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theory of light.

annus mirabilis On the other hand, Einstein’s explanation in

One hundred years ago, Einstein published ﬁve 1907 of certain puzzling thermal properties of

papers that led to revolutionary changes in crystalline solids–treating the crystal’s molecules

our understanding of the properties of space, as quantum oscillators–convinced most physi-

time and the microscopic world. cists of the need for a quantum theory of matter,

As a student, Einstein said, he had no feeling making quantum theory a major research

for the important problems in mathematics, topic even before Bohr’s 1913 theory of the

whereas in physics he always had a sense of hydrogen atom.

what is really signiﬁcant. He certainly proved By 1907, Einstein was at work on an exten-

this in 1905. In that miraculous year he: 1) made sion of relativity theory to include gravitation.

major contributions to the classical kinetic He soon realized that gravity and inertia are two

theory of atoms and molecules; 2) resolved the sides of the same coin and their equivalence

apparent conﬂict between classical mechanics is the key to understanding gravity. This insight

and the optics and electrodynamics of moving implies that inertial (non-accelerating) frames

bodies; and 3) laid the foundations for the of reference, which had maintained their privi-

quantum theory of light. leged status in the special theory of relativity,

Kinetic Theory: To this day, Einstein’s must be dethroned. To include gravitation, his

two papers on molecular behavior and Brownian 1905 theory had to give way to a generalized

motion (the random jostling of small particles, theory of relativity, with no privileged frames of

like dust in water) are cited more often than his reference. Most physicists scoffed and contin-

other 1905 papers because of the many practi- ued to seek ways to incorporate gravitation with

cal applications of his formulas for diffusion and special relativity–indeed, many still do!

viscosity. The paper on Brownian motion is However, Einstein persevered, and by 1915 had

also of great theoretical interest because it is the developed a theory of gravity in which all space-

ﬁrst successful mathematical treatment of a time structures are dynamical objects, in bold

stochastic (random) process. contrast to all other physical theories, including

Relativity: People like Lorentz and Poincaré the quantum theories developed later. These

were trying to understand why experimental all depend on some ﬁxed background space-time

attempts to observe a background “ether,” structures, and hence are called background-

assumed to pervade space, had failed. Einstein dependent theories.

realized that, since the days of Fresnel and Attempts to create a quantum theory of grav-

Fizeau, such experiments had been trying to tell ity must somehow reconcile general relativity

us that the traditional way of understanding with quantum mechanics. They face this dilemma:

motion break down for speeds approaching that Is it possible to formulate a background-inde-

of light. What was needed was to replace the pendent quantum gravity theory, as general

old mechanics, in which the time was absolute, relativity suggests? Or must we give up back-

with a new mechanics, in which the speed ground independence in order to quantize

of light is absolute and space and time behave gravity as quantum theory suggests? Most physi-

differently from the perspective of observers cists–including string theorists–believe in

symmetry | volume 02 | issue 01 | february 05

in different states of motion. the latter alternative. But if the former proves

It took years before this new viewpoint possible and the resulting theory is physically

prevailed. Indeed, a look at some current text- fruitful–as loop quantum gravity advocates

books’ treatment of the special theory shows have shown there is reason to hope–then the

that it still has not prevailed everywhere. formulation of the ﬁrst background-independent

Quantum theory: The only 1905 paper physical theory will surely rank as Einstein’s

Einstein described as “revolutionary” is the one greatest achievement.

on quantum theory, which introduced the idea John Stachel

that there are smallest possible elements (quanta)

John Stachel is Professor Emeritus of Physics and Director of

of light. This work on the photoelectric effect the Center for Einstein Studies, Boston University. He is

won the Nobel prize in 1921. In contrast to the founding editor of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein,

attempts by Planck and others to patch up class- author of Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z’, and he edited Einstein’s

Miraculous Year, annotated translations of all the 1905 papers.

ical theories in order to incorporate quantum

phenomena, Einstein proclaimed from the start

that neither classical mechanics nor classical

electrodynamics would survive the quantum re-

volution. His concept of light quanta was widely

derided until the discovery of the Compton

effect (involving the scattering of light by electrons)

8

Brownian Motion Special Relativity Quantum Physics

interactions. The lifetimes of fast-moving unstable

common sense particles vary with their relative speed precisely

Prior to the development of special relativity, as predicted by relativity. E=mc 2 is conﬁrmed

the laws of physics and the laws of common every time a particle and antiparticle annihilate

sense were practically one and the same. Meas- to produce light.

urements of space and time were absolute. But the Standard Model completely ignores

There were no limits in principle on how fast a the gravitational interaction. The SM is a quantum

person could travel. A meter was a meter and theory, and there is no known completely

a second was a second no matter what. viable quantum theory of gravity (there are can-

The birth of Albert Einstein’s theory 100 years didate models, such as string theory). Most

ago marked the death of these common-sense physicists believe that, ultimately, a uniﬁed fun-

notions of space, time, and travel. According to damental theory will merge a quantum theory

Einstein, measurements of time and length of gravity with the SM.

intervals differ when made by observers who are Whether Einstein’s theory of relativity would

moving relative to each other. There is no uni- then remain intact is unclear. Some researchers

versal time. Nothing can travel faster than the are looking for violations of relativity as a

speed of light. Einstein also deduced that mass signature of quantum-gravity effects. A general

is a form of energy, expressed by the famous theory (called the Standard Model Extension

equation E=mc 2. or SME) developed by Alan Kostelecký and co-

As is often the case with revolutionary new workers at Indiana University has been used

theories, the theory of relativity emerged from a to search for relativity violations in particle, atomic,

crisis in the physics community: How does light and astrophysical experiments.

travel? The prevailing view before Einstein was One of the best tests of relativity theory–

that light waves traveled through an all-perva- sensitive to an extremely delicate particle-

sive medium called the ether. The speed of light antiparticle balancing act in kaons–has been

was deﬁned with respect to the rest frame of conducted by the KTeV collaboration at the

the ether. Fermilab Tevatron. KTeV tested interactions in the

Albert Michelson’s experiments, however, SME that would cause relativity violations to

symmetry | volume 02 | issue 01 | february 05

failed to detect Earth’s motion through the ether. the level of parts in 1021. The BaBar experiment

Without this medium, what could serve as the at SLAC conducts similar searches using B

reference frame for light rays traveling through mesons.

empty space? So far, Einstein can rest easy–no violations

Einstein proposed the radical idea that light of relativity have been found. However, increas-

in a vacuum always travels at the same con- ingly-precise experiments will probe further

stant speed, c (roughly 300,000 km/s). No matter into the realm where quantum-gravity effects are

how fast an observer travels relative to a light expected to appear. If they ﬁnd violations of

source, the emitted light always travels at the relativity, they would signal the beginning a new

same speed, c. There was no need for an ether. revolutionary period in physics as great as the

Einstein believed that any observer moving one Einstein began 100 years ago.

at constant velocity (in a so-called inertial frame) Robert Bluhm

experiences the same laws of physics. If noth-

Robert Bluhm is the Sunrise Professor of Physics at Colby College.

ing distinguishes one inertial frame from another, His research in theoretical physics focuses on how low-energy

then the speed of light would naturally be the atomic physics can be used to test fundamental symmetries and

same in all such frames. interactions in particle physics.

acceptance, and now pervades all modern

physics. Special relativity is an essential compo-

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