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INTRODUCTION Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Pakistan, India and Africa. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed-dispersal. According to the Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, the earliest cultivation of cotton discovered thus far in the Americas occurred in Mexico, some 7,000 years ago. The indigenous species was Gossypium hirsutum, which is today the most widely planted species of cotton in the world, constituting about 89.9% of all production worldwide. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. The chemical composition of cotton is as follows:
cellulose 91.00% water 7.85% protoplasm, pectin’s 0.55% waxes, fatty substances 0.40% mineral salts 0.20%
1.1 COTTON OVERVIEW
Spread from India to Far East and Mediterranean countries. Preferred over synthetic fabrics because of its durability, wash ability, vapour transfer, softness, chemical stability, elasticity and strength on both wetting and drying.
By products of cotton are cotton seed oil and cotton cake.
India ranks first in area and fourth in production.
Origin and Spread South Asia has been at the centre of the world cotton trade for thousands of years. Cotton was first cultivated here and in South America.
The two species used in ancient South Asia were G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. They originated in Africa and India and were developed as fibre crops at the same time the New World species were used for the same purposes. Cotton belongs to Genus Gossypium having 20 species among which 16 are wild type with Short seed Fuzz and 4 are cultivable with spinnable lint Four cultivable species are G. arboreum (n = 13) Asiatic cottons/old world cottons/desi cottons G. herbaceum (n = 13) Asiatic cottons/old world cottons/desi cottons Both are diploids both species have the genome A. India appears to have been the main cotton-producing area of old World, from there the two species spread along the commercial routes radiating around Indian Ocean, reaching the countries of the Far East in one direction, and northwards through Africa to Egypt and the Mediterranean in the other direction. G. hirsutum (n = 26) American cottons/new world cottons/ exotic cottons G. barbadense (n = 26) American cottons/new world cottons/ exotic both are tetraploids. Both species carrying the genomes A and D. G. barbadense derived from a perennial cotton native to Peru, called Tanguis. This variety was introduced into USA, in the name "Sea-Island" which has the longest and finest fibers of all the cultivated cottons. Both Tanguis and Sea-Island types of cotton were brought to Egypt-on improvement gave rise to the famous Egyptian long-staple cottons. The centre of origin of G. hirsutum is in central Mexico.
A few types of this species were exceptionally productive, introduced into USA and subsequently several varieties developed, of when 'Acala' is probably the most widely distributed in the world at present. Varieties of Old World species have been almost entirely displaced by those of the New World, except in the most primitive agricultural regions of Asia and Africa. Among the four species of cotton hirsutum occupied 50% of total cotton area followed by G. arboreum (29%) and G. herbaceum (21%) G. barbadense is with negligible area. Out of total cotton area 30% occupied by hybrids. Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological alternative to a pesticide; alternatively, the Cry toxin may be extracted and used as a pesticide. Additionally, B. thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. 1.2 Discovery and Study B. thuringiensis was first discovered in 1901 by Japanese biologist Shigetane Ishiwatari. In 1911, B. thuringiensis was rediscovered in Germany by Ernst Berliner, who isolated it as the cause of a disease called Schlaffsucht in flour moth caterpillars. Cry toxins have specific activities against insect species of the orders Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Diptera (flies and mosquitoes), Coleoptera (beetles), hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants and sawflies) and nematodes. Thus, B. thuringiensis serves as an important reservoir of Cry toxins for production of biological insecticides and insect-resistant genetically modified crops. When insects ingest toxin crystals, the alkaline pH of their digestive tract activates the toxin. Cry inserts into the insect gut cell membrane, forming a pore. The pore results cell lysis and eventual death of the insect.] Spores and crystalline insecticidal proteins produced by B. thuringiensis have been used to control insect pests since the 1920s. They are now used as specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide. Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, wildlife,
pollinators, and most other beneficial insects. The Belgian company Plant Genetic Systems was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically engineered (tobacco) plants with insect tolerance by expressing cry genes from B. thuringiensis. B. thuringiensis-based insecticides are often applied as liquid sprays on crop plants, where the insecticide must be ingested to be effective. It is thought that the solubilized toxins form pores in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae Advantages There are several advantages in expressing Bt toxins in transgenic Bt crops:
The level of toxin expression can be very high thus delivering sufficient dosage to the pest.
The toxin expression is contained within the plant system and hence only those insects that feed on the crop perish.
The toxin expression can be modulated by using tissue-specific promoters, and replaces the use of synthetic pesticides in the environment.
1.3 Health and safety Overall, Bt-modified crops appear to be safe for farmers and consumers. The proteins produced by Bt have been used in sprays for agricultural weed control in France since 1938 and the USA since 1958 with seemingly no ill effects on the environment or human health. Bt toxins are considered environmentally friendly by many farmers and may be a potential alternative to broad spectrum insecticides. The toxicity of each Bt type is limited to one or two insect orders, and is nontoxic to vertebrates and many beneficial arthropods. The reason is that Bt works by binding to the appropriate receptor on the surface of midgut epithelial cells. Any organism that lacks the appropriate receptors in its gut cannot be affected by Bt. There is clear evidence from laboratory settings that Bt toxins can affect non-target organisms. Usually, but not always, affected organisms are closely related to intended targets. Typically, exposure occurs through the consumption of plant parts such as pollen
or plant debris, or through Bt ingested by their predatory food choices. Nevertheless, due to significant data gaps, the real-world consequences of Bt transgenic remains unclear. Not all scientific reports on Bt safety have been positive. A 2007 study funded by the European arm of Greenpeace, suggested the possibility of a slight but statistically meaningful risk of liver damage in rats. While small statistically significant changes may have been observed, statistical differences are both probable and predictable in animal studies of this kind, (known as Type I errors), that is, the probability of finding a falsepositive due to chance alone. In this case, the number of positive results was within the statistically predicted range for Type I errors. 1.4 Insect resistance In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found that the pink bollworm had become resistant to Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India. In four regions, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Junagarh and Rajkot the crop is no longer effective at killing the pests. This was the first instance of Bt resistance that was confirmed by Monsanto anywhere in the world. Possible problems Lepidoptera toxicity Wild maize genetic contamination
2.1 Cotton Corporation of India CCI Operations cover all the cotton growing states in the country
Sound fundamentals, outstanding cotton variety performance, strong
presence in domestic market and focused management team has seen vikram seeds pvt. Ltd grow at the compound annual growth rate is increase the past three year. Irrigated and rainfed cotton variety About 10 lac packet are sale in 2009. About 15 lac packet target for current year. Each and every year cultivation of vikram seeds (cotton variety) area covered the central zone like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra Turnover About 45crore last year And the companies expand their business and variety of product. this year
company target 15 lac packet of only cotton seeds. Current year annual turnover is 80 crore.
Establishment year Firm type
1972 Private ltd. Certified Seeds
Nature of the business : Contact person Designation Phone(office) Fax E-mail : : :
(079) 26400089, 26400090 (079) 26402052 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
209, Ashwamegh Avenue, Nr. Mithakhali Under bridge, Mayor Colony, Navrangpura, Ahmadabad – 380 009
2.2 Vikram seeds ltd, Ahmadabad started functioning from 1972 with the trading of certified seeds of various crop within and outside state of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh , Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka,. Later on, activities have been expanded for the production of certified seeds from 1982 onwards. The research activities were started from 1989 onward to find out better hybrid / varieties of cotton suitable for different agro-Climate regions within and outside Gujarat, at large scale. the company has 80 acre of good fertile land at two location i.e. bayed and dehgam (75 km & 30km away from Ahmadabad, respectively) both the farm are under secured irrigation facilities through tube wells. Out of 80 acre land, 30 acres is utilized for research work and production of quality seeds of own hybrid / varieties of cotton. Bajra, Castor etc. about 1200progressive seeds grown were registered with company for the production of quality seeds of their own / public bred hybrid / varieties The company has its administrative office at 209, Ashwamegh avenue, near Mithakhali under bridge, mayor colony , navaragpura, Ahmadabad 380 009. The company has its own modernized processing plant with seeds cleaner, seeds grader, gravity separator, seed treator and requisite packing machineries at village BAYAD (Dist. Sabarkanth). Tree godowns with modern facilities for storing seeds and laboratory for seeds testing with required equipments such as seeds germination, moisture meter, electronic balance, microscope, etc. is also establish. The separate delinting plant is also available. Infrastructure The managing Director of the company is having wide experience of last 30 years in production Certification, trading & marketing of seeds within and outside Gujarat. The company has experienced production manager with a team of required
technical staff guided by senior scientists (Plant Breeder & Entomologist) and experienced technically sound consultants of cotton and bajra crops. The company’s R& D unit is recognized by Department of Scientific and industrial research, Govt. of India New Delhi, since 1997.Though,the research work in cotton was started from 1989 under the guidance and supervision of late Dr. C.T. Patel, pioneer of new era of hybrid cotton, had Evolved first successful commercial hybrids cotton H-4 in the world. The company has engaged research consultants (cotton) time to time. At present, the whole cotton research program is being guided by Dr. R.P. Bhardwaj, Retd.Senior Cotton breeder, Rajasthan Agril. University, since August 1999; who is devoted to work in cotton research and has evolved better hybrids / varieties. Dr.J.C. Patel, Retd. Research Scientist (cotton), Main cotton Research station, Surat is also guiding the research project as a consultant. The research work in pearl millet is being guided by Dr. K.V. Pethani, Retd. Senior scientist (bajra) Guj .Agri. University, who has 20 years of wide experience in bajra research. Since, last ten years, the entire research work is being guided and supervised by Mr. G.I. Patel. Director Research (Retd.Director of Agriculture, Gujarat) having 36
years experience in various disciplines i.e. Research, seed production, certification, extension and administration. 2.3 Research Work About 950 germplasm lines of cotton and bajra were collected from their respective institution and research centers from different states, including the germplasm lines developed at own research center creating genetic variability. local germplasm were also collected to conserve the variability and to utilize them in crossing program for various objectives. Significant Achievements Vikram-5 (VICH-5), intra hirsutum cotton hybrid has been released for general cultivation in Gujarat and is notified by Govt. of India. it is superior in 2.5% span
length(30.3mm) with good fiber strength. It has attractive big ball size (7.5 to8.0) with good opening habit. Vikram -9(VICH),intra hirsutum cotton hybrids has been released for general cultivation in Gujarat and is notified by govt.of.india.it is superior in 2.5% span length (29.6 mm)with good fiber strength and micronaire value. it has big boll size (6.0 to 6.5g/boll) having high ginning percentage (37.0). Vikram -11(VICH-11), intra hirsutum cotton hybrids has been suitable for Northern states i.e. Punjab Haryana and North-West part of Rajasthan. the fiber length and ginning percentage ranges from 26.5 to27.0mm and 36 to36.5,respectively.it is early in maturity (140-150days) and due to its earliness the normal wheat sowing is being taken in major cotton growing areas. it is resistant to cotton leaf curl virus disease. Vikram-15(VICH-15), intra-hirsutum cotton hybrid suitable for central & south zone has good fiber length (29-30mm) &other properties. The boll size is 5.0 5.5 gm with good opening habit. The hybrid is most suited under rain fed condition also. Other promising hybrids Four promising intra-hirsutum hybrids viz, VICH-101 Bt (BG-II), VICH-102 Bt (BG-II), VICH-104 Bt (BG-II) and VICH-109 Bt (BG-II) are under testing in Multi Location Field Trials. strip trial. Maintenance of male sterile lines Three fully converted GMS lines of G. herbaceum and seven fully converted GMS lines G. hirsutum cotton are being maintained. Vikram-51(VIBH-51) of pearl millet hybrid is evolved& commercialized. It is found superior both for grain & fodder yield. 35 promising Bt (BG-II) Cotton hybrids are under preliminary test in
2.4 Marketing The distributions in terms of number of packets of research cotton hybrids seeds and turn over since 1996-97 on ward are as under No. of Packets distributed Year 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2,96,000 5,19,300 9,26,500 5,66,600 6,05,200 6,21,900 2,26,000 1,30,000 68,200 61,500 70,000 2,65,000 3,25,000 10.59 15.08 23.04 23.62 23.74 21.99 9.35 5.61 5.07 2.75 12.5 18.50 22.68 Turnover (Rs.in crores)
*decrease turn over due to illegal sale of Bt cotton seeds. Development of Transgenic Hybrids in Cotton The company has made an agreement on 27.01.09 with Mahyco-Monsanto Biotech Ltd, Mumbai for genetically modified hybrid cotton seeds to develop transgenic cotton hybrid. The Department of biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science& Technology, New Delhi has issued approval of Institutional Bio-safety Committee (IBSC)and nominated representative in IBSC.As per the guidelines of DBT, Green House is constructed and approved by IBSC. Commercial Release of Bt Cotton Hydride (BG-I) VICH-5 Bt, VICH-9 Bt, and VICH-15 Bt
The GEAC has permitted commercial release of both the hybrids VICH-5 Bt and VICH-9 Bt in the Central zone for three years from April, 2006 to March, 2009 vide Govt. Of India letter No.12/26/2005-CSdated 20-4-2006. VICH-5 Bt has been commercially released in south zone for three years from May, 2006 to march, 2009 vide Govt. Of India letter No.12/26/2005-CSdated 25.05.2006. VICH-15 Bt is also commercially released for Central zone for three years from May, 2007 to April.2010 vide Govt. Of India letter No.12/21/2006-CS-II dated 15.05.2007. Development of BG-II Cotton Hybrids The Cry 1 A(c) & Cry 2 A (b) genes both together have been incorporated in the parental lines and developed four BG-II Bt cotton hybrids viz. VICH-5 Bt (BG-II), VICH-9 Bt (BG-II), VICH-11 Bt (BG-II) & VICH -15 Bt (BG-II). These hybrids are under testing. The work is also in progress to develop more Bt cotton hybrids. 2.5 Green House Forced ventilated transgenic type of Green House as per the guide lines of DBT has been constructed at our Research Station, Mota Jalundra, Ta. Dehgam, Dist. Gandhinagar. The laboratory for Bio- technological and entomological work is established for Bt test, which is in working position. Projects in progress Screening and identification of resistant sources for sucking insect-pests, bollworms and major diseases and utilize them in development of resistant cotton hybrids. To develop high yielding intra-hirsutum (conventional) hybrids tolerant to diseases and insect-pests for different agro-climatic conditions with better fiber quality parameters. To develop intra-hirsutum / intra – herbaceum / intra arboretum cotton hybrids (GMS background) for different agro-climatic conditions with better fiber quality parameters.
The presently cultivated cotton hybrids/ varieties of public and private sector are susceptible to American bollworms, which is most serious challenge. For controlling this pest, a large number of insecticide’s sprays are done which increase the cost of cultivation as well as environmental pollution. Hence, the transgenic crop is the only option in today’s context to avoid the excessive wasted of farmer’s resources as well as pollution free environment. Therefore, main focus is to develop transgenic cotton hybrids/ varieties resistant to major lepidopteron insect –pests. Presently, 3 Bt cotton hybrids have been commercially released and the work is in progress to develops other cotton hybrids. 2.6 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Managing Director Director of production processing Director of Research Technical Director Director of Marketing Senior Plant Breeder Processing plant : : : : : : : Mr. Babubhai S. Patel Mr. Nagarbhai S. Patel Mr. G.I. Patel Mr. T.S. ingarudia Mr. Nareshbhai Patel Dr. Prakashbhai M. Patel At: bayad Tal: cholia Dist: Sabarkantha Gujarat
Vikram seeds are cultivation in different state according to zone wise Northern zone zone Punjab Rajasthan Haryana Gujarat Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Central zone Southern
2.7 Product of vikram seed
Hy. Cotton North Zone VICH-11 BG I & BG II (Ashirwad) VICH-BG II VICH-307 BG II
Hy. Sorghum All Zone Vikram SSG VK-999
Central Zone VICH-5 BG I&BG II VICH-5 BG I VICH-15 BG I & BG II VICH-301 BG II VICH-303 BG II Hy. Maize South Zone All Zone VICH-5 BG I & BG II VICH-15 BG II Vikram 5555
All Zone Vikram 5171 Vikram 5166
Certified seeds Gauch-1 / GHC-2 / GHC-4 / GHC-7 Vikram-502 Vikram-503
VICH-308 BG II VICH-309 BGII VICH-310 BG II Wheat All Zone Vikram Ashirwad VICH-304 BG II VICH-311 BG II VICH-313 BG II VICH- 314 BG II Vikram Annapurna Vikram-1166 Vikram-1158 Certified seeds Lok- 1 / GW- 496 / GW-173 / GW-366 Groundnut All Zone Vikram9002 Vikram 9010 Vikram9020 Sesamum All Zone Vikram105 Certified Gujarat-2 All Zone Hy. Castor Vikram-51 All Zone Mustard Cumin All Zone Vikram-401 Certified Gujarat-4
Guwar (Veg.) Vikram Navratan – 099
Green gram (moong) All Zone Vikram 109 Certified Gujar
VARIETY OF COTTON Cotton Hybrid: VICH-5 Bt Very popular hybrids among farmers community Non-Bt version is released & notified by Govt. of India in 2002. Bt version approved by GEAC of Govt. of India in 2006. Recommended for Irrigated area. Famous for it’s big boll size (7.0-7.5 g.). Easy picking due to good opening Plant remain green up to harvesting. Fiber length >30mm. High yielding potentiality with excellent combination of big boll size.
Cotton Hybrid: VICH-15 Bt Adopted by farmers community. Bt version approved by GEAC of Govt. of India in 2007. Recommended for Irrigated & Rainfed area. Possess big boll size (5.5 – 6.0 g.). Easy picking due to good opening Fiber length >30mm. High yielding hybrid.
Cotton Hybrid: VICH-9 Bt Popular among farmers. Tolerant against water stress condition. Non-Bt version is released & notified by Govt. of India in 2000.
Bt version approved by GEAC of Govt. of India in 2006. Recommended for Irrigated as well as rainfed area. Big boll size gives easy picking Fiber length >30mm. High yielding hybrid. Moderately resistance to sucking pest due to hairy plant.
Cotton Hybrid: VICH-11 Bt AIM / GOAL Evolution of better crop varieties of cotton, castor, pearl millet, etc. suitable for different agro climatic conditions. To serve farmers’ by fulfilling their basic requirement of good quality seeds. Modification of research work as per farmer’s need. Adoption of new technology at right time which is developed in global and taking it up to farmers’ community. Popular for its earliness. It is resistant against CLCV diseases. Good hybrid for second crop cultivation. Boll weight: 4 - 4.5 g. Maturity days: 150-170 days.
VIKRAM SEEDS LIMITED Ahmadabad HIGHLIGHTS 1972: 1982: 1989: cotton Scientist. 1992: Launch research cotton hybrid VICH-9, which become very popular Among farmers’ community. 1994: Launch research cotton hybrid VICH-5, which become very Popular due to its big boll size and high yield potentiality. 1997: 2000: 2002: 2003: R & D Unit was approved by DSIR of Govt. of India. Hybrid VICH-9 Notified by Govt. of India Hybrid VICH-5 Notified by Govt. of India With changing scenario, for Bt Technology Company has done agreement with Mahyco-Monsanto Biotech (I) Ltd. 2006: Commercialized Bt cotton hybrids viz. VICH-5 Bt & VICH-9 Bt approved by GEAC of Govt. of India. 2007: Commercialized one more Bt cotton hybrid VICH-15 Bt with permission 2008: of GEAC of Govt. of India. Initiated business with trading of certified seeds. Started own certified seeds production Started research work under guideline of late Dr.C.T.Patel, eminent
Commercialized more Bt cotton hybrid VICH-5 Bt (BG-II), VICH-11 Bt (BG-I & II) & VICH-9 Bt BG-II with Permission of GEAC of Govt. of India.
Devgen & vikram seeds sign a cross-distribution agreement
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR PROCESS:
What influences consumers to purchase products or services? The consumer buying process is a complex matter as many internal and external factors have an impact on the buying decisions of the consumer When purchasing a product there several processes, which consumers go through. These will be discussed below. 1. Problem/Need Recognition How do you decide you want to buy a particular product or service? It could be that your DVD player stops working and you now have to look for a new one, all those DVD films you purchased you can no longer play! So you have a problem or a new need. For high value items like a DVD player or a car or other low frequency purchased products this is the process we would take. However, for impulse low frequency purchases e.g. confectionery the process is different. 2. Information search So we have a problem, our DVD player no longer works and we need to buy a new one. What’s the solution? Yes go out and purchase a new one, but which brand? Shall we buy the same brand as the one that blew up? Or stay clear of that? Consumer often go on some form of information search to help them through their purchase decision. Sources of information could be family, friends, neighbors’ who may have the product you have in mind, alternatively you may ask the sales people, or dealers, or read specialist magazines like What DVD? to help with their purchase decision. You may even actually examine the product before you decide to purchase it. 3. Evaluation of different purchase options. So what DVD player do we purchase? Shall it be Sony, Toshiba or Bush? Consumers allocate attribute factors to certain products, almost like a point scoring system which they work out in their mind over which brand to purchase. This means that consumers know what features
from the rivals will benefit them and they attach different degrees of importance to each attribute. For example sound maybe better on the Sony product and picture on the Toshiba , but picture clarity is more important to you then sound. Consumers usually have some sort of brand preference with companies as they may have had a good history with a particular brand or their friends may have had a reliable history with one, but if the decision falls between the Sony DVD or Toshiba then which one shall it be? It could be that the a review the consumer reads on the particular Toshiba product may have tipped the balance and that they will purchase that brand. 4. Purchase decision Through the evaluation process discussed above consumers will reach their final purchase decision and they reach the final process of going through the purchase action e.g. The process of going to the shop to buy the product, which for some consumers can be as just as rewarding as actually purchasing the product. Purchase of the product can either be through the store, the web, or over the phone. 5. Post Purchase Behavior Ever have doubts about the product after you purchased it? This simply is post purchase behavior and research shows that it is a common trait amongst purchasers of products. Manufacturers of products clearly want recent consumers to feel proud of their purchase; it is therefore just as important for manufacturers to advertise for the sake of their recent purchaser so consumers feel comfortable that they own a product from a strong and reputable organization. This limits post purchase behavior. i.e. You feel reassured that you own the latest advertised product.
3.1 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BEHAVIOUR OF BUYERS.
Consumer behaviour is affected by many uncontrollable factors. Just think, what influences you before you buy a product or service? Your friends, your upbringing, your culture, the media, a role model or influences from certain groups? Culture is one factor that influences behaviour. Simply culture is defined as our attitudes and beliefs. But how are these attitudes and beliefs developed? As an individual growing up, a child is influenced by their parents, brothers, sister and other family member who may teach them what is wrong or right. They learn about their religion and culture, which helps them develop these opinions, attitudes and beliefs (AIO) . These factors will influence their purchase behaviour however other factors like groups of friends, or people they look up to may influence their choices of purchasing a particular product or service. Reference groups are particular groups of people some people may look up towards to that have an impact on consumer behaviour. So they can be simply a band like the Spice Girls or your immediate family members. Opinion leaders are those people that you look up to because your respect their views and judgements and these views may influence consumer decisions. So it maybe a friend who works with the IT trade who may influence your decision on what computer to buy. The economical environment also has an impact on consumer behaviour; do consumers have a secure job and a regular income to spend on goods? Marketing and advertising obviously influence consumers in trying to evoke them to purchase a particular product or service. Peoples social status will also impact their behaviour. What is their role within society? Are they Actors? Doctors? Office worker? and mothers and fathers also? Clearly being parents affects your buying habits depending on the age of the children, the type of job may mean you need to purchase formal clothes, the income which is earned has an impact. The lifestyle of someone who earns £250000 would clearly be different from someone who earns £25000. Also characters have an influence on buying decision. Whether the person is extrovert (out going and spends on entertainment) or introvert (keeps to themselves and purchases via online or mail order) again has an impact on the types of purchases made.
3.2 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs theory sets out to explain what motivated individuals in life to achieve. He set out his answer in a form of a hierarchy. He suggests individuals aim to meet basic psychological needs of hunger and thirst. When this has been met they then move up to the next stage of the hierarchy, safety needs, where the priority lay with job security and the knowing that an income will be available to them regularly. Social needs come in the next level of the hierarchy, the need to belong or be loved is a natural human desire and people do strive for this belonging. Esteem need is the need for status and recognition within society, status sometimes drives people, the need to have a good job title and be recognized or the need to wear branded clothes as a symbol of status.Self-actualisation the realization that an individual has reached their potential in life. The point of self-actualization is down to the individual, when do you know you have reached your point of self-fulfillment? But how does this concept help an organization trying to market a product or service? Well as we have established earlier within this website, marketing is about meeting needs and providing benefits, Maslow’s concept suggests that needs change as we go along our path of striving for self-actualization. Supermarket firms develop value brands to meet the psychological needs of hunger and thirst. Harrods develops products and services for those who want have met their esteem needs. So Maslow’s concept is useful for marketers as it can help them understand and develop consumer needs and wants.
3.3 TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR.
There are four typical types of buying behaviour based on the type of products that intends to be purchased. Complex buying behaviour is where the individual purchases a high value brand and seeks a lot of information before the purchase is made. Habitual buying behaviour is where the individual buys a product out of habit e.g. a daily newspaper, sugar or salt. Variety seeking buyingbehaviour is where the individual likes to shop around and experiment with different products. So an individual may shop around for different breakfast cereals because he/she wants variety in the mornings! Dissonance reducing buying behaviour is when buyer are highly involved with the purchase of the product, because the purchase is expensive or infrequent. There is little difference between existing brands an
example would be buying a diamond ring, there is perceived little difference between existing diamond brand manufacturers.
1.) RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To know Consumer Buying behaviour of Vikram cotton seeds. 2.) RESEARCH DESIGN: Here both types of research techniques are used. Exploratory research Conclusive research 3.) EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: a. Secondary data: i. Internet ii. Brochure b. Qualitative research: i. In-depth interview 4.) CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH: Descriptive single cross sectional design a. Descriptive research i. Survey method
b. Interviewing method i. Personal interview
5.) RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: a. Questionnaire 6.) TARGET POPULATION DEFINITION: a. Target population b. Sampling element : All consumers who have bought Cotton seeds. : A consumer who has bought the Cottonseeds.
c. Sampling unit d. Extent e. Time f. Sampling frame
: A consumer who has bought the a Cotton seeds. Shahada(Maharastra). : 2011 : Not available
7.) SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: a. Non probability technique i. Convenience sampling 8.) SAMPLE SIZE: 40 9) SCALING TECHNIQUE: a. Liker scale
Interpretation and analysis
1) Land area holding under cotton crops?
Particular 1 to 5 acre 6 to 10 acre 11 to 15 acre 16 to 20 acre Total
No of respondent 40 40 40 40
No of attended 13 9 7 11 40
% of attended 32.5% 22.5% 17.5% 27.5% 100%
32.50% 1 to 5 acre 6 to 10 acre
11 to 15 acre 16 to 20 acre
From the above chart we can conclude that 32.50% of farmers grow cotton in 1to 5 acre, 22.50% of respondents grow in 6to 10 acre,17.50% grow in 11 to 15 acre and remaining 27.50%grow in to 16to 20 acre.
(2) Have you use vikram seeds product?
Particular Yes No Total
No of respondent 40 40
No of attended 40 -
% of attended 100% 0% 100%
used vikram seed
From the above chart is 100% vikram seeds product are used.
3) From above which one variety you use?
Particular VICH-5 VICH-15 VICH-301 VICH,-311 Total
No of respondent 40 40 40 40
No of attended 15 13 7 5 40
% of attended 37.50% 32.50% 17.50% 12.50% 100%
12.50% 37.50% 17.50% VICH-5 VICH-15 VICH-301 32.50% VICH,-311
From the above chart we can conclude that VICH -5 is 37.50%,VICH-15 is 32.50%,VICH -301 is 17.50% VICH -311 is 12.50% are used.
4) Are you satisfied with existing product?
Particular YES NO Total
No of respondent 40 40
No of attended 40 0
% of attended 100% 0% 100%
From the above chart is 100% satisfaction of customer.
5) How do get information about the vikram seed product?
Particular By dealers
No of respondent 40
No of attended 5 3 9 3 6 14 40
% of attended 12.50% 7.5% 22.50% 7.5% 15.00% 35.00% 100%
By company employees 40 By innovative farmer By literature By field demonstration Advertisement Total 40 40 40 40
7.50% By dealers By company employees 22.50% By innovative farmer By literature
By field demonstration Advertisement
From the above chart information of the product by dealers 12.50%, company employees 7.50%, innovative farmer 22.50%,by literature 7.50%,by field demonstration 15 %,advertisement 35.00% there are advertising is a information source.
6) From where you are purchasing product?
No of respondent
No of attended
% of attended
Retailer Distributers Other Total
40 40 40
22 14 4 40
55.00% 35.00% 10% 100%
Retailer Distributers Other
From the above chart is purchase of product retailer 55.00%,distributer 35.00%,Other are 10%%.most of the consumer is retailer shop to purchase.
7) Do you know about our new product?
Particular Yes No Total
No of respondent 40 40
No of attended 27 13 40
% of attended 67.50% 32.50% 100%
Yes 67.50% No
From the above chart is new product information of customer information of customer .
67.50%,and 32.50% is not
8) We are launching new product are you willing to take trial on your field?
Particular Yes No Total
No of respondent 40 40
No of attended 28 12 40
% of attended 70.00% 30.00% 100%
Trial on your fields
Yes 70.00% No
From the above chart is new product trial in farmer is 70.00%, not the trial in field for 30.00% , more number of farmer are a trust to product is a best that the time ready to trial in the field.
9) What are the factors affecting your purchasing decision?
Particular Price Credit Qualities Promotional activity Other Total
No of respondent 40 40 40 40 40
No of attended 6 14 13 5 2 40
% of attended 15.00% 35.00% 32.50% 12.50% 5.00% 100%
5.00% 12.50% 15.00% Price Credit 32.50% 35.00% Qualities Promotional activity Other
From the above chart is purchasing decision for price 15.00%, credit
qualities 32.50%, Promotional activity 12.50%.It is a important for the quality of the product experience of the product is best for next time purchasing of the product .
10) Who contributes most in your decision making?
Particular Fellow farmer Distributors Company people Total
No of respondent 40 40 40
No of attended 19 14 7 40
% of attended 47.50% 35.00% 17.50% 100%
17.50% 47.50% Fellow farmer 35.00% Distributors Company people
From the above chart is decision making fellow farmer 47.50% distributer 35.00%company people 17.50%. Most of the farmer are purchasing of seeds that’s the time information for the seeds in a another farmer and experience of the farmer.
11) What are the main sources of information?
Particular Advertisement Promotional activity Retailers Company people other Total
No of respondent 40 40 40 40 40
No of attended 21 4 7 5 2 40
% of attended 52.50% 10.00% 17.50% 12.50% 5.00% 100%
5.00% 12.50% Advertisement 17.50% 52.50% 10.00% Promotional activity Retailers Company people other
From the above chart is sources of information in advertisement 52.50%, promotional activity 10%, Retailers 17.50%, company people 12.50%, other 5.00%.
Limitation to the study
The shortcoming to the study was: For the study, Non-probability sampling was used and sample may not be a true representative of the universe. Due to the time and money constraints, sample size was limited to 42 farmers, which may not be adequate for the generalization of the findings. Study was carried out in Shahada Taluka only so conclusions cannot be drawn for the whole state. As a, June month was the busiest time for the farmers, as they were busy in the field, it was very difficult to get their response.
Recommendations and conclusion:
There is need for better planning, coordination and monitoring at each level in the retailing system. The network of seeds distribution system should be further strengthened in rural area. Making the entire agriculture products available less than one roof should be tried view of need of the farmers. If possible, costly seeds should be supplied in small packing of 250 gm, so that marginal farmers are able to buy it when needed. Right type of seeds at right place and right time needs to be made available at the retail outlets. Majority of people do not see Durdarshan and they are not interested. So we have to relay our program from any other private channel. The benefits of the modern farming technology should be extended to all farmers and the unproductive land be put to productive use through scientific management. Vikram seeds is having a good image among the farmers. According to the farmer if Vikram seeds starts producing PESTICIDES, they would prefer to buy Vikram seeds’ products because of its quality image and consciousness.
Most of the consumers are less educated and so they don’t know about the proper use pattern of seeds growing. Most of the farmers were not any problem with distance of seeds seller shop. Because they did not have to go beyond 10Km. There are many sellers of seeds in market and farmers have prejudice that ‘only this particular brand is perfect’. Farmers are not ready to accept new things because they have fear to be fail in farming. Most of farmers are living their in poor economical condition so, they do not have enough money at the time of seeds purchase.
QUESTIONNAIRE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS VIKRAM COTTON SEED
Detail about Farmer
Name of farmer: ____________________________________________ Village: ______________ Taluka:______________ District:____________ Age: _____ Phone No :_________________________( MO) _________________________
1) Land/Area Holding under cotton crops: 1-5 6-10 11-20 More then 20
2) Have you used vikram seeds products : o YES o NO 3) From above which one variety you use field area? a) VICH -5 b) VICH -15 c) VICH -301 d) VICH-311 4) Are you satisfied with existing products? o YES o NO
5) How do you get information about the vikram seed variety.
a) b) c) d) e) f)
By dealers By Company employees By innovative farmers By Literature By Field demonstration By T. V., Radio advertisement
6) From where you are purchasing variety a) Dealer/Retailer b) Distributors c) Other 7) Do you know about our new variety? o YES o NO 8) We are launching new product are you willing to take trial on your field.... o YES o NO 9) What are the factors affecting your purchasing decision? a) Price b) Credit c) Qualities d) Promotional activities e) Others
10) Who contributes most in your decision-making? a) b) c) Fellow Farmer Distributors/ Retailers Company People
11) What are the main sources of information? a) Advertisements b) Promotional Activities c) Retailers d) Company People e) Others
Marketing Management by Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller (12th edition)
consumer buying behaviour Wikipedia www.vikram seeds.com www.ebookchm.com www.questionpro.com www.cyberessays.com www.projectsparadise.com. www.indianstudychannel.com
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