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H of Philippine Language Groups


Llamzon, Corazon

PART ONE: THE PHILIPPINES AND THE FILIPINOS


Chapter 1 – Historical Background
Chapter 2 – Cultural Characteristics of Philippine Language Groups
Chapter 3 – General Linguistic Features of Philippine Languages

PART TWO: THE LANGUAGE GROUPS


Chapter 4 – The Ivatans
5 – The Ilokanos
6 – The Ibanags
7 – The Itawes
8 – The Kalinggas
9 – The Ifugaws
10 – The Bontoks
11 – The Kankana-is
12 – The Pangasinans
13 – The Pampanggos
14 – The Tagalogs
15 – The Bikolanos
16 - The Hanunoo-Mangyans
17 – The Ilonggos
18 – The Warays
19 – The Sebuanos
20 – The Aborlans Tagbanwas
21 – The Bataks
22 – The Bukidnons
23 – The Mamanwas
24 – The Maranaws
25 – The Magindanaws
26 – The Bilaans
27 – The Tausugs
28 – The Bajaus
GENERAL REFERENCES

Ivatans Ilonggos
Ilokanos Warays
Ibanags Sebuanos
Itawes Aborlans Tagbanwas
Kalinggas Bataks
Ifugaws Bukidnons
Bontoks Mamanwas
Kankana-is Maranaws
Pangasinans Magindanaws
Pampanggos Bilaans
Tagalogs Tausugs
Bikolanos Bajaus
Hanunoo-Mangyans

SUBGROUPING RELATIONSHIPS (pg. 22)

A subgroup shows the relationship among the Philippine Languages.

Two kinds of Subgrouping (pg. 22):


1.) those that tried to fix the positions of these languages on the Philippine family tree
as a whole
2.) those that attempted to study the internal relationships between the languages of
a particular branch of the language family.

Techniques used in Language Classification (pg. 26):


1. judgement by inspection of the similarities and dissimilarities between these
languages
2. lexicostatistics
3. shared innovations in linguistics features

A. Chretien
- classified 21 Philippine languages
- he studied the distribution patterns of 1,903 morphemes, coming up with
three main divisions of the Philippine languages: the Luzon sequence, Macro-
Bisayan group, and the Mindanao-Sulu group

B. Conklin (1952)
- GEOGRAPHICALLY divided the various Philippine languages into Luzon,
Visayas, and Mindanao
- he enumerated the various groups in each section (LVM)
- LINGUISTICALLY identified only two groups: a northern group and a
central group

C. David Thomas and Alan Healey (1962)


- classified 37 Philippine languages, using Swadesh’s 200 basic word list.
D. Dyen (1965)
- subgrouped 89 Philippine languages and dialects, using 196 out of 200 words
from the Swadesh list

E. Robert B. Fox, Willis E. Sibley, and Fred Eggan


- tried to determine the relationships among 17 central and northern Luzon
languages, using 197 of the items in Swadesh’s word list
- they came up with the following subdivisions:

A. Northern Division C. Southern Division


1. Iloko 1. Ibaloy
2. Tinguian 2. Pangasinan
3. Isneg
4. Ibanag D. Southeastern Division
5. Gaddang 1. Ilonggot

B. Central Division
1. Kankanay
2. Bontok
3. Kalinga
4. Ifugao

F. Zorc (1975)
- studied the genetic relationships of the Bisayan dialects on the basis of
shared innovations
- he also worked on the subgrouping of the southern Philippine languages

G. Elkins (1974)
- determined the subgrouping of some 19 Manobo languages

H. Others
1. McFarland on Bikol (1974)
2. Gallman on Mansakan (1974)
3. Reid on Igorot (1974)
4. Allison on Danao (1974)
5. Yamada on Bashiic (1973)

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS (pg. 27)

Phonology
A. Vowels

SYNCHRONIC DIACHRONIC
The most common vowel systems are the The vowel system which has been
ff.: reconstructed for the original parent
Six-vowel system – i, e, , a, u, o language was the four-vowel system (i, , a,
Five-vowel system – i, e, a, u, o u)
Four-vowel system – i, , a, u
Three-vowel system – i, a, u

B. Consonants

SYNCHRONIC DIACHRONIC
Almost all the Philippine languages’ phonemic The consonantal inventory of Proto-
inventories include the ff.: Austronesian reconstructed by Dempwolff
STOPS: p, t, k, , b, d, g (1935) and Dyen (1971) is said to have
NASALS: m, n, continued in the Philippine languages:
FRICATIVES: s, h
LATERALS: l, r p t T s k q X
SEMIVOWELS: w, j b d D z g h X
m n l Z Q
w ñ r c N S
y R j W
H
The palatals z, n, c, and j, the velar R, and
dentals T and D are said to have merged
with others consonants in Philippine
languages.

C. Diphthongs
- All the Philippine languages employ the diphthongs aw, aj, and uj.
- Additionally, some languages use iw, w, oj, and ej

D. Prosodic Features
- Length, pitch, and stress correlate in terms of ACCENT, i.e., an accented
open penultimate syllable is usually longer, louder, and higher in pitch than an
accented closed one, as in Tagalog sulat ‘write’ vs. minsan ‘once’.

Morphology
While there have been a lot of innovations, the Philippine languages, in gneral, have also
retained much from Proto-Austronesian.

A. Number System

isa / esa ‘one’ pitu ‘seven’


dewsa ‘two’ walu ‘eight’
tetu ‘three’ siwa ‘nine’
sepate ‘four’ puluque ‘ten’
lima ‘five’ ratus ‘hundred’
eneme ‘six’ ribu ‘thousand’

B. Pronominal System

First Person Second Person Third Person


Nom. aku ‘I’ kaw ‘you’ ia ‘he, she’
Singular
Poss. a(ng)ken ‘mine’ mu ‘your’ ña ‘his,, her’
kita ‘we’ (inclusive)
Nom. kamu ‘you’ sida ‘they’
kami ‘we’ (exclusive)
Plural
mi ’our’ (exclusive)
Poss. ixu ‘yours’ da ‘their’
ta ’our’ (inclusive)
C. Verbs
- The verb systems of the Philippine languages reflect the Austronesian way
of marking verb forms for ASPECT rather than tenses.
- Tense is indicated by adverbs of time.
- FOCUS and MOOD are indicated by changes in the verb form.

Syntax
A. Particles
- There is a two-way distinction between particles for common nouns and
proper nouns, with different sets each for singular and plural numbers.
- There are three cases in the paradigm: nominative, possessive, and
locative/goal. The last one being sometime called ‘the oblique case’.

B. Negatives

Use of Negative Group 1 (exemplified Group 2 (exemplified Group 3 (exemplified


by Tagalog) by Kinaray-a) by Bikol)
1.) denial of
hindi b k n baku
statements or facts
2.) to prohibit huwag ayaw dai
3.) to express
yaw indi habo
rejection
4.) to assert the
absence of wala wara wara, mayo, dai
something
5.) negation of
hindi Indi dai
future verbs
THE LANGUAGE GROUPS (from pg. 32)

1. The Ivatans (pg.


32)
Place Batanes Islands (Batan, Itbayat, and Sabtang Island)
People Ivatan/Batan/Batanese/Ibatan
Language *Chirin nu Ibatan/Ivatan
Dialects/Variants Northern (Basco)
Itbayat (Itbayat Island)
Southern (Sabtang Island)
Yami
Census
1948 13, 367
1960 11, 882
1970 14, 105

2. The Ilokanos (pg.


37)
Place Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union; some parts of Pangasinan,
Tarlac, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Viscaya, and Nueva Ecija;
certain parts of Apayao-Kalinga, Ifugao, and Mountain
Province
People Ilokano/Ilokos
Language Iloko/Ilokano
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 2, 687, 861
1960 3, 158, 560
1970 4, 150, 596

3. The Ibanags (from bannag ‘river’) (pg.


41)
Place Cagayan, Isabela, along the banks of the Cagayan river, and
the northern coast of Luzon
People Ibanag/*Ybanag/Ibanac/Cagayan/Cagayanos
Language Ibanag/*Ybanag/Ibanac/Ybanac
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 179, 742
1960 178, 730
1970 196, 319
4. The Itawes (pg.
46)
Place Southwest Cagayan – in the towns of Enrile, Piat, Tuao, Iguig,
Solano, Penablanca, and some barrios of Tuguegarao
People Itawes/Itawit/Itawiq/Tawish/Itawi/Itaves/Itabes
Language Itawes
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 59, 242
1959 64, 753
1960 87, 529

5. The Kalinggas (from Kalinga ‘enemy’) (pg.


50)
Place Southern part of Kalinga-Apayao
People Kalingga
Language Kalingga/Kinalingga
Dialects/Variants Guinaang, Lubuagan, Pinukpuk, Tabuk, Tinglayan, Tanudan
Census
1948 36, 113
1960 46, 651
1970 58, 509

6. The Ifugaws (‘from the earth’) (pg.


55)
Place Ifugao province in Central Cordillera mountains of northern
Luzon
People Ifugaw/Ifugao/Ipugao/*Kiangan
Language *Ibannawol (varieties closely related to those spoken at
Banaue, Banawe, or Banawi)
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 51, 792
1960 74, 938
1970 106, 792

The Ifugaws are subdivided into several groups, the most


important of which are the Banaue, Mayoyaw, Kiangan,
Hungduan, Lagawe,Potia, and Lamut.
7. The Bontoks (pg.
60)
Place Central part of the Mountain Province (municipalities of
Bontoc, Sadanga, Barlig)
People Igorot
Language Bontok/Binontok/Bontok Igorot
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 22, 711
1960 78, 174
1970 57, 708

The name Igorot, an obsolete word for ‘hill people’ is used to


refer to the mountain people of the Mountain Province,
Ifugao, Benguet, and Pangasinan.

8. The Kankana-is (pg.


65)
Place Northern Kankana-is – municipalities of Besao, Sagada,
Tadian, Bauko, and Sabangan in the western part of the
Mountain Province
Southern Kankana-is – municipalities of Kankayan, Bakun,
Kibungan, Buguias, and the northern half of Kapangan in
Benget
People Kankana-i/Kankanay
Language Kankanay, Kankana-i, Kankana-ey
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 102, 022
1960 71, 363
1970 128, 216

9. The Pangasinans (‘salt basins’) (pg.


70)
Place Pangasinan and some parts of Tarlac
People Pangasinan/Pangasinanes/Pangasinense
Language Pangasinan/*Panggalato
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 665, 342
1960 666, 003
1970 838, 104s
10. The Pampanggos (pg. 74)
Place Pampanga, some border towns of Bataan (Dinalupihan and
Hermosa) and Tarlac (Bamban, Capas, Concepcion, and Tarlac)
People Kapampangan (vernacular)/Pampanggo (English)/Pampangueños
(Spanish)
Language Kampanpangan/Pampanggo/Pampangan
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 707, 291
1960 875, 531
1970 1, 212, 024

11. The Tagalogs


Place provinces of Rizal, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, Batangas, Aurora,
Camarines Norte, Marinduque, Oriental and Occidental Mindoro
People Tagals, Tagalos, and Tagalogs
Language Tagal, Tagalo, and Tagalog; *Pilipino, *Filipino
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 3,730,028
1960 5,694,072
1970 8,979,719

12. The Bikolanos


Place provinces of Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes,
Masbate, and Sorsogon; *Vicor, *Ibalon
People Bikolano, Bikol
Language Bicol, Bikol, Bikolnon
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 1,535,411
1960 2,108,837
1970 – 2,507,156

13. The Hanunoo-Mangyans


Place southern sections of the island of Mindoro
People Manguianes, Mangyanes, *Hanunoo-Mangyans
Language -Mangyan, *Mangyan
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 8,459
1960 6,712
1970 10,254

14. The Ilonggos


Place of Iloilo and Negros Occidental, as well as the island of Guimaras
People Hiligaynon, Ilonggos, *Bisaya, *Yliqueynes
Language Hiligaynon, Ilonggo, *Binisaya
Dialects/Variants Capiznon (Capiz), Sigaynon (Antique), Kawayanon (Negros
Occidental)
Census
1948 2,436,390
1960 2,817,314
1970 3,745,333

15. The Warays


Place islands of Samar and Biliran, and the eastern section of Leyte
(Waray, Waray-Waray)
People Samareños; Leyteños; *Bisayans
Language Waray, Waray-Waray, or Samar-Leyte
Dialects/Variants Samarnon, Leytehanon
Census
1948 1,226,314
1960 1,488,668
1970 1,767,829

16. The Sebuanos


Place islands of Cebu, Negros Oriental, Siquijor, and sections of
Masbate, Leyte, and northern Mindanao
People : Sebuanos, Sugbuanons, Sugbuhanons (from Sugbu, Cebu’s old
name); Boholanos, Bol-anons; *Pintados
Language *Bisaya
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 4,840,708
1960 6,529,882
1970 8,844,996

17. The Aborlan Tagbanwas


Place islands of Palawan in the western section of the archipelago,
specifically near the town of Aborlan in the central portion of the
island of Palawan; large centers are now found at Lamani,
Kulangdanum, Apuruan, Bobosawan and Labtay (Napsaan)
People Tagbanwa, Tagbanua, Tagbanuwa
Language Aborlan Tagbanwa, *Tagbanwa, Aborlan
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 6,418
1960 5,489
1970 8,623

18. The Bataks


Place : mountainous sections of the municipalities of Babuyan,
Tarabanan, Langugan, Caruray, Quinaritan, Buhayan, and Barbacan
on the island of Palawan
People Bataks, *Tinitianes
Language Batak, Binatak
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 261
1960 542
1970 393

19. The Bukidnons


(sub-Manobo ethnic group)
Place forest settlements of northern Bukidnon, western Agusan and the
inland portions of Misamis Oriental on the island of Mindanao
People Bukidnon, *Binukid, *Higqonon, *Banwaqon, *Magahat
Language Binukid, Minanobo
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 28,468
1960 70,586
1970 62,563

20. The Mamanwas


Place mountainous areas of northeast of Santiago, Agusan del Norte,
and western Surigao
People Mamanwa, Amamamanwa, Mamaw, Kongking, Kongki, Kongkists
Language Mamanwa, Minamanwa, Konki
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 41
1960 151
1970 1,012

21. The Maranaws


Place provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur on the island of
Mindanao, also found in the provinces of Misamis Oriental and on
the mountain slopes of northwestern Cotobato Province
People (mostly Muslims) Maranaws, Maranaos, Moros
Language Maranaw, Maranao
Dialects/Variants Iranon
Census
1948 135,241
1960 150,674
1970 541,838

22. The Magindanaws


Place provinces of North and South Cotobato, Sultan Kudarat, and
Mindanao esp. along the marshy basin of Pulangi River and around
the vicinity of Lake Liguasan and lake Buluan down to the mouth of
the Pulangi, along Ilana Bay; smaller groups in Zamboanga del Sur,
and Davao provinces
People Magindanaws, Magindanaos, Mindanaos (from Magingadsadanao)
Language Magindanawon, Magindanaw, Maguinadanao
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 229,763
1960 358,851
1970 465,894

23. The Bilaans


Place southeastern section of Davao del Sur and in some small areas of
Cotobato
People Bilaans, Biraan, Bara-an, Blaan, Bilan; Tagalagad (mountainsides),
Balud, Tumanao (Saranggani)
Language Bilaan, Blaan
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 41,900
1960 94,738
1970 51,638

24. The Bajaus


Place
People *Luwaan, Palau; *Kaliaggeh; Samals (sama), ocean Samals (sama di
laut), real Samals (sama toqongan ), Moros; Bajau
Language Sinama; Bajau, Badjaw, Badjao
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 237,291
1960 307,584
1970 383,802

25. The Tausugs


Place Islands of Jolo, Tapul; the Tawi-Tawi groups, the coastal
areas of Basilan, and the eastern coast of Malaysian Borneo
People Tawsugs, Taosugs, Tausugs, * Suluk
Language Tawsug, Taosug, Tausug
Dialects/Variants
Census
1948 237,291
1960 307,584
1970 363,802