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CITIZENSHIP SEEN FROM THE SOUTH: SOME LESSONS IN DEVELOPING SUPPORT STRUCTURES FOR THE CRAFT SECTOR.

Mel Hagen Cape Craft and Design Institute Cape Peninsula University of Technology Erica Elk Cape Craft and Design Institute 3 April 2007

Abstract The term global citizenship is a highly contested one which is interpreted in different ways by different interest groups. While the global dimension cannot be ignored, in the context of a developing country, its relevance on the ground can be questioned. In South Africa the notion of citizenship is a far more critical question, given that the exclusion of the vast majority of peoples in South Africa had not experienced participative democracy before 1994. The issue then is how can design and design education mediate in the development of citizenship. The Bill of Rights, enshrined in the South African constitution, includes socio-economic rights. If extrapolated into fields where design can make a positive contribution in the development sense, this expanded notion of citizenship has clear links with the concept of design as process. Design in South Africa, despite the efforts of such agencies as the Design Institute of the SABS, and the Design Education Forum of Southern Africa does still not enjoy much government support. However what is significant is the extent to which design, piggybacking on the governments focus on craft as a field for socio-economic upliftment, has been able to make positive contributions. The Western Cape in particular has been at the forefront of craft and design development strategies. The Cape Craft and Design Institute has become an influential voice on regional and national forums and has developed a range of programmes that integrate design and product development. A primary vision in its functioning is the development of confident individuals capable of running sustainable livelihoods, who discover the value of life

long learning and participate in a community of crafters. In short the development of engaged citizens. Global Citizenship The definition of global citizenship is highly contested. Googling the term brings up an interesting scenario. By far the greater number of sites is those of multinational corporations presenting their Global Citizenship Reports Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, Abbott Laboratories, John Deere, etc. and they all include a strong element of philanthropy and volunteerism on the part of their staff members. It would seem that global citizenship is just another name for corporate social

responsibility programmes. A second grouping that appears to be a focus for the term is those sites who have a concern for issues that have the potential to have a negative impact on all of us: global warming, the violation of universal human rights, environmental degradation, and the negative impacts on developing countries of international trade agreements. This is usually expressed in global protest activity, using pressure tactics, facilitated by the ease of communication and travel. The discourse of large-scale grass roots activism is largely articulated within the framework of the highly developed industrial nations which are dominant in the global economy, by people who have the freedom and resources to travel, who have access to all the communication tools that modern technology affords them. Some of the solutions proposed (debt relief, more international aid) replicate the old neocolonial, paternalistic attitudes - doing things for or to, rather than with/active and passive voices/those who act and those who are acted upon which is also still evident in the Corporate Social Responsibility programmes alluded to above. Other models, such as the social entrepreneurship model, propose a much more dynamic and interactive relationship between social groupings, operating in local and global contexts, which rely much more on issues of social and individual development, growth and independence. What does any of this mean to a black women with 5 children and no employment, living in an informal settlement, where water is collected from a shared stand pipe, toilets are based on a bucket system, and there is little or no electricity? She has, most probably, never seen a website, has never traveled from her home except when she moved from a poorer, marginal region to the outskirts of the city. What does global warming, environmental degradation mean to her when her primary concern is to survive on a day-to-day basis?

Leaving the question there for the moment, I would like to bring the discussion down from global to local. Citizenship The majority of citizens in Apartheid South Africa were excluded from true participatory democracy. Having never experienced the rights of citizenship, and the protection the state affords to its citizens, many have little notion of what it means to be a citizen. Who can ever forget the images of our first democratic election in 1994 which were beamed around the world, the endless queues of individuals waiting to exercise their first act of citizenship casting their national democratic vote. The symbolic value of the act as a signal of the end of an oppressive system and beacon of hope for democracy cannot be underestimated. However, whether all individuals understood what citizenship means, with its rights and obligations, is a moot point. Subsequent elections have seen a decline in participation and a turning away from the overtly political processes to a concern with service delivery and local activism. The link between the two is not fully understood. Enshrined in the new South African Constitution, which was adopted in 1996, is a Bill of Rights
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which covers fundamental principles which underpin the new democracy, the first three

provisions being equality, human dignity, and freedom and security. It goes on to list a range of freedoms (movement, association, religion, assembly, trade, etc.), political rights (choice, vote, etc.), and, quite remarkably a set of socio-economic rights (environment, employment, property, housing, health care, food, water and social security, childrens rights, and education). These last rights are problematic in that they are unenforceable dependent either on state resources, or on the ability of individuals, facilitated by an enabling legislative environment to meet these needs through their own activities and resources. What they symbolize, however, is a much broader relationship of duty and care on the part of the state, and a commitment to its citizens than had previously held sway. While there are the standard provisions for citizenship that might exist in almost any other democracy (right to vote, right to reside, right to move within country, expression of opinion, association, right to leave country), in order to live out the rights enshrined in the constitution, any education for citizenship needs to cover some of the following issues:

South African Government Information. 1966. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/96cons2.htm. Sourced 25 March 2007.

Development of human capacity and self confidence to take full and active ownership of own lives,

Capacity to generate a sustainable livelihood Ability to participate fully and meaningfully in community life Recognizing cultural diversity and understanding the interconnectedness of communities, individuals, systems and values.

The methodology used should fully reflect the same values and issues, i.e. be participative, recognize cultural diversity, educate for independence, not dependence. My experience of operating at grassroots level has highlighted the need for an activist to operate as facilitator for engagement across cultures, to participate in situations where the communities who are engaged are not treated as a tabula rasa on which one can impose another set of values, strategies, actions, but with whom there is a real interchange of ideas and a respect for the value of the other and what they bring to the relationship. This cannot be a quick process as it requires first of all the building of a relationship of trust. This implies that activists wishing to engage in a change-making process need to be thoroughly imbued with a respect for others, and with the requisite knowledge and skills to be able to engage in a non-patronizing way with individuals and communities and as equal partners in the relationship. This has major implications for educating designers who wish to operate in the field of development who are trained to respond to briefs and controlling to a degree the development of the product itself, operating within the constraints of the particular brief. Design in the South African context. 1994 saw the introduction of a new participative democracy which started with the idea of a clean slate. The ANC in exile had developed a number of desks around particular sectors, in particular education and arts and culture. They came to the table with a considerable body of research that fed into new policy development and led to major restructuring of approaches to such areas as Arts and Culture. A fundamental objective of all subsequent policy development was the redressing of historic imbalances, and increasing participation of all citizens in all aspects of SA society.

Design and Design education have not enjoyed a high status in government circles and its role in social and economic development is not understood, largely seen only in its aesthetic dimensions and as an elitist activity. A number of bodies have been active in trying to get Design put on the national agenda, and have participated in whatever forums were available to put its case. In particular, the Design Institute of the South African Bureau of Standards which has been active since the 60s in promoting design, starting with engineering design, and increasingly developing a focus on Industrial/ Product design, and design for development. A significant design for development intervention on the part of the Design Institute was the hosting, on behalf of ICSID, of two interdesign events. The focus of the first in 2000 was water, and the second in 2005 on Sustainable Rural Transport. The Design Education Forum of Southern Africa has cooperated closely with the Design Institute on a number of lobbying and advocacy initiatives, as well as organizing conferences where design for/and development has started to feature more and more strongly. Lobbying and advocacy over the years has started to see some changes in attitude. By contrast there has been a strong focus in developing government policy initiatives on the field of craft. The early years of ANC government were characterized by an openness and accessibility to government that had never previously been experienced. Broad consultative processes were set in train to assist in policy development. In 1995 a national broad consultative process was undertaken to explore the extent of the cultural industries, their needs and potential. The Arts and Culture Task Action Group (ACTAG) 2 brief included the investigation of visual (fine art, crafts) and performing arts (music, dance, drama), literature, film & video, but made no mention of design. Design found its way into the national document through the work of the Western Cape submission, which devotes a whole separate section to Design (Visual Arts Task Group pp. 20-26)3. Unfortunately, subsequent iterations of the document into government policy documents found design again being diluted. In 1998 a report entitled Craft in South Africa4 started to propose particular strategies to be applied to the Craft sector. Again, design gets scant attention.

April 1995. Draft Report prepared by the Arts and Culture Task Group (ACTAG), for the Ministry of Arts culture, Science and Technology. Unpublished. 3 1995. Westag. Visual Arts Discussion Document Third Draft (Unpublished) 4 July 1998. Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. Craft in South Africa. (Unpublished)

The Creative South Africa document5 was the first attempt to give a clear focus to developing a cultural industries growth strategy. The report identifies four sectors for development in terms of a cultural industries growth strategy; Music, Film and Television, Publishing, and Craft. Again, design is remarkable for its absence as a specific sector needing development, but is integrated into the proposals relating to craft which is seen as having strong possibilities to generate income, particularly for rural women and based on an apparent craft skills resource, as well as embodying cultural values. In 2001 the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology commissioned a targeted South African Craft Development Strategy6. This report listed a number of developmental needs identified by crafters and developed a strategic framework with 5 strategies: Skills Development Product Development Promotion, Sales and Distribution Institutional Capacity

In the Western Cape parallel processes were being undertaken. The provincial government of the Western Cape, in an attempt to coordinate craft development strategies, set up the Craft sector Partnership forum, bringing together a wide range of stakeholders in the sector. In 2000 it commissioned an Audit of Craft Assets in the Western Cape7, which presented a comprehensive overview of craft activities in the province. It was clear that, in terms of government initiatives, craft was seen as a priority area for development. A need repeatedly identified in the various reports was for product development and design interventions into this sector. A conscious strategic decision was made in the Western Cape, to promote design for development in the craft sector, firstly because there was a clear need, and secondly because it represented an opportunity to demonstrate the value of design. The Business Plan for the establishment o the Cape Craft and Design Institute embraced design as one of the pillars of its proposed activities. In addition, the approach of the Institute is focused
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.November 1998. Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology: The Cultural Strategy Group. Creative South Africa: A strategy for realizing the potential of the Cultural Industries. A report to the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. Unpublished 6 . October 2001. Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. South African Craft Development Strategy Discussion document (unpublished). 7 July 2000. Commissioned on behalf of the Western Cape Craft Partnership by the Western Cape Provincial Department of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Tourism. Audit of Craft Assets in the Western Cape Final Report

on developing confident, skilled individuals, capable of designing innovative craft products appropriate for their identified markets, and who are fully engaged in their lives as active, productive and fulfilled citizens. In 2001, following the development of a comprehensive business plan and proposal, the Cape Craft and Design Institute started operations. Further discussion of this organization comprises the following case study. In the development of intervention strategies into the craft sector in the Western Cape, further studies were undertaken in 2005 as part of the Microeconomic Development Strategies8 studies, and in these design was accorded a more integrated status.

Case Study: the Cape Craft and Design Institute


The Cape Craft and Design Institute (CCDI) had its genesis in initiatives undertaken by the Provincial Government of the Western Cape to develop a strategy for the craft sector. It established a Cape Sector Partnership forum which brought together a large number of individuals and organizations that had interests in the sector. In July 2000 the Audit of Craft Assets in the Western Cape was tabled at a meeting of the Partnership. Also tabled at the same meeting was a proposal for the establishment of a Product Development Clinic in the Cape Peninsula University of Technology to service crafters. A decision was taken to develop a business plan, integrating the essential elements of both reports, with a view to establishing a body that could coordinate and develop craft activities in the province. This business plan was tabled early in 2001, but even prior to that funding had been secured from the poverty alleviation funds of the Cultural Industries Growth Strategy division of the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, and the provincial government itself. In November 2001 the Institute, housed in the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, opened its doors with two staff members, a Project Manager, Erica Elk, and an Administrator, Marjorie Naidoo. The Audit of Craft Assets report had already provided valuable pointers to the needs, problems and possible strategies. The business plan was founded on a philosophy which was quite distinct from the usual approach to craft development in South Africa in that it prescribed a demand- rather than a supply-driven strategy9.
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2005. Kaiser Associates. Western Cape Microeconomic Development Strategy: Craft Sector Study. The history of craft in South Africa is replete with examples of a supply driven approach. Early craft projects, usually founded by well meaning individuals, or the church, concentrated on a welfarist approach where crafters were trained in particular skills and products developed without any real understanding of the markets. Many of these projects did well initially, being marketed through church channels, and having a novelty element that initially attracted buyers. However, years down the line, the same products were still being produced, markets shrank, and projects became dependent on handouts rather than being sustainable.

The Mission of the Institute is: To encourage the development of individual creativity, the acquisition of skills and the transfer of knowledge To encourage the development of innovative products that are responsive to and create market demand To facilitate access to local, national and international markets and grow the market share of Cape-based craft To create an enabling environment for people to confidently explore, express and preserve our diverse cultural heritage To facilitate collaboration and sharing of skills within our community of crafters To impact on personal, regional and national growth through job creation and income generation. In approaching this task the Institute has developed certain principles in its operations: 1. Concentrate resources on delivery, not on infrastructure. Bureaucracy has been minimized; apart from core staff, staff are employed only in relation to projects 2. Enhance delivery through collaborative relationships and networking
The developing profile of the Institute has led to its being approached to participate in other government policy initiatives, including the Sector Development Strategy for Craft, the Department Trade and Industry South Africa; the Provincial Advanced Manufacturing Technology Strategy, involvement in which has garnered further support from the Provincial government for the establishment of a Centre for Innovation and a FabLab, funded by the national Department of Science and Technology. CCDI has also been active in the Western Cape Microeconomic Development Strategy. Collaborative relationships with Aid to Artisans, Old Mutual Foundation and Kelloggs Foundation arose directly from extensive networking. Involvement of this nature inevitably leads to greater credibility and donor support.

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Leverage resources and expertise by tapping into other organisations programmes The linking in to the core competencies provided by other organizations facilitates not only our own programmes, but contributes to our partners meeting their own objectives and targets.

CCDI has leveraged resources for training by using the Sector Education and Training Authority for the Marketing, Advertising Print and Publishing industries. This provides for on the job training based on registered programmes, which CCDI has had an involvement in developing, which meet specific outcomes. Involvement in the use of services such as this has led to a more extended relationship within the SETA itself at policy development level.

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Focus on the craft sector and its production and supply value chain as an economic sector in the region. This essentially broadens the constituency to producers, agents, retailers, and designers as well as the crafters who are the primary client base.

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Involvement in the sector as a whole positions the Institute to be able to inform and lobby for an enabling and regulatory environment.

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Be a learning organization: every project needs to be evaluated and the lessons learnt applied so that the organization constantly evolves and grows in its ability to achieve its mission.
CCDI not only learns from its own experiences, but also uses every opportunity to provide crafters with relevant training. Crafters selected to participate in a marketing event are given training and assistance in point of sale display, ticketing of items, proper costing, sales techniques. Likewise, the decision to open a Craft showcase in the Mutual Heights building was accompanied by the Art Deco project so that the work displayed at the launch would have been the result of a specific development programme.

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Every project has training and learning potential for the crafters themselves. Communicate, document and track progress; in particular give the crafters a voice.
CCDI s communication takes various forms: A monthly Craft Sector Partnership meeting is an important tool to keep crafters abreast of developments, potential marketing events, trends, etc. Communication with many of the crafters is via SMS they may not have access to computers, but they certainly have access to cellphones. The monthly newsletter is mailed to over 2,300 recipients, is hand delivered to township community centres and to Library Business Corners. Every exhibition organized by the Institute has been documented in a comprehensive explanatory catalogue.

The website is in process and there is a gradually expanding database of crafters, retailers, craft markets, producer shops and exporters.

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Develop a community of crafters.


The Craft Sector Partnership monthly meetings have provided a powerful tool for the development of a sense of community.

A recently completed Impact Study has produced some interesting statistics: Key Area 94% learnt a new skill 92% (of 43%) have a costing & pricing strategy 76% know what their products cost to make 73% know what they make on each product 77% who increased increase in sales attribute to support of CCDI 70% of these said because of greater market access (17% better products; 13% access to info) 85% have maintained a profit; moved to making a profit 85% experienced positive change 86% improved understanding of markets 56% growth in regular customers 65% improved products 58% of these have increased market access 66% helped make new products 37% moved from home to formal workplace 45% attribute change/increase staff to CCDI support 38% have higher income since CCDI intervention 63% experienced positive growth in personal income 73% said they would NOT accept regular, equivalent paying jobs 31% claim CCDI helped them sustain their business and would not be running 31% claim CCDI helped them manage money better 68% positive growth in sales 60% moved to higher income bracket 70% of these attribute MA programme as contributing factor 50% of service providers thought their general networks had increased

Enterprise Development

Market Access

Product Development Employment/job Personal income Entrepreneurship

Sustainabilty

Collaboration

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The CCDI has had a positive impact. However, it is more difficult to measure what effect this has had on self-confidence, and the other more affective qualities that were earlier identified as targets for citizen education. This would develop out of more specific interactions within projects and qualitative interviews. Two examples serve to illustrate how effective links are being created between craft producers and local and global market and cultural contexts.

Project 1: Aid to Artisans


A. Project Summary This South African craft enterprise development project utilises the dual interventions of improvement in product design, and facilitated market access, in order to open new international and local markets for emerging producers. There are two partners in the project - the South Africa partner Cape Craft & Design Institute (CCDI) is based in the Western Cape and provides local business and product development support for producers; and USA-based partner - Aid to Artisans (ATA) provides the product designer with links to the USA market, and foreign market access support. Twelve local craft businesses, in two intakes of six, received intensive product development, and business development support in order to improve the marketability of their products, and enhance the ability of the producer to successfully enter the USA, EU and national South African market. Year one
The intended goal of the project as identified in June 2004 were to take take 12 producer groups/enterprises, from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, through an integrated product development, capacity building and market linkages programme that results in: Improved product offerings Capacity to deliver quality products on time Increased sustainability in enterprise Market responsive handcraft entrepreneurs

The programme included the identification of appropriate near-export ready producers; implementation of two product development interventions with New York based designer, Stephen Burke; the development of prototypes and samples for showing at local and international trade shows; the mentoring of X product development trainees; participation of X at ATA MRP at SARGDA and NYIGF; additional intervention in terms of production process efficiencies; workplace identification; support for order fulfilment.

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Participants in the first intake (Dec 2005) were emerging black producers with small businesses that were nearly export-ready. The international product designer Stephen Burks produced some radical product designs suitable for an exclusive contemporary home ware market. Considerable work followed his visit - turning these ideas into product realities. The local project team, comprising 4 product development trainees, managed product development, resolved technical and production challenges, led costing and pricing processes and handled packaging and freighting logistics. The best of the products were selected by the ATA marketing team for display at the New York International Gift Fare (Aug 05 & Jan 06) & were also displayed at Ambiente (Frankfurt), SARCDA & Design Indaba (South Africa). They created a strong media interest at all the shows and some good test orders followed especially in the local market. Challenges arose due to the high price of the products due to the inefficient production capabilities of producers, lack of economies of scale, high raw material prices and forex rates. In addition some of the small producers did not have the business capacity to trade at export level. The emerging producers will need additional business support for them to successfully capture the market opportunity that these beautiful products present an issue that can only be dealt with in time over a number of years. Year two The selection process for the second intake was different. Focus was placed on organisations that had the capacity to rapidly respond to the export trade demand. Businesses with high levels of employment and with good social responsibility and fair trade records were selected. Stephen Burks was again the product designer, visiting Cape Town for 10 days in Feb 2006, and conceptualising new products for all 12 businesses. He was joined by global retailer Enrico Bressan whose interest was to develop products for his company Artecnica. This buyer: designer team brought focus to the product development team and a number of useful concepts were developed. In light of the volume of work that was experienced in year one, a dedicated project manager was appointed along with two product development trainees and a technical manager. This team worked intensively from Feb June to develop prototypes and product samples for show review.

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The process again separated into two cores streams of need the development of aesthetic design and technical design support. New processes, new skills, new raw materials were addressed, and the lengthy process of solving practical production issues for multiple producers and multiple products and communicating with an international team of stakeholders was undertaken.

Current Position A very solid foundation has been laid in this project and we are sitting on a great wave of potential that will be unleashed in the next 8-12 months. Each of the 12 participating enterprises, as well as the product development trainees, has gained enormously from the process to date and there are many success stories in the making. Two factors influence the need for the programme to continue until March 2007. The first is a consideration of the input required to build sustainable enterprises. It is a well accepted fact that it takes at least three, and more often 5 or more years to become established in a new market. With this reference point, for sustainable success to be recorded, a market access project such as this must be continued for not less than 3 years if sustainable impact is to be recorded. In reality the programme has been operational for 15 months. Secondly, at a practical level, the product to market cycle is actually from February to February. The original project plan was organised around two product to market cycles. The current position is that we have concluded one cycle and we are in the middle of the second cycle which will be concluded with the show in Ambiente in February 2007. Success Stories There have been many personal and business success stories 1. Willard Musuruwa 11 media articles; a Most Beautiful Object nominee at local Design Indaba Expo; Artecnica global distribution pending, entrepreneur now renting his own production space 2. Streetwires/Heath Nash Artecnica deal 3. Mandela Park Mosaic material and process innovation with the creation of the floppy vases

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4. Malin Olofsson confident capable product developer 5. Linda Nyongo enhanced project management skills And it is early days in the project with many embryo success stories waiting to be realised. Additional benefits The additional benefits are considerable and are measured in terms of: Personal development of individual crafters, and product development trainees Training and learning opportunities Exposure of the CCDI and staff to international marketing processes Development of functional international project teams Establishment of blue-print for craft enterprise development models

Project 2: Afro Deco


Living in our Global World The AFRO DECO living in our Global World10 exhibition is inspired by a period in South African history where trade was brisk, the economy was booming, and vibrant cultural exchange and interaction with the rest of the world was the order of the day. The catalyst was the iconic Art Deco Mutual Heights Building in Darling Street, Cape Town the first headquarters of one of South Africas oldest financial institutions and the sponsor of the programme. The participants were 18 master crafters from all over South Africa representing a diverse range of cultures, languages, skills and media. This innovative programme was facilitated by the Cape Craft and Design Institute (CCDI), with the support of the Old Mutual Foundation (OMF), and aimed to develop the product design skills
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The name of our exhibition is a derivative of the original exhibition that signified the entrance of Art Deco as a movement, namely the 1925 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs Industriels et Modernes, which celebrated living in another world.

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of the master crafters, stimulating product innovation, building appreciation for our diverse culture and heritage and providing access to markets and sales. The Process The 18 crafters were selected through a process of nomination from provincial and local organizations. The final candidates were a group of technically skilled individuals who brought with them 11 official languages and the diverse cultures, identities and heritage of South Africa. The crafters were hosted on a six-week workshop in Cape Town for many the first time out of their home environment. The Mutual Heights building and the pre-apartheid period in South Africa became the reference point for each participant to research and understand their own identity, heritage and link to South Africas history and the rest of the world. By being exposed to a specific context of South African history, participants were able to research and accumulate ideas; source and experiment with new materials and techniques; develop their observation skills; learn how to interpret ideas through drawing; and adapts drawings into new products11. The process developed their skills of innovation and creation. For a period of 6 months after the workshop the participants were visited in their homes and workspaces. During this phase they were mentored to build capacity in a range of areas from production efficiencies, to team management, to quality control, to financial, emotional and social management; to ensure that they could meet orders in time and have responsible relationships with retailers and customers. While the emphasis was on ensuring that products were viable and marketable, the focus was not taken away from encouraging innovation and originality and kept referring participants back to their heritage as a platform for discovery and inspiration. This initiative provided a base for the master crafters to enter the national and global market; but more importantly, it touched on the importance of developing a sense of self and identity in relation to an international historical movement, and provided the candidates with the tools to develop designs using their individual cultures, and heritage as the main source. The challenge in this programme was to draw on the Art Deco period and artifacts both local and foreign as sources of new inspiration and ideas; while developing the understanding of the participants that what they were seeing was the result of a particular social context. In this way
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These re the specific unit standards forming part of the qualification NQF4 Craft Micro Enterprise.

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we hoped that they would begin to understand the value of their own cultural roots, appreciate their place in this new, fluid global world and find ways to exploit the growing opportunities for the commercialization of their craft. Some Comments on the Master Crafters Development Memorial Mnguni is a trained ceramicist living in Mtubatuba where she teaches art and culture in a secondary school. Her product range grew from one to many; the traditional umqhoboti pot in various styles and sizes. Her ideas around production developed as she realized the possibilities of generating an income through her skills. She realized that she could form a production team with learners that had graduated and were unemployed. Andile Dyalvane. Born in Qoboqobo in the Eastern Cape, eventually settle in Gugulethu in Cape Town where he was first exposed to ceramics. He went on to obtain a national diploma in Ceramic Design from the PE Technikon. His traditional Xhosa background is the source of his energy, passion and inspiration in his work. He reinterprets elements of traditional African life such as Xhosa beer pts and mil pails. To him clay is like flesh on which he uses cutting techniques, which resembles the Xhosa tradition of body scarification. With his new partners he is expanding into new techniques and design and is exploring jewellery and fashion in ceramics. Vusi Gumede born in Tshongwe, Kwa-Zulu- Natal. During a creative class at school he produced a wooden spoon of such skills that he gained immediate recognition as a promising woodcarver. He started selling his spoons to passing tourists and supported himself through school. Prior to the workshop he was producing product that was lacking in innovation but showing great skill. He has a strong sense of entrepreneurship with a strong work ethic and since the programme he has upgraded his home, bought a solar power system, an electric sander, a bandsaw, paid off an outstanding debt, and bought a new radio. Lehopo Lichaba was born in Phelandaba in the Eastern Cape. After moving in 1994 to Bonnievale in the western Cape he learnt how to work with wire. In 1995 he relocated to Cape Town and established himself within the recycling crafter community. Through the programme he learnt about design and how to collaborate with other crafters working in different media. He is now able to read the market and spot a gap for his product. He says the programme made a big difference to his monthly income and he is busy

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redeveloping his old range. He won 2 awards in Germany for his unique woven tin-can lights. Maria Masumbuki is an Ndebele woman from Kwaggafontein, Mpumalanga. The training programme had a big impact. It strengthened her management and design skills. The costing and pricing was very significant. She was in a hurry to leave Cape Town to release all the knowledge I have learnt to the other women in her co-op and to see her business grow. She specializes in tradition beadwork but now wants to work to extract ideas from her own heritage in order to develop a more contemporary product. Patricia Mqoqi was born in the Eastern Cape in a rural village called Willowvale. She moved to Cape Town and joined Mandela Park Mosaics a community based project. At the start of training she was used to being part of a producer group. The training provided her with the skills to design her own products as well as manage the production. Maria Tsotsetsi is a traditional potter working in the rural area of Phahameng. She found the Cape Town process very challenging and was uncomfortable translating these traditional skills into the alien environment of commercial clay, electric kilns and modern glazes. The training had an impact on her but the translation into her community and place of work did not happen. She returned to Phahameng and is out of contact.

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