Mobile Telecommunication Concepts

Telecommunications MSc in Software Development

© Dr. D. Pesch, Electronics Eng., CIT 2000

Key Characteristics of Mobile Communication Systems
• Limited frequency spectrum
– results in limited number of radio channel, which causes limited teletraffic capacity – requires cellular architecture and frequency reuse

• Mobility of terminals and subscribers
– – – – creates hostile radio propagation environment requires handover of radio connections in cellular systems complicates call setup and routing requires enhanced security features to acertain identity of terminal and subscriber

© Dr. D. Pesch, Electronics Eng., CIT 2000

Mobile Radio Propagation
• Radio signals propagate according to three mechanisms
– reflection – diffraction – scattering

• Result of the three mechanisms are three nearly independent phenomena
– path loss – shadowing – multipath fading

© Dr. D. Pesch, Electronics Eng., CIT 2000

The Cellular Concept and Frequency Reuse
B B G A F E B G A F E G A F E D D B C F E C F E G A D G A D B C Possible cluster sizes are N = 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, ... D B C F E C F E G A D G A D B C C Macrocell system using a 7-cell reuse pattern Generally, a tessellated reuse pattern of size N can be constructed if N=i2+ij+j2 where i and j are nonnegative integers and i ≥ j.

© Dr. D. Pesch, Electronics Eng., CIT 2000

CIT 2000 . Pesch.Cellular Network Architecture VLR Cellular system HLR PSTN ISDN GMSC MSC BTS VLR MSC MS © Dr. D.. Electronics Eng.

Electronics Eng.g.Interference and Noise • Interference – Co-channel interference – Adjacent channel interference • Noise – Thermal noise – Man-made noise. e. ignition noise.. Pesch. D. Pr{Γ < Γth } – carrier-to-noise ratio less threshold – transmitter power and co-channel reuse factor D/R • Two parameters affect interference © Dr. • Threshold effect . CIT 2000 .g. e. etc.probability of outage – carrier-to-interference ratio less threshold.

Pesch. Electronics Eng.maintain radio connection when moving from one cell to another • intracell handover . D. CIT 2000 .maintain radio connection by avoiding excessive interference on current radio channel • Handover techniques/categories – – – – – Network-controlled handover (NCHO) Mobile-assisted handover (MAHO) Mobile-controlled handover (MCHO) Forward and backward handover Hard and soft handover © Dr..Radio Channel Handover • intercell handover .

or intracell) • Classification of channel allocation techniques Fixed Flexible Basic Borrowing Hybrid Scheduled Predictive Centralised Decentralised Distributed Dynamic © Dr.Channel Allocation • Channel allocation is performed to – allocate a radio channel to a new call request – allocate a radio channel to a handover request (inter. D.. Electronics Eng. Pesch. CIT 2000 .

Electronics Eng. D.Location Management and Tracking • Location management determines the location of a mobile station for – call delivery – emergency call position locating • Two granularities of location – based on location area – based on absolute position with a rms error of below 125m © Dr.. Pesch. CIT 2000 .

Pesch. Electronics Eng.. © Dr. CIT 2000 . D.Spectral Efficiency and Grade of Service Spectral efficiency η S = Gc Nc Wsys A N C ⋅ GC Wsys ⋅ A Erlangs/km2/Hz offered traffic per channel (Erlangs/channel) number of radio channels per cell total system bandwidth area per cell (km2) Grade of Service (GoS) is usually defined in terms of new call blocking and handover dropping probability GoS = Pb + 10 ⋅ Pd Pb Pd new call blocking probability handover dropping probability (due to no free radio channels) The best grade of service would be GoS = 0.

Electronics Eng. D.. Pesch. CIT 2000 .Radio Propagation • Radio Signals propagate according to three mechanisms – Reflection – Diffraction – Scattering © Dr.

D. CIT 2000 .. Pesch.Radio Propagation transmitter reflection diffraction direct path scattering receiver © Dr. Electronics Eng.

D. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng.Mobile Radio Propagation • Three mechanisms characterise mobile radio propagation – Path Loss – Shadowing – multipath fading © Dr. Pesch..

CIT 2000 . D.. Pesch.Path Loss λ • Free Space Path Loss Pr = Pt G t G r  c     4πd  2 – PtGt effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) • Calculation of the path loss in typical environments can be based on – Empirical – Diffraction – or Ray Tracing models © Dr. Electronics Eng.

5m 200 180 160 Path Loss in dB 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Distance in km © Dr. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng. D.Example Path Loss According to OkumuraHata Model Path loss in an urban environment of a small for medium size city such as Cork • fc = 900MHz • hb = 30m • hm = 1. Pesch..

5 4 4.5 3 3. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng. D.5 2 2.5 5 Distance in km © Dr.5 1 1. Pesch.Example Path Loss According to COST231 Walfish-Ikegami Model in LOS Direction 120 110 fc = 900MHz 100 Pathloss in dB 90 80 70 60 50 0 0..

in the received signal envelope • Major cause for transmission errors in mobile radio systems • Three main types of multi-path fading (according to their statistical distribution) – Rayleigh fading – Ricean fading – Nakagami fading (only of statistical significance) © Dr. D. Electronics Eng.. Pesch.40dB.Multipath Fading • Multipath or fast fading – constructive and destructive addition of incident wave components – Doppler shift due to moving receiver • Causes short fades. CIT 2000 . which can be up to 30 .

CIT 2000 . Pesch.Multipath Fading © Dr.. Electronics Eng. D.

Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 .Cellular Concept and Frequency Reuse B B G A F E B G A F E G A F E D D B C F E C F E G A D G A D B C D B C F E C F E G A D G A D B C C © Dr. D.. Pesch.

Pesch. Electronics Eng. D.Cellular Geometry © Dr.. CIT 2000 .

Electronics Eng.K-cell reuse clusters A B C C D F E 3-Cell 4-Cell 7-Cell A B G B C A D C B I H G F 9-Cell 12-Cell L C B D E K A J I D E F G H A © Dr. CIT 2000 .. Pesch. D.

. D. Pesch. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng.Cluster Size K = 3 Reuse Pattern B A C B A C B A C A C A C B B A C A C B B © Dr.

Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 . D. Pesch..Cluster Size K = 4 Reuse Pattern A B A B C D A B C D C D A B C D C D A B A B C D C D A B © Dr.

Pesch. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng..Cluster Size K = 9 Reuse Pattern B I H B I H G F H B I H G F H G F A E I A E C D B C D G F H G F A E I A E I A E C D B C D B C D G F H G F A E I A E C D B C D © Dr. D.

Pesch. Electronics Eng.Co-channel Reuse Coefficient D/R A A A R D A A A © Dr. CIT 2000 .. D.

D. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng.© Dr. Pesch..

1200 1000 Teletraffic Capacity [Erlang] 800 600 400 200 0 4 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 Channels per Cell © Dr.. D. Pesch. Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 .

120o Sectors © Dr. CIT 2000 .. Electronics Eng.Cell Sectoring . D. Pesch.

Pesch.60o Sectors G G © Dr.. Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 .Cell Sectoring . D.

D. Electronics Eng. Pesch.. CIT 2000 .Channel Assignment Schemes • Permanent FCA • FCA with fractional loading • FCA with reuse partitioning • FCA with channel borrowing • Centralised DCA • Decentralised DCA • Distributed DCA • Hybrid Channel Allocation © Dr.

CIT 2000 .CDF of CIR for permanent FCA © Dr. Pesch.. D. Electronics Eng.

. Electronics Eng. Pesch. CIT 2000 .CDF of CIR with fractional loading and several loading factors © Dr. D.

CIT 2000 .FCA and Channel Borrowing • Radio channels are assigned in a permanent fashion to cells • If a cell experiences congestion it tries to borrow a channel from a neighbour cell temporarily • Borrowed channels are held until the state of congestion ceases • Borrowed channels may be barred from use in cochannel cells of the cell they were borrowed from • Channel borrowing requires communication between cell sites © Dr. Electronics Eng. D. Pesch..

CIT 2000 . Pesch. D. Electronics Eng.Channel Borrowing B B G A F E B G A F E G A F E D D B G 2 G C F D B 2 C C A D E G A F D E B G A F E D C D B C C x F A E 2 x C © Dr..

Centralised DCA • Channel assignments to cells made upon request by a central controller in the cellular network • Each cell requires communication link to central controller • If channel request cannot be served central controller may reshuffle assignment of channels to cells in order to make channel available • Channel assignments can be made based on cochannel reuse distance approach or actual co-channel interference situation © Dr. CIT 2000 . Pesch. D.. Electronics Eng.

. Pesch. D. Electronics Eng.Decentralised DCA • Problem with central control is high signalling load between cell sites and central controller • Decentralised control moves assignment control to a group of cells or a cluster and thus reduces load in the network • Requires less signalling load as information is shared among group of cells • Does not achieve optimum capacity in non-uniform cases but provides feasible implementation © Dr. CIT 2000 .

Distributed DCA • Each cell (BS) decides which channel to allocate based on the current co-channel interference on each channel • Requires continuous monitoring of co-channel interference on each channel • Achieves excellent performance as it does not require any coordination among cell sites and is based on current co-channel interference situation rather than average co-channel interference • Implemeted in cordless telecommunication systems such as DECT and PHS and also in wireless LAN systems © Dr. D. CIT 2000 . Electronics Eng.. Pesch.

Concept of Distributed DCA © Dr. Pesch.. CIT 2000 . D. Electronics Eng.

Other Channel Assignment Concepts • Directed Retry . D..Call attempt is queued until channel becomes available or timer expires • Channel allocation with handover priority © Dr. CIT 2000 .upon blocking call is directed to try again at neighbour BS • Queuing based Channel Assignment . Pesch. Electronics Eng.

Pesch.Aspects of Handover Design • Statistical evaluation of the received signal strength (RSS) in order to determine right moment for handover • Selection of target cell that will provide best new link quality • Avoidance of the ping-pong effect • Radio resource reservation in target cell • Hard and soft handover © Dr. Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 . D..

D. Electronics Eng. Pesch.Handover Performance Metrics • • • • • • • • Call blocking probability Handover blocking probability Handover probability Call dropping probability (handover failure) Probability of unnessecary handover Rate of handover Duration of interruption (hard handover) Handover decision delay © Dr.. CIT 2000 .

. Electronics Eng. Pesch.Handover Algorithms • Network Controlled Handover • Mobile Assisted Handover • Mobile Controlled Handover © Dr. CIT 2000 . D.

Handover Initiation • • • • • Relative signal strength Relative signal strength with threshold Relative signal strength with hysteresis Relative signal strength with hysteresis and threshold Prediction techniques © Dr. Pesch. Electronics Eng.. D. CIT 2000 .

CIT 2000 . D.. Electronics Eng.Handover BS 1 Signal strength from BS 1 Signal strength from BS 2 T1 T2 T3 A B C D BS 2 © Dr. Pesch.

. CIT 2000 . Pesch.Handover Execution • • • • Backward handover Forward handover Hard handover Soft handover © Dr. Electronics Eng. D.

CIT 2000 . Pesch.. D.Power Control • Constant received power control • Quality based power control © Dr. Electronics Eng.

. CIT 2000 .The Concept of a Location Area LA 1 LA 2 MSC VLR LA 3 © Dr. Pesch. D. Electronics Eng.

. Electronics Eng. CIT 2000 . Pesch. D.Frequency Hopping Frequency Carrier Time Slot © Dr.

Pesch. Electronics Eng.Macro Diversity Site A Hill Service area of site B Shadow section Motorway Site B Hill Service area of site A © Dr.. D. CIT 2000 .

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