References: http://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Water_well I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Introduction Well Construction -Types of wells Well location -Factors that influence ground water pollution Water Contaminants and their effects of one’s health Protecting your well - Water testing - Water Treatment for specific contaminants Water Code of the Philippines

INTRODUCTION Groundwater and Wells Our drinking water comes either from surface water (lakes, streams, or rivers) or from groundwater. Surface water is more vulnerable to contamination and requires extensive testing and treatment to assure that it is safe to drink. Groundwater obtained from a well is usually safe to drink without treatment, if the well has been properly constructed and maintained. Groundwater and surface water are both part of the “hydrologic cycle,” which is illustrated in Figure 1. Water rises from the earth’s surface as evaporation and falls to the earth as precipita-tion, in the form of snow or rain. Water that falls on the ground either moves over the ground as runoff or down through the soil to the saturated zone through infiltration — and then through an aquifer to an area of discharge, such as a river, lake, or pumping well.

If you drink water, it comes from a well or spring (groundwater sources) or a river or lake (surface water sources). Fifty percent of the drinking water comes from wells, so it is important to take care of the groundwater upon which wells rely and to take care of the wells themselves. Many of the things we do at home can pollute our water and the environment. Poorly maintained or designed septic systems or poor well construction can pollute surface water and groundwater. Pesticides, fertilizers, fuels, and cleaning products can contaminate our water when they are not stored and handled properly. It is very expensive and in some cases nearly impossible to get pollutants out of water once they get there. Expensive treatments or new wells would be required to get safe drinking water again and clean up the pollutants in the coastal waters. Clearly, it is much more effective to keep pollutants out of water than to try to clean it up afterward. People who have their own wells or springs for drinking water need to be especially aware of pollution sources because their water is not tested for contaminants as is city water. This is called "wellhead protection" and involves careful attention to the activities near your well to be sure the water from that well

remains safe. However, everyone is responsible for protecting drinking water supplies, whether it is their own or their neighbors'.

Keeping your well water free of harmful contaminants is top priority for your health and for the environment. Areas experiencing rapid population growth can deplete groundwater supplies. In places near the sea, if the water in a well is pumped too quickly and the groundwater cannot replenish it, the well can go dry or salt water can enter the well at the base and contaminate the drinking water. One of the easiest ways to protect well water from pollution is to make sure that the well is in good shape and placed in the right location. A poorly built or maintained well can allow pollutants to enter water directly. The closer the well is to sources of pollution, the more likely the well will become polluted. For instance, if the well casing is cracked and pesticides that are being mixed near the well are spilled, the pesticides can easily leak into the well and pollute your drinking water. These pollutants can also spread to a neighbor's well and seep into the tidal creeks, sounds, or estuaries that surround the home. Well Construction A well is the most common way to obtain groundwater for household use. A well is basically a hole in the ground, held open by a pipe (or casing) that extends to an aquifer. A pump draws water from the aquifer for distribution through the plumbing system. The depth to which wells are constructed is determined by factors such as 1) depth to groundwater, 2) the groundwater quality, and 3) the geologic conditions at the well site. Types of Wells

A. Drilled wells One of two methods is typically used to construct a drilled well. One method is called the cable tool method. A cable tool drilling machine uses a wire or “cable” to raise and lower a heavy chisel-shaped bit, which breaks up sediment and rock into small pieces called cuttings. The cuttings are removed from the hole with a bailer — a hollow tube or pipe with a valve on the bottom. Well casing, which is a special type of pipe, is pounded into the ground as the hole is deepened to keep the hole open. A second method is known as the rotary method. A rotary drilling machine uses a rotating bit on the end of a hollow drill rod. Water and a special kind of clay slurry (called drilling mud) or foam are forced down the inside of the drill pipe as the bit rotates. The drilling mud or foam carries the cuttings, which consist of ground up rock and sediment, up and out of the space between the outside of the drill pipe and the drill hole. Well casing is then lowered into the hole. Domestic and commercial wells are usually constructed using the rotary method. B. Driven wells A drive-point well — also known as a sand-point or well-point — is an example of a driven well. Drive-point wells are constructed using a pointed screen on the end of a series of tightly coupled lengths of steel pipe. The well casing pipe, which is usually 1¼ inches in diameter, is driven into the ground with a heavy hammer or well driver until the point is below the water table. Water then flows into the pipe through screened openings in the well point. C. Dug wells A bored well is constructed using an earth auger, which bores a hole into the earth. The bore hole is then lined — or cased — with masonry, concrete curbing, or casing. A dug well is constructed by excavating or digging a hole, generally several feet in diameter, down to the water table. Rock, brick, wood, pipe, and other materials have been used in the past to line the walls of dug wells. Dug wells, bored wells, and drive-point wells are often less than 50 feet deep, and are more likely to be contaminated by surface water, sewage from septic systems, or chemical spills. Many of the construction techniques historically used for these shallow wells are not sanitary and are no longer legal under the state rules.

Well Location A well's location is important. Stormwater runoff (water that flows over the land during a storm) can carry pollutants such as bacteria, oil, and pesticides. Wells in the path of stormwater runoff can become polluted if stormwater runoff flows into a well that is not properly sealed. A well that is downhill from pollutants such as an overfertilized crop field or garden, a leaking home heating tank, or a failing septic system runs a greater risk of becoming polluted than a well that is uphill from these sources of pollution. People with wells located near a canal, tidal creek, or estuary also need to be careful of pollution sources that can spread to those waters. Salt water intrusion can occur in wells near canals, creeks, and estuaries, as well as when a well is over-pumped. A. How close is the well to sources of pollution? Minimum allowable distances by which well can be built away from sources of pollution are called "separation distances." These minimum distances are set in order to make use of the natural protection soil provides. Some variances permit as little as 50 feet separation, which is fairly common in coastal counties. It is important to check with your local health department for this information. When no distances are mentioned for the specific activity or structure you have in mind, provide as much separation as possible between your well and any potential source of pollution. If your home is located on soils that soak up water very quickly (such as sandy soils) maximum separation is needed. If the source or activity presents a high risk of pollution, keep it as far away from your well as possible.

The isolation distances are based on the ability of soil and bedrock to remove certain types of contaminants from the groundwater before they reach the well. A well may be more susceptible to contamination if its watertight casing extends less than 50 feet below the soil surface — or if it passes through less than 10 feet of a confining layer. These more vulnerable wells must be located at least twice as far as other wells from sources of contamination that leach contaminants to the soil, such as septic system drainfields.

Figure shows Selected “Isolation” or Separation Distances. B. How well does the soil filter out pollutants?

Soil can filter pollutants carried by stormwater runoff as it travels down to groundwater. The ability of soil to filter your water depends on the type of soil around the well. Water passes quickly through sand, so sandy soil cannot filter out pollutants. Water and pollutants move more slowly through clay, so clay soils have more time to filter out pollutants. Soils high in organic matter content also filter pollutants.

C. How quickly does water reach your well? Another factor that influences groundwater pollution is the depth from the soil surface to the water table. The water table is the top of the groundwater. Groundwater can be stored in soil. The farther water and pollutants have to move through the soil to reach the top of the water table, the longer the soil will have to filter the groundwater. D. Is your well drilled or dug? Wells that have been dug rather than drilled pose the highest risk of pollution because they are shallow and often poorly protected from stormwater runoff. A dug well is a large-diameter hole (usually more than 2 feet wide), which often has been constructed by hand. Shallow driven wells, also known as sand point wells, pose a moderate to high risk of being polluted. They can only be installed in areas of relatively loose soils, such as sand, because they are constructed by driving a small-diameter pipe into the ground. Other types of wells include jetted wells, in which water under high pressure washes away the soil, and bored wells, in which an earth auger removes the soil. Drilled wells are made either by rotary drilling or by percussion drilling. (Some people refer to drilled wells as "punched.") Drilled wells for home use are commonly 2 to 4 inches in diameter. Bored wells are commonly 18-24 inches in diameter. Drilled or jetted wells are the safest types. Water Contaminants

Contaminants can be natural or human-induced Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments. As ground water flows through sediments, metals such as iron and manganese are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, ground-water pumpage, and disposal of waste all can affect ground-water quality. Contaminants from leaking fuel tanks or fuel or toxic chemical spills may enter the ground water and contaminate the aquifer. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to lawns and crops can accumulate and migrate to the water table.

The physical properties of an aquifer, such as thickness, rock or sediment type, and location, play a large part in determining whether contaminants from the land surface will reach the ground water. The risk of contamination is greater for unconfined (water-table) aquifers than for confined aquifers because they usually are nearer to land surface and lack an overlying confining layer to impede the movement of contaminants. Because ground water moves slowly in the subsurface and many contaminants sorb to the sediments, restoration of a contaminated aquifer is difficult and may require years, decades, centuries, or even millennia. Inorganic contaminants found in ground water Contaminant Sources to ground water

Potential health and other








effects Occurs naturally in some rocks and Can precipitate out of water drainage from mines. after treatment, causing increased turbidity or discolored water. Enters environment from natural Decreases longevity, alters weathering, industrial production, blood levels of glucose and municipal waste disposal, and cholesterol in laboratory manufacturing of flame retardants, animals exposed at high ceramics, glass, batteries, fireworks, levels over their lifetime. and explosives. Enters environment from natural Causes acute and chronic processes, industrial activities, toxicity, liver and kidney pesticides, and industrial waste, damage; decreases blood smelting of copper, lead, and zinc ore. hemoglobin. Possible carcinogen. Occurs naturally in some limestones, Can cause a variety of sandstones, and soils in the eastern cardiac, gastrointestinal, and United States. neuromuscular effects. Associated with hypertension and cardiotoxicity in animals. Occurs naturally in soils, ground water, Causes acute and chronic and surface water. Often used in toxicity; can cause damage electrical industry equipment and to lungs and bones. Possible components, nuclear power and space carcinogen. industry. Enters the environment from mining operations, processing plants, and improper waste disposal. Found in low concentrations in rocks, coal, and petroleum and enters the ground and Found in low concentrations in rocks, Replaces zinc biochemically coal, and petroleum and enters the in the body and causes high ground and surface water when blood pressure, liver and dissolved by acidic waters. May enter kidney the environment from industrial damage, and anemia. discharge, mining waste, metal plating, Destroys testicular tissue water pipes, batteries, paints and and red blood cells. Toxic to pigments, plastic stabilizers, and landfill aquatic leachate. biota. May be associated with the presence of Deteriorates plumbing, water sodium in drinking water when present heaters, and municipal in high concentrations. Often from water-works equipment at saltwater intrusion, mineral dissolution, high levels. industrial and domestic waste. Above secondary maximum




Dissolved solids


contaminant level, taste becomes noticeable. Enters environment from old mining Chromium III is a operations runoff and leaching into nutritionally essential ground water, fossil-fuel combustion, element. Chromium VI is cement-plant emissions, mineral much more toxic than leaching, and waste incineration. Used Chromium III and causes in metal plating and as a cooling-tower liver and kidney damage, water additive. internal hemorrhaging, respiratory damage, dermatitis, and ulcers on the skin at high concentrations. Enters environment from metal plating, Can cause stomach and industrial and domestic waste, mining, intestinal distress, liver and and mineral leaching. kidney damage, anemia in high doses. Imparts an adverse taste and significant staining to clothes and fixtures. Essential trace element but toxic to plants and algae at moderate levels. Often used in electroplating, steel Poisoning is the result of processing, plastics, synthetic fabrics, damage to spleen, brain, and fertilizer production; also from and liver. improper waste disposal. Occur naturally but also enters May have an influence on environment from man-made sources the acceptability of water in such as landfill leachate, feedlots, or general. May be indicative of sewage. A measure of the dissolved the “salts” or minerals in the water. May presence of excess also include some dissolved organic concentrations of specific compounds. substances not included in the Safe Water Drinking Act, which would make water objectionable. High concentrations of dissolved solids shorten the life of hot water heaters. Occurs naturally or as an additive to Decreases incidence of municipal water supplies; widely used in tooth decay but high levels industry. can stain or mottle teeth. Causes crippling




bone disorder (calcification of the bones and joints) at very high levels. Result of metallic ions dissolved in the Decreases the lather water; reported as concentration of formation of soap and calcium carbonate. increases scale formation in Calcium carbonate is derived from hot-water heaters dissolved limestone or discharges from and low-pressure boilers at operating high levels. or abandoned mines. Occurs naturally as a mineral from Imparts a bitter astringent sediment and rocks or from mining, taste to water and a industrial waste, brownish color to laundered and corroding metal. clothing and plumbing fixtures. Enters environment from industry, Affects red blood cell mining, plumbing, gasoline, coal, and as chemistry; delays normal a water physical and mental additive. development in babies and young children. Causes slight deficits in attention span, hearing, and learning in children. Can cause slight increase in blood pressure in some adults. Probable carcinogen. Occurs naturally as a mineral from Causes aesthetic and sediment and rocks or from mining and economic damage, and industrial waste. imparts brownish stains to laundry. Affects taste of water, and causes dark brown or black stains on plumbing fixtures. Relatively non-toxic to animals but toxic to plants at high levels. Occurs as an inorganic salt and as Causes acute and chronic organic mercury compounds. Enters the toxicity. Targets the kidneys environment from industrial waste, and can cause nervous mining, pesticides, coal, electrical system disorders. equipment (batteries, lamps, switches), smelting, and fossil-fuel combustion. Occurs naturally in soils, ground water, Damages the heart and liver




and surface water. Often used in of laboratory animals electroplating, stainless steel and alloy exposed to large amounts products, mining, and refining. over their lifetime. Nitrate (as Occurs naturally in mineral deposits, Toxicity results from the nitrogen) soils, seawater, freshwater systems, the body’s natural breakdown of atmosphere, and biota. More stable nitrate to nitrite. Causes form of combined nitrogen in “bluebaby disease,” or oxygenated water. Found in the highest methemoglobinemia, which levels in ground water under extensively threatens oxygen-carrying developed areas. Enters the capacity of the blood. environment from fertilizer, feedlots, and sewage. Nitrite Enters environment from fertilizer, Toxicity results from the (combined sewage, and human or farm-animal body’s natural breakdown of nitrate/nitrite) waste. nitrate to nitrite. Causes “bluebaby disease,” or methemoglobinemia, which threatens oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Selenium Enters environment from naturally Causes acute and chronic occurring geologic sources, sulfur, and toxic effects in coal. animals--”blind staggers” in cattle. Nutritionally essential element at low doses but toxic at high doses. Silver Enters environment from ore mining Can cause argyria, a blueand processing, product fabrication, and gray coloration of the skin, disposal. Often used in photography, mucous membranes, eyes, electric and electronic equipment, and organs in humans and sterling and electroplating, alloy, and animals with chronic solder. Because of great economic exposure. value of silver, recovery practices are typically used to minimize loss. Sodium Derived geologically from leaching of Can be a health risk factor surface and underground deposits of for those individuals on a salt and decomposition of various low-sodium diet. minerals. Human activities contribute through de-icing and washing products. Sulfate Elevated concentrations may result Forms hard scales on boilers from saltwater intrusion, mineral and heat exchangers; can dissolution, and domestic or industrial change the taste of water, waste. and has a laxative effect in high doses. Thallium Enters environment from soils; used in Damages kidneys, liver, electronics, pharmaceuticals brain, and intestines in

manufacturing, glass, and alloys.


laboratory animals when given in high doses over their lifetime. Found naturally in water, most Aids in the healing of frequently in areas where it is mined. wounds. Causes no ill health Enters environment from industrial effects except in very high waste, metal plating, and plumbing, and doses. Imparts an is a major component of sludge. undesirable taste to water. Toxic to plants at high levels.

Organic contaminants found in ground water Contaminant Sources to ground water

Potential health and other effects Volatile organic Enter environment when used to Can cause cancer and liver compounds make plastics, dyes, rubbers, damage, anemia, polishes, solvents, crude oil, gastrointestinal disorder, insecticides, inks, varnishes, skin irritation, blurred paints, disinfectants, gasoline vision, exhaustion, weight products, pharmaceuticals, loss, damage to the preservatives, spot removers, nervous system, and paint removers, degreasers, and respiratory tract irritation. many more. Pesticides Enter environment as herbicides, Cause poisoning, insecticides, fungicides, headaches, dizziness, rodenticides, and algicides. gastrointestinal disturbance, numbness, weakness, and cancer. Destroys nervous system, thyroid, reproductive system, liver, and kidneys. Plasticizers, Used as sealants, linings, Cause cancer. Damages chlorinated solvents, pesticides, plasticizers, nervous and reproductive solvents, components of gasoline, systems, kidney, stomach, benzo[a]pyrene, disinfectant, and wood and liver. and dioxin preservative. Enters the environment from improper waste disposal, leaching runoff, leaking storage tank, and industrial runoff. Microbiological contaminants found in ground water Coliform Occur naturally in the environment from soils Bacteria, viruses, and bacteria and plants and in the intestines of humans and parasites can cause other warm-blooded animals. Used as an polio, cholera, typhoid indicator for the presence of pathogenic fever, dysentery, and bacteria, viruses, and parasites from domestic infectious hepatitis.

sewage, animal waste, or plant or soil material. Radiological contaminants found in ground water Gross alpha- A category of radioactive isotopes. Occurs Damages tissues particle activity from either natural or man-made sources and destroys bone including weapons, nuclear reactors, atomic marrow. energy for power, medical treatment and diagnosis, mining radioactive material, and naturally occurring radioactive geologic formations. Primary concern is natural sources, which are ubiquitous in the environment (Durrance, 1986); secondary concern is man-made sources. Combined Enters environment from natural and man- Causes cancer by radium-226 made sources. Historical industrial-waste concentrating in the and radium- sites are the main man-made source. bone and skeletal 228 tissue. Beta-particle A category of radioactive isotopes from either Damages tissues and photon natural or man-made sources including and destroys bone radioactivity weapons, nuclear reactors, atomic energy for marrow. power, medical treatment and diagnosis, mining radioactive material, and naturally occurring radioactive geologic formations. Primary concern is man-made sources because of widespread use (Durrance, 1986); secondary concern is natural sources. Physical characteristics of ground water Turbidity Caused by the presence of Objectionable for aesthetic suspended matter such as clay, silt, reasons. Indicative of clay or other and fine particles of organic and inert suspended particles in inorganic matter, plankton, and drinking water. May not adversely other microscopic organisms. A affect health but may cause need measure how much light can filter for additional treatment. Following through the water sample. rainfall, variations in ground-water turbidity may be an indicator of surface contamination. Color Can be caused by decaying leaves, Suggests that treatment is needed. plants, organic matter, copper, iron, No health concerns. Aesthetically and manganese, which may be unpleasing. objectionable. Indicative of large amounts of organic chemicals, inadequate treatment, and high disinfection demand. Potential for production of excess amounts of disinfection byproducts.




Indicates, by numerical expression, High pH causes a bitter taste; water the degree to which water is pipes and water-using appliances alkaline or acidic. Represented on become encrusted; depresses the a scale of 0-14 where 0 is the most effectiveness of the disinfection of acidic, 14 is the most alkaline, and chlorine, thereby causing the need 7 is neutral. for additional chlorine when pH is high. Low-pH water will corrode or dissolve metals and other substances. Certain odors may be indicative of organic or non-organic contaminants that originate from municipal or industrial waste discharges or from natural sources. Some substances such as certain organic salts produce a taste without an odor and can be evaluated by a taste test. Many other sensations ascribed to the sense of taste actually are odors, even though the sensation is not noticed until the material is taken into the mouth.

Protecting your well When landscaping, keep the top of the well at least one foot above the ground surface. Make sure that the well cap is undamaged and securely attached to the well casing, and that any connections to the well stay watertight. Keep hazardous chemicals like paint, fertilizer, pesticides, fuels, and motor oil away from your well. Seal any unused wells on your property to protect your groundwater from contamination. Unused or abandoned wells that have not been properly sealed can provide a direct pathway for contaminants to enter the groundwater. An unused, unsealed well can potentially threaten water quality for new wells. Unused wells also pose a safety hazard, especially for children, pets, and livestock. It is illegal to dispose of wastes in an unused well, and it will result in additional costs to clean the well and possibly the groundwater before the well is sealed. Water Testing

Water should be tested once a year for bacteria and nitrate, which can cause health problems. Yearly testing is necessary because groundwater travels and may pick up pollutants elsewhere. So even if you are doing everything you can to prevent your well from being contaminated, it may become polluted from other people's activities. If your water has high bacteria or nitrate levels, talk to a county health specialist. There may be problems with the location or construction of your well. Test for pollutants that are most likely at your home.
• •

Test for lead if you have lead pipes or soldered copper joints or brass fixtures. Test for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) if you have an underground fuel storage tank, or if there has been a nearby use or spill of oil, petroleum, or solvent. Testing for pesticides can be expensive but it is important if the potential for pesticide pollution is high, such as after a spill or if your well is downhill from fields where pesticides have been applied. Testing for pesticides may also be justified if your well has high nitrate levels or if your well is shallow or not properly cased and grouted.

It is important to record test results and to note changes in water quality over time. Test your well water at least once a year for bacterial safety. Water that has become contaminated by human or animal wastes can transmit a variety of infectious diseases, including dysentery, salmonellosis, hepatitis, and giardiasis. Symptoms vary, but nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, with or without fever, are most common. To assess bacterial safety, drinking water is tested for a group of "indicator bacteria" called total coliform bacteria. These bacteria do not usually cause disease themselves, but their presence indicates that surface contamination has found its way into the well and disease organisms may also be present. When total coliform bacteria are found in well water, the water should not be consumed without boiling, and the well should be disinfected. If testing does indicate the presence of a health-related contaminant, treatment should be considered only if no other options are possible. Options may include a new well, repair of the existing well, or removal of the source of contamination. For example, the presence of coliform bacteria in the water often does not indicate that the groundwater is contaminated, but that there is a problem with well construction, operation, or maintenance, allowing surface water or contaminants to enter the well. If multiple thorough well disinfections do not

solve the problem, the well probably needs to be repaired, upgraded, or replaced.

WATER CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES ( I ONLY COPIED THOSE SECTIONS ABOUT WELL DRILLING, but in case u want to see ung entire code, I included un sa mga attachments ) Section 5. A. For Well Drilling – Except when manual well drilling will be employed, all applications involving extraction of ground water shall include the name of a duly licensed well driller who will undertake the drilling. Except for manual well drilling, no person shall engage in the business of drilling wells for the purpose of extracting ground water without first registering as a well driller with the Council. Section 25. Registration of Wells in Control Areas. – In declared control areas, all wells without water permits, including those for domestic use, shall be registered with the Council within two years from the declaration otherwise any claim to a right on a well is considered waived and use of water there

from shall be allowed only after a water permit is secured in accordance with Rule 1 hereof. Section 42. Permit to Drill a Well. - Except for domestic use, no person shall drill any well for the extraction of ground water or make any alteration to any existing well without securing a permit from the Council. For this purpose, only wells with casings not exceeding 75 millimeters in for the extraction of ground water shall conform with the following requirements: a) The well shall be so designed and constructed that it will seal off contaminated water-bearing formations or which have undesirable characteristics; b) There shall be no unsealed openings around the well which may conduct surface water or contaminated or undesirable ground water vertically to the intake portion of the well; c) All parts of a permanent well shall be of durable materials; d) Wells constructed in a sand or gravel aquifer shall be provided with a watertight casing to a depth of 1.5 meters or more below the lowest expected pumping level, provided that where the pumping level is less than ten (10) meters from the surface, the casing shall extend three (3) meters below the lowest pumping level, e) Casings of wells constructed in sandstone aquifers where the over burden consists of unconsolidated materials shall be grouted to a minimum depth of ten (10) meters, provided, that should there be an additional overlying formation of creviced or fractured rock, the casing shall be grouted to its full depth; f) Casings of wells constructed in limestone, granite or quartzite where the overburden consist of drift materials shall be extended to a depth of at least fifteen (15) meters, and firmly seated in rock formation, provided, where the overburden is less than fifteen (15) meters, the casing shall be extended three (3) meters into uncreviced rock, provided, finally, that in no case shall the casing be less than 15 meters; g) Well for domestic and municipal water supply shall be constructed in accordance with sound public health engineering practice; h) The extent of pumping and extraction of ground water shall take into consideration the possibility of salt water intrusion, land subsidence and mining of ground water; i) Unless otherwise allowed by the Council, an abandoned well shall be properly plugged or sealed to prevent pollution of ground water, to conserve aquifer yield and artesian head, and to prevent poor-quality water from one aquifer entering another;

j) Free-flowing wells shall be provided with control valves or other similar devices to control and regulate the flow of water from such wells for conservation purposes; k) Well site shall be provided with drainage facilities for the proper disposal/conveyance of surface water flow from the site; l) In general, spacing requirements except for wells less than 30 meters deep, shall be in accordance with the table below: RATE OF WITHDRAWAL MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN IN LITERS PER SECONDWELLS IN METERS 2 - 10 200 More than 10 - 20 400 More than 20 - 40 600 More than 40 1000 The Council, may increase or decrease the above spacing requirements under any of the following circumstances: a) for low-income housing development projects where home lot size will limit available spacing between homeowners' wells; b) where the geologic formation may warrant closer or farther spacing between wells; and c) where assessment of pumping test records on yields, drawdown, circle of influence, seasonal fluctuations in water table and other technical date on ground water wells, drilling and operation indicate possible closer or farther spacing between wells. In modifying the spacing requirements the following criteria shall be applied: a) no new well shall cause more than 2 meters of additional drawdown to any existing well; b) where the geologic formation may warrant closer or farther spacing between wells: and c) where assessment of pumping test records on yields drawdown, circle of influence seasonal fluctuation in water table and other technical data or ground water wells, drilling and operation indicate possible closer or farther spacing between wells. In modifying the spacing requirement the following criteria shall be applied: a) No new well shall cause more than 2 meters of additional drawdown to any existing well; b) If the rate of withdrawal applied for a well will cause additional drawdown of more than 2 meter to any existing well the rate of withdrawal applied for shall be reduced to satisfy the drawdown limit.

c) The Council shall prescribe the maximum pump size and horsepower in the water permit to so that the rate of withdrawal shall not exceed that authorized. d) Groundwater mining may be allowed provided that the life of the groundwater reservoir system is maintained for at least 50 years. Section 45. Protection of Water Supply Sources. - No person shall discharge into any source of water supply any domestic sewage, industrial waste, or pollutant not meeting the effluent standard set by the National Pollution Control Commission.

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