer better graphic possibility due to several types of
printable friendly polymeric materials that can offer excellent clarity and
gloss, the two primary requirements of labels. Stretch film essentially made
from LLDPE on the other hand offers economy. For shrink labels, several
materials are used that include BOPP, PVC, PS and Polyester copolymers.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">BOPP labels, developed by AET
Films and Exxon Mobil have shrinkage of maximum 25% in machine direction and
have hotmelt adhesives on one surface for sealing, are used for simple bottles
having less contours and shapes. They also demand higher temperature for
shrinkage. On the other hand, PVC shrink labels have high shrinkage (almost
50-70%) in transverse directions. The low shrink tension and low temperatures
required for shrinkage make PVC labels to have the highest market share. In fact
almost 2/3rd of shrink label business belongs to PVC. There is however a small
technical problem of easy separation by floatation method in recycling from PET
containers because of similar density. Styrenic labels based on SB resins or
K-resins of Chevron Phillips can provide 40% shrinkage and are softer due to
Butadiene contents. Polyester copolymers like PETG of Eastman, although more
expensive than all other types, are making in road into this business on account
of the highest shrinkage (80%) and lower temperatures required for shrinkage.
Klockner Pentaplast and Mitsubishi Polyester are the key players in Polyester
labels. According to some market research studies conducted in North America,
copolyesters grow at almost 35% while the workhorse PVC at 12%. Both BOPP and
styrenic shrink labels are expected to show lower growth rate of about 8-10%.</font></
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">American Fuji Seal, Sleeveco and
Sleever Canada are the most well known integrated suppliers of the entire range
of shrink labels and high speed equipments needed for sleeves/label application
on containers or other products. Shrink labels market in India is growing quite
well mainly in PVC but the other types of shrink labels are either in the
95 Plastic labels
nascent
enhancestage(BOPP)
markets
9/8/2005
oforblow
are moulded
non-existent.</font></p>
pla

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Articles

reached almost 3.2 million tonnes, from a modest level of merely 500KT in 1985.
It has continued to grow at an average rate of over 12% in the last 16 years.
Infact it has outbeaten both cellophane and PET in the last two decades.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Cellophane has almost been made
redundant. PET film, although having better rigidity and clarity, has not been
able to keep pace with BOPP on account of cost benefits offered by BOPP. Several
market research studies indicate that BOPP market could reach about 4 million
tonnes by 2003-2004 and 6 million tonnes by 2010. BOPP therefore will continue
to outperform growth of PP.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The demand of BOPP has been much
higher in the Asian regions, over the last few years. Infact Asia accounts for
almost 33% of the total consumption of 3.5 million tonnes in 2001. China has
become a great force in BOPP and is expected to soon become a global leader on
account of a more than 9% average growth rate that is expected in the coming
decade. It is expected that China will account for more than 1 million tonne out
of 6 million tonnes consumption of BOPP by 2010. North America and West Europe,
with almost 42-43% share of global market in 2001 are not likely to grow beyond
5%.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The present world scale BOPP film
plant has a reached a capacity of more than 25kt. Infact a few new lines have
been designed to produce 32kt of BOPP films from a single line. Nan Ya Plastic,
with more than 100kt BOPP capacity on 6 lines is expected to commission 2 new
lines having individual capacity of 32kt by 2003. BOPP film capacities of
stenter lines have grown dramatically in the nineties.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">There are more than 160 producers
of BOPP in the world. Market research companies like AMI for e.g., estimates
about 200 producers. However the top 10 producers account for almost 40% of the
total capacity. Infact there are about 6 producers that have capacity beyond
100kt. ExxonMobil, with about 260kt capacity is the largest BOPP film producer.
Vitan from Italy has become the second largest BOPP film producer. Asian
manufacturers are aggressively building up newer capacities and are expected to
soon emerge as large producers of BOPP film. Infact Foshan Plastics group has
become a significant player in China.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Co extruded films have the
largest share of BOPP film market. The skin layers responsible for heat sealing
at lower temperatures are becoming essential to meet the requirements of high
speed packaging. The metallization to enhance barrier properties has reached a
level beyond 10% of the total BOPP films. Synthetic paper and other applications
are responsible for a significant role of opaque films. Infact these types of
films are drivers of &nbsp;BOPP market. No wonder the share of plain films is
reducing to a level below 20%.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The continued growth of BOPP,
despite a 20-25% reduction in thickness over the last decade, clearly indicates
that BOPP film has become a leading player of flexible packaging.</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" cellPadding="5" width="100%" border=
<tbody>
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<td bgColor="#fbf9f9" height="147">
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr class="content" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td colSpan="2" height="2" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="center">

</div>
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<tr class="content" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b><font
Page 80 face="Arial" size="2">Company</font></b
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF" align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size="2">Capa
(KT - 2001)</font></b></td>
</tr>
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Have you heard of PS blown film?


Most likely not! This, because it has been used only for some specific
application segments. In fact, PS blown films have been in existence for almost
the last 40 years but their volumes have been quite meager.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PS can produce stiff clear and
easily printable film. It also has excellent dead fold properties. What is
remarkable that it has good gas transmission properties. These inherent
properties make PS film suitable for packaging of fresh food products. However,
PS film has poor impact properties. To enhance the flexibility or impact
strength, addition of HIPS or clear SB copolymers like K resin are always
required. The increased dosage level of these polymers into PS enhances the
impact but increases gas transmission. Typically 5-10% levels are used to attain
impact strength while higher level up to 30% is used to make the film breathable
by increased gas transmission. Of late even Ethylene -Styrene inter polymers
developed by Dow have been used to blend with GPPS.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PS film is produced on blown film
equipment that is used for Polyolefins. No major modifications are apparently
required.&nbsp; PS film tends to cool much faster compared to PE and therefore
has smaller bubbles. The Blow-Up-Ratio (BUR) required for PS film is much higher
compared to PE. Generally BUR of about 6, a ratio that provides higher
orientation compared to the cast film process is being used. PS has relatively
quite narrow processing window and also runs slower compared to PE film. Both,
monolayer film or multilayer films can be produced.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Generally PS film is coextruded
as a core layer with PE exterior layers. The processing ease is better in
coextrusion. The ungelled particle can cause the rupture of PS bubble quite
easily compared to PE film. It is therefore necessary to use finer screens to
filter out the impurity and generate higher backpressure to melt the higher
molecular weight material.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Dow was possibly the first
manufacturer of PS film. There are not many producers who are manufacturing PS
blown film. However, some more activities have been seen in the recent past on
account of PS film's niche market of MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) films,
97 Is Polystyrene
particularly
(PS) blownfor
9/8/2005
film
packaging
meant for
of fresh
nichefood
mar products.</font></p>

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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Indian PET film business has been


under severe pressure since the last 2-3 years. The export segment, an important
contributor to the Indian PET film business was reduced to almost half in 2000
from 1999. Exports in 2000 was barely 37 million US$, compared to almost 70
million US$ in 1999.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Exports were very badly affected
mainly due to protection measures implemented by US as well as European regions
from the end of 1999. In fact, the problems were compounded because the Indian
film capacity increased from about 60 KT in 1995 to almost 137KT by 1999. The
stupendous increase in the export business from 1995 onwards to almost 34-35KT
by 1999 caused this increase in capacity, 1995 onwards. However, 50% drop in the
export business in 2000 resulted in bringing the sickness in the PET film
industry. The local demand was not able to absorb the surplus capacity. Further
more, the increased cost of feed stocks (MEG/Phthalic Anhydride) also exerted
tremendous pressure on the bottom lines of the most film producers. In fact, the
share price of Garware Polyester, the largest film producers in India and which
was considered to be a blue chip company on the Indian stock market went below
its par value of Rs.10 from a level as high as Rs.400 some time in the early
nineties. The stock price of Garware Polyester is slowly improving to about
Rs.14-15 in the recent months. Is it because that PET film business is now
improving?</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The global PET film consumption
is about 1.30 million tonnes compared to the capacity of about 1.60-1.65 million
tonnes. The over all capacity utilization of about 80% is not too bad. However,
the substantial over capacity in the Asian region due to lower demand in the
region has put pressure on the Asian processors to export to the North American
and European markets. India with just about 50-55KT local consumption in 2001
against the capacity of 135 KT had to look for exports to achieve better
capacity utilization. The non-availability of North American and European
markets forced the Indian producers to seek other regions like USSR and
Africa/Middle East. While there is some definite improvement in the exports in
2001 compared to 2000, it certainly is much lower from the peak of 35KT. The
local demand is also slowly improving. It is therefore expected that 2002 would
possibly see significant improvement of capacity utilization. That certainly
will improve the profitability of the Indian Polyester film industry.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">However, the benefits will be
seen with those converters who are more efficient and who are able to diversify
in those sectors that provide higher value additions. Packaging, the largest and
the most competitive sector would not be likely to yield better profitability.
The other sectors like industrial and electrical, etc could provide an
opportunity for Indian PET film producers to enhance the profitability compared
to packaging.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">What is most heartening to learn
is that the worst is over and the Indian PET film business seems to be on a slow
98 the Indian PET
recovery
film business
path.</font></p>
9/8/2005
on a revival path?

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</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">These advanced nucleators are
required to be used at a much lower level (0.1 - 0.15%) compared to the
conventional nucleators like Sodium Benzoate, etc. Of course, the advanced
nucleators cost about US$30-35/kg compared to US$2.50-3.00/kg of the traditional
nucleators. Such advanced nucleators are presently available from Asahi Denka,
Japan. They offer 2 essential grades; ADKSTAB NA-11 and ADKSTAB NA-21. ADKSTAB
NA-21 is more efficient than NA11 and provides better clarity.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Milliken Chemical, a primary supplier of third
generation Sorbitol based clarifier Millad 3899, has recently introduced
Norbornane Carboxylic acid ester called HPN 68 advanced nucleator. These
advanced nucleators provide better clarity compared to the traditional Sodium
Benzoate/Talc but possibly cannot match the clarity imparted by Sorbitol based
clarifiers. Of Course ADKSTAB NA-21 comes very close to the clarity of
clarifiers. ADKstab NAll as well NA-21 are marketed by Ciba in specific regions.</font><
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Clarifiers have also seen several developments,
particularly in the areas of decomposition temperatures and odour levels. The
most well accepted third generation clarifier, Millad3988 has decomposition
temperatures as high as 200°C or beyond. Besides Millad3988, the benchmark of
PP clarifier, Ciba and Mitsui offer second generation but improved clarifiers
called Ingaclear and NC4. These clarifiers, because of their organic nature, are
easier to disperse in PP matrix compared to the advanced nucleators based on
inorganic components. The dispersion can certainly be improved by enhanced
mechanical mixing.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">While Millad 3988 has become a benchmark for
rigid packaging applications, the advanced nucleators have been found to enhance
rigidity of impact copolymers along with low temperature impact characteristics
99 New PP grades
required
with enhanced
for automotive
9/8/2005
nucleators
applications.</font></p>
and clarifi

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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">New generation ETP as well as


Polyolefins, with increasing usage of halogen free flame retardant additives,
have been introduced by leading polymer manufacturers such as Bayer, GE among
several others, for displays and personal computers. These flame-retardant
plastics meet the latest global environmental standards and do not contain any
Chlorinated or Brominated flame retardants to meet the ecological standards.
While the composition of flame reardants are not known in these new plastics,
they certainly belong to Nitrogenous and Phosphorous flame retardant additive
systems. Some manufacturers have even attempted to use nanotechnology to enhance
the effectiveness of the flame-retardant additives, so that they are more
effective, even in thinner sections. These products, with excellent flow
characteristics have been specially developed for housings of personal digital
assistants (PDA) and mobile phones.</font>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">One of the interesting newer
flame retardant additive group called Melamine Cyanurate and other products
developed by DSM Melapur has been acquired by a leading multi national recently
to enhance its presence in this new exciting sector of Eco friendly fire
retardant plastics products. It would therefore not be very surprising that
these products would find a greater role in the fast growing flame retardant
plastics business of appliances, consumer electronics and several electrical
100 Plastics withapplications.</font></p>
halogen free9/8/2005
flame-retardant additiv

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</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="11%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Product</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="13%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2001</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="10%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2006</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="13%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2001</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="19%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2006</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="16%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Capacity</b></font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="18%" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Demand</b></font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td width="11%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2">PE</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="13%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2">66</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="10%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
<font face="Arial" size="2">82</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="13%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<div align="left">
Page
<font face="Arial" 85
size="2">54</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="19%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
Articles

<p><font color="#000000" face="Arial" size="2">Milliken Chemicals, a well known


supplier of sorbitol based clarifiers, has introduced a new type of nucleating
agent HDN-68 that produces nuclear density of 3 x 1011 compared to the next
highest density of 4 x 1010. HDN-68 also shows first crystallization temperature
of 130°C almost 28°C increase from the control resin of PP impact copolymer.
HDN-68 apparently belongs to a new type chemistry. This new type of nucleating
agent will be introduced early next year. Milliken Chemical claims that HDN-68
unlike the traditional nucleating agents like Na-benzoate etc could be used with
sorbitol based clarifiers very effectively and reduces haze significantly.
HDN-68 has shown better preformance in PP compared to other polymers. Infact,
initially HDN-68 is being developed for automotive applications of PP like
102 A new nucleating
bumpers.</font></p>
agent9/10/2005
is expected to show fastest
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Originally developed as a replacement for
cellulose film, the use of BOPP film has created new market applications and
uses. Various technical and economic factors have made the BOPP film industry
one of the most dynamic sector of plastics packaging. BOPP's exciting
combination of properties have resulted in the development of new consumer
trends and tastes. Around 2.4 million tonnes of BOPP film is consumed around the
world every year, with Asia overtaking Western Europe and North America in terms
of consumption. BOPP offers various advantage such as film stiffness, good
printing and coating surface and reasonable barrier properties which makes it
highly suitable for the food packaging sector. But recession, combined with
overcapacity and the relatively high usage of PET films has restrained the
growth of BOPP films in Asia. China has added to the strength of the BOPP film
market in Asia by increasing the country's capacity phenomenally through the
establishment of a large number of SSIs in the Nineties. More than 44 producers
of BOPP film exist in China with an average output of 6500 tons/ plant. The
Chinese industry now faces the problem of oversupply although global BOPP
capacity stood at over three million tons in 1998, with production levels
running at 80%. The market share held by the 10 largest companies has actually
declined, but Mobil Plastics has continued to remain the largest and the truly
global players in the BOPP films industry. The BOPP film industry is expected to
grow at the rate of nearly Eight %/ per year upto 2007 world wide. But Asia, the
103 BOPP Film industry
Middle East
among
and
9/10/2005
the
India
fastest
are expected
growing secto
to achieve a market growth above this level.</font>

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Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Indian Plastics Institute conducted a seminar on


the 12th of December 2001 at Mumbai to discuss and assess the business
opportunity for Injection Stretch blow moulding of PP.<br>
<br>
PP, the largest commodity thermoplastics has an insignificant presence in
bottle/container applications so far. HDPE commands the lion share of the
plastics bottle business. It, however, cannot be used in clear bottles due to
its opacity. PET is the choice for clear containers. PET, however, has some
limitations in areas where bottles are required to be sterilized at higher
temperatures like 121°C or where products are required to be filled in bottles
at higher temperatures. PP, due to its higher temperature resistance can
certainly be used for such applications. Infact, PP clear containers have been
used for pharmaceutical products on account of sterilization requirements or for
jams/jellies that are required to be hotfilled. This has been possible because
of developments in the ISBM process, as well as in the grades of PP with
inherent good clarity (clarified PP random copolymers). ISBM has also been
developed for PET. PP due to its semi-crystallinity has a sharp reduction of
tensile properties at higher temperatures. To achieve uniform blowing, very
closer temperature window (of about 50°C) near its crystallization temperature
is required in case of PP. PP also requires thicker preforms because it requires
higher orientation than PET. The higher demand of heat along with poorer thermal
conductivity necessitates excellent heating arrangements in the process. Aoki
and Nissie, both japanese equipment suppliers, have now developed special single
stage ISBM for PP. Husky and Sidel have developed two stage ISBM for PP bottles.<br>
<br>
To achieve clarity in bottles random PP copolymer with the latest generation
clarifier is required. The material also requires good flow characteristics. The
single stage ISBM process requires MFI of atleast 10 (preferably between 12-20)
while the two stage ISBM process needs grades with even better flow
characteristics (preferably between 25-30)With the easy availability of
machinery and material, clear PP containers containly could be a good business
104 Clear PP bottle from Injection
9/10/2005
Stretch Blow Mouldi
opportunity.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has seen spectacular
growth during the 90's and has reached a global consumption level of about 2000
tonnes. Due to the increasing acceptance of PEEK as a replacement of metals,
particularly where very high temperature performance is desired, it is expected
that PEEK will continue to grow at 20% in the next decade. The increased demand
is driven by the semiconductor market where PEEK is used in several components
of chip manufacturing systems. PEEK is expected to find increasing usage in
newer energy saving products of heating, ventilation and compressors/generators.
Infact, the stupendous growth of more than 40% observed in 2000 has resulted in
global shortage. Victrex, the major suppliers of PEEK is unable to meet the
increasing demand. Fortunately a new supplier of PEEK (Gharada Chemicals) from
India has emerged. Victex as well as Gharada Chemicals are planning to increase
their capacities to meet growing demand. The markets of some other Polyketone
compounds derived from Polyaryletterketone (PAEK) are also growing particularly
in the area of circuit board manufacturing. Polyketones due to their excellent
fatigue resistance can find applications as orthopedic, cardiovascular and
dental implants. This specialty engineering polymer definitely has a bright
future.</font></p>
105 Higher growth of Polyetheretherketone(PEEK)
9/10/2005 is for

Page 87
Articles

had an adverse impact on plastics consumption in US or North America, but had a


stronger impact on other economies like that of Europe and Asia. The continuing
recession in Japan did not improve the situation. The three largest economies
– US, Europe and Japan did not show any growth of plastics in 2001. Whatever
growth was observed in European market was completely offset by the loss of
volumes in North America and Japan. China and to some extent the other Asian
countries including India, did have somewhat lower growth compared to the
earlier years. The Asian region along with other economies helped in achieving a
smaller growth of about 1.5-1.75% for plastics globally.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Among the commodity plastics:-</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP and LLDPE still
continued to show some growth all across the globe. In fact, PP grew
globally at 6%. Even LLDPE showed a growth of about 5%, possibly at the
cost of LDPE.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">LDPE seems to have lost
volumes in most of the regions. Even the strong LDPE player like Europe
was practically flat in LDPE. North America has taken the highest
beating in LDPE. Does it mean that LDPE has no future? The excess
capacity of LLDPE has put a tremendous pressure on price of LLDPE. The
low prices of LLDPE have exerted severe pressure on price realizations
of LDPE and therefore its profitability. The total PE capacity has
reached a level of about 66 million tonnes compared to the total
consumption of 54 million tonnes. The overall capacity utilization of PE
is therefore only about 80%. The surplus capacity will result into the
weaker prices. It would therefore be quite difficult to visualize
whether a new plant of LDPE with higher capital cost as well as high
manufacturing costs compared to LLDPE would be justified atleast in the
near future.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The capacity of PP at 38
million tonnes compared to the consumption of 31 million tonnes in 2001
is in excess almost at the same level as that of PE.<br>
The prices of all Polyolefins are therefore likely to remain soft in
2002. Only the turnaround of demand due to improved economy would help
improve the profitability.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The US economy seems to show some
signs of improvement from the first quarter of 2002. The present economic
indicators indeed are positive that can help us to believe that worst is over.
2002 may indeed show some positive growth in economy and hence in the demand of
plastics. While it may be difficult to expect the overall growth of 5-6% of
Pageat88
Polyolefins in 2002 at least this early stage, but a growth of at least 4%
cannot be ruled out. In other words, 2002 may see additional demand of atleast 2
million tonnes, over and above what would have been created without a major
Articles

had an adverse impact on plastics consumption in US or North America, but had a


stronger impact on other economies like that of Europe and Asia. The continuing
recession in Japan did not improve the situation. The three largest economies
– US, Europe and Japan did not show any growth of plastics in 2001. Whatever
growth was observed in European market was completely offset by the loss of
volumes in North America and Japan. China and to some extent the other Asian
countries including India, did have somewhat lower growth compared to the
earlier years. The Asian region along with other economies helped in achieving a
smaller growth of about 1.5-1.75% for plastics globally.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Among the commodity plastics;</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP and LLDPE still
continued to show some growth all across the globe. In fact, PP grew
globally at 6%. Even LLDPE showed a growth of about 5%, possibly at the
cost of LDPE.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">LDPE seems to have lost
volumes in most of the regions. Even the strong LDPE player like Europe
was practically flat in LDPE. North America has taken the highest
beating in LDPE. Does it mean that LDPE has no future? The excess
capacity of LLDPE has put a tremendous pressure on price of LLDPE. The
low prices of LLDPE have exerted severe pressure on price realizations
of LDPE and therefore its profitability. The total PE capacity has
reached a level of about 66 million tonnes compared to the total
consumption of 54 million tonnes. The overall capacity utilization of PE
is therefore only about 80%. The surplus capacity will result into the
weaker prices. It would therefore be quite difficult to visualize
whether a new plant of LDPE with higher capital cost as well as high
manufacturing costs compared to LLDPE would be justified atleast in the
near future.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The capacity of PP at 38
million tonnes compared to the consumption of 31 million tonnes in 2001
is in excess almost at the same level as that of PE.<br>
The prices of all Polyolefins are therefore likely to remain soft in
2002. Only the turnaround of demand due to improved economy would help
improve the profitability.</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The US economy seems to show some
signs of improvement from the first quarter of 2002. The present economic
indicators indeed are positive that can help us to believe that worst is over.
2002 may indeed show some positive growth in economy and hence in the demand of
plastics. While it may be difficult to expect the overall growth of 5-6% of
Pageat89
Polyolefins in 2002 at least this early stage, but a growth of at least 4%
cannot be ruled out. In other words, 2002 may see additional demand of atleast 2
million tonnes, over and above what would have been created without a major
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The last decade has seen stupendous growth of PET
bottles. PET bottles grew at about 12-15%. The major markets of carbonated
drinks have now attained almost complete substitution of glass and aluminium
tins. The Mineral water market has further potential of providing some growth in
the next few years. Raw material suppliers have started developing newer
applications to provide further impetus to growth.<br>
<br>
Beer is one of the possible segments that may provide some growth opportunity.
Recently, a large beer manufacturer Zhongfu invested US$10 million to set up a
project for PET bottles. It is the first Chinese company that will consume
almost 1000 tonne of PET for beer. The beer industry in the developed economy is
however slow in adopting PET bottles.<br>
<br>
A leading PET bottle producer in Germany called SchmalbachLebeca has developed a
heat set process that will produce PET jars with high temperature resistance.
These jars have been successfully used for pasteurization as well as retort
capabilty of 121°C. These developments would help PET to grow well in the next
few years. Infact Maack Business Services a leading consulting company predicts
12% growth until 2005. It is expected that PET bottle market would reach 12
million tonnes in 2005 from the present 7 million tonnes. Demand could outstrip
supply in the next few years. It is therefore not unlikely that new capacities
will come onstream. Even some fiber manufactuers could modify and convert their
108 PET bottles polymerization
penetrate into
9/10/2005
newer areas
plant to make ofbottle
beer and
chip grades.</font></p>

Page 90
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Mr.Bipin Shah,


Chairman-International Business Relations Committee, PlastIndia Foundation and
member of plastemart.com's advisory board, made a very informative presentation
called &quot;India - the emerging opportunities in India in the Plastics
Processing Industry&quot;, at Singapore in March 2002. Given below is the
extract of his presentation.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">India is one of the oldest
civilizations, with a population of over one billion (17% of the World
Population). India has consistently shown a GDP growth of more than 6%since the
introduction of economic reforms in 1991. During this period, plastic
consumption has grown from just about one million tonnes to almost 3.4 million
tonnes in 2000, showing an average growth of almost 13.5%.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The healthy demand elasticity of
‘2.25xGDP Growth’ is an indicator of the inherent potential of plastics in
India’s projected future for the next decade, in which the economy is likely
to show a consistent growth of about 6%, if not better. The consuming population
level is expected to reach more than 0.5 billion people from approximately 0.175
billion in 2000. This increase in demand of the consuming population is as big
as that of USA or Western Europe. The second highest World GDP growth shown by
India during the last 10 years will definitely continue in the coming decade. A
healthy economic growth will fuel the demand of plastics. The expected demand at
the optimistic level of 13.5-14% from 2000 to 2010 will reach a level of 12.5
million tonnes. This will make India as the third largest plastics consuming
country in the World by 2010 from it's tenth position in 2000.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Indian plastic processing
industry is characterised by a very wide fragmentation with an average
consumption level of about 150 tonnes/unit. The fragmented industry with a
processing capacity of 10 million, is presently operating at not more than
45-50% level. To meet the growth potential of plastics, the industry needs to
develop an increased capacity on one side. But on the other side, it needs to
develop the most economic production capacity with better efficiency and
automation to remain competitive in the face of global competition.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">India definitely offers an ample
opportunity to the globally leading converters to tap the potential of a huge
consumption increase of almost 8-9 million tonnes in the next decade. India can
be used as a global sourcing point for plastics products in several sectors like
automobiles, electronics, packaging, etc. The joint ventures in India would help
the global players to participate more actively in the buoyant and vibrant
109 Emerging Opportunities
growth of plastics
9/10/2005
in Indian
in India.</font></p>
Plastics Processi

Page 91
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC is the largest plastic that


uses several additives including Plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers etc. Almost
40% of global PVC consumption (25 million tonnes) uses more than 5 million
tonnes of additives. These products also have a shorter life span of few years
compared to the remaining PVC (15 million tonnes) that is used with small
quantity of additives in rigid PVC products, which have very long life span.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">While rigid PVC products can be
recycled rather easily by mechanical process, flexible PVC products are best
recycled by chemical methods or incineration. Since it recovers precious energy,
incineration is probably the most efficient method of recycling. However, there
is some skepticism in the public because of emission of Carbon Dioxide and
toxins at very low levels. The European PVC industry along with plasticizer,
stabilizer and other intermediates has taken up a voluntary commitment to
develop the recycling systems of PVC products by 2005.<br>
<br>
Three feedstock recycling plants are being developed near PVC resin producers in
Belgium, France and Germany. There are essentially two technologies that are
being tried out. The first technology developed by Linde, Germany used molten
slag consisting of silicates to break down PVC waste at temperature exceeding
1500°C. PVC is broken down to hydrogen chloride, hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
They are recovered for use. No dioxins are generated. This technology is being
used for flexible PVC products.<br>
<br>
Solvay has developed Vinyloop Chemical recycling process. This process recovers
PVC from end products by a solvent. No effluents are generated because of close
loop solvent process. PVC is recovered from solvent by precipitation. The
quality of recovered PVC resin is found to be as good as virgin resin. The first
commercial plant is installed at Ferrar in Italy, where waste from cable
extrusion and calendering processors is collected. Another Vinyloop process is
likely to be commissioned by Kobe Steel in Japan very shortly.<br>
<br>
There is however a major supply problem of PVC scrap since 60-70% PVC products
are expected to have more than 10-15 years service life. Infact, time lag
between PVC consumption and its entrance into waste stream is considerable.
Apparently no significant quantity of PVC scrap is likely to be available before
the end of coming decade, since the consumption of PVC increased only in the
late eighties.<br>
<br>
In view of these facts how can we really say that PVC poses a problem for
110 Recycling ofrecycling?</font></p>
PVC is an issue.
9/10/2005

Page 92
Articles

cannot be ruled out that the additional requirement of Propylence could be met
from this refinery. The decision would therefore be more governed by the
additional requirements of Butadiene and Benzene. However, the slower growth of
synthetic rubber in India may not justify the larger demand of Butadiene.
Similarly, Benzene demand is not likely to go up considerably.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The selection and design of next
cracker would be more governed by the availability, relative cost and the
flexibility of Naphtha and natural gas. Perhaps, the mixed feedstock that is
used by Reliance’s refinery at Hazira could be considered for the next
111 Is India ready
cracker.</font></p>
for another 9/10/2005
cracker and more polyme

Page 93
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Flame retardancy is becoming


increasingly important in several applications. Infact the usage of flame
retardant (FR) additives has reached a level of close to one million tonnes,
almost 15% of the total additives that are used in plastics.<br>
<br>
Additive suppliers have carried out significant development work to achieve
synergy of different materials to achieve better fire retardancy at a lower
costs or at a lower environmental impact.Antimony trioxide, a major FR additive
has been a combined with several halogenated additives like solid chlorinated
PE, Bromo derivatives as well as non-halogenated additives like Zinc Borates or
Zinc Oxide, Mineral Sillicates, Magnesium compounds and even Iron
compounds.Synergistic technology thus plays an important role in extracting best
112 Additive Synergy is a key
9/10/2005
to achieve flame retarda
performance.</font></p>

Page 94
Articles

<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">We at plastemart.com believe that


information is a key to successful business. To continue our effort in providing
you with useful and relevant information, our team has been meeting key
personalities from the plastics industry to seek their views and comments on the
Indian Plastics Business.<br>
<br>
Given below are the results of those meeting and interviews, we hope you obtain
the maximum out of the information presented. We look forward to receiving your
on the articles, your comments, opinions and suggestions are welcomed.</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of PVC
Pipe in India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of Polypropylene in
India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of
Polyethylene film in India -2001</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of Polystyrene in
India -2000-2001</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of Blow
Moulding in India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of Rotomoulding in
India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of
Extrusion Machinery in India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of Masterbatches in
India -2000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Scenario of
Polyolefins in India</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Injection Moulding Machinery
Page 95
--Indian Scenario 2000-01</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The global demand for plastic pipes has been
forecasted to increase over 5% per year through 2003 to 4.6 billion metres. This
increase would lead to an increase in the demand for plastic resins, creating a
market for 13.8 million tons. The pace of construction activity in Europe and
Asia/Pacific region in the areas of conduit, drainage and sewers and natural gas
distribution would further generate technological advances in this field. In
1998, 30% of the global market for pipes was consumed by the U.S. North America
is the largest regional market for plastic pipes followed by Asia/Pacific and
Western Europe. These three regions account for over four-fifth of the world's
total market togther. China's achievement of double-digit annual growth through
2003, would make it the biggest consumer of pipes in the world. Replacement of
cast iron pipes in residential building drainage, and extension of municipal
water systems in both rural and urban areas, would fuel the already existing
demand for PVC pipes in the country. PVC is the chief plastic resin used for
manufacturing plastic pipes, accounting for 8 million tons in 1998. However,
through 2003, the prime plastic resin to be used for manufacturing plastic pipes
would be HDPE, which will advance 7% per year to 2.4 million tons. The new
millenium has opened up several new applications for plastic pipes in Asia. The
growing emphasis on infrastructure development and the infotech boom has created
an immediate requirement of over 4,00,000 kms of optic fibre piping network in
114 Demand forIndia.</font></p>
plastic pipes
9/10/2005
to increase tremendously
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Fluoropolymer based polymer processing additive
(PPA) has been used in LLDPE over a decade mainly to eliminate surface defects,
remove die build-up and reduce gel formation. PPA, however could not find much
usage in PP due to non-availabiity of suitable grade. A new product known as
Dynamar FX 5911 X has been developed by Dyneon LLC, USA that is ideally suitable
for PP. This new grade of PPA is undergoing major development work in
applications such as cast film, BOPP and raffia tapes. These products are being
manufactured at increased output without affecting their product quality. The
new high performance PPA has a special role to play in this stricter demand of
higher productivity with more demanding performance. The new PPA is designed for
improved processibility of PP having lower MFR that is needed to generate higher
strength and lower moisture permeation. For higher MFR PP, PPA allows processing
at lower temperature and thereby improves stability of polymer. The new PPA
additive is required to be used at 500 ppm level for reduction of die build-up
and about 1000 ppm level for gel control and enhanced productivity. In BOPP,
cigarette packaging film seems to have found greater usage of PPA. the improved
surface finish of cigarette packaging with PPA is considered to be the key
reason for it's acceptance. It seems that the major benefits for PP processors
are derived from enhanced producitivity, lower rejections and reduction of
115 New generation
machine
polymer
downtime.</font></p>
9/14/2005
processing additive for PP

Page 96
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Packaging is increasingly gaining


importance in marketing end-products. Its importance can be guaged by the fact
that it features prominently along with Product, Price, Promotion, Place: the
other four 'P's required for the success of a product. With mini supermarkets
and departmental stores mushrooming everywhere, for enhancing convenience to the
Indian society, a packaging which <b>projects</b> and <b>protects</b> a product
has gained immense popularity. A product packed in a glass-like transparent
plastic film certainly improves its chances for increased acceptance and sales.<br>
<br>
Shrink wrapping or packaging which adheres tightly over the contours of a
product, irrespective of its shape, is a well known application developed in the
economically advanced countries.Shrink wrapping can easily be divided into two
basic categories:-<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Collation film or
thin shrink film</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Industrial or Heavy duty
thick shrink film</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
<b>Thin shrink film</b> is essentially used for consumer products, which are
directly marketed to the public, through supermarkets, mini supermarkets or
departmental stores. It can consist of packing for a single unit or multiple
units.<br>
<b>Heavy duty shrink film i</b>s designed to pack industrial items or produce,
which are essentially marketed to industries rather than direct consumers.<br>
<br>
These two products differ in some critical requirements of the basic film
properties.<br>
Thin film - should have an excellent <b>clarity</b> to achieve the desired
aesthetics and image of a product.<br>
Heavy duty industrial shrink film requires an excellent impact strength and
other mechanical properties to protect products in transportation. Clarity is
not considered to be essential.<br>
<br>
<b>Polymers</b> suitable for thin film are essentially required to provide
excellent clarity. PVC in comparison to PE has better clarity and is therfore
more suitable for such applications. On the other hand, PE films provide
excellent impact strength and hence are more suitable for heavy duty shrink film
applications. Recently, several polyolefinic film compositions with excellent
clarity have been developed, which could replace PVC in the thin shrink film
segment.<br>
<br>
The basic principle of shrink wrapping of plastic films revolves around the fact
that all polymer molecules relax after being stressed. The polymers which have a
low <b>relaxation behaviour</b> would trend to shrink better compared to those
which relax very quickly. In general, amorphous polymers such as PVC, shrink
very easily.On the other hand, crystalline polymers like HDPE or PP shrink
slowly or shrink less. Among Polyolefins, LDPE, having the least crystallinity,
is more suited for shrink film 97
Page application. Besides, LDPE being very flexible,
provides the desired impact / toughness for heavy duty shrink film.<br>
<br>
Shrink film requires an <b>application of heat</b> during packing process to
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This is the most common method of blow moulding.


There are two possible methods which may be used intermittent extrusion or
continuous extrusion. For extrusion blow moulding materials having high hot
strength and hot elongation are preferred.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The main method of extrusion blow moulding
utilizes continuous extrusion. Since the parison is continuously being extruded
it is necessary to devise methods of gripping and inflating the parison without
interfering with the extrusion process. There is a variety of ways in which this
can be achieved. In one case the parison is cut off and transferred to the mould
which is remote from the extruder die. In another method the mould moves with
the extrudate whilst gripping and inflating it. In most cases, several moulds
are operating simultaneously on horizontal or vertical rotory table to utilise
the capacity of the extruder. Another variation of the continuous extrusion
method is to extrude downwards two parallel sheets, rather than a tube. The
mould closes on the sheets trapping the inflation nozzle between them so that
desired shape may be formed in the mould.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A possible problem with this method is
non-uniform wall thickness distribution in the moulding. Some modern machines
have overcome this by programming the thickness profile of the parison as it is
extruded. This is done by adjusting the die gap automatically during the
extrusion process. Another problem is that as the parison is usually formed
vertically downwards, the self-weight of the parison needed for large mouldings
causes draw-down and thinning of the parison. As a result the wall thickness of
the moulding is difficult to control. A method of overcoming this is to use an
accumulator cylinder. The extruder screw is used to plasticize the melt and
supply it into a cylinder containing a piston. When sufficient material is
available in the accumulator, the plunger pushes forward quickly to produce the
large parison at a rate that minimizes sagging under its own weight. The blow
moulding process then proceeds in the normal way.The main materials used for
extrusion blow moulding are PVC, HDPE, HMHDPE, polystyrene, polypropylene, and
polythylene. The biggest application area is for all types of bottles, but
products range from small phials to large tanks and barrels, and can also
117 This is the most
includecommon9/14/2005
method
products of blow
such as moulding.
crates and typewriter cases.</font></p>

Page 98
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This is the most common method of blow moulding.


There are two possible methods which may be used intermittent extrusion or
continuous extrusion. For extrusion blow moulding materials having high hot
strength and hot elongation are preferred.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The main method of extrusion blow moulding
utilizes continuous extrusion. Since the parison is continuously being extruded
it is necessary to devise methods of gripping and inflating the parison without
interfering with the extrusion process. There is a variety of ways in which this
can be achieved. In one case the parison is cut off and transferred to the mould
which is remote from the extruder die. In another method the mould moves with
the extrudate whilst gripping and inflating it. In most cases, several moulds
are operating simultaneously on horizontal or vertical rotory table to utilise
the capacity of the extruder. Another variation of the continuous extrusion
method is to extrude downwards two parallel sheets, rather than a tube. The
mould closes on the sheets trapping the inflation nozzle between them so that
desired shape may be formed in the mould.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A possible problem with this method is
non-uniform wall thickness distribution in the moulding. Some modern machines
have overcome this by programming the thickness profile of the parison as it is
extruded. This is done by adjusting the die gap automatically during the
extrusion process. Another problem is that as the parison is usually formed
vertically downwards, the self-weight of the parison needed for large mouldings
causes draw-down and thinning of the parison. As a result the wall thickness of
the moulding is difficult to control. A method of overcoming this is to use an
accumulator cylinder. The extruder screw is used to plasticize the melt and
supply it into a cylinder containing a piston. When sufficient material is
available in the accumulator, the plunger pushes forward quickly to produce the
large parison at a rate that minimizes sagging under its own weight. The blow
moulding process then proceeds in the normal way.The main materials used for
extrusion blow moulding are PVC, HDPE, HMHDPE, polystyrene, polypropylene, and
polythylene. The biggest application area is for all types of bottles, but
products range from small phials to large tanks and barrels, and can also
118 Extrusion blow moulding
include 9/14/2005
products such as crates and typewriter cases.</font></p>

Page 99
Articles

copolymers that flow through molds at unprecedented high speed can lift
productivity for the end user, enchance colour, taste and odor properties, and
improve part performance, according to the supplier. Target applications include
housewares, food packaging, an DVD cases. The Pro-fax ultra range is available
in four grades, all nucleated.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Two 100g/10 min melt flow rate
grades, Pro-fax Ultra SC973 and SG982, are primarily for thinwall yogurt and
dairy product cups, and other food containers. The first contains antistatic and
slip additives, and is stiffer.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">&quot;The new slate&quot; says
Mark Knorr, Montell’s packaging manager &quot;should enable injection molders
to stay ahead of thermoformers, trading on their ability to make thinwall
containers with high topload strength.&quot;</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Density is 0.90 g/cm³. Flexural
modulus is 1240 MPa; notched Izod impact strength at 23°C is 42.7 j/m. Other
features include an easier colour match capability, moderate cold-temperature
impact, and excellent gloss.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Pro-fax Ultra SG833 is a 35 MFR
grade designed for thinwall frozen dairy containers, as well as housewares and
consumer goods in which extra low-temperature toughness is desired. It contains
antistatic and slip additives. Features include easier colour match, resistance
to dust and dirt pickup, and excellent gloss. These properties suit the material
for DVD cases.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Finally, SG853, a 55 MFR
material, also antistatic and slip modified, is for electronic cases and
thinwall consumer goods.</font></p>
<div align="justify">
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0" height="15
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="3" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size="3" color="#000080">Typical
properties of Montell ultra-high-flow PP</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font size="2" fa
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="2" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial" color="#000080">Value of
grade</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial" color="#000080">Properties</fo
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="20%" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="22%" height="18" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><
<p align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial" color="#000080">SG853</font>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="34" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Density at 23°C, g/ cm³<br>
(ASTM D 1238)</font></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" width="20%" height="34" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">0.90</font></p>
</td> Page 100
<td vAlign="top" width="22%" height="34" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><font size="2" face="Arial">0.90</font></p>
</td>
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">This method is less common in


practice but has a number of distinct advantages. In this case the parison is
injection moulded onto a core using the normal moulding process equipment
described earliler. However, before the moulding has a chance to solidify the
mould opens and the core with the plastic parison on it is transferred to the
blow mould. When this mould closes the core provides its secondary function of
inflating the parison to fill the mould. The advantages of this method include
the fact that no trimming is necessary since the mould completely surrounds the
parison and this produce no flash. This also means that additional intricate
detail can be produced in the bottle neck area. Finally, whereas extrusion blow
moulding is limited to materials which have sufficient melt strength to sustain
their own weight during parison formation, injection blow moulding can be used
wiath almost all thermoplastics.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The main developments in blow
moulding are in relation to improved heat transfer from the shaped parison, and
a considerable amount of research has been devoted to cooling the inside of the
moulding by injecting cold fluids. This has demonstrated that considerable
120 Injection blow
improvements
moulding9/14/2005
in the production rates can be achieved by these methods.</font></p>

Page 101
Articles

<br>
The year 2000 saw extremes in styrene balance and pricing, say CMAI styrenics
directors Alex Lidback (North America), Vince Sinclair (Asia), and John Bonarius
(Europe) and authors of the 2001 World Styrene Analysis.<br>
<br>
Peaking in the first quarter of 2000, the styrene industry enjoyed a miniboom.
Market conditions reverted to more typical conditions later in the year as
industry participants wondered whether the market boom was over or ready to
return. Despite weak market conditions in early 2001 as a result of global
derivative inventory depletion and a slower US economy, CMAI sees a clear
tightening trend in its forecast balances and believes the current market
correction is temporary. CMAI estimates total demand rose 4.5%, to almost 21
million tons in 2000, from 20 million tons at the end of 1999. This compares
with average annual growth of 5.3% during 1995-1999.<br>
<br>
Capacity grew even less. After several years of steady capacity growth with poor
investment returns, producers finally put a clamp on new additions. CMAI expects
no new capacity additions until the second half of 2002.<br>
<br>
Continued demand growth for derivatives drive operating rates to an average of
97% in 2002. Normal maintenance schedules will take out some capacity, driving
utilization above 100% for short periods of time.<br>
<br>
Beyond 2003, a wave of new capacity expansions will add more styrene than the
global market can consume, driving operating rates back down by the end of the
forecast period.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">CMAI thinks it probable that rising margins could
induce producers to add more capacity by the end of the forecast period than
they have officially announced. It sees relatively strong earnings for the next
two years, followed by a period of much lower earnings as the market searches
for a new point of equilibrium.<br>
<br>
One key consideration in this scenario is the shift of West Europe to a net
exporter. This will dampen price peaks, which in the past have been catalyzed by
West European purchases of spot material.<br>
<br>
CMAI expects West Europe to become a net exporter, moderating price spikes that
occur when operating rates rise.<br>
Over the longer term, CMAI expects prevailing regional imbalances even out.
Rising derivative capacity will offset styrene monomer surpluses. Similarly,
regions with styrene deficits, notably Asia and especially China, will also
expand styrene capacity. The world, as especially Asia, needs new capacity if
demand growth is to continue, says CMAI. The question is, who is going to build
it?<br>
<br>
</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Polystyrene/EPS</b><br>
<br>
CMAI's 2001 World Polystyrene/EPS analysis also sees an optimistic outlook for
both polystyrene and expandable EPS polystyrene (EPS), though growth will slow
from its torrid pace since the last four years.<br>
</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Polystyrene</b><br>
<br>
Polystyrene grew at a 1.8 times gross domestic product (GDP) during 1995-99.
CMAI expects weak conditions in mature US and West European markets in late 2000
to drag this ratio down to about 1.3 times GDP. The resin is very mature and
costs more than competing polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE),
Page rates.<br>
which are growing at faster 102
Excessive capacity additions, leading to major rationalization and restructuring
between late 1997 and 1999, have caused producer margins to erode to intolerable
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PVC has a long history of more


than 40 years in medical products that include intraveneous (IV) bags, blood
bags and catheters. PVC has established its safe and effective usage in the
medical field. Several studies have been undertaken to conclusively establish
harmlessness of PVC and the additives incorporated in it to achieve the desired
properties. A recent study conducted by 17 scientists from International Centre
of Toxicology and Medical, evaluated scientific evidence<br>
of potential health risks associated with DEHP. Plasticizer has proven that DEHP
as used in medical devices, is not harmful to humans even under chronic and much
higher than typical conditions of exposure. The panel also concluded that DEHP
infact imparts important characteristics that are critical to the function of
medical devices. World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research
on cancer also determined that DEHP is not classifiable as a human carcinogen
based on exisiting scientific data.<br>
<br>
The scientific data on the safe usage of Phthalate Plasticizers in medical
products is increasing. The benefits of these PVC medical products far outweigh
the risks.<br>
Several alternate materials have been evaluated and some are even commercialized
to replace PVC in order to avoid the environmental issues. Some of the most
promising alternates are:</font></p>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">High frequency
weldable Polyolefin film based on DOW material</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Plasticizer free soft
polyurethane products for medical equipments</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Reaction
Injection moulded Polyurethane parts for medical equipments</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polyurethane foams for a wide
variety of applications</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">New biologically inert TOPAS
cyclo-olefin polymer is increasingly being used in laboratory and
diagnostic equipments.</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics certainly play a pivotal
role in the medical field and medical science is seeking more and more plastics
not only in the existing applications but also in the newly growing fields of
122 Plastics continue
molecular
to play
biology
9/14/2005
a mjor
and
role
gene
in Healthcar
therapy.</font></p>

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Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">the high-stakes race to build a


faster and more reliable telecommunications network, Lumera Corp. of Bothell
believes it has found the holy grail: polymers. Some big-name investors seem to
agree. Lumera -- formed in October through a partnership between the University
of Washington and Microvision -- yesterday raised $24 million in a first round
of capital financing led by Cisco Systems. Unlike many of its competitors,
Lumera is developing optical equipment that uses organic polymers or plastics to
help send data over telecommunications networks at more than twice the speeds
currently available. In addition to higher speeds, Lumera's polymer approach
uses far less power than products currently made by Lucent, JDS Uniphase and
other makers of optical components that rely on crystals, executives say.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;One of the challenges you
have with crystalline materials is that they are brittle so they are much more
challenging to work with than plastics are,&quot; said Rick Rutkowski, chief
executive of Microvision and acting president of Lumera. &quot;Polymers give us
two things: One is ... a performance advantage with respect to being able to
achieve high data rates at low voltages, and the second is they give us a cost
advantage because they are easier to process and we can get a higher
yield.&quot;</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">He said the Lumera device will be
able to move data at 40 gigabits per second whereas devices currently being used
operate at 2.5 gigabits or 10 gigabits. Lumera plans to unveil its prototype
device -- known as an electro-optic modulator switch -- early this summer with
full commercialization slated for next year.Potential customers include such
123 Polymers tonetworking
be used to companies
9/14/2005
build next big
as Cisco,
thing in
Nortel
net Networks and Corning.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastic pallets, although more expensive when
compared to wooden ones, are slowly gaining acceptance due to their duarability,
reusability and easily sterilizable surfaces. Plastics pallets are now marketed
in number of millions. However, their share of the total pallet business is
minuscule. One of the major constraint is that its cost that is almost 100 -
400% higher than that of wooden pallets. Of course, plastic pallets do offer
advantages in terms of performance, aesthetics and environment friendliness as
compared to wood. Plastic pallets can be manufactured by injection moulding as
well as Thermoforming. Injection moulded pallets have better aeshtetics and
show, better performance compared to the thermoformed products. However the
injection moulded pallets are much more expensive. In thermoforming twin-sheet
process is found to provide excellent performance. The US postal services have
conducted an in-depth study of several types of pallets and have concluded that
twin-sheet thermoformed pallets out perform all other types of pallets. Infact,
they are only using plastic pallets for their postal systems. To reduce cost,
attempts have been made to develop plastic pallets using recycled thermoplastics
like HDPE/PP etc. There's however a niche market for plastic pallets. They are
used in shipping of products since wooden pallets are not permitted by several
124 Plastics pellets
countries.</font></p>
are making
9/14/2005
in roads due to their

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Articles

and dye whose output ranks the first in the world; soda and pesticide ranking
second; sulphuric acid and caustic soda ranking third; synthetic rubber and
ethylene ranking fourth; crude oil ranking fifth; synthetic resin ranking sixth;
and natural gas ranking 19th. China's petroleum and chemical industry has formed
a complete setup with more than 20 industrial sectors and over 40,000 types of
products. However, the industry faces structural contradiction, according to the
State Economic and Trade Commission.<br>
<b><br>
&nbsp;Crude oil</b><br>
<br>
According to statistics, China's oil consumption ranks fourth in the world, and
accounts for five percentage of the world's total. Since 1993 when China became
a net oil importer, its import of crude oil soared to 70.27 million tons in
2000, and will top 100 million tons by 2005. The country is expected to lack 130
million tons of crude oil by 2015, and the undersupply situation will remain
unchanged for quite a long period of time.<br>
<b><br>
&nbsp;Ethylene<br>
<br>
</b>By the end of 1999, China had 18 ethylene plants. Included were seven large
plants, each with an annual capacity of 300,000 tons and 11 medium-sized ones.
They had a combined capacity of 4.42 million tons. China produced 4.346 million
tons of ethylene in 1999, and consumed 9.25 million tons in the same year. The
domestic production could satisfy only 47% of the total. The State Economic and
Trade Commission forecasts that, with a seven percentage increase in the gross
domestic product (GDP) during the 2001-2005 period, China's demand for ethylene
will reach 14 million tons by 2005, and its production capacity will be 8.3
million tons, which can satisfy 60% of the market demand.<br>
<b><br>
&nbsp;Synthetic resin</b><br>
<br>
The output of China's five major synthetic resins including polyethylene,
polypropylene, polyphenylacetylene, polychloroethylene and ABS was 7.98 million
tons in 1999. The output could only satisfy 48% of the market demand. According
to the commission, the domestic demand for the five major synthetic resins will
come to 25 million tons by 2005, an increase of 5.6% annually. The domestic
market satisfaction rate will be 60% . Analyzing the overall development of the
industry, there will be structural contradictions in addition to the
contradiction to limit the aggregate. Included will be:-<br>
</font>
<p>&nbsp;
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">irrational
proportion in oil sinking and storage</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">slow upgrading of product mix</font
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">backward
technological level</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
Page 105
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">slow level of scale economy</font><
</tr>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Experts in the plastics industry have recently


predicted that the global consumption will reach a level of 250 million tones by
2010 from the level of 140 million tones in 1999. The average growth of 5.5% is
expected during the forthcoming decade<font color="#000080">.<b>Is this figure
really realistic or achievable?</b></font> Before we analyze the reasons for
such optimism, let us understand the 1999 consumption pattern of plastics.<br>
<br>
The large volume plastics comprising of Polyolefins, PVC and Polystyrene have
reached a level of 113 million tones and thus have almost 80% share of the total
consumption. PET that has achieved its premier position in rigid packaging adds
another seven million tones. All these large volume plastics have 85% share of
the total consumption. All other plastics contribute only 20 million tones and
therefore have only 15% share of the total consumption. In fact, their share of
the total plastics consumption has remained at this static level over the last
decades. The experts earlier had predicted that these other plastics would grow
faster compared to the commodity plastics. The innovative developments
particularly in Polyolefins have widened their application segments. Besides
packaging and infrastructure are the two major drivers of plastics where
commodity plastics are preferred on account of cost effectiveness. Indeed these
commodity plastics will continue to drive the growth of plastics in the coming
decade.<br>
The historical consumption pattern over the last four decades illustrates that
the average growth of 8.2% has been achieved from 1960 until 1999.<br>
<br>
It is therefore not very difficult to expect a growth rate of 5.5% that is
required to reach a level of 250 million tones by 2010. However, closer analysis
during different decades indicates that the growth of plastics has been dropping
from 16% in 60s to almost 4% in the last decade of 90s. It can be argued that
two major economic recessions, one in the early 90S and the later one of 1997-99
on account of Asian financial crisis were responsible for lower growth in the
last decade. The growth could have been higher in the absence of these factors.
Two of the emerging economies like China and India alone are expected to
contribute almost 35 million tones of additional consumption (almost 30% of the
additional consumption of 110 million tons). In fact, Asian region is expected
to be a driver of growth in plastics in the coming decade. Plastics have always
grown faster than the economic growth. If the remaining regions continue to show
a demand elasticity of 1.25 (i.e. plastics growth at 1.25XGDP), it would not be
very difficult to attain the figure of 250 million tones by achieving an average
growth of 5.5%. On the other hand, if the growth rate continues to show a level
of about 4% that has been seen in the last decade possibly due to the maturity
of the market, the expected consumption could reach a level of about 215-220
million tones. Plastics are essential materials for economic development and
should be required at higher levels in those regions such as Asia, Latin America
&amp; Eastern Europe. Japan that has remained almost stagnant during 90s could
add more to the growth of plastics if its economy improves. North America, a
leader in plastics consumption is expected to exploit the new innovations such
as Metallocene Polyolefins faster and thereby contribute to the plastics growth
at higher levels. These positive signals may not be sufficient to counter the
effect of maturity, but certainly could add about 10 million tones to the most
conservative figure of 215 million tones. The global consumption of 225 million
tones in 2010 with about 4.5% average growth, therefore, is certainly realistic
126 Will plasticsand
consumption 9/14/2005
reach 250 million tons b
achievable.</font></p>

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Articles

with sentiment hit by a fresh spike in oil prices and concern at the hard line
taken by the US Federal Reserve on inflation when it hiked interest rates
Tuesday, dealers said.<br>
<br>
They said the prospect of Hurricane Rita, now rated a devastating category five
storm, crashing into major oil and gas installations around Houston in Texas
just weeks after Hurricane Katrina battered New Orleans, made for a nervous day.<br>
<br>
On the day, Tokyo marked time with a modest loss of 0.28 per cent ahead of a
public holiday Friday but Taipei fell 1.57 per cent and Chinese A-shares fell
another sharp 2.37 per cent.<br>
<br>
Seoul eked out a gain of 0.28 per cent for another record finish, this time just
short of the historic 1,200 points level, which investors seem determined to
cross.<br>
<br>
<b><font color="#000080"><u>TOKYO</u>:</font> </b>Share prices closed 0.28 pe
cent lower as investors took some profits on recent strong gains and fretted
over rising oil prices.<br>
<br>
“Stocks took a breather following the recent rallies,” said Koichi Ogawa,
chief fund manager at Daiwa SB Investments.<br>
<br>
The Nikkei-225 index fell 37.21 points to 13,159.36 on turnover of 2.82 billion
shares.<br>
<br>
Among notable losers were financial-sector-related shares, such as non-life
insurers, brokerages and banks.<br>
<br>
Millea Holdings, a non-life insurer, fell 130,000 yen to 1,750,000 and Mitsui
Sumitomo Insurance lost 71 yen to 1,278.<br>
<br>
Sumitomo Mitsui Financial was down 20,000 to 1,010,000, while brokerage Daiwa
Securities dropped 18 yen to 821.<br>
<br>
<b><u><font color="#000080">HONG KONG</font></u>: </b>Share prices closed 0
per cent lower after local banks announced they were raising lending rates
following the US Federal Reserve’s interest rate rise.<br>
<br>
The Hang Seng Index closed down 43.67 points at 15,179.95, on turnover of 17.7
billion Hong Kong dollars (2.23 billion US dollars).<br>
<br>
HSBC fell 0.70 to 125.20, unit Hang Seng Bank was down 0.40 at 103.90, Bank of
East Asia was up 0.10 at 22.70 and BOC Hong Kong down 0.10 at 15.35 after their
rate-rise announcements.<br>
<br>
<b><u><font color="#000080">SYDNEY</font></u>: </b>Share prices closed 0.21 p
cent higher as the resources sector continued to benefit from rising oil and
metals prices.<br>
<br>
The SP/ASX 200 rose 9.5 points to its high for the day of 4,561.9. Market volume
was 1.29 billion shares worth 4.04 billion dollars (3.11 billion US).<br>
<br>
In resources, Rio Tinto surged 87 cents or 1.6 per cent to 55.50 dollars, while
BHP Billiton rose 52 cents or 2.5 per cent to 21.41 dollars.<br>
<br>
<b><u><font color="#000080">SINGAPORE</font></u>: </b>Share prices closed 0.3
per cent lower on higher oil prices as powerful Hurricane Rita threatened to
hammer the oil-producingPageUS107
gulf coast.<br>
<br>
The Straits Times Index fell 7.97 points to 2,290.68. Volume reached 1.23
billion shares valued at 1.06 billion Singapore dollars (631 million US).<br>
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">World oil prices climbed on Thursday as monster


Hurricane Rita churned towards the US Gulf Coast, sending millions fleeing its
predicted path and forcing the shutdown of vital energy infrastructures.<br>
<br>
US President George W. Bush warned the authorities were “preparing for the
worst” as the savage hurricane steered towards the southern US.New York’s
main contract, light sweet crude for delivery in November, climbed 60 cents to
$67.40 per barrel in early trading. It has now risen more than seven per cent
since the start of the week.<br>
<br>
In London, the price of Brent North Sea crude for November delivery gained 61
cents to $65.34 per barrel.<br>
<br>
“Hurricane Rita is headed across the Gulf of Mexico towards the heart of the
US oil refining sector,” said CALYON analyst Mike Wittner.<br>
<br>
“If there is significant damage, the current price spike could be an extended
one.”<br>
<br>
British energy giant BP and Anglo-Dutch peer Royal Dutch Shell, having already
shut down their offshore Gulf platforms, announced the evacuation of their Texas
refineries.BP said its 470,000-barrels-per-day Texas City refinery — its
biggest in the US — was shut, while Shell closed its two Texas refineries,
128 Oil prices rise as Dear
Shell Rita heads
9/23/2005
Park, for US
near Gulf Coast
Houston, and Motiva Port Arthur, near Beaumont.</font></p>

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Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Cars clogged Texas highways with more than a


million people fleeing Hurricane Rita on Thursday as the Category 5 storm roared
through the Gulf of Mexico on a potentially catastrophic course.<br>
<br>
Heavy traffic jammed highways from Corpus Christi, in southern Texas, into
Louisiana as coastal residents, heeding the lessons of Hurricane Katrina, headed
inland to escape what has become one of the most intense storms on record.<br>
<br>
The National Hurricane Centre said the path of Rita, with top winds of 265kph,
had shifted toward the north. It appeared to be headed toward Galveston and
Houston, the nation’s fourth largest city and centre of the US oil industry.<br>
<br>
As Rita neared, Exxon Mobil said it was closing the biggest oil refinery in
Baytown, Texas, and another in Beaumont, 144kms east.<br>
<br>
The closings, combined with earlier shutdowns due to Rita and Katrina three
weeks ago, raised to at least 12 the number of US refineries out of commission.
Together, they had nearly 20 percent of US refining capacity, raising the
spectre of serious shortages in the days ahead.<br>
<br>
A hurricane warning was in effect from Port O’Connor, Texas, to Morgan City,
Louisiana.<br>
<br>
Rita was expected to lose a little steam as it neared land, but was still
forecast to hit Texas as no less than a Category 3 storm with winds of up to
209kph.<br>
<br>
“It’s not a good picture for us at this point,” said a grim Galveston city
manager Steve LeBlanc. “We’re in for a historic storm.”<br>
<br>
Weather forecasters told Galveston officials to expect Gulf waters to surge over
a five-metre seawall that protects the island city, he said. The seawall was
constructed after a 1900 hurricane that killed 8,000 people in the worst US
natural disaster.<br>
<br>
Houston, headquarters to many large energy firms, was expecting flooding from a
storm surge in Galveston Bay and up to 45 centimetres of rain, weather
forecasters said.<br>
<br>
Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco urged coastal communities to evacuate as
forecasts indicated Rita would come closer to the state than previously thought.<br>
<br>
<b>SLOW JOURNEY: </b>People began flooding out of the coastal region on
Wednesday and the exodus continued on Thursday. Residents of Galveston, Corpus
Christi and low-lying parts of Houston 80kms inland were among the 1.3 million
Texans told to evacuate.<br>
<br>
Bumper-to-bumper traffic jams filled the region’s highways. Area stores were
scrambling to keep supplies on the shelves while petrol stations with fuel to
sell dwindled to a precious few.<br>
<br>
“I’m leaving. I’m just not going to chance it,” said Rebecca Henson, 23,
129 1 million flee
in as storm nears
Galveston,9/23/2005
Texas
as she prepared to head north from the island.</font></p>

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Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">More than 100 armed militants stormed a


US-operated oil production platform in Nigeria and forced it to close on
Thursday in response to the arrest of an ethnic militia leader on treason
charges.Armed with assault rifles, the fighters invaded the Idama platform
operated by Chevron in the southern Niger Delta, escalating a simmering
political crisis in the world’s eighth largest oil exporter.<br>
<br>
“Eight boats, each carrying 15 armed people occupied the Idama flow station.
Six government security forces had their weapons taken from them,” a source
close to Chevron said.<br>
<br>
“Apparently the militants are now heading for more stations. The situation can
only get worse.”<br>
<br>
Only about 8,000 barrels per day were affected at Idama, a company source said,
but industry officials said the impact of unrest could rise dramatically if
security worsened.Chevron officials were not available for comment.Militants
loyal to Mujahid Dokubo-Asari burned tyres in the streets of the delta’s
largest city, Port Harcourt, and blocked a major road artery. Police shot in the
air to disperse them.Asari’s Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF)
threatened on Tuesday to cause mayhem and close down oil facilities in the
delta, which pumps all of Nigeria’s 2.4 million barrels per day, unless their
leader was released.Royal Dutch Shell evacuated non-essential staff from one of
its platforms, but a senior industry source said the 70,000 barrels-a-day output
from that facility would be maintained by a skeleton staff.<br>
<br>
Oil prices are near record highs due to hurricane damage in southern United
States, and any disruption to exports from Nigeria, its fifth largest supplier,
would make the situation more precarious.Asari campaigns for self-determination
of his Ijaw tribe, the largest in the delta, and argues that the colonial
treaties that created the union with Nigeria were fraudulent.<br>
<br>
The government has called him an oil thief and gangster.The NDPVF had demanded
his release by 1300 GMT on Wednesday.An Abuja high court on Thursday granted a
request by the justice minister to detain him for two weeks to prepare charges
130 US firm’s oilofplatform
treason,attacked
which
9/23/2005
carries
in Nigeria
a maximum death penalty, and unlawful assembly.</font></p>

Page 110
Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">More than one million people were under


evacuation orders yesterday as Hurricane Rita bore down on the central Texas
coast- the heart of the US oil industry, threatening to make land and be one of
the most powerful storms to hit the US. Prices are being driven directly by the
projected path of the storm. Forecasters said Rita's winds have reached 225
km/hr, as the latest forecast predicted the center of Rita to make landfall near
Galveston, Texas, late Friday or early Saturday. 134 production rigs and 24
refineries lie in the possible path of Rita.<br>
Crude oil prices rose in anticipation of yet another hurricane led disaster, as
Hurricane Rita gathered speed and appeared to head for Texas. Light, sweet crude
for November delivery rose to US$66.80 a barrel on the New York Mercantile
Exchange, heating oil jumped nearly three cents to US$2.0387 a gallon, while
gasoline touched US$ $2.0531 a gallon. On London's International Petroleum
Exchange, November Brent crude oil futures rose to US$64.73 a barrel.<br>
As per the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. gasoline inventories rose 3.4 million
barrels to 195.4 million barrels in the week ended Sept. 16, still more than 5%
below year-ago levels. Inventories of distillate fuels, which include heating
oil, rose 800,000 barrels to 134.1 million, more than 5% above year-ago levels.
Crude inventories dropped 300,000 barrels to 308.1 million, but are nearly 12%
above year-ago levels.<br>
<br>
In Houston, America's oil and petrochemicals capital and its fourth largest
city, people have been urged to leave low-lying areas vulnerable to the expected
storm surge, and schools and businesses have been advised to close for two days.
As of yesterday, Rita had forced oil companies to evacuate 15 rigs, cutting
daily output from the Gulf of Mexico by 877,000 bpd- about 4% of US daily
131 Oil prices spike as Rita. 9/23/2005
consumption.</font></p>

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Articles

</font></strong><font face="Arial" size="2">was invited to participate in <strong>INT


2002</strong> exposition held at Moscow on September 16, 2002. The exhibition
was spread over 6500 sq. mt. with 300 exhibitors from 25 different countries.
The foreign participation occupied more than 4500 sq. mt. compared to about 1800
sq. mt. occupied by the Russian participants. Mamata Machinery, Lohia,
Cincinnati Ferromatics were the other participants at the exhibition. PLASTEMART
is very happy to bring the impression of Mr. Arvind Mehta about the exhibition
and the business environment of Russia.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><strong><font face="Arial" size="3">RUSSIA TODAY IS A NEW
RUSSIA</font></strong></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Present Russian Government is
action-oriented. In last 8 years, the country has seen the set up of 500 fully
occupied departmental stores, stacked with international quality products.
Demand is booming in all sectors and the masses are fashion conscious, so there
exists a huge untapped market. Natural resources like Crude Oil, Gas and
Minerals contribute in a big way to the Government Treasury. Russia plans to
join WTO by 2003 to attract investment in Russia. Investment laws like Income
Tax Laws, Patent Laws, Profit repatriation/Company Laws, Labour Laws etc. are
being changed to welcome foreign investments and to suit WTO.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Though the political relation of
Russia with India is very good, the economical relation is not too healthy as
India lags in superior quality products and services. Lack of the Indians to
ADAPT TO CHANGE has caused them to lose out in Russia. From being at the topmost
position in Russia, Indians have hit the bottom position today. Russians want
quality of international standards and Western countries are encashing that
demand. GDP growth of Russia is 3.9% while Inflation is 14%.<br>
<br>
Italy, Germany and Austria now dominate and as a result of getting into Russian
market, the European economy has become more stable. China, Korea, and Taiwan
are also visible. India has failed to impact the Russian economy inspite of its
strong political relation with Russia. India is out because it has not adapted
to the 180º change in Russian economy i.e. from centralized purchases to
free-market-economy. Now everything is in private sector. Government is
releasing its controls on business activities and now market economy decides
purchase.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="3"><strong>Education</strong><br>
</font><font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
Education is free in state-schools upto XI th standard. Private schools charge
fees. No reservation on basis of caste or creed. Literacy level of Russia is
80%. Now, English-learning by small children is given importance.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="3"><strong>Environment</strong><br>
</font><font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
There is no littering habit amongst people. Roads are clean but only 95% clean
by European standards. Government does the waste management without any fuss and
without blaming plastics.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Currency of Russia is Roubles and
approximately 1 US$ = 31.5 Roubles. Lending rates are high i.e. @ 17% Roubles
while<strong> </strong>Fixed Deposit rate @ 11%( Fixed Deposit for US$ 6%).
Banks are now updating and changing to new order. As on today, getting LC is
very difficult. Today, business can be done by appointing good local middlemen,
who are available.<br>
<br>
Import Duties Vary from 5% to 25%. VAT is 20% - 10% on essential like food and
20% on non-essential. All items are covered by VAT. No one is exempted. + 5%
Sales Tax is Non VATABLE. Income Tax rates are 13% for personal and 24% for
companies.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><strong><font face="Arial" size="3">Infrastructure</font></strong
<br>
Page 112by very good roads – 4 Lanes and 3 Lanes
Russia is totally well connected
highways. Earlier Communist Government did this with an eye on defense, nuclear
war and total control. Russia has one of the best underground Metro Rails in the
world. There are seven layers of underground running trainsThe population of the
Articles

Page 113
Articles

copolymers that flow through molds at unprecedented high speed can lift
productivity for the end user, enchance colour, taste and odor properties, and
improve part performance, according to the supplier. Target applications include
housewares, food packaging, an DVD cases. The Pro-fax ultra range is available
in four grades, all nucleated.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Two 100g/10 min melt flow rate
grades, Pro-fax Ultra SC973 and SG982, are primarily for thinwall yogurt and
dairy product cups, and other food containers. The first contains antistatic and
slip additives, and is stiffer.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">&quot;The new slate&quot; says
Mark Knorr, Montell’s packaging manager &quot;should enable injection molders
to stay ahead of thermoformers, trading on their ability to make thinwall
containers with high topload strength.&quot;</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Density is 0.90 g/cm³. Flexural
modulus is 1240 MPa; notched Izod impact strength at 23°C is 42.7 j/m. Other
features include an easier colour match capability, moderate cold-temperature
impact, and excellent gloss.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Pro-fax Ultra SG833 is a 35 MFR
grade designed for thinwall frozen dairy containers, as well as housewares and
consumer goods in which extra low-temperature toughness is desired. It contains
antistatic and slip additives. Features include easier colour match, resistance
to dust and dirt pickup, and excellent gloss. These properties suit the material
for DVD cases.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Finally, SG853, a 55 MFR
material, also antistatic and slip modified, is for electronic cases and
thinwall consumer goods.</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0" bgcolor="#F
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="3" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size="3">Typical properties of
Montell ultra-high-flow PP</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="2" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">Value of grade</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="19" align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">Properties</font></b></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="20%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<td vAlign="top" align="center" width="22%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">SG853</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Density at 23°C, g/ cm³<br>
(ASTM D 1238)</font></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="20%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="left"><font size="2" face="Arial">0.90</font></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="22%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
Page 114
<p align="left"><font size="2" face="Arial">0.90</font></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
Articles

<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>2D system:</b>
is the simplest of all. It replaces the drawing board with a computer
system. It can create engineering drawings. When drawing needs
modification it can be carried out without redrawing the entire drawing.</font></td
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>3D interactive graphics
system: </b>This enables the designer to produce 3D assemblies. It has
capability to zoom in on any details. It can also rotate the models to
enable view the assemblies from different directions. Isometric views
can be scaled and also duplicated easily. Colour graphics improves the
clarity of assemblies. Different components, notes, dimensions can be
put on different layers. These layers can be selectively presented
without losing information.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2"><b>Solid modellers:</b> It
uses basic 3D shapes like blocks, cylinders, canes, toroids, spheres and
prisms and 3D edges based on constructions made by rotating line and
arcs. These are added or subtracted until the model is over. It can
calculate area, volume, and weight.</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<font face="Arial" size="2"><br>
Well-known CAD systems are Pro-Engineer, Unigraphics, Ideas, Cimatron, Solid
Works, Solid Edge, Delcams PowerShape, Mechanical Desktop.<br>
<br>
<b>CAM – Computer Aided Manufacturing</b></font>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Computer aided manufacturing is
the automatic machining of parts by numerically controlled machine tools. CAM
system can be integrated with CAD systems so that it can generate the tool paths
automatically.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">CAM software creates roughing and
finishing toolpaths to optimsie the productivity of CNC machine tools, while at
the same time ensuring the highest quality matching of models and tooling.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">CAM software offers high speed
calculation, powerful integrated visualisation and verification facilities,
which allow the user to compare alternative strategies with any combination of
cutting tools and check all toolpaths before they are sent to the machine. As a
result machine idle time and wasted materials and resources are eliminated.</font></p
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Well-known CAM software are
Unigraphics, Cilmatron, Declams Power/Mill, Command, Mastercam etc.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Actually, is it possible to
imagine a good tool room without such a marvelous technological tool?</font></p>
<b>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Global trend in development of
plastic part and mould</font></p>
</b>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Today in USA, Europe, Canada and
Japan, more and more plastics parts design and mould design are carried out in
solid modelling software. Solid modelling has replaced the drawing board and the
usage of 2D software.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">When the part is designed in
solid, the same model can be used for CAE analysis, mould design and for CAM.
This integrated approach Page– of automated design to manufacturing - saves lot of
115
time. All the leading software offers integrated modules for solid modelling,
mould design and CAM.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">CAE analysis software (Mouldflow
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">This method of welding was the


first to be developed for plastics and is a modification of gas welding of
metals. Basically the process involved melting the weld area by means of stream
of hot gas supplied from a hand held torch. A welding or filter rod made from
the same material as the parts to be joined is also used.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">During the welding the weld bed
and the welding rod are heated simultaneously by gently moving the hot gas
stream back and forward between the two. When softening occurs, slight pressure
is applied to the rod to feed it into the melt pool whilst steadily progressing
along the joint.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The welding torches are usually
electrically heated and capable of providing a gas temperature of between 200°
C and 300° C at the nozzle orifice. The gas should be dry and clear with a flow
rate of 15 - 60 litres per minute at high pressure. Tests have shown that the
type of gas affects the bond strength. Strongest bonds are achieved with oxygen
where as carbon dioxide tends to produce weak bonds. In many cases the most
convenient gas to use is compressed air since it is inexpensive and produce
satisfactory welds. However several plastics, such as polythlylene and acetal,
oxidize very easily and are best welded using nitrogen.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Rigid PVC is the most suitable
material for hot gas welding but other plastics can also be joined very
satisfactorily by this method. The major advantage of this welding technique is
that large structural shapes can be fabricated relatively easily, but it has the
136 Hot gas welding
drawback of9/24/2005
being a slow process, relying on operator skill for good welds.</font></p>

Page 116
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Thermorforming consists of a


group of forming method in which a thermoplastic sheet is heat softened and then
(in the majority of cases) formed into an open mould as a core and or a cavity
using pressure or suction. The principle is the same in both these processes,
but the latter is the more common technique and is referred to as vaccum
forming. It is mainly used in the packaging industry to make location trays for
confectionery, cosmetics, electrical goods, and so on, but it can also be used
for larger structural items such as boat hulls, inside door panels for
refrigerators and baths or shower cubicles etc.</font>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The principle of the process is
simple. The plastic sheet is clamped over an open mould where it is heated until
soft. The heater is then removed and the air is evacuated from between the sheet
and the mould so that the atmospheric pressure above the sheets pushes it down
into the mould. Cold air may then be blown on to the sheet to cool it quickly
and ensures that it retains the contours of the mould. Trimming is usually
required to remove excess material.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">A potential problem in this
simple version of the process is the redistribution of material after heating
the sheet that it should not bottom thin at the bottom corners of the moulding.
To improve the wall thickness distribution, modification can be made to the
basic process, for example, using drape forming over a male die or using a plug
to push the softened sheet down into the mould before the vaccum is applied.</font></
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">In practice the vaccum forming
equipment is often part of complete production line. Typically, at the beginning
of the line, pellets are extruded to produce the plastic sheet or in some cases
the plastic disc required for forming. After shaping on the vaccum machine the
containers have printing added and they are then filled with, say, diary produce
before being packed for distribution. The familiar blister packs which are
currently being wldely used in packaging of medicine and other food products is
going to attract consumers because of its better appearance. Skin packing is
also useful because of its abililty to pack any odd shape. Blister packs and
skin packs are also made by vaccum forming. The most suitable materials for
thermoforming are polystyrene (rubber toughened or expanded grades, ABS,
polyvinyl chloride (special grades), acrylic, CAB, and polycarbonate. Since only
low pressure are involved in thermoforming, mould may be made from wood or
plaster (for protypes) of metal filled epoxy, steel, or alluminium (for
protection) *Above all materials HIPS has lower oxygen and water permiability
which gives more exposure to be processed through vaccum forming. Multilayer
sheets are also fed for the processed food and pesticides packing for longer
life.*</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Other than those products
mentioned earlier, thermoforming may be used to produce egg cartoons, light
covers, vehicle body panels, sink units shelters, advertising signs, deep
137 Thermo forming
freezer liners,
9/24/2005
face masks, disposal cups and numerous car components.</font></p>

Page 117
Articles

<p align="left"><font size="2" face="Arial"><strong>Introduction</strong></font></


<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Successful production of plastic
components depends on the mold, the machine and the processing conditions used.
The role of the mold becomes more important when we enter the arena of molding
precision components for demanding applications in engineering.</font></p>
<div align="center">
</div>
<font size="2" face="Arial">Crystalline plastics like polyacetals, have
shrinkage is in two stages, i.e. shrinkage in mold and post molding shrinkage.
If tight tolerance is to be maintained, one of the important aspects that is to
be taken care of is the mold design.Let us look at some aspect of the mold
design which will help in molding precision components with relative ease,
consistently.</font>
<p align="left"><font size="2" face="Arial"><b>Cavity layout</b></font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">The first aspect to be looked at
is the cavity lay-out in the mold. The basic objective for designing a cavity
layout is achieving equal cavity pressure in all the cavities in a multicavity
layout. Of course, for a single cavity, the question of making a lay-out does
not arise, but in case of multicavities, a variety of aspects can be looked at
in arriving at a suitable cavity layout. A designer has to optimise by adjusting
the cavities’ location in such a way as to minimise the flow path of the
material and also reduce the total area of the mold. The following is an
interesting example (See the above figure).</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial"><b>Runners</b></font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">Runners are the feeding systems
which feed the cavity with the material. With this in mind, one should design
the runner system. Another governing factor is the melt viscosity. For example,
for feeding material for multicavities having a long flow path, a lower melt
viscosity material will be preferable to the higher viscosity material. The
runner lay out should transmit pressure uniformly to all cavities. It should be
enough to provide enough flow of material with minimum pressure loss. Size and
length should be optimum to reduce the losses in form of runner and reduce the
amount of material available for rework.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">The optimum runner cross section
is a full round section or a trapezoidal runner section which is relatively
easier to machine. Hence the depth of the trapezoid should be at a minimum the
diameter of the full round designed, which of course adds more material in the
runner which has to be recycled or rejected. The runners carry hot material upto
the cavity. The material which starts flowing first in the path is cooled down
due to the lower temperature of the mold. Hence it is advisable to give a cold
slug well at the end of the runner path and the end of sub runner path, and
design in such a way that the cold material gets trapped in the slug well. This
helps hot material flood the cavity, thereby avoiding flowmarks, and aids in
138 Mould design
increased
for polyacetals
packing
9/24/2005
of material in the cavity too.</font></p>

Page 118
Articles

copolymers that flow through molds at unprecedented high speed can lift
productivity for the end user, enchance colour, taste and odor properties, and
improve part performance, according to the supplier. Target applications include
housewares, food packaging, an DVD cases. The Pro-fax ultra range is available
in four grades, all nucleated.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Two 100g/10 min melt flow rate
grades, Pro-fax Ultra SC973 and SG982, are primarily for thinwall yogurt and
dairy product cups, and other food containers. The first contains antistatic and
slip additives, and is stiffer.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">&quot;The new slate&quot; says
Mark Knorr, Montell’s packaging manager &quot;should enable injection molders
to stay ahead of thermoformers, trading on their ability to make thinwall
containers with high topload strength.&quot;</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Density is 0.90 g/cm³. Flexural
modulus is 1240 MPa; notched Izod impact strength at 23°C is 42.7 j/m. Other
features include an easier colour match capability, moderate cold-temperature
impact, and excellent gloss.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Pro-fax Ultra SG833 is a 35 MFR
grade designed for thinwall frozen dairy containers, as well as housewares and
consumer goods in which extra low-temperature toughness is desired. It contains
antistatic and slip additives. Features include easier colour match, resistance
to dust and dirt pickup, and excellent gloss. These properties suit the material
for DVD cases.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Finally, SG853, a 55 MFR
material, also antistatic and slip modified, is for electronic cases and
thinwall consumer goods.</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" width="100%" border="0" bgcolor="#F
<tbody>
<tr align="middle" bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="3" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size="3">Typical properties of
Montell ultra-high-flow PP</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><font face="Arial"
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="2" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">Value of grade</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">Properties</font></b></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="20%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="center"><b><font face="Arial" size="3">SC982</font></b></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="22%" height="19" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><b>
<p align="center"><font face="Arial" size="3">SG853</font></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="58%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Density at 23°C, g/ cm³<br>
(ASTM D 1238)</font></p>
</td>
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="20%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">0.90</font></p>
</td> Page 119
<td vAlign="top" align="left" width="22%" height="32" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">0.90</font></p>
</td>
Articles

plastics from biotechnology, and looking at the parking lot, whose many parts
are made of bio-sourced plastics, including the fuel cells that have replaced
the internal combustion engines, we realise we are at the beginning of the
'biotechnology century'. Here it is the year 2020 and biological breakthroughs
have influenced mankind in key ways over the last 20 years, from raising life
expectancies of humans by 10 years to commercial fuel cells using corn stalks as
the energy source.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The advancements made by scientists in DNA and
RNA research during the 1990's have left no industry untouched. This includes
plastics also. The reliance on fossil fuels, which became scarce a few years ago
as a source of monomers, has been challenged by cheaper and renewable sources
that are more environmental friendly. The traditional chemical plant has met
serious competition from green plants. Many monomers are now made via
fermentation, using low-cost sugars as the feedback. Some of the commodity
monomers are under siege by chemicals extracted from biomass. The once limited
list of commercial viable chemical for polymer production has been expanded to
include a large number of monomers from nature. The suppliers who had vision in
the 1990's and set up bioengineering capabilities are now reaping the benefits
globally. These suppliers are displacing established polymer platforms with
cost-effective and higher-performing plastics.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">We reflect back with pride to the pioneering
research performed by companies like DuPont in the late 1990's. That was when
scientists leveraged the biotechnology research tools, which were developed to
enhance crop traits, for the bioproduction of monomers. The first example of
this technology in DuPont was the production of 1,3-propanediol using bacteria.
It was known at the time that the terephthalate copolymer using 1,3-propanediol
had interesting properties as a fiber. To develop a monomer source of
1,3-propanediol, DuPont formed a research alliance with Genencor International
to help produce a commercially viable process. This project required combining
conversion pathways from two different bacteria into a single host, which led to
the successful one-step conversion of common sugar into 1,3-propanediol.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">These break thorough, which helped establish a
fundamental understanding of how enzymes function, combined with the ability to
manipulate their structures, has resulted in an explosion of novel polymers made
via enzymatic control. The use of enzymes for polymerization has drastically
altered the landscape of polymer chemistry. Processors can now request specific
properties for each application as opposed to making do with what is available.
The supplier can tune in the desired properties requested by the processors,
through the strategic control of the polymer microstructure. There are now tools
to manipulate the backbones of polymers in several areas like:<br>
</font>
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="3" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Control of
microstructures such as tacticity, stereo-chemistry, and crystallinity.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Precise control of molecular
weight and polydispersity.</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td width="3%"></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Copolymerzation
of additives (e. g. flame retardant), antioxidants, and stabilizers,
etc.</font></td>
</tr> Page 120
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td></td>
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Direct attachment of
Articles

Automotive sector consumes about 7% of the total plastics used in the World, (about 12

Every producer or converter continues to innovate in the use of plastic in automobile sec
• PP-PS nano composite with nano clay acting as compatibilizer
• PP–metal hybrid
• New Acrylic adhesive for PP parts without primer or surface treatment.
• Expanded PP foam products.
• PP reinforced with natural fiber
• Carbon fiber composites
• Large exterior moulded parts from SMC
• Low temperature resistant polycarbonate–silicon blend for air bag

141 Plastic innovations


These newin automotive
6/12/2006applications
innovations and developments will continue to make polymer usage in autom
142 Laser welding for fast production
6/12/2006
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">The food stretch film market mainly uses PVC,
which does not biodegrade, making the material and the companies that use it,
targets of environmental lobby groups. A growing number of food industry
companies, including supermarkets and processors have turned to biodegradable&nbsp;
as a means of meeting consumer demand for such eco friendly products. Local and
national governments in North America and Europe are also considering limiting
the use of PVC products. Several European countries, Japan and the State of New
York, have already introduced restrictions and legislation on the use of PVC in
the food wrap industry.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Recently, a recyclable stretch film that does not
use PVC has been introduced. The company marketed its polystyrene-based stretch
film as a non-plasticized food wrap that was eco-friendly and recyclable, and
had developed the technology as an alternative to PVC over 10 years. The
plasticizer-free film has been certified by an agency set up by the Canadian
government. The company has now introduced oxo-biodegradable pallet wrap
samples, which have been sent for testing to one of its US distributors as a
means of entering the market. This product will biodegrade and once biodegrading
is complete all that remains is carbon dioxide, water and biomass, all which are
part of the normal bio-cycle. Using EPI Environmental Technologies' TDPA
(Totally Degradable Plastic Additive), which when incorporated into commodity
plastic resins, such as polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene
(PS), renders the plastics degradable and ultimately biodegradable.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Many analysts believe that biodegradable
packaging has a bright future. Growing environmental awareness and consumer
power means that food manufacturers and packagers are increasingly being
144 Will Biodegradable
targetedwrap
to improve
6/15/2006
film replace
their PVC
environmental
cling Fil performances.</font></p>

Page 121
Articles

<p><font size="2" face="Arial">Recently a new system called “SmartBlender”


has been developed. This system uses a principle of fluid dynamics known as
chaotic advection to fold a masterbatch or other components into a matrix
polymer. Layering or folding materials together form a variety of controlled and
repeatable polymer morphologies; from layers, ribbons and platelets to spongy
interpenetrating structures. Unusual properties are said to result.<br>
<br>
Among these novelties is “directional conductivity,” in which blends of
LLDPE with a carbon-black masterbatch show electrical conductivity in the
machine direction, but not the transverse direction, when extruded into film,
sheet, tube or rods. Chaotic advection creates linear striations of carbon black
particles in the machine direction, which act like tiny wires. The striations
can also be cross-connected to give conductivity in the transverse direction or
through the film thickness. Computer simulations show that these striations are
really spirals with projecting filaments, the spirals being arranged parallel to
the axis of the “SmartBlender”.<br>
Clemson’s striated blends reportedly achieve a much higher level of
conductivity with less carbon black than conventional compounds. Tests show that
as little as 0.5 wt% carbon black mixed via chaotic advection can achieve a
level of conductivity comparable to about 3% carbon black with conventional
twin-screw compounding. Because a twin-screw disperses additives evenly, it
takes a lot more carbon black for the particles to be close enough to touch each
other and create a continuous electrical path.<br>
<br>
Chaotic advection creates the spongy morphologies by stretching and folding
thinner and thinner layers of LDPE in the PP matrix. After repeated layering,
the LDPE layers become so thin they eventually rupture, letting the PP flow
through the holes in the LDPE. Holes also form in the PP layers, creating a
fibrous spongy structure out of the stiffer PP. Other potential applications for
chaotic advection include materials with improved tensile and barrier properties
and selective permeability.<br>
<br>
The SmartBlender is fed by two 22mm diam. single-screw extruders, each of which
has a metering pump to give precise control of the ingredient ratio. The two
melt streams enter a crosshead die from opposite sides, then pass into a
distribution head. The matrix material passes through a single central port,
while the secondary resin or masterbatch goes through nine small ports arranged
in a circle around the central one.<br>
From the distribution head, the material enters the cylindrical blending
chamber, which is round at both ends and oval in the middle and externally
heated with multiple zones. The chamber contains two 22-mm-diameter stirring
rods, which are slightly offset (15 mm) from the chamber’s central axis. The
rods are turned independently by stepper motors with computer control of the
direction, speed, and number of rotations.<br>
According to one mixing recipe, the rods corotate, but one of them spins three
times faster than the other for a specific number of turns. Then it slows down
and the opposite rod turns faster for a specific number of turns. Changing the
rod rotation protocol can produce blends of differing morphologies without any
145 A new process to develop
equipment 6/15/2006
novel polymer blends
modification.</font></p>

Page 122
Articles

Recently a new system called “SmartBlender” has been developed. This system uses a p

Among these novelties is “directional conductivity,” in which blends of LLDPE with a carb
Clemson’s striated blends reportedly achieve a much higher level of conductivity with le

Chaotic advection creates the spongy morphologies by stretching and folding thinner an

The SmartBlender is fed by two 22mm diam. single-screw extruders, each of which has a
From the distribution head, the material enters the cylindrical blending chamber, which i
146 A new process
According
to develop
to6/17/2006
one
novel
mixing
polymer
recipe,
blends
the rods corotate, but one of them spins three times fas
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<p align="justify">Phthalates are a class of compounds most commonly used as


softener for PVC packaging and products. In the food industry, phthalate
compounds are most commonly used in plastic packaging materials. The most
commonly used phthalate is DEHP. A study claims that normal exposure to
phthalates could harm the genital development of unborn baby boys. Other animal
studies on the toxicity of phthalates have raised questions about its possible
effects on human health and sparked calls for further studies on the chemicals.</p>
<p align="justify">A Danish company, Danisco, has developed a biodegradable
plasticizer derived from castor oil and acetic acid. It is a colourless,
odourless and completely biodegradable plasticizer. The new plasticiser can be
used for PVC food and beverage packaging without the need to modify equipment.
In addition, it is considered safe to be used in food contact materials. The
plasticiser can also be used in the production of flexible polyvinyl PVC for
consumer products such as toys, bottle cap liners, floorings, teething rings,
tubes, cling films, conveyor belts, and medical devices. Danisco is awaiting
approval from the US Food and Drug Administration and from Japan's regulators.</p>

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147 Will a biodegradable


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<p>Automotive sector consumes about 7% of the total plastics used in the
World, (about 12 million tons out of the total of 170 million tonnes).
However, this sector probably has the highest requirement of innovative
applications. The demand complexity is as much as that exists in the packaging
sector where about 37% (63 Million tons) of plastics is consumed.</p>
<p>Every producer or converter continues to innovate in the use of plastic in
automobile sector. Some of the recent innovations observed are summarized
below:<br>
•&nbsp; PP-PS nano composite with nano clay acting as compatibilizer<br>
•&nbsp; PP–metal hybrid<br>
•&nbsp; New Acrylic adhesive for PP parts without primer or surface
treatment.<br>
•&nbsp; Expanded PP foam products.<br>
•&nbsp; PP reinforced with natural fiber<br>
•&nbsp; Carbon fiber composites<br>
•&nbsp; Large exterior moulded parts from SMC<br>
•&nbsp; Low temperature resistant polycarbonate–silicon blend for air bag</p>
<p>These new innovations and developments will continue to make polymer usage
in automobile growing well in the future.</p>
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<p>The term “wood plastic composite” (WPC) refers to any composite that
contains wood &amp; thermoset or thermoplastic. Thermosets include resins such
as epoxies &amp; phenolics. Thermoplastics include resins such as polyethylene,
polypropylene &amp; polyvinyl chloride. These new materials extend the current
concept of “wood composites” from the traditional compressed materials such
as particleboard &amp; medium density fiber board (MDF) into new areas &amp;
more importantly, a new generation of high performance products.<br>
The first generation of WPC's were a combination of recycled wood flour or chips
&amp; a binder. These were ideal for relatively undemanding applications. The
new &amp; rapidly developing generation of WPC's have good mechanical
properties, high dimensional stability, &amp; can be used to produce complex
shapes. They can be extruded to high dimensional tolerances, are tough &amp;
stable products. The new WPC's are high technology products for the most
demanding applications.<br>
The most common type of the new WPC's are produced by mixing wood flour / fiber
&amp; plastics to produce a material that can be processed like a conventional
plastic, but has the best features of wood &amp; plastic.<br>
<br>
<strong>Wood Plastic Composites From A Historical Perspective<br>
</strong>Wood – thermoset composites date to the early 1900's. An earlier
commercial composite material marketed under the trade name “ Bakelite”, was
made of phenol – formaldehyde &amp; wood flour. Its first commercial use was
reportedly as a gearshift knob for Rolls Royce in 1916.This paper is focused on
wood – thermoplastics, which in today's parlance are simply referred to as WPC.<br>
The birth of the WPC industry involved the interfacing of two industries that
have historically known little about each other &amp; have different knowledge,
expertise &amp; perspectives. The plastics industry has knowledge of plastics
processing &amp; the forest products industry has more experience &amp;
resources in the building products market. Not surprisingly, some of the
earliest companies to produce WPC's were window manufacturers who had experience
with both wood &amp; plastics.</p>
<p>The plastics industry has traditionally used talc, calcium carbonate, mica,
and glass fiber to modify the performance of plastics. About 2.5 billion Kgs of
fillers &amp; reinforcements are used annually. The industry was reluctant to
use wood or other natural fibers such as kenaf, flax &amp; hemp, though these
fibers are from a renewable resource, are less expensive, lighter &amp; less
abrasive on processing equipments than conventional fillers. Most plastic
processors ignored wood fiber because of its low bulk density &amp; specific
gravity, low thermal stability &amp; tendency to absorb moisture.<br>
The majority of thermoplastics have a bulk density of approximately 0.5 gms/cc.
The plastics processor had to face the problem of how to consistently meter
&amp; force low bulk density wood flour into small openings typical of plastic
processing equipments. In addition, the processing temperature for even the low
softening plastics is often too high for incorporation of wood filler without
thermal degradation. The high moisture content of wood &amp; other natural
fibers is also often problematic to the plastic industry which considers 1 to 2
% moisture content high. Even plastics processors having vented equipments
capable of removing moisture during processing were averse to removing 5 to 7 %
PageResin
125 dryers, which are fitted on plastic processing
moisture from wood fiber.
equipments, are not sufficient for wood filler or particles. Drying of wood or
other natural fibbers poses a fire hazard. Plastics processors who tried to use
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<p>China currently consumes over 7 million tons of Polyethylene film, making it


the largest consumer in the World. Consumption in China at the beginning of 1991
was only about 1 million ton, hence all this growth has come essentially in the
last two decades.<br>
The market is being driven by growing domestic demand for products from a
spectrum of sectors such as agricultural films, building films, industrial and
consumer packaging, and by the production of converted bags and sacks for export
markets. China is the world's largest market for agricultural films, accounting
for over 20% of PE used globally in agricultural film in 2004. The market is
expected to continue to grow in line with GDP at an average rate of 7% pa, as
China strives to improve productivity and output of agricultural produce to feed
its large population.<br>
<br>
The market has also witnessed introduction of newer applications in China such
as stretch film and technical co extrusions. These applications have been
identified as strong growth sectors, but remain small in the overall context of
PE film production, which is projected to continue growing at over 7% in the
coming few years. &nbsp;<br>
The development of newer applications will bring changes in the material
selection for film extrusion as demand for higher alpha olefins and metallocenes
begins to develop. These materials, currently imported, represent only 2% of the
market in China for 2004 but are expected to growth strongly over the next five
years, particularly for octene (C8) and metallocene types. Their increasing
demand is driven by increased investment in production of stretch film and other
new applications and by improved availability. Butene (C4) grades of LLDPE are
the main type of polyethylene resin used by Chinese film extruders thanks
largely to its lower price compared with conventional LDPE and its better
availability (both domestically and through imports). HDPE and conventional LDPE
both accounted for around 22-23% of the market in 2004.<br>
LDPE tends to be widely used throughout the PE film industry for a variety of
applications because of its ease of processing and superior transparency. It is
also the case that many of the relatively older lines used in China run more
efficiently on conventional LDPE. HDPE use is driven mainly by the production of
bags and sacks that accounted for 85% of its use in 2004.<br>
PE film production is highly fragmented with more than 10,000 processors. The
largest is Guangzhou Nanqiang Plastics Co. with an estimated production of
223,000 tons. However, this is still quite exceptional in China and the top 50
companies are estimated to account for only 18% of total PE film production.<br>
<br>
The future outlook for the industry remains positive despite some slowing down
in growth caused by a combination of rising raw material prices, the
introduction of antidumping levies on Chinese bag producers in the USA, power
shortages and government measures introduced to prevent the economy from
overheating. These factors, however, are not expected to have any long-term
implications for PE film production in China.<br>
AMI a leading market research organization from UK has conducted this recent
project. More details on this subject can be obtained from AMI</p>
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">With technological
advancess and changing trends, the life span of products,
particularly in the IT and telecommunications sectors, is on the
decline. The growing consumerism in these sectors is fuelling
growth in the EEE markets, and shorter product life spans favour
plastics because of increased consumption.<br>
A new EU legislation (Directive 2002/96/EC) regarding the
collection and recycling of waste from electrical and electronic
equipment (WEEE) came into effect on 13th August 2005. This means
that producers of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) will
now have to finance the end-of-life recycling and recovery costs
of all their products. This will lead to introduction of product
design changes by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), which
plastics processors will have to adapt to.<br>
<br>
Among the many repercussions of the design changes will be
possible standardization of grades and a gradual reduction of the
variety of plastics used in EEE products. A wider range of
plastics makes the recycling process difficult and expensive due
to the separation involved prior to the shredding of material.
Polypropylene (PP) could find greater application as they can be
easily modified to cover a wider property range, thereby reducing
the variety of plastics in appliances.<br>
The variable recyclability of different plastics will also become
a determining factor when OEMs choose the plastics to be used in
EEE products. Plastics that are easier to recycle will command
better value, thus Monomaterial (unfilled) plastics or unblended
and crystalline polymers will be favoured. On the other hand,
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other polymers that are not easily
recyclable will progressively lose value. In addition, coloured
plastics that do not require paint or finish coatings will become
more popular, since removal of coatings is time-consuming.<br>
With the increased emphasis on recyclability, some additive
producers are starting to market additives to improve the quality
of recycled plastics. While a few additives have been specifically
designed for the task, most of them such as compatibilizers and
chain extenders are familiar chemistries that are finding new
applications. However, recyclers are hesitant to use them as they
feel that they are not economical, due to the low price of
recyclates.<br>
Page 127
Since some essential plastics in EEE are difficult as well as
expensive to recycle, it is imperative that plastics producers
support the development of recycling technologies that simplify
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">After several difficult years indicated by


upturns in production and numerous price increases, the global plastics
additives market appears to be on the road to recovery. The key issues affecting
the additives market include feedstock costs, increasing global competitiveness,
the growing importance of China in the global market and continuing
environmental and regulatory issues. Globally, plastics use is growing as
polymers continue to replace traditional materials. Additive growth is driven by
growing plastics use in developing regions, where per capita plastics
consumption is still far below that in developed nations.<br>
<br>
The global plastics additives market was about 9.9 million tons in 2004, valued
at US$19 billion. North America, Europe, China, and the rest of the Asia-Pacific
region consumed 21-23% of additives by volume, with the remainder going to
India, South America, the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe outside of the
European Union. Overall, the additives market is expected to grow at 4% AAGR
from 2004 to 2009. While Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific (excluding
China) are growing at about 3%, China is predicted to grow at 8-10%. The other
smaller market regions are also poised to grow at 5-6% through 2009. India could
be the next big growth area. Rapid growth in the demand for plastics in the
Chinese market is driving a shift of additive consumption and production to the
Far East. While China is an exporter of consumer goods, it continues to be a net
importer of both plastics and plastic additives. Low-cost suppliers in China and
the Asia Pacific region as well as global additive companies setting up
facilities in China (primarily through joint ventures with Chinese companies)
are striving to meet this supply shortfall.<br>
<br>
Feedstock has been a key issue for the plastics additives industry particularly
since 2004, when both energy and feedstock prices witnessed huge increases.
Additive companies began increasing their prices from Q4-2004. Additive price
increases have allowed companies to keep up with feedstock price increases, but
have generally not resulted in increased margins. Increasing competition from
Asia in end-use applications adds to the need for product differentiation.<br>
Some companies have improved margins by cutting costs and consolidation, whereas
some additive suppliers continue to add value by assisting in developing
products that solve problems for specific applications. Additives offer
innovative solutions for qualities like durability, aesthetics, low-maintenance
and biodegradability. While cost continues to be an important component, most
processors now consider a total system cost rather than unit cost of additives
and at improving processing efficiencies that allow them to get more output out
of existing equipment. For example, additives are used to increase the
properties of lower-cost polymers such as PP, allowing them to compete with
higher-cost engineering resins. Cost-effective additive solutions may include
high-efficiency additives or customer-specific additive blends to avoid
over-engineering of properties. High-growth applications where additives can add
value include wood-plastic composites (WPC) and long-fiber reinforced
thermoplastics (LFRT).<br>
<br>
Consolidation and globalization of additives customers has increased global
Page 128
competitiveness by creating customers with purchasing leverage. Globalization of
OEM specifications in industries such as automotive and electronics has
contributed to the globalization of the polymer additives industry. Resin
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<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">2</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td height="27"><font face="Arial" size="2">PMMA</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Amino</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">&lt;1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">PA</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">&lt;1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">ABS</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">&lt;1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">POM</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">&lt;1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Others</font></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">1</font>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td><strong><font face="Arial" size="2">Total</font></strong></td>
<td>
<div align="center">
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<strong><font face="Arial" size="2">100</font></strong>
</div>
</td>
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Bag closure manufacturers can now
adopt a color change technology using a marking and printing
additive that enables plastics to be marked using low power CO2
lasers. The additive is non-toxic and environmentally friendly,
and is capable of producing an image when marked by a low power
CO2 laser (approx 10W power). Once exposed to the laser on the
production line, the additive undergoes a simple colour change to
create a stable and high contrast date code. The introduction of
this solution has also resulted in faster production run times for
the company and removed the need for expensive consumables on the
production line.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">This new generation coding, marking
and printing additive that enables plastics to be successfully
marked using low power CO2 lasers, DataLase Masterbatch, has been
initially used to date code bread bag closures for George Weston
Foods (GWF). The bread is sealed using Kwik Lok all-plastics bag
closures that are marked to provide information on cost, freshness
and other package information. Traditionally Kwik Lok used thermal
transfer printer to apply the data to the bread bag closures.
However, finding that the information tended to rub off the
closures, the company requested that Kwik Lok, Unimark (Markem's
agent) and Sherwood Technology work together to provide an
alternative date coding solution. By combining DataLase
Masterbatch with low power CO2 lasers, GWF was able to produce
high quality date codes that could not easily be removed from the
closures</font></p>
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154 Plastic bags</html>


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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Demand- after
growing very well for commodity plastics in China, has picked in
the last two decades for engineering plastics. China is estimated
to consume more than 4 million tons of the engineering plastics in
2005, reaching levels of about 7 million tons by 2010, attaining
an average growth of about 9% in the next 5 years. Rapid
development has broadened applications as well as consumption,
making China rank first place in the world in terms of demand for
engineering plastics.<br>
<br>
While rapid economic development in China has led to a
corresponding increase in the use of engineering plastics, the
industry in China is still at its primary stage and suffers from
low production levels, small-scale production facilities and
limited varieties. Domestic production of engineering plastics is
currently only 1.25 million tons, hence, like the other polymers,
China has to import a huge quantity of engineering plastics. With
self-sufficiency being less than 30%, China has become the largest
importer of engineering plastics as users of PC, POM, mPPO and ABS
rely mainly on imports. The country's import of engineering
plastics has surged from 2.28 million tons in 2002 to 3.31 million
tons in 2005. Imports will continue in the next 5 years, despite
the increased domestic production to almost 2.75 million tons.
China's net import volume of raw material resins for the five
major engineering plastics (PA, PC, POM, engineering PET and PBT,
mPPO) is estimated to cross 1 million tons collectively, and ABS
net import is estimated to reach 2.12 million tons in 2005.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The key drivers of
this growth in China is rapid expansion of China's automotive,
electronic and electrical industries, with growth rates greater
than 20% between 2002 and 2004. During the same period, China's
GDP grew at an average annual rate of more than 8%. China is
speeding up in domestic production, and the growth rate is
estimated to hit 13.5% in the next 5 years. Even though the
production will almost double by 2010, the gap between consumption
and domestic output will still widen from 3.13 million tons in
2005 to 4.35 million tons in 2010.<br>
</font></p>
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. (KET),


part of the Kolsite Group, has been presented the Runner-up Plasticon Award 2005
for Best Research under the category Polymer Sciences, Technology &amp;
Engineering. This prestigious award has been conferred for the successful
development of an Extrusion System for processing of the sensitive Polymer
&quot;Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride(CPVC)&quot;.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">KET, India's leading manufacturer
and exporter of Plastic Extrusion Machinery has been presented this award for
manufacturing Twin Screw CPVC Pipe Plant for the first time in India. Two such
Plants have already been manufactured and successfully commissioned by KET, one
of which is installed in Jordan.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">KET's CPVC Pipe Plant has handled
the complex processing of the very heat sensitive CPVC, which calls for special
screw geometry to process for optimum shear, with remarkable success. It
features a special Die Head and Dies, which offers least resistance and
stagnancy to the flow path. As CPVC is highly viscous, a High Torque Gearbox and
Drive has been provided. This Line processes CPVC Pipes as per the
specifications of Noveon and other imported raw materials.Now processors need
not import these machines, as KET's CPVC Pipe Plants are very cost effective and
match International Quality Standards.<br>
To know plant details, please mail us at data@plastemart.com</font></p>

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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polysulphones are
amorphous engineering thermoplastics containing the sulfone groups
(SO2) in the main chain along with a variety of aromatic
constituents like ether or iso-propylidene groups.<br>
There are four major members of the polysulfone family. These are:<br>
1) Polysulfone<br>
2) Polyarylsulfone<br>
3) Polyethersulfone<br>
4) Polyphenylsulfone</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong>Properties:</strong><br>
Polysulphones are engineering plastics with high strength,
stiffness combined with toughness.<br>
They display high thermal and oxidative stability, low creep and
transparency - The presence of aromatic elements and sulfone group
provide resistance to heat and oxidation.<br>
They display good dimensional stability, retain strength and
dielectric properties during their service life.<br>
Polysulfones have low flammability.<br>
Very few polymers can match this high temperature performance -
Polysulfone can be used upto 150 degree C, whereas
Polyethersulfone can be used upto 200 degree C.<br>
Resistance to hydrolysis at high temperature and to most acids,
alkalies and non polar organic solvents is excellent, but the
resin may however be attacked or dissolved by polar solvesnts,
especially under stress.<br>
Resistance to ionization radiation is high, however protection to
UV radiation is needed for outdoor applications.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><strong>Applications:</strong><br>
Polysulfones find application in electronic and automotive parts,
fiber optics, medical instruments requiring sterilization,
chemical and food processing equipment, plumbing and home
appliance items etc.<br>
Copolymers of Polysulfones have potential in medical application
to be used as an artificial membrane to remove CO2 and perfuse
with O2. Membranes are semi-permeable barriers that allow certain
substances such as water to pass through, while other substances
like bacteria and viruses are selectively separated and not
allowed to pass through. Other applications of Polysulfone
membranes include water purification (both potable and waste),
medical filtration,
Pageand
133gas separation, as well as a variety of
industrial filtration.</font></p>
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">For the first time in the history of India, any
city had almost 40 inches (1000 mm) of incessant rains just in about 1 day. This
happened in the city on Mumbai, where majority of th e1000 mm fell in just 3-4
hours in the afternoon. This should be considered as natural calamity. Besides
it was high tide and water could not flow in the sea. Instead all the roads and
the other ground surface were under a few feet of water disrupting the life of
Mumbai city. How can a city remain unaffected when so intense rain fell in the
time period of less than 4 hours and that too at the time of high tide. Then why
do you single out plastic bags as the primary reason for the choking of drains.
We strongly believe that the Government is making the poor plastic bags as <strong>&q
<br>
</strong>As a response to the flooding of Mumbai after the incessant rains on
26th July 2005, the Government of Maharashtra plans to ban the use of plastic
bags in the state of Maharashtra. We must say that this response is completely
unbelievable and that too cin a state where almost 1 million tons of various
types of plastic products are manufactured. Is the Government, instead of
working on the fundamental problem of water logging, putting all blames on
plastic bags. While we agree that plastic bags and the other plastic products
end up in the drains because of bad littering habits, can we blame plastic
products alone for the water logging?<strong> </strong>By the proposed ban on
plastic bags, the Government of Maharashtra is charting a detrimental course.</font></
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">About 60 million tons of plastic is used in the
packaging sector out of the total of about 170 million tons consumed in the
World. India consumes only 4.5 million tons and therefore is a very small user
of plastics in the World. While our population is more than 16% our share of
plastic consumption is merely 4.5%. This banning will hamper the growth of
plastic in our country and more so in Maharashtra state which has almost 25%
share of the total plastic consumption. It would have seriousl adverse
implications on the life of a common man. Plastics, due to their relatively
higher cost efficiency, benefits ordinary citizens in sourcing their daily
necessities in convenient and unadulterated form and at a fraction of the cost
as compared to paper, glass or cloth. Use of alternative materials would result
in substantial increase in packaging cost of milk, edible oil, bread, cereals,
pulses, spices, confectionery items, toiletry products and a host of other items
used by common man and may even push some of these products beyond the reach of
poorer section of the society apart from creating higher impact on the
environment. Milk packaging consumes almost 70 KT of plastic bags in India. By
banning the use of bags in milk packaging and switching to glass or paper
packaging, milk will become more expensive at least to the extent of Rs.5/liter.
Secondly the best alternate mode of packaging is either in HDPE plastic bottle
or of tetrapack which has Polyethylene coating. Both these alternatives would
increase the burden to the common mass. Plastic as a material is one of the most
beneficial to the public at large. It has proven its worthiness beyond any
doubt. That is why there is no sphere of human kind that can not be filled
without plastic.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">While we can enumerate endless advantages of
plastics, the following examples clearly illustrate the benefits of plastics to
the society. Some of the applications that offer tremendous benefits globally,
are:<br> Page 134
<strong>· </strong>Distribution of milk all across the breadth of the large
countries at the lowest cost<br>
· Prevention of wastage due to degradation of food products/vegetables/fruits
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<p align="justify"><font size="2" face="Arial">A Japanese company
has developed a hose that changes colour according to the
temperature of fluid inside it. The ink can be mixed to display
any hue from white to black and can be made to change colour at
any temperature in a range from –10°C to 60°C. The hoses make
for easy monitoring of industrial processes and allow operators to
prevent damage to a hose by running it outside its recommended
temperature range. In addition, the color-change allows operators
to avoid prolonged exposure of the hose to temperatures outside
its recommended temperature range, preventing damage to the hose.
For instance, a hose can be purple at temperatures up to 40°C and
change to red above 60°C. The hose has a coil stiffener that uses
a fiber containing a thermo sensitive material, jointly developed
by Kuraray and The Pilot Ink Company.<br>
The technology, developed by Japan’s Kuraray Plastics is
compatible with a broad range of hose materials, including PVC,
urethane and polypropylene. This colour-change hose would cost
about 40 % more than standard hoses.</font></p>
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159 Plastic hose</html>


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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A Japanese company has developed a hose that


changes colour according to the temperature of fluid inside it. The ink can be
mixed to display any hue from white to black and can be made to change colour at
any temperature in a range from –10°C to 60°C. The hoses make for easy
monitoring of industrial processes and allow operators to prevent damage to a
hose by running it outside its recommended temperature range. In addition, the
color-change allows operators to avoid prolonged exposure of the hose to
temperatures outside its recommended temperature range, preventing damage to the
hose. For instance, a hose can be purple at temperatures up to 40°C and change
to red above 60°C. The hose has a coil stiffener that uses a fiber containing a
thermo sensitive material, jointly developed by Kuraray and The Pilot Ink
Company.<br>
The technology, developed by Japan’s Kuraray Plastics is compatible with a
broad range of hose materials, including PVC, urethane and polypropylene. This
colour-change hose would cost about 40 % more than standard hoses.</font></p>

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160 Plastic hose</html>


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Articles

electric power and gas hits plastics industry. Demand of Pakistani


plastics products grows in India. Japanese government under
grant-in-aid provides 706 million (US$ 14 m) for moderation of
work-shop facilities at Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistance
Centre (PITAC). Export Promotion Bureau overlooking local industry
imports 20,000 plastics fish crates for Karachi Fish Harbour.
Government lays down rules for the levy and collection of Extra
Sales Tax at 5% on the suppliers and manufacturers of certain
plastics goods.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2000 - Sindh government impose a
ban on polyethylene bags in Karachi and Hyderabad. First
exhibition on auto-parts held in Karachi. Pakistan Association of
Automotive Parts &amp; Accessories suggest that auto parts
industry be declared specialized highly value-added industry with
seven years incentives. Five percent excise duty abolished on
plastics industry. The use of polyethylene bags by the food
department to store wheat causes a loss of Rs.200 million to the
government.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2001 - First batch of BE Engineers
pass out from PTC. Exports of naphtha reaches US$ 50.6 m. First
directory of plastics industry is published in Karachi.
Implementation of ODS project begins.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2002 - Central Board of Revenue
restricts clearance of any plastics scrap without a certificate
from Chamber of Commerce. The government of Pakistan approves an
&quot;Upgradtion of Plastics Technology Centre&quot; project with
a capital cost of Rs.455.00 million with the assistance of Japan.
PPMA organizes a three day plastics exhibition in Lahore.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2003 - Polypropylene import
increases by 68% in one year. Chinese goods flood Pakistani
markets. Japan External Trade Organization holds a workshop on
mold making. Fauji Polypropylene Products puts its assets on sale.
Ministry of Environment launches advertisement campaign in local
newspapers discouraging use of polypropylene bags.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">2004 - PPMA organizes second
(local) exhibition in Lahore. First international plastics
exhibition held in Karachi. Small and Medium Enterprises
Development Authority presents its study for rehabilitation of PVC
industry to the government. Macpac Films Ltd, manufacturers of
multi layer co-extruder packaging films offer 10 million ordinary
shares through an initial public offering.</font></p>
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<td><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics provide several advantages
to household appliances, widening the scope of appliance sector.
Plastics are the economical response to mass production and are
thus favoured. The household appliance market has accepted
plastics due to some key advantages, such as:<br>
* Economic competition<br>
* Cost cuttings<br>
* Reduction of development cycle time for the mass production
models<br>
* Hardening of regulations for pollution, recycling and energy</font>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics and composites have
incomparable sets of properties to meet most of these
requirements:<br>
<strong>Technical features:<br>
</strong>Plastics offer an exceptional balance of weight,
performances, ease of processing, aesthetics, and cost:<br>
* Design freedom allows a high level of function integration<br>
* Low density and interesting performance/weight ratio leads to
ease in handling.<br>
* Shatter resistance: plastics avoid the cutting shreds of glass<br>
* Damping (noise reduction).<br>
* Durability and resistance to moisture<br>
* Ease of maintenance<br>
* Possibility of bulk colouring and in-mould decoration<br>
* Good thermal insulation<br>
<strong>Economical features</strong>:<br>
* Ease of processing<br>
* Reduction or suppression of finishing operations<br>
* Higher productivity due to function integration<br>
* The possibilities of joining with simple technologies such as
gluing<br>
<strong>Aesthetic features:</strong><br>
Plastics allow:<br>
* Much more design freedom than steel, and other conventional
materials<br>
* Pleasant finish<br>
* Decoration possibilities<br>
<strong>Environmental features</strong>:<br>
Plastics are environment friendly as they provide:<br>
* Energy saving during all the lifetime by the high thermal
insulation properties and the sealing properties of elastomers and
TPE<br> Page 138
* Weight reduction<br>
* Protective properties<br>
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<font face="Arial" size="2">Plastic fuel tanks in automobiles
are gaining usage globally. Blow moulded or injection moulded
multi layer HDPE fuel tanks are most common. The automotive
industry has made significant developments to meet the recent
emission standards.<br>
<br>
However this trend has not been increasing globally in a
geographically uniform pattern. Europe has almost fully
converted to these plastic fuel tanks, with 92% automobiles of
European origin fitted with plastic fuel tanks. North America,
with 75% usage, is lagging behind. However, the Asian region is
lagging far behind, due to problems of economies. One of the
possible reasons is the smaller number of car produced in
different parts of Asia as compared to Europe and North America.
The use of plastic fuel tank does not become economical at lower
production levels of an individual automobile company.<br>
<br>
Another development in the auto segment has been plastic fuel
lines that convey fuel from the tank to the engine compartment.
Compared with existing rubber and steel fuel lines, plastic fuel
lines are lighter in weight, lower in cost and often less
permeable. They are also available in many colors, which make it
easier to place, track and connect fuel supplies. Interestingly,
the automotive companies are very slow in making the switch to
plastic lines. The slower pace stems from concerns by auto
companies over the ability of plastic fuel lines to meet strict
air emission standards, and to resist electrostatic discharges (ESDs),
which could ignite flammable fuels. Automakers also need to be
convinced that fuel lines made of plastics can withstand the
impact of crashes at low winter temperatures and can resist
degradation from alcohol fuels. But polymer suppliers and Tier
One auto manufacturers have developed new fuel line materials
and designs, which they believe can meet these challenges.<br>
<br>
The most common polymer used in plastic fuel lines is polyamide,
often combined in multilayer structures with fluorocarbon
polymer barrier resins. Another low-permeability material that
has been paired with polyamide in multilayer structures is
polybutylene naphthalate (PBN). Aliphatic polyketones have also
been promoted Pageas139
fuel line materials. Some polymide based fuel
line formulations include low levels of carbon nanotubes, which
enhance ESD properties without harming physical properties.<br>
<br>
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">A well known film producer of medical films has
selected a copolyester to produce films that have better barrier properties as
well as better clarity. Tekniflex PGA and PGOA films are based on multi-layer
lamination constructions and used in blister packaging applications for medical
devices or drug product/device combinations. Besides, copolyester films can have
good thermoformability. Eastar copolyester from Eastman Chemical offers
excellent thermoforming properties for often complex medical trays and is
unaffected by irradiation (Gamma or e-beam). The radiation is absolutely
essential for medical products to obtain the required sterilized level of
protection. The final package also offers good physical protection due to the
material's stiffness and resilience.</font></p>
<p align="left"><font face="Arial" size="2">Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) films
have been known to offer flexibility as well as stretchability. Several types of
TPES can be converted into films, but the films that provide best breathability
are the ones produced from Polyester type of TPE, more so from Ether type of
Polyester TPE.<br>
Breathable TPE films offer advantages of smoother feel, higher permeability to
perspiration and thus higher comfort as compared to vinyls and rubber latex
products such as gloves used in the medical field. When laminated, these film
structures find usage in garments in operating rooms as well as wound dressings.<br>
The types of soft segment in TPE structure can introduce the breathability. The
base polyether segment is commonly made of polyethylene oxide or propylene oxide
block copolymers. The molecular weight of softer segment also influences the
breathability, with higher molecular weight increasing breathability. Breathable
TPE films can be extruded as monolayer films and can also be made by solution
casting process. However, extrusion process is more commonly employed as it is
more economical and free from pollution. Only very soft grades are extremely
difficult to produce by melt extrusion process. They have to be manufactured by
solution casting process. Blown extrusion film process is more preferred
compared to extrusion cast process</font></p>

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164 Breakthroughs
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6/19/2006
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastic films are possibly the


single largest application responsible for the highest consumption of plastics.
These films, even at such high volumes, grow well and constituted almost 25% of
the total consumption of plastics in 2004. Polyethylene and Polypropylene are
the two polymers that are most converted into films accounting for almost 34
million tons out of the total of 40 million tons consumption for films. In fact,
these two polymers dominate the film market with almost 85% of the total
consumption. Both these materials continue to grow more than the World GDP
growth, mainly due to increased demand from improving standards of living,
particularly in the developing regions of the World. Europe and North America
each account for about 30% of the total world consumption of plastic films.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">There are many material types
used in films from single layer polymers to multilayer structures with tie
layers and copolymers. Multilayers permit film structures to have barrier or
strength. Bi orientation of polypropylene has produced better properties and
more valuable materials. High performance plastics are also being used in
technical /industrial applications such as telectronics.<br>
Blown extrusion was the first process used to make films of polyethylene. Films
can be made via a number of converting processes: extrusion, coextrusion,
casting, extrusion coating, extrusion laminating and metallising. These
processes have advantages and disadvantages depending on the material type in
use, the width and thickness of film required.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Films are mainly used in
packaging for foodstuffs, but there are also substantial market segments for
medical, electronic, automotive and construction applications. Specific
applications include decorative wrap, form-fill-seal, blood bags, flexible
printed circuits, bed sheeting, diapers and in-mould decorating of car parts (to
replace painting and provide a more durable surface coating). Carrier bags and
garbage bags are big markets, though there are environmental concerns about the
use of plastic bags. In construction, films are used in glazing, damp proofing,
tarpaulins, geomembranes and similar applications.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">PE and PP are the main materials
used in packaging films. PET is primarily used in magnetic, optics and
telectronics. PVC is found in consumer goods and medical applications, while PVB
is mainly used in automotive and construction applications as glazing
protection. Multimaterial films account for around 7 million tons of the films
produced, with around 95% of this going into packaging applications.</font></p>

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165 Plastic films</html>


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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Wood-plastic composites have seen


a tremendous growth in the last 2-3 years. Wood plastic composites are believed
to be growing at an average rate of about 20% and consumption is expected to
reach more than 1 million tons by the turn of this decade. </O:P>
Polyolefin based wood-composites have a major market share, followed by PVC.
Styrenics also have some market share. Among Polyolefins, HDPE seems to have a
major share. In fact, recycled HDPE finds an avenue in this sector.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Typically, these composites have
more than 50% wood flour. Of late, talc has also found usage as a partial
replacement for wood, as it apparently enhances mechanical properties.<br>
Higher level of wood primarily need a coupling agent to achieve dispersion in
the polymer matrix, particularly because wood is much polar compared to the
polymer matrix. More coupling agent is required when the polymer in usage
belongs to polyolefins, essentially non polar. Typically reactive polyolefins
such as maliec anhydride modified polyolefins are used at about 1-3% levels.
Crompton, Dupont, Eastman and Equistar offer several grades of coupling agents
specially designed for wood-Polyolefin composites. Clariant also offers coupling
agent masterbatches for improvement of the dispersion. Crompton also offers a
compatibilizer for PVC matrix.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Lubricants increase throughput
and improve surface appearance. Standard lubricants for polyolefins and PVC such
as ethylene bis-stearamide (EBS), zinc stearate, paraffin waxes and oxidized PE
can be used. Lubricants are being developed to eliminate the adverse reaction of
metallic stearates on the coupling reaction in HDPE. Wood composites use about
twice as much lubricant as standard plastics. For HDPE, with a typical 50% - 60%
wood content, lubricant level can be 4% to 5%, while a similar wood-PP composite
typically uses 1% - 2%. Total lubricant level in wood-PVC is 5 to 10 phr.
Crompton, Lonza, Struktol have developed special lubricants for wood-Plastic
composites. Clariant offers a fluroelastomer type lubricant.<br>
<br>
There is keen interest in chemical foaming of WPCs to reduce weight and material
cost and to improve surface appearance, processing speed, and ease of sawing,
nailing, screwing as well as painting finished products. About 20% of all WPC
products, mostly wood-PVC, are currently foamed.<br>
<br>
Both endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are used. Foaming
is tougher for crystalline polymers like PE and PP as compared to amorphous
polymers like PVC and PS, as the latter generally have better melt strength.
When higher wood content is added to the mix, as in polyolefin decking products,
the challenge is particularly daunting. Mold, mildew, and stains on some WPC
decking are driving manufacturers to consider antifungal biocides that protect
either the plastics component and maintain its surface appearance or that
preserve the wood component from decay and also reduce moisture absorption. Many
products can do both the jobs.<br>
<br>
Ciba offers Irgaguard F3000, a thiazolyl benzimidazole said to be a broadly
effective fungicide for wood-polyolefin and wood-PVC composites. Developmental
EB 43-25 combines Irgaguard F3000 with a proprietary additive. It is also a
Page 142
broad-spectrum fungicide and can eliminate or reduce stains due to interactions
of iron, tannin and moisture.<br>
U.S. Borax offers Borogard ZB zinc borate as a preservative for wood-polyolefin
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">A Canadian company
has recently developed a plastic wrap to aid detection of stored
food contamination. This packaging innovation is based on a
proprietary coating technology on the plastic wrap that can detect
the level of bacteria like E-coli and salmonella within 30 minutes
after the coating process. Post-detection, the wrap will undergo
physical changes to indicate the same. The contamination would be
indicated by change in colour or by some other method. The
technology is not yet 100% proven, but can help in preventing the
consumption of the spoilt food kept in refrigerator or cold
storage. This new type of plastic wrap would cost about 25% more
than the conventional plastic wrap. The technology is required to
be perfected before its commercial usage.<O:P>
</O:P>
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167 New plastic</html>


wrap to aid 6/20/2006
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The last couple of years
have witnessed an ever increasing cost of polymers globally. Increasing
competition from low cost Asian processors coupled with higher polymer
prices have compelled the North American and European plastics processors
to look for ways and means to become more competitive. For this, one of
the important areas that these processors have worked upon is to reduce
manufacturing costs by increasing output.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Increasing outputs have
caused a plethora of problems regarding quality, rough surface finish,
etc. with most of the commonly used polymers like PE, PVC, etc. The
industry has certainly benefited from some of the processing aids being
used for the last two decades. Though reasonably effective, some of these
processing aids could not perform when output requirements increased
significantly, and have been replaced by more effective and improved
versions of the earlier products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Generally the linear
Polyethylenes like LLDPE and HDPE, as well as the recently introduced
Metallocene LLDPE grades are more prone to formation of melt fracture. The
earlier versions of fluroelastomers used were required at higher dosage
levels. Besides, some of them caused the problem of higher conditioning
time before they became effective, translating into a higher wastage
level. Their performance was negatively affected when polymers contained
other additives like antiblocking agents or UV stabilizers. Both Dynenon
and Atofina have introduced product grades that are more efficient and
more tolerant to other additives. Processors making films from low MFR
LLDPE and HDPE have benefited significantly with the these newer grades
that are structurally more stable compared to the first generation
products.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Similarly, rigid PVC
products have been benefited with the newer Acrylic based polymer
processing aids that have very high molecular weights compared to the
older versions. Most of the rigid PVC processors presently use a blend of
process aids having 1-2 million molecular weights along with 3-6 million
molecular weights. These high molecular weight processing aids originally
developed for stabilization of foam cells are increasingly used for PVC
profiles, sheets and bottles.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The mineral oils have been
used in many polymers either to enhance the lubricity or increase softness
of products like TPE. Newer mineral oil products of higher molecular
weights that have been found more efficient because of lower volatility,
are more widely used in the newer TPEs made from SBS, SEBS or PP/PE.
Crompton has introduced Hydrobrite 1000 mineral oil.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Dupont's Fluroguard oils
have found an increasing usage where abrasion resistance is more critical.
Dupont also has Elvaloy AC products that are copolymers of butyl, ethyl
Page 144
and methyl acrylates. They enhance the dispersion of pigments in
engineering polymers.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Vitro Co. in the form of
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics Processors have been seriously
affected by the escalation of 38.39% to 76.37% in the basic prices of
Polymers since May 2003, without any relief being provided in the form of
Customs or Excise Duty. The table below shows the steep escalation in
prices of different polymers</O:P>
</font></p>
<table class="contenttextbox" cellSpacing="1" cellPadding="5" width="100%" bord
<tbody>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" width="26%" height="21"><strong><font face="Arial" size="
<td vAlign="top" colSpan="3" height="21"><strong><font face="Arial" size="2
Rate of Polymer in Rs./Kg</font></strong></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="31%" rowSpan="2"><strong><font face="Arial" size=
between<br>
May 2003 and August 2004</font></strong></td>
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" height="21"><font face="Arial" size="2">&nbsp;</font></td
<td vAlign="top" width="11%" height="21"><font face="Arial" size="2">May
2003</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" width="16%" height="21">
<div align="center">
<font face="Arial" size="2">August 2004</font>
</div>
</td>
<td width="16%" height="21"><font face="Arial" size="2">Increase</font></
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">Polystyrene</font>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">40.50</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">71.43</font></td>
<td height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">30.93</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">76.37%</font></td
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">HDPE</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">32.30</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">54.00</font></td>
<td height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">21.70</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">67.18%</font></td
</tr>
<tr bgColor="#fbf9f9">
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">PP Homo
Polymer</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">38.15</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font
Page 145 face="Arial" size="2">52.95</font></td>
<td height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">14.80</font></td>
<td vAlign="top" height="29"><font face="Arial" size="2">38.79%</font></td
</tr>
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<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Plastics products have become


indispensable in packaging. Almost 35% of the 165 million tons of plastics
consumed have a short life cycle, as they tend to get disposed off within 3-6
months. A large volume of this plastics makes its way to either municipal waste
grounds or land fills, and being lighter, the litter spreads all around. This
litter menace is particularly glaring in those countries like India, where the
public awareness of sanitation and cleanliness is at miniscule levels. Is there
any solution? Or should we depend upon increased public consciousness that is
slow and may take decades to be developed? Globally, the plastics industry has
developed several alternate solutions, some of them are practical and easier to
implement.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">It is well known that plastics
that are made of macro molecules can be degraded when their molecular weights
are reduced significantly. When high molecular weights contribute to mechanical
strength of the polymer. When they are broken down or reduced, their mechanical
properties get reduced. The plastics products tend to become brittle and can be
broken down to smaller pieces. The degradation of polymeric material can be
initiated by 3 external environmental conditions:<br>
Heat, Oxygen and Ultra Violet Radiation.<br>
If a plastics materials can be incorporated with any one or all different types
of additives that could initiate the controlled degradation by any one of the 3
mechanisms, the plastics litter can be broken into indistinguishable pieces that
can mix with the soil. To make plastics biodegradable, starch could be
incorporated. Bacteria tend to love starch and consume it leaving the plastic
matrix in a very brittle condition. Several masterbatch concentrates are
available with starch as a component. However, degradation can be hastened if
the masterbatch also contains some of those additives that help in degradation
or deterioration of molecular weight using either oxidative, thermal and or
ultra violet irradiation.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Such products are now available
from leading Indian masterbatch producers. The degradation speed and intensity
can be controlled without sacrificing the strength, clarify and physical
properties of the film. Applications can be for a broad spectrum including Carry
bags, Liners, Garbage bags, Cast PE film products, Liners, Mulch film, Garbage
bags, Agri film, etc. The effective performance of the degradable masterbatch
products in Polyethylenes carry bags/films can be seen in the following charts.
Indeed these masterbatches having controlled degradation of the plastic products
could be an answer to the menace of plastic litter that can be easily seen all
around India.<br>
<br>
<a class="contenttexts" href="mailto:data@plastemart.com?subject=bio">FOR TRADE
ENQUIRIES CLICK HERE</a></font></p>
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<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Cosmetics packaging is that unique category of


plastics molding in which the components have to be glitzy, unusualy shaped,
aesthetically pleasing, and beg the consumer to &quot;pick me&quot;. In a
crowded, competitive market, new packaging and innovative concepts are
continually being introduced to provide companies with the edge they need to
stay ahead in the game.<br>
<br>
Eastman Chemical's new Glass Polymer copolyester fits the bill for a unique
packaging design for a new Ocean Pacific cologne. Far from being just another
cologne bottle, the packaging consists of a textured inner glass vessel, which
holds the fragrance, encapsulated within an outer Glass Polymer sleeve to create
the wave effect. To develop the wave system, the package consists of clear and
blue liquids, each with a different viscosity, the two liquids create a wave
effect between the inner glass vial and the outer copolyester sleeve when the
package is tipped.<br>
<br>
The Glass Polymer was really the only material that was capable of achieving the
clarity, wall thickness, and chemical resistance required to produce the bottle.
The Glass Polymer maintains dimensional stability and clarity even at extreme
wall thickness Despite a sidewall thickness of around 2.5 mm bottom of
approximately 4.75-5 mm the bottle cooled sink-free, and no additional
water-cooling techniques were needed for moulding</font></p>

</body>

171 New clear plastic


</html>bottles6/20/2006
facilitate better retent

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<td align="left" width="723">
<table class="box" cellSpacing="0" cellPadding="0" width="100%" border="0">
<tbody>
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<td>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Weather testing of plastics parts
is becoming a crucial step to avoid potential product failures -
particularly in automotive plastics. There is often inadequate
communication between the OEM, processor, compounder and additive
supplier regarding the service environment to which the product
will be exposed. Misunderstandings regarding how or where a
product is to be used, is definitely a recipe for product failure.
As OEMs increasingly turn to processors for design and material
selection, the responsibility for in-service weathering failures
is also being passed down to the processors. Processors, under
constant pressure to improve product performance and
simultaneously reduce costs, are resorting to new materials and
additives as potential solutions. However, introduction of these
unknowns without adequate testing, explains why the incidence of
weathering-related failures is on the rise.<br>
<br>
Plastics materials and products are being introduced in markets
globally, for applications they may not have been designed or
tested. New polymers, variations on traditional polymers (such as
metallocene grades) and new copolymer blends and alloys are
marketed aggressively for their cost-performance or processing
benefits. However, in the absence of adequate testing, durability
of these new materials remains a question mark. Similarly,
colorant systems based on new organic pigments and pigment blends
are replacing heavy-metal based colorants. These new colorants can
have unexpected color stability and light-fastness problems.<br>
&quot;Same-spec&quot; resin from different plants, even different
reactors of the same supplier, can differ in crosslinking,
molecular-weight distribution, side-chain branching, etc. All of
these can affect processing and performance - including
weatherability. This is especially true for semi-crystalline
polymers such as Polypropylene.<br>
Purchase of fillers and other bulk additives are frequently price
based, but when non-technical buyers switch vendors or grades to
save money, it can result in a compromise on product performance.
For example, talc absorbs HALS UV stabilizers and reduces their
effectiveness and metal content in various silica fillers, and can
catalyze degradation of PP unless it is adequately stabilized.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">All polymer additives can be
thought of as contaminants. Despite their positive value, they can
also have undesirable
Page 148side effects. For example, titanium dioxide
(TiO2) is used to protect resins like rigid vinyl from UV
radiation. However, it is well known that TiO2 causes polymer
degradation in the presence of ultra violet rays and moisture,
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<td align="left" width="723">
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<td>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">An enterprising
Indian company along with its global partners seems to have solved
the environmental problem caused by tons of PE generated from
refuse sacks, bin liners and various plastics packaging. This is a
unique technology, wherein, the PE product range can degrade
completely in a landfill (dumping ground). The degradation process
is initiated at extrusion stage by the inclusion of a small amount
of pro-degradant additive. A special balance of inhibitors ensures
that a sufficiently life expectancy is provided based on the
application - a refuse sack might require an 18 month life cycle
before beginning to lose its strength, whereas, a bread bag
requires only 6 months. Degradation can get accelerated by a
number of factors such as sunlight, heat and stress caused by
pulling and tearing.<br>
<br>
The unique properties of plastics - strength, toughness and
durability - are due to the high molecular weight and the chemical
bonding between the atoms. PE refuse sacks, though popular and
useful, are considered environmentally unfriendly. A material is
called degradable with respect to specific environmental
conditions if it undergoes degradation to a specific extent within
a given time measured by specific standard test methods. The
degradation of PE, which is constructed of carbon and hydrogen
atoms, results from the rupture of carbon-carbon bonds leading to
a lowering of molecular weight and a resultant loss of strength
and durability. The unique process developed, reduces the
molecular weight of a product from one quarter million - 2,50,000
Daltons to less then 4,000 Daltons, leading to the rapid breakdown
of the material when exposed to various conditions.</font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The degradation
process is initiated at extrusion stage by the inclusion of a
small amount of pro-degradant additive. Once degradation is
initiated, it will continue. The eventual result of the
degradation is the release of minute quantities of carbon dioxide
and water (the same amount as we humans exhale everytime we
breathe) and some biomass. Alternatively, when exposed to
sunlight, photo-degradation will occur, allowing a complete
breakdown of the film into CO2, water and biomass. As the
additives are neither water soluble nor toxic in either degraded
or un degraded conditions, there is no potential for leachate
contamination. Page
The149
degradable product will be stable under proper
storage conditions. The product has a finite shelf life, which can
be influenced by environmental factors, such as heat, exposure to
sunlight, oxygen and the elements of time. The degradable products
Articles

174 New developments


</html>in Thermoplastic.
6/20/2006

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<font face="Arial" size="2">A leading and well known supplier of automotive


parts - Lear Corporation, USA, has recently developed and introduced two new
plastic composites for automotive parts. These composites are more enviornmental
friendly, as they are constituted of natural fibres such as Hemp, Jute &amp;
Kenof.&nbsp;These natural fibres are obtained from plants and can be recycled.&nbsp;
The first material is based on Polypropylene, while the second material uses
Acrylic Polymer.&nbsp;Coupling agents are normally used to enhance the
compatibility of natural fibres with polymeric materials and are added to
Polymers at as high a level as 70%.&nbsp;&nbsp; Some of the applications which
are being evaluated are:<br>
<br>
</font>
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<td width="3%"><font face="Arial" size="2"><img src="http://plastmart.com/imag
<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Interior door
panels</font></td>
</tr>
<tr vAlign="top" align="left">
<td><font face="Arial" size="2"><img src="http://plastmart.com/images/innerpag
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Door panel trimmings</font></td>
</tr>
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<td vAlign="top" width="97%"><font face="Arial" size="2">Package trays</font>
</tr>
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<td><font face="Arial" size="2"><img src="http://plastmart.com/images/innerpag
<td vAlign="top"><font face="Arial" size="2">Trunks</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>

</body>

175 Eco Friendly</html>


Plastic Composites
6/20/2006
.

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Articles

<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Polyethylene film manufacturers have been


attempting to replace paper bags for the last several years but have not been
completely successful yet. One of the major reasons is that polyethylene bag
does not have good deadfold and crease retention, characteristics that are
offered by paper bags. The new developments of HM HDPE grade has helped in
improving these characteristics. Some of the polyethylene bags of three-layer
structure containing new HM HDPE grade in core structure have crease resistance
and deadfold characteristics similar to paper. Such Polyethylene bags are
increasingly used in American fast food chains as well as other retail stores.
These type of plastic bags are now manufactured between 15-100 micron thickness.
The three layer co-extrusion system is found to be more suitable. Generally the
outerlayer contains paper like film while the rigidity is derived from the core
of HM HDPE. A major masterbatch manufacturer Schulman is marketing a special
masterbatch called Papermatch which provides paper like feel to polyethylene in
176 Paper like PE
thebags
skinhave 7/12/2006
a promising future
layers.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">British and Russian surgeons rebuilding faces of
children involved in accidents have used a new honeycombed polymeric implant.
The material bonds with the bone without causing adverse reactions. The
made-to-measure implants are light, tough, flexible and cheap, providing an
excellent alternative to traditional titanium. They are easier to adjust and
re-shape and give much more flexibility. These implants allow carrying out many
more operations than before. <br>
<br>
When a child is assessed for an operation at the St. Vladimir Children’s
Hospital, Moscow, scientists use X-rays and tomography images to create a
three-dimensional plastic cast of the damaged area. These solid biomodels, built
by a high-tech process called laser stereolithography allow surgeons to plan
operations with great precision before they even lift a scalpel. Having assessed
how much bone needs to be removed, the scientists in Troitsk use
stereolithography to make the individual PolyHap implants. The technique, which
can be completed in a matter of hours, can be used to make the most intricate
shapes that are then sent to the hospital. The outline of the implant is
initially “drawn” by a laser beam, which leaves a very fine coating of polymer.
This process is repeated hundreds of times until the model is complete.<br>
<br>
Although the PolyHap implants have produced good results there is a possibility
the implants might have to be replaced as the child grows and the bones develop.
In order to make these ‘vanishing’ implants, a new Surface Selective Laser
Sintering technique is being developed. This involves using a laser beam to melt
just the polymer surface, leaving the bioactive inner section intact – a crucial
177 A new polymeric
factorimplant
in creating
7/12/2006
helps
a biodegradable
rebuild faces implant.</font></p>

Page 152
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The last few years have seen a


distinct shift in market supplies of Polyethene bags, particularly for grocery,
in the USA. Asian, notably Chinese bags, are increasingly grabbing higher share
of the market. It is estimated that more than 25-30% of the total US requirement
is fulfilled by imports from the Asian countries. China, of course, has
dominated the imports in this market. </font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">What are the key reasons for such
an increasing demand of bags from China? <br>
<br>
The bags from China are priced at least 15% lower than those from the US
suppliers. First of all, polymer prices in China are lower than those in North
America as China sources most of its requirement from the Middle eastern region,
enjoying the benefit of lower feedstock costs. Besides the Chinese film
producers do not have to pay any import duty on the material meant for exports
of the converted products like PE bags. The stable Chinese currency also helps
in saving raw material costs. <br>
The US manufacturers have to utilize economic scales of production to be
cost-competitive, due to higher fixed cost arising from expensive labour. On the
other hand, China has very low labour cost and very high labour productivity,
helping the bag manufacturers to use smalller film plants in large numbers. This
provides flexibility in producing different sized bags directly from the
extrusion equipment. The steps of slitting and extra sealing are completely
avoided. The capital cost of the smaller plants made indigeneously in China is
very low. Interestingly, these smaller plants running at lower speeds, provide
better thickness control compared to the large machines in USA, which to be
economical, have to run at very high speeds. The smaller plants also have no
sophisticated process controls that are absolutely essential for the larger
machines.The savings in capital costs contribute significantly in the cost of
bags. More uniform thickness enables the Chinese producers to make the film
178 Low cost Chinese
thinnerplastics
and 7/12/2006
save
bags
further
are increasing
in the material
thei cost. </font></p>

Page 153
Articles

city had almost 40 inches (1000 mm) of incessant rains just in about 1 day. This
happened in the city on Mumbai, where majority of th e1000 mm fell in just 3-4
hours in the afternoon. This should be considered as natural calamity. Besides
it was high tide and water could not flow in the sea. Instead all the roads and
the other ground surface were under a few feet of water disrupting the life of
Mumbai city. How can a city remain unaffected when so intense rain fell in the
time period of less than 4 hours and that too at the time of high tide. Then why
do you single out plastic bags as the primary reason for the choking of drains.
We strongly believe that the Government is making the poor plastic bags as
<strong>&quot;scapegoat&quot;.<br>
<br>
</strong>As a response to the flooding of Mumbai after the incessant rains on
26th July 2005, the Government of Maharashtra plans to ban the use of plastic
bags in the state of Maharashtra. We must say that this response is completely
unbelievable and that too cin a state where almost 1 million tons of various
types of plastic products are manufactured. Is the Government, instead of
working on the fundamental problem of water logging, putting all blames on
plastic bags. While we agree that plastic bags and the other plastic products
end up in the drains because of bad littering habits, can we blame plastic
products alone for the water logging?<strong> </strong>By the proposed ban on
plastic bags, the Government of Maharashtra is charting a detrimental course.
</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">About 60 million tons of plastic is used in the
packaging sector out of the total of about 170 million tons consumed in the
World. India consumes only 4.5 million tons and therefore is a very small user
of plastics in the World. While our population is more than 16% our share of
plastic consumption is merely 4.5%. This banning will hamper the growth of
plastic in our country and more so in Maharashtra state which has almost 25%
share of the total plastic consumption. It would have seriousl adverse
implications on the life of a common man. Plastics, due to their relatively
higher cost efficiency, benefits ordinary citizens in sourcing their daily
necessities in convenient and unadulterated form and at a fraction of the cost
as compared to paper, glass or cloth. Use of alternative materials would result
in substantial increase in packaging cost of milk, edible oil, bread, cereals,
pulses, spices, confectionery items, toiletry products and a host of other items
used by common man and may even push some of these products beyond the reach of
poorer section of the society apart from creating higher impact on the
environment. Milk packaging consumes almost 70 KT of plastic bags in India. By
banning the use of bags in milk packaging and switching to glass or paper
packaging, milk will become more expensive at least to the extent of Rs.5/liter.
Secondly the best alternate mode of packaging is either in HDPE plastic bottle
or of tetrapack which has Polyethylene coating. Both these alternatives would
increase the burden to the common mass. Plastic as a material is one of the most
beneficial to the public at large. It has proven its worthiness beyond any
doubt. That is why there is no sphere of human kind that can not be filled
without plastic.</font></p>
<p><font size="2" face="Arial">While we can enumerate endless advantages of
plastics, the following examples clearly illustrate the benefits of plastics to
the society. Some of the applications that offer tremendous benefits globally,
are:<br>
<strong>· </strong>Distribution of milk all across the breadth of the large
countries at the lowest cost<br>
· Prevention of wastage due to degradation of food products/vegetables/fruits by
use of plastic packaging<br>
· Several medical applications including Angioplasty of heart, catheters,
implants etc.<br>
· Fuel saving by weight reduction of automobile with increasing use of light
weight plastic parts <br>
· Increased agriculturalPage 154
productivity due to the use of plastics in the modern
cultivation techniques (drip irrigation, green house etc)<br>
· Saving of water by use of plastic in canal lining as well as pipes in carrying
Articles

transfer decorating is the use of a preprinted graphic on a carrier (either


paper or mylar) that is applied to a substrate (usually plastic) with the use of
a hot stamp machine. Heat transfers are usually printed by one of three printing
methods: Screen Printing, Rotogravure or Flexography. <br>
There are advantages and disadvantages to each method, but the most popular and
most cost effective for the majority of the projects is Screen Printing. </font>
</p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Heat transfers offer unique performance and
appearance advantages superior to all other means of decorating. The application
of heat transfers is a simple and efficient production process that is highly
cost effective. Multi- color, high performance transfers can be applied
permanently in a few seconds utilizing low cost hot stamping equipment. The
entire operation requires a minimum amount of floor space and uses unskilled
labor. Since it is a completely dry process- unlike other wet decorating
methods- the decorated product can be handled and moved to its next process
immediately. Also, as a dry process, heat transfers pose no environmental
concerns within your facility.<br>
Characteristics of heat transfers:<br>
* Cleaner, faster, more cost efficient, provide more graphic flexibility <br>
* Always applied automatically to the plastic part versus manually applied
labels<br>
* Ability to reproduce the most complex design with strict registration
accuracy, consistency and in crisp sharp detail. <br>
* Ability to adhere to many substrates such as virtually all plastics: <br>
&nbsp;&nbsp; ABS, Acrylic, PP, Polycarbonate, polyphenylene, HDPE, LDPE, PVC and Sty
(GP &amp; high impact), Polymides &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(nylon), Urethan
glass filled), Vinyl <br>
* Successful adherence to apparel, various fabrics, wood and metal.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Heat transfers find application in various
industries including : <br>
<strong>Consumer Products</strong><br>
L awn and garden products, power tools, sporting goods, protective gear, POP
displays, footwear, leather goods, protective equipment, consumer electronics,
kitchen appliances, etc.<br>
<strong>Automotive Products</strong><br>
Dashboard, seatbelts, visors, disclaimers, auto parts, batteries, etc<br>
<strong>Cellular Phones</strong><br>
In-mold applications, lenses, leather and vinyl cases, battery packs,
accessories, etc. <br>
<strong>Computer Products</strong><br>
Monitors, mouse, towers, keyboards, software packaging, cables, networking
hardware, etc.<br>
<strong>Fabric Systems<br>
</strong>Shoe inner sole, fabric bags, special nylon medical products, baby
products, etc<br>
<strong>Medical</strong> <strong>Products</strong><br>
Medical equipment, synthetic braces and casts, specialty containers, etc. <br>
<strong>Baby Products<br>
</strong>Toys,<strong> </strong>swings, high chairs, strollers, car seats, etc.</font><
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">There are many challenges to be faced when the
decision is made to use heat transfer decals as the decorating method for your
project. These challenges are not necessarily unique to heat transfer decals but
are also present to some degree within the hot stamping family. <br>
The greatest challenge to both the company that produces the transfers and the
ultimate user of the product is the chemistry issue. If the ink chemistry is not
correct it will affect everything from the print quality of the image to the
ability to make the ink transfer and adhere properly as well as pass any testing
that may be applicablePage</font></p>
155
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Among other challenges are:<br>
1) The correct choice of the type of hot stamp machine; either a roll on or a
vertical press with the correct tonnage. <br>
Articles

often find people locked in nit-picking arguments over identified flying objects
mocking the decades old question is it a bird, an airplane or something else,
but instead of getting the traditional answer of superman it is now a plastics
bag.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The article made up from the wonder material of
the 20th century known to all of us as polyethylene - we are compelled to ask
ourselves is this miraculous material a blessing or a curse? The plastic bags
littered and strewn in every nook and corner of cities, on roads, telephone and
electric wires hanging overhead and on trees deface the appearance of the cities
and give the most unpleasant look. In the past few years a never-ending campaign
to ban the plastic bags has reached its climax globally. Now the government
across the world are incorporating stringent regulations that include levy of
heavy taxes and fines to ban polyethylene bags altogether. Various countries and
states have started taking measures to reduce the use of polyethylene bags. They
include Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Ireland, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Italy,
Japan, South Africa, Singapore, Bangladesh and India.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">In Pakistan, district Nazim of Hyderabad imposed
a ban on trading and using of polyethylene bags from January 1, 2006 in the
entire Hyderabad district and asked the traders and consumers to arrange
alternate source within two months. This is not the first time that a local or
provincial government in Pakistan has banned the plastic bags. Every time the
bans are announced a fact that is crystal clear is clearly ignored or overlooked
is that it is easy to announce bans but very difficult to implement them. These
campaigns to ban the bags fizzled out for one reason or the other.<br>
In the past, campaigns to drive the plastic bags out of business has not only
failed but has gone down the drain without any trace. But this time the
government seems to be talking seriously as a day after the announcement to ban
plastic bags, Sindh Governor Dr. Ishrat ul Ibad decided to promulgate an
ordinance regulating the manufacture, sale and use of plastic bags for reasons
similar to those echoed around the world that the article is a source of
nuisance, sewage system blockade and various other problems. <br>
The ordinance is to standardize the recommended size and thickness of the bags.
It would be recommended that the bags should not be below 30 microns and shorter
than 10x14 inches. The manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers resorting to defy
the ban would be booked and could face upto 3 months imprisonment and or a fine
of Rs 50,000. The food grade PE bags, which have no undesirable effects, have
been recommended as a substitute of polyethylene bags.</font></p>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">The story to ban use of polyethylene bags in the
province of Sindh started in the year 1992 following a finding that the black
colored plastics bags being widely used in Pakistan for packing food material
contained Carcinoger or cancer causing agent. Elsewhere in the world black bags
are used for garbage or body bags. A country wide media campaign was launched
and the bags were banned.<br>
In the year 2000 another study was conducted by a non-governmental organization.
SWT working for the beautification of the city had greatly propagated the cause
of banning the use of plastic bags and had even motivated the legislators to
pass a bill in the assembly in this regard. A high-level meeting chaired by the
than Governor of Sindh Air-Marshal (retd) Azim Daudpota decided to impose a ban
on the usage of all kinds of polyethylene bags throughout the province. In the
first phase the ban was enforced in Karachi and Hyderabad.<br>
The move by the provincial government irked the business community which without
wasting any time formed a high powered team of businessmen and met the
Commissioner of Karachi to discuss the matter at lengths who said that although
the government in principle has decided to ban plastic bags but no time frame
has been devised for the implementation of the decision. He further said that
despite ban the government was in no way interested in closing down the
polyethylene bag units or in creating unemployment. It was interested in
settling the issue of polyethylene bags waste, which created environmental
hazards.</font></p> Page 156
<p><font face="Arial" size="2">Although no exact figure are available on this
industry in Pakistan, according to rough estimates, the investments in
machinery, equipment, infrastructure facilities and manpower development
Articles

<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">The last few years have seen a


distinct shift in market supplies of Polyethene bags, particularly for grocery,
in the USA. Asian, notably Chinese bags, are increasingly grabbing higher share
of the market. It is estimated that more than 25-30% of the total US requirement
is fulfilled by imports from the Asian countries. China, of course, has
dominated the imports in this market. </font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">What are the key reasons for such
an increasing demand of bags from China? <br>
<br>
The bags from China are priced at least 15% lower than those from the US
suppliers. First of all, polymer prices in China are lower than those in North
America as China sources most of its requirement from the Middle eastern region,
enjoying the benefit of lower feedstock costs. Besides the Chinese film
producers do not have to pay any import duty on the material meant for exports
of the converted products like PE bags. The stable Chinese currency also helps
in saving raw material costs. <br>
The US manufacturers have to utilize economic scales of production to be
cost-competitive, due to higher fixed cost arising from expensive labour. On the
other hand, China has very low labour cost and very high labour productivity,
helping the bag manufacturers to use smalller film plants in large numbers. This
provides flexibility in producing different sized bags directly from the
extrusion equipment. The steps of slitting and extra sealing are completely
avoided. The capital cost of the smaller plants made indigeneously in China is
very low. Interestingly, these smaller plants running at lower speeds, provide
better thickness control compared to the large machines in USA, which to be
economical, have to run at very high speeds. The smaller plants also have no
sophisticated process controls that are absolutely essential for the larger
machines.The savings in capital costs contribute significantly in the cost of
bags. More uniform thickness enables the Chinese producers to make the film
thinner and save further in the material cost. </font></p>
<p align="justify"><font face="Arial" size="2">Of course the Chinese film
producers have razor thin profits and have to depend upon volumes to achieve
sizeable profitability in business. How long will the trend of cheaper labour
continue in China? As the Chinese manufacturing industry has become formidable
182 Low cost Chinese plastics
only since 7/12/2006
the bags are
early 90s,increasing thei
making predictions is difficult.</font></p>

Page 157
Articles

<br><br><br>

<br><br><br>

________ITC NEWS RESOURCES

­­­­­­-

<br><br><br>
<br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br>
183 Saudi to Invest
www.polymerbiz.com
SR262bn9/18/2006
in Oil, Gas Sector

Page 158
Articles

By Ahmed ElAmin
<br>
28/10/2005 - Amcor, the world's largest producer of PET, is pushing for a third round of p
<br><br>
Plastic is made from hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or natural gas. With the rising
<br><br>
The price hikes will continue to translate into higher costs for food processors' packaging
<br><br>
The proposed price hikes were confirmed by Amcor, whose chief executive told sharehol
<br><br>
PET is widely used in soft drink bottles. Amcor chief executive Ken MacKenzie said in a st
<br><br>
This year has been one of the most difficult years ever experienced by the packaging ind
<br><br>
"In many respects it was the perfect storm, with large cost increases on the supply side
<br><br>
In a similar fashion, PET resin costs have also experienced substantial increases due mai
<br><br>
The packaging industry is not in a position to absorb the cost increases of resins, energy
<br><br>
"This is the third wave of cost increases over the past twelve months and it will be imper
<br><br>
Meanwhile European Plastics News reported that in October, prices were settled without
<br><br>
The price hikes will continue to translate into higher costs for food processors' packaging
<br><br>
"Supply tightness and rising feedstock costs sent Western European standard thermopla
<br><br>
Polyolefins registered the largest gains, with L-LDPE (linear low-density polyethylene) an
<br><br>
LDPE is used to make bottles that require flexibility. To take advantage of its strength an
<br><br>
PP (polypropylene) prices also had similar gains. These price hikes were underpinned by
<br><br>
PP is used for making caps and lids. Because of its high melting point, PP can be hot-fille
<br><br>
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) prices rose by about 10 per cent. As a film, PVC is used for pack
<br><br>
Polystyrene prices rose by up to three per cent. The plastic is used for making packaging
<br><br>
In November, plastic producers will be asking for price increases in the order of €50-100
<br><br>
"They maintain that further price increases are necessary to make up for unsatisfactory
<br><br><br>

­­­­­­-

<br><br><br>
<br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br> Page 159
184 Polymer price
www.polymerbiz.com
hikes set 9/18/2006
to push packing costs even
Articles

By JOHN HOLUSHA
<br>
MANUFACTURERS of polystyrene, the lightweight plastic packaging material, have been

<br><br><br>

­­­­­­-

<br><br><br>
<br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br>
185 A Setback for Polystyrene
9/18/2006
www.polymerbiz.com
By EDMUND L. ANDREWS
<br><br>
It may be a step away from natural foods, but the Procter & Gamble Company has paten

<br><br><br>

­­­­­­-

<br><br><br>
<br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br>
186 Patents; Prolonging
www.polymerbiz.com
the 9/18/2006
Crunch And Freshness in Fo

Page 160
Articles

GE Plastics announces that at Powder Coating 2006, the company is exhibiting the first i
<BR><BR><BR>

These unique materials - slated to join GE's growing ecomagination* product portfolio - c
<BR><BR>
Find Information and Suppliers of conductive resines.
<BR><BR>
Conductive Noryl GTX resin should soon be certified as a GE ecomagination product, follo
<BR><BR>
"Powder coating is a fast growing technology due to its environmental benefits, particula
<BR><BR>
GE's conductive Noryl GTX resin provides two critical properties required for successful p
<BR><BR>
In addition to productivity gains from the elimination of the primer application or chemic

The Noryl GTX 674PC resin grade is the first of a full line of conductive resins planned for
<BR><BR>
The GE exhibit is also giving show attendees a look at new technologies for thermoset po
<BR><BR>
* Noryl GTX, ecomagination, LNP, and Lexan are trademarks of General Electric Compan

<BR><BR><BR><BR>

JOBWERX NEWS AGENCY


<BR><BR>
-- <BR>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<BR>
187 GE Plastics www.polymerbiz.com
at Powder Coating
9/23/2006
2006
First in its class, a monomeric hindered amine light stabilizer from BASF obtains FDA app

<br><br>
Uvinul 4050 H is;
<br><br>
... approved for use at a concentration of up to 0.5 % in polystyrene, styrene copolymers
<br><br>
... a light stabilizer that belongs to the group of lowmolecular-mass sterically hindered am

... also very effective for use in fibers and injection molding from plastics such as polypro
<br><br>
A low-molecular-mass HALS offers the most effective solution for stabilizing plastics such

Uvinul 4050 H completes BASF's comprehensive range of light stabilizers that are approv

The product range of BASF's Performance Chemicals for Coatings, Plastics and Specialtie
<br><br><br>
* Uvinul is a registered trademark of BASF. <br><br><br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br>
188 Monomeric www.polymerbiz.com
stabilizer for use ###
in plastics receives

Page 161
Articles

Polycarbonate (PC) is one of the preferred materials for several electronic parts such as
To help solve this challenge, GE Plastics has developed a new family of Lexan PC resins f
Lexan DMX is a copolymer. The laboratory result of scratch resistance indicates that it im

Eliminating the need for secondary coating operations can provide several benefits to m
- Lower costs by avoiding the purchase of coating materials and equipment
- Reduced cycle time by cutting out a secondary processing step
<br><br>- Less environmental impact from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released

<br><br><br>

GLOBAL INFO TECH <br>


189 Polycarbonate to increase its###
www.polymerbiz.com competitiveness in e
Propylene is the second most important feedstock for petrochemical products. The majo
The global demand of 16.4 million tons in 1980 to around 68 million tons in 2005, indicat
<br><br>
Propylene demand is expected to grow faster than supply. Propylene supply/demand con
Expanded or converted sources of propylene will have to be found, whether as an on-pur
<br><br>
Although PP will remain the principal propylene derivative and the driver of propylene de
<br><br><br>

-- <br>
GLOBAL INFO TECH<br>
190 Propylene iswww.polymerbiz.com
expected to grow
###
at 3.5% between 2005

Page 162
Articles

Asia's polyester production will be critically affected for the next 18-20 months by a shor

Speaking at the India Petrochem conference in Mumbai, Udeshi said a total of 2.3-million

This represented 35% of 6.6-million mt/year incremental capacity installed during the ye

Investors considering PTA capacity need to be careful to check the availability of term PX

Such new plants with a PTA production capacity of 700,000 mt/year would even need to

The typical cost of investing in a new world scale 700,000 mt/year PTA plant was around

However, investment in a refinery cracker to produce PX could cost between $1.2 and $3

Therefore incremental new PX capacity in China was lagging that of PTA, which made fur

Similarly, the average investment cost of $300 million in a MEG plant in China paled in c

The next big wave of construction in China would thus be focused on PX production. <br

Asia was expected to remain in deficit of PX well into 2008. The PX market was suffering

At the same time, polyester demand had far outstripped expectation, dragging the polye

China was dominating construction of new PTA capacity, with capital construction costs d

China currently imports 6-million mt/year of PTA, and this figure would likely drop to at m

This would have a severe impact on Korean and Taiwanese PTA plants which currently su

-- <br>
Global Info Tech<br>
191 Asian polyester
www.polymerbiz.com
market to face
###18-20 months of PX,

Page 163
Articles

Asia's polyester production will be critically affected for the next 18-20 months by a shor

Speaking at the India Petrochem conference in Mumbai, Udeshi said a total of 2.3-million

This represented 35% of 6.6-million mt/year incremental capacity installed during the ye

Investors considering PTA capacity need to be careful to check the availability of term PX

Such new plants with a PTA production capacity of 700,000 mt/year would even need to

The typical cost of investing in a new world scale 700,000 mt/year PTA plant was around

However, investment in a refinery cracker to produce PX could cost between $1.2 and $3

Therefore incremental new PX capacity in China was lagging that of PTA, which made fur

Similarly, the average investment cost of $300 million in a MEG plant in China paled in c

The next big wave of construction in China would thus be focused on PX production. <br

Asia was expected to remain in deficit of PX well into 2008. The PX market was suffering

At the same time, polyester demand had far outstripped expectation, dragging the polye

China was dominating construction of new PTA capacity, with capital construction costs d

China currently imports 6-million mt/year of PTA, and this figure would likely drop to at m

This would have a severe impact on Korean and Taiwanese PTA plants which currently su

-- <br>
Global Info Tech<br>
192 Asian polyester
www.polymerbiz.com
market to face
###18-20 months of PX,

Page 164
Articles

Objective: Above-average 10% Return on Invested Capital by end of 2009, up 25% <br>
Profitable growth at or above GDP, led by service-driven businesses <br>
Focus on fast-growing markets, particularly China and India <br>
Wide-ranging cost-cutting initiatives launched; emphasis on reducing complexity <br>
Global site network to be optimized by closing 10% of the sites <br>
Existing job positions to be reduced by 10% by 2009 <br>
Performance management initiatives to increase leadership skills and entrepreneurial be
MUTTENZ -- Clariant announced it will increase its focus on value creation by reducing th

"Our clear goal is reaching a top-quartile position among our peers in value creation," sa

These initiatives are the result of a wide-ranging review over the past six months of Clar

"We found that the company is headed in the right direction in most areas," Mr. Secher s

Closer to customers<br><br>

To reflect the wide diversity of Clariant's customer segments, the company will reshape

Clariant will build on its strengths in colors, surfaces and performance chemicals. Over th

The Group's four divisions - Textile, Leather & Paper Chemicals; Pigments & Additives; M

Growth in Asia<br><br>

Initiatives will be launched across the group to boost growth in fast-growing markets in A

Furthermore, to reinforce long-term innovation, Clariant will build on its successful recen

Site closures and portfolio pruning<br><br>

To become a world-class player in the industry, Clariant is committed to creating the lea

The number of products Clariant sells will be reduced by at least 25%. The company has

"The approach is one of strategic simplicity and increasing versatility," Mr. Secher explai

Over the next four years, the company will spend approximately CHF 500 million on thes

Strengthening leadership<br><br>

To strengthen the organizational culture, the company recently launched the Clariant Ac

In addition, the company is placing strong emphasis on developing and broadening its le

"Along with strengthening the organizational culture and developing talent, we are comp

Excellent long-term prospects<br><br>

Clariant is committed to building significant value for its long-term investors, maintaining

"The result of this intense period - focusing on the strengths in our portfolio, cutting cost

Source: Clariant<br><br><br>

-- <br> Page 165


Global Info Tech<br>
193 Clariant Focusing on Profitable
###
www.polymerbiz.com Growth with String
Articles

Ethylene gas crackers in North America have become prohibitively expensive due to trem
Therefore, this has eroded cost leadership globally and more so compared to the Middle
This indicates that USA will have to import to fill the gap between demand and supply. N
The abundant availability of ethane gas in the Middle East will enhance the cost advanta

PM<br><br><br>

Global Info Tech<br>


194 Middle-Eastern petrochem producers
###
www.polymerbiz.com will always hav
LEVERKUSEN -- At the "NanoSolutions" trade fair in Cologne from November 28 to 30, 20

Until now, the synthesis costs for CNTs often significantly exceeded EUR 1,000 per kilogr

Bayer Technology Services presented its comprehensive nanotechnology know-how and

Dr. Peter Krüger, Head of the Bayer Nanotechnology Working Group, provided an overvie

Another key area of Bayer's involvement at the fair was the company's wide-ranging res

With sales of EUR 10.7 billion in 2005, Bayer MaterialScience AG is one of the world's lar

Bayer Technology Services GmbH offers fully-integrated solutions along the life cycle of

This news release contains forward-looking statements based on current assumptions an

Source: Bayer Technology Services<br><br><br>

-- <br>
Global Info Tech<br>
195 Focus on New
www.polymerbiz.com
Applications
12/4/2006
for Carbon Nanotubes

Page 166
Articles

TOKYO -- Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu Laboratories Limited announced their development

Castor bean seeds <br><br><br>

Bio-polymer PA-11 has superior flexibility <br><br><br>

Background<br><br>

In recent years, increases in carbon dioxide emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels, s

In 2002 Fujitsu started using bio-based polymers based on polylactic acid, made from ma

Highlights of the Newly Developed Material<br><br>

To address this need, Fujitsu and Fujitsu Laboratories worked with a major French chemi

By weakening the interaction of the chain molecule in PA-11 and relaxing the stereo-reg

Fujitsu plans to continue research of bio-based polymers derived from castor oil and con

About Fujitsu<br><br>

Fujitsu is a leading provider of customer-focused IT and communications solutions for the

About Fujitsu Laboratories<br><br>

About Fujitsu Laboratories Founded in 1968 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Fujitsu Limit
Source: Fujitsu<br><br><br>

-- <br>
Global Info Tech<br>
196 Fujitsu Develops
www.polymerbiz.com
New Bio-Based
12/8/2006
Polymer from Castor

Page 167
Articles

DUBAI -- Economic growth across the MENA region is set to continue at high levels in 200

"Among the regional oil producers, Qatar and Bahrain will achieve the highest rates of ec

The report also states that the largest government deficits in the region lie outside sub-S

Lebanon's large government deficit is blamed on an inefficient and costly state electricit

In Africa, Mozambique and Nigeria will record the highest growth rate, driven by mega-p

In Nigeria, high oil prices are expected to sustain a strong expenditure, the bulk of which

For most sub-Saharan African sovereigns, low per capita incomes continue to act as a co

Many non-oil sovereigns are also running large current account deficits, which are mostly

"This is most likely to be a reflection of these countries' relatively poor business climates

He added: "As steady reform progress continues, however, underpinned by IMF program

-- <br>
Global Info Tech<br>
197 High oil prices
www.polymerbiz.com
ensure strong
2/13/2007
economies across MEN

Page 168
Articles

(Bloomberg) -- Malaysia's approved manufacturing investment climbed to a record last y

Approved investments jumped 48 percent to 46 billion ringgit ($13 billion) in 2006 from

``These numbers will translate into higher private investment growth,'' said Lee Heng Gu

High energy prices are boosting investment in Malaysia, Southeast Asia's second-largest

Malaysia's exports grew a less than expected 6.2 percent in December as overseas dem

Oil Refinery <br>

The bulk of approvals for investment projects last year were for petroleum products inclu

This was largely due to the approval of a 7.7 billion ringgit oil refinery planned in norther

Malaysia also approved a 2.04 billion ringgit plan by Petronas Methanol (Labuan) Sdn. to

Meanwhile, Panca Intan Sdn. won approval to build a new, 1.06 billion ringgit butanediol

`Substantial Interest' <br>

``The growing demand for petroleum products in the Asia Pacific region, particularly Chi

Electrical and electronics projects slid to second place in terms of investments last year,

The new investment planned includes a 1.5 billion ringgit expansion by STMicroelectroni

Fuji Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. won approval for a 1.3 billion ringgit expansion to produce th

Investment in the electronics industry is shifting to more high-end operations in Malaysia

Foreign Investment <br>

Malaysia also approved 7.6 billion ringgit in biodiesel projects last year, Rafidah said. <b

Foreign companies accounted for a record 20.2 billion ringgit, or 43.9 percent, of the app

``Despite the increasing global competition, Malaysia continues to attract global foreign

Japan was the largest source of foreign investment last year, accounting for 4.4 billion rin

Service Industries <br>

Approved investment in services, which includes real estate, transport and tourism, was

``We have to see how much will be translated into actual foreign direct investment flows

Some 80 percent of all manufacturing projects approved in the 2001 to 2005 period are

Lee expects Malaysia's private investment growth to accelerate to 9.1 percent this year

Still, Malaysia needs to reduce impediments to investment, by improving transparency a

Malaysia's government this month formed a taskforce aimed at cutting red tape and imp

Artical Sourse Bloomberg


198 Malaysia Factory Investment
2/14/2007
Approvals Climb to Rec
Page 169
Articles

Higher cost of polymers has reduced processor margins. The present razor thin margins,

The filler is generally dosed through a concentrate. The carrier resin in concentrates is in

The increased density of filled film results in increased weight at the same bag thickness

Tensile strength at yield, which is critical for grocery and trash bags, is affected by CaCO
On the other hand, LLDPE film properties like puncture and tear resistance improve at hi

A higher density of filled film will have an obvious impact on productivity measured in kg

For LLDPE, output improvement depends on the comonomer. Adding 20% CaCO3 raises
PE with higher loadings of CaCO3 also extrudes at lower pressure and uses lower motor

Test results indicate that as CaCO3 content goes up from 10% to 20% in HMW-HDPE film
<br>
Converting processes like high-speed printing and bag making will run faster with more h
Adding higher levels of CaCO3 to film can reduce the amount of slip and antiblock additi
<br>
CaCO3 is a natural whitener, so it extends and brightens pigments. With 7-10% CaCO3 in
<br>
Processors say blown film lines require no modifications to run CaCO3, other than an add
<br>
Some processors using 10-15% filler say they see increased wear; others say they don't.
More rapid heating and cooling with CaCO3 means bags seal at lower temperatures and
<br>
How much calcium carbonate goes into a given bag film depends on application, resin, g

<br><br>
............................................................................................................................................
<br><br>
Source :PM.
199 Plastic bags are increasingly
3/27/2007 filled to reduc
High Performance Polymers are at the top of the thermoplastic performance pyramid. Th
<BR>
High-temperature polymer polyether ether ketone (PEEK*) is registered in Germany as V
very high heat resistance<BR>
high rigidity<BR>
low water absorption and therefore high dimensional stability<BR>
high hardness<BR>
good strength<BR>
excellent sliding friction behavior, minimal abrasion<BR>
good electrical characteristics<BR>
excellent chemical resistance<BR>
excellent hydrolytic stability<BR>
good processability<BR>
low tendency to form stress cracks<BR>
long-term heat resistance at 260 °C.<BR>
<BR>
This properties profile makes VESTAKEEP® compounds suitable for a wide range of appl
<BR>
Commercial applications have been only in Europe so far. Degussa hopes to achieve cos
<BR><BR>
200 Another NewArtical
NameSource in PEEK
4/14/2007
PM

Page 170
Articles

The global market for fiber reinforcement material in 2005 was pegged at about 140,000
<BR>

Major highlights of future developments are:

<BR>

Thermoplastic material now accounts for almost a third of the volume of advanced comp

<BR>

The global market for carbon fiber has more than doubled since 1998.

<BR>

Demand for products incorporating aramid and high modular polyethylene fiber is growin

<BR>

The market for carbon-carbon composites is rather small. Aircraft brakes is the main are

<BR>

Advanced composite, particularly carbon fiber based composite, continues to extend its

<BR>

In the automotive sector, reinforced thermoplastics in all forms continue to make in road

<BR>

Renewable energy markets, particularly wind energy, offer considerable growth potentia

<BR>

Industrial applications are forecast to take an increasing share of the advanced composit

<BR>
The pace of progress in sports and leisure applications at one time a very buoyant secto
<BR>
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
<BR><BR>
201 Low Priced Carbon
Article Source
Fibers
4/14/2007
to
: PM.
open new markets for c

Page 171
Articles

Processors occasionally find black spots in extruded products such as films and sheets. T
<BR>
Contaminants in raw material could be one of the possible causes of black specks. Inhere
If the incoming material is clean, a speck is introduced during processing due to:
* Small amounts of polymer being overheated, exposed either to high temperatures for a
* Small amount of polymer can hang up and be exposed to normal process temperatures
<BR>
The source of the specks can be identified by the maintenance department, or by config
<BR>
Large or complex dies for film or sheet, containing low-flow areas where polymer can ov
<BR>
Heat tolerance of the polymer is also a contributing factor. Heat-sensitive materials like P
<BR>
Higher throughput rate can also hasten formation of black speck, as running too hot can
<BR>
Finally, stoppage and shutdown for adjustments, die changes, or maintenance often exte
<BR>
If black speck cannot be eliminated after trying all the above care then purging with righ
<BR><BR>
Artical Source : PB

202 Eliminating black spots 4/14/2007


in extruded film/sheet wit
Bio plastics, being a new class of polymers having influence on the waste disposal proble
The European Union packaging and packaging waste directive (94/62/EC) was amended
<BR>
Germany has approved an amendment to its Packaging Directive that may open up the
<BR>
Since it may be difficult for the specified business entities to recycle on their own, In Japa
<BR>
US Government support that may help drive the development of bio plastics includes the
<BR>
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) provide a means for the public to express them

<BR><BR>

203 Legilative regulations


Arical sourse
provide
4/14/2007
:PM an opportunity for
A stretch film containing macro perforation is developed from reinforced polymer matrix
The Macro perforated stretch film prevents the formation of internal condensation on va
<BR><BR>

204 A new reinforced


Articalmacro
Source
4/14/2007
perforated
: PIW stretch film pro

Page 172