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# Conduction Heat Transfer: Takes place when a temperature gradient exists between a material.

Fouriers Law of Conduction: Rate of heat transfer = -(thermal conductivity)(area)(temperature gradient normal to the surface) units for : power / (length x temperature) Convection Heat Transfer: Takes place when a material is exposed to a moving fluid which is at different temperature. Newtons Law of Cooling: Rate of heat transfer = (convective heat transfer coefficient)(area)(temperature gradient between the surface and the fluid) units for : power / (length2 x temperature) Radiation Heat Transfer: Energy transferred between two separated bodies at different temperatures by means of electromagnetic waves. Stefan-Boltzmanns Law of Thermal Radiation Total emissive power = (total emissivity of the surface)(Stefan-Boltzmann constant)(absolute temperature of the body)4 value for Stefan-Boltzmann constant: = 5.670373(21)108 W m2 K4

Procedure: Heat loss through insulation requires knowing the surface temperature, so head conduction through the insulation to the surface can be calculated. 1. Estimate a surface temperature. a. Put dummy temperature in place of 70F. 2. Calculate heat conduction through insulation. a. Walls, ceiling, floor. 3. Calculate heat radiation from the surface; depends on jacket. 4. Calculate heat convection from the surface. 5. Add radiation and convection as total surface loss. 6. Compare surface loss with conduction. 7. Adjust surface temperature until they are equal. 8. Heat loss will be either conduction or surface loss (not both).

Heat conduction == Total Surface Loss Total Surface Loss = Heat Radiation + Heat Convection sum of Heat conduction == sum of Heat Convection convection for walls convection for ceiling convection for floor + sum of Heat Radiation

Parameters Oven o o o

tray/rack loading mechanism room needed for water spray rack size, shape, weight cross members and mesh vertical bars, 1/8 inch thick o tray design Insulation type, thickness

Assumptions continuous process o steady-state loading/unloading insulation: fiberglass, 2 inches thick internal lining inside oven o stainless steel shell will require energy 1st time its used o we assume oven will not cool down o NO LOSS for heating oven and insulation Arts sizing assumptions o samples: 1 inch x 3 ft x 5 ft o racks: quantity: 2 size: 5 ft long x 3 ft wide each weight: 500 lbs (hes re-estimating this value) o oven: 5 ft wide x 7 ft high x 10 ft deep o For our purposes, keep both ovens the same size because racks are same size.

Heat Loss From Oven Heating mechanism: steam coils or electricity (heat loss will be the same either way) Energy In o Blower in the oven and in the reactor horsepower (hp) for oven assumed hp x 746 Watts / 75% efficiency factor = 1000 Watts/hp = 250 Watts/hour = 500 Watts for 2 hours (energy going in) We dont need as much heating electricity because the blower is providing Watts/hr Energy Out o Key Concept: Convection Key Equation: Newtons Law of Cooling: Q=UAT Heat(Btu/H) = convection coefficient (Btu/H F sq ft) x Area (sq ft) x Temperature Difference (F) Heat loss through walls convection through insulation x walls area x temp difference 0.25 Btu/H F sq ft x (2(5 ft wide x 7 ft high) + 2(10 ft wide x 7 ft high)) x (167F-70F) = 0.25 x 210 sq ft x 97F = 5092.5 Btu/H Heat loss through ceiling convection through insulation x ceiling area x temp difference 0.25 Btu/H F sq ft x (5 ft wide x 10 ft deep) x (167F-70F) = 0.25 x 50 sq ft x 97F = 1212.5 Btu/H Heat loss through floor Assumed to be zero! o One-time loss o No air at floor to carry heat away. o Key Concept: Radiation Key Equation: Heat loss will be the same whether you use steam coils or electricity for heating.

## sum of Heat conduction

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sum of Heat Convection convection for walls = 5092.5 Btu/H convection for ceiling = 1212.5 Btu/H convection for floor = 0 Btu/H