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**Jeyadeepan Jeganathan and Ali Ghrayeb
**

ECE Department, Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8, Canada Email: {j_jegana, aghrayeb}@ece.concordia.ca

Leszek Szczecinski

INRS-EMT, University of Quebec Montreal, Quebec, H5A 1K6, Canada Email: leszek@emt.inrs.ca

Abstract— A fundamental component of spatial modulation (SM), termed generalized space shift keying (GSSK), is presented. GSSK modulation inherently exploits fading in wireless communication to provide better performance over conventional amplitude/phase modulation (APM) techniques. In GSSK, only the antenna indices, and not the symbols themselves (as in the case of SM and APM), relay information. We exploit GSSK’s degrees of freedom to achieve better performance, which is done by formulating its constellation in an optimal manner. To support our results, we also derive upper bounds on GSSK’s bit error probability, where the source of GSSK’s strength is made clear. Analytical and simulation results show performance gains (1.5−3 dB) over popular multiple antenna APM systems (including Bell Laboratories layered space time (BLAST) and maximum ratio combining (MRC) schemes), making GSSK an excellent candidate for future wireless applications.

I. I NTRODUCTION Using multiple antennas in wireless communications allows unprecedented improvements over single antenna systems. One example is the vertical Bell Laboratories layered spacetime (V-BLAST) architecture [1], where multiple symbols are multiplexed in space, and transmitted at the same time over all antennas. Due to inter-channel interference (ICI), caused by coupling multiple symbols in time and space, V-BLAST maximum likelihood (ML) detection increases exponentially in complexity with the number of transmit antennas. Hence, practical integration of V-BLAST requires sub-optimal, low complexity receivers [2]. For adequate performance, these receivers require the number of receive antennas to be larger or equal to the number of transmit antennas, which is not practical for downlink transmission to small mobile devices. Consequently, avoiding ICI greatly reduces receiver complexity, and results in performance gains. Also, the V-BLAST algorithms assume that all symbols are transmitted at the same time. Hence, inter-antenna synchronization (IAS) is necessary to avoid performance degradation, which consequently increases transmitter overhead. Prior Work: In [3]–[6], the so-called spatial modulation (SM) seems to be an effective means to remove ICI, and the need for precise time synchronization amongst antennas. SM is a pragmatic approach for transmitting information, where the modulator uses well known APM techniques, such as PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), but also employs the antenna index to convey information. Only one antenna

remains active during transmission so that ICI is avoided, and IAS is no longer needed. Although SM is shown to reduce the receiver’s complexity as compared to V-BLAST [3], this is under a sub-optimal SM detection rule that is only valid under some constrained assumptions about the channel. Due to the sub-optimality of the detection, SM does not exhibit the best performance in [3]. As well, the constrained assumptions about the channel questions the validity of the performance comparison with VBLAST in [6]. The optimal detector for SM is, however, derived in [7] under conventional channel assumptions, and SM is shown to outperform many schemes including V-BLAST (at the expense of increased receiver complexity). Also, the tradeoff between the number of transmit antennas versus the APM constellation size is chosen heuristically in [6]. All of this motivates our presentation of a simpler modulation technique, namely GSSK, which can be used to build a stronger SM foundation. Contribution: We analyze GSSK as a fundamental component of SM, in which the spatial domain is exploited to modulate information. The presentation of SM in [6] does not fully explore the idea of using antenna indices as the only means to relay information, as is the case for our GSSK scheme. The transmitted symbols in GSSK are just a means of identifying the activated antenna. In doing so, we achieve all of the aforementioned advantages comprising SM, while reducing transceiver overhead. GSSK’s constellation is thoroughly analyzed, where we present the underlying idea that allows GSSK to outperform APM schemes (such as V-BLAST and MRC). In particular, we show that GSSK takes advantage of the fading process by increasing the constellation’s dimension, whose points result to be well spread apart. This analysis opens the door to understanding how SM parameters may be chosen to obtain better performance gains. We also consider the performance of the GSSK scheme, where upper bounds on the bit error rate (BER) are derived. Through our analysis, we design optimal constellations, where it is apparent that tremendous degrees of freedom is available for practical implementation. Simulation results are also presented to support our ﬁndings, and illustrate the future research potential of GSSK modulation. Organization: Section II introduces the basic GSSK system model, including a detailed analysis of GSSK’s constellation

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We present analytical results on the bit error probability in Section III. . but we will see in Section IV that more optimal selection rules exist. with mean m and variance σ . We use Re {·} for the real part of a complex variable. having independent Gaussian distributed real and imaginary parts denoted ´ ³ 2 2 by N m. where groups of m bits are mapped to a constellation vector x = ¤T £ x1 £ x2 ¤ · · · xNt . and demaps ˆ the symbol to its component bits b. Section V then provides simulation results on performance. · for · the binomial coefﬁcient. with a power constraint of unity (i. nt = 2.e. . σ . 3) (2. where j ∈ X speciﬁes the antenna combination for the given m bit pattern. 3) (1. only nt antennas remain active during transmission. and hj. which represents the sum of nt distinct columns in H. Remark 1: Only nt columns of H are activated. We use CN m. (·)H for conjugate transpose. and is shown£ in Fig. Transmission The underlying concept in GSSK is using only antenna indices to relay information. 2) (1. II. 4) £ x = x1 h h h h h h h h 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 0 0 0 0 ¤T x5 iT 1 √ 0 0 0 2 iT 1 0 √2 0 0 iT 1 0 0 √2 0 iT 1 0 0 0 √2 iT 1 1 √ √ 0 0 2 2 iT 1 1 √ 0 √2 0 2 iT 1 1 √ 0 0 √2 2 iT 1 1 0 √2 √2 0 x2 ··· For example. there are M 0 = 21 possible combinations. n ρ where ρ0 = nt . where ρ is the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) at each receive antenna. B. and these columns change depending on the transmitted information. σ2 for the complex Gaussian distribution of a random variable.eff + η. At the receiver side. 1.1 The vector xj speciﬁes the activated antennas. let us describe how the receiver estimates the transmit antenna indices j. The output of the channel is therefore given by p (1) y = ρ0 hj. £ b = b1 £ 0 £ 0 £ 0 £ 0 £ 1 £ 1 £ 1 £ 1 b2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ b3 ¤ j (1. 4) (2. GSSK system model. Notation: Italicized symbols denote scalar values while bold lower/upper case symbols denote vectors/matrices. followed by Section IV’s development of constellation design rules. Nt } speciﬁes the column index of H). and Ex [·] for the statistical expectation with respect to x. GSSK M ODULATION The general system model consists of a MIMO wireless link with Nt transmit and Nr receive antennas. 5) (3. may be chosen at random. 4) (1. An example of 8-ary GSSK modulation is given in Table I. n n n | {z } nt of Nt non-zero values η2 b 2 GSSK MAPPER 2 GSSK DETECTOR ˆ b M Nt x y M Nr ηN r Fig. pY (·) for the probability density function (PDF) of a random variable Y. We ¡¢ use (·)T for transpose. but can be designed to optimize transmission.eff as an effective column. combinations of antenna indices can be used. and we conclude the paper in Section VI. Once X is formulated. The symbols in xj do not contain information. Groups of m = log2 (M ) bits are collected and mapped to a vector xj . and has the following form: iT h xj . where we use Nt = 5. . there are M 0 = Ntt possible constellation points. In general. the GSSK’s mapper rule is straightforward. . the GSSK detector estimates the antenna indices that are used during transmission. and consider more j general (adaptive) symbol design in ongoing work. ¢ ¡ Therefore. The signal is transmitted over an Nr × Nt wireless channel H. Detection The detector’s main function is obtaining the antenna indices used at the transmitter. Ex xH x = 1). Now that we have seen the mapping rule.eff = hj(1) + hj(2) + · · · + hj(nt) (j (·) = j ∈ {1. 5) (2. Since we require a constellation size M in multiples of 2. and k·kF¡ for the Frobenius norm ¢ of a vector/matrix. 1. In GSSK. The set of antenna combinations. We use P (·) 2 2 for the probability of an event. Since the channel inputs are 1 For our purposes. We refer to hj. A. we only use 16 of the possible 21 combinations. The √ received signal is given by y = ρHx + η. we consider real values for x .space. and H and η have independent and identically distributed (iid) entries according to CN (0. during which all other antennas remain idle. . √1 t 0 · · · 0 √1 t · · · √1 t 0 . and hence. 2. for GSSK using nt antennas. and experiences an£ Nr − dim additive white ¤T Gaussian (AWGN) noise η = η1 η2 · · · ηNr . 1). and X is chosen randomly. A random sequence of independent ¤ bits b = b1 b2 · · · bk enters a GSSK mapper. X . and X to represent a constellation of size M . only nt of the xj ’s in x are nonzero. with nt = 2 and Nt = 7. η1 1 1 TABLE I E XAMPLE OF THE GSSK M APPER R ULE .

x2. In APM. C. and PDF pκ (v) given by [8. X eff is made up of scaled versions of all effective columns of H. Illustration of the effective constellation space X eff . Remark 3: It is using the column indices of H as the source of information that results in the improved constellation space. On the other hand. Thus.eff h GSSK x2. the effective constellation X eff is composed of scaled versions of the vector hxj . and pY (y | xj . p. ¾ ½³ ´H √ 0 ρ where dj = Re y − 2 hj. X eff would not change since at any given time. σ2 .eff = Hxj .eff hj. Also.eff along the same direction. α k k=0 P (xj → xk ) = Eκ [P (xj → xk | H)] ∞ Z ¡√ ¢ Q v pκ (v) dv. For example. X ) such that large d (j.eff = h2. but with the possibility of having more than one scaled version of xj.eff hj. the sufﬁcient statistics are scalar).eff = h3. the PEP conditioned on H is given by ¡√ ¢ P (xj → xk | H) = P (dk > dj | H) = Q κ . We deﬁne κ as x 2π 2Nr X ρ0 α2 . If.k) . p. and d (j.eff ’s (i. if APM with transmission on alternating antenna indices is considered. both the antenna indices and the symbols conveyed information. by exploiting GSSK’s degrees of freedom. But in GSSK.eff ° F j ½³ ¾ ´H √ 0 ρ = arg max Re y − 2 hj. and the effective Nr −dim constellation symbol xj. when analyzing GSSK’s constellation. j assumed to be known at the receiver. k)P (xj → xk ) = X X N (j. and not the fact that different columns are being used for transmission.eff and hk. x1.eff . Essentially. Consider a ﬁxed channel realization H. independent of which antenna is used (since after matched ﬁltering. the optimal detector is ML. the modulation scheme would not be APM.assumed equally likely. The average BER for GSSK is union bounded as " # X Pe. 261-262]. (4) where N (j.eff and Q (x) = R ∞ 1 − t2 e 2 dt. The random variable κ in (5) is chi-squared distributed with s = 2Nr degrees of freedom. k)’s are obtained. We hinted at this observation earlier in Section II-C. 2 for APM and GSSK. 2. H) is given by ´ ³ 1 √ pY (y | xj . 41]. Eq. The PEP can then be formulated as κ. on the other hand. As well. Remark 4: The metric affecting the system performance is the distance between the effective columns of H. eff = hx1 APM ° °2 p ° ° = arg min °y − ρ0 hj. Constellation We now look into GSSK’s constellation in more detail and highlight some of its strength. = v=0 (6) . By using (2). Also. H) j where k ∈X represents the estimated antenna indices. the receiver explores only all possible transmit symbols. but rather a form of SM.bit ≤ Exj N (j. We therefore expect GSSK to outperform APM schemes for increasing M and Nr . and remains the same regardless of the transmitted information. shown in Fig. σ2 = ρd(j.eff . we can choose hj. Decisions for APM are performed in the 1 − dim complex space. Error Probability GSSK’s performance is derived using the well known union bounding technique [8.eff − hk.eff = hx2 x1. GSSK decisions are made in the Nr −dim space. Nr −1 µ X Nr − 1 + k ¶ P (xj → xk ) = γ Nr (7) [1 − γ α ]k . (64)].e. X eff is similar to GSSK.eff x3.eff k2 = n F 2 n=1 ¢ ¡ where αn ∼ N 0. X can be formulated to optimize the distance spectrum of GSSK’s X eff . better performance is achieved in GSSK for channel realizations having effective columns that are widely spread apart in the Nr − dim space. which translates into achieving better performance. k) is the α α 4nt number of distinct columns of H between hj. k) j k k (2) M P (xj → xk ) . which depend on the stochastic properties of the channel and can be capitalized upon for adaptive forms of GSSK. III. In this case. The actual antenna indices are which has a closed form expression given in [9. H) = Nr exp − ky − ρHxj k2 .eff Fig. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS A. namely nt and Nt . (3) F π Remark 2: The detection rule is a maximization problem over all effective columns of H (there are M of them). eff = h1. k) is the number of bits in error between the constellation vector xj and xk . these effective columns act as random constellation points for GSSK modulation. which is given by k = arg max pY (y | xj . and P (xj → xk ) denotes the pairwise error probability (PEP) of deciding on xk given that xj is transmitted. (5) khj.

To simplify the design process. θ opt = (Nt .k) 2Nr +1 d(j. we simplify the optimization problem by considering relatively high SNRs. n =2) GSSK bound (N =8. only a few tenths of a dB is gained from the transition of Nt = 9 to Nt = 10 (M = 32). we re-derive the error probability with a ´ ³ 2 loose upper bound. which can be increased by choosing a larger Nt .bit . X . n =2) GSSK bound (N =10. For each plot.bit . and Pe. and upper bound (6) 2 by ´ ³ Z ∞ exp ¡− v ¢ vNr −1 exp − v2 2 2σα dv P (xj → xˆ) ≤ j Nr +1 σ Nr Γ (N ) 2 α 0 r ¢−Nr 1¡ 2 = σ +1 2 α µ ¶−Nr d (j. GSSK bounds for varying M . and ˆ1 and θ 1 have the same parameters as ˆopt and θopt . this trade-off between transmitter complexity and performance provides design ﬂexibility. We clearly see M 2 nt j k from (9) that a diversity order of Nr is achieved. n =3) t t t t t t t t t t GSSK bound (N =9. O PTIMAL C ONSTELLATION D ESIGN 1 XX = arg max d (j. 3.bit -2 ³ ´ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ where ˆopt = Nt . and as nt increases. Still. k)γ α . the rule for labeling m bits to a symbol vector xj ). In the ﬁrst algorithm. Remark 5: The optimal set of parameters may not be unique. Note that a large nt will also help. nt and X are obtained by computer simulations using (12). 1 we use Q (x) ≤ 2 exp − x [8. we obtain Nr −1 µ X Nr − 1 + k¶ 1 XX N (j. θ 2 = (Nt . 54]. α M k j k k=0 (8) B. (11) θ1 j k GSSK bound (N =8. Nt . Figure 3 illustrates GSSK’s performance bounds given by (8). we present two sub-optimal constellation design rules. the optimization is fairly complex (remember. This maximization can be interpreted as having antenna combinations that are as different from one another as possible. Therefore. with M = 8 and M = 32. Depending on system requirements (i. As expected. in terms of minimizing the bit error rate. the second constellation design rule is given by XX ˆ2 = arg max θ σ2 α θ2 j k We consider the optimal formulation of GSSK’s constellation X .bit is given by (8).bit ≤ Cρ−Nr . and for varying Nt ’s. whereas γ α is affected by nt . and X .e. Therefore. from which the optimal combination of Nt and nt can be obtained by (12) through computer search. n =1) M=32 M=8 0 5 10 15 ρ (dB) 20 25 30 where we only keep the terms contributing most to Pe. X ). θ θopt 10 -1 (10) 10 Pe. or high performance). k) (12) nt j k θ2 ³ ´ ˆ ˆ ˆ where ˆ2 = Nt . n =2) t t t t GSSK bound (N =6. μ is the labeling rule for the constellation X (i. Also. We note that in (8). θ θ respectively. Speciﬁcally.e. μ . Hence. which is the same as that of an MRC-APM system using Nr receive antennas. k). μ) with θ constraint nt < Nt and M 0 ≥ M . IV. k) ≤ 22Nr +1 ρ−Nr . We also note that certain antenna transitions do not gain much in performance. Widely varying antenna combinations imply having a large M 0 . but will have adverse effects as well due 1 to the nt factor in (12). for each Nt chosen. we maximize the values of d (j. X . Diversity In order to clearly show the system diversity.bit ≤ [1 − γ α ]k . to simplify the optimization further. . nt .k) where C = .q 2 ´ ³ σα where γ α = 1 1 − 1+σ 2 . the bit error probability is given by (9) Pe. Nt . for a θ given Nt and nt value. nt . N (j. and thus increasing the transmitter’s overhead. nt Therefore. and is a function of j and k. low hardware overhead. X . ³ ´−Nr X X N(j. nt . which can be exploited in adaptive type systems. Fig. n =1) GSSK bound (N =5. n =2) 10 -3 t t GSSK bound (N =32. p. there are Nt − 1 possibilities for nt . k) is affected by μ. 2 α Plugging (7) into (4). The probability of bit errors given by (8) is minimized by the following joint optimization problem: ˆopt = arg min Pe. 10 0 we consider only minimizing the parameter γ α instead. n =2) 10 -4 GSSK bound (N =7. ¡ Nt ¢ nt from which there are (M) available antenna combinations to formulate X ). since several sets may result in identical performance. For example. k)γ Nr Pe. the performance degrades as Nt decreases. Hence. and nt (Nr = 2). nt . the range of requirements for Nt and nt can be speciﬁed. (10) reduces to XX ˆ1 = arg min θ N (j.

All of SM’s merits mentioned in [6] are also inherent in GSSK (at similar performance). n =2) GSSK bound (N =8. Ahn. S IMULATION RESULTS In this section. Ahn. 288–292. Böhnke.-Nov. We also intend to investigate GSSK’s robustness to non-ideal channel conditions. Mesleh. pp. n =1) t t SM [7] (M=2. S. Kühn. where GSSK’s constellation can take advantage of channel conditions. Systems.” in Proc. “Spatial modulation .” IEEE Commun. n =2) t t t t GSSK (N =7. and this is due to the fact that summing over all possible constellation points (for the union bound) is more justiﬁed in the case of nt = 2. Ahn. Golden. MRC.a new low complexity spectral efﬁciency enhancing technique. pp. Ghrayeb. and a larger number of constellation points have an effect on performance. Throughout the paper. but with lower computational overhead. The second is V-BLAST with BPSK modulation. with nt = 2. nt = 1. [2] R. 1825-1829. for PSK and QAM modulation). These advantages make GSSK a promising candidate for low complexity transceivers in next generation communication systems. New York. Szczecinski. “Spatial c modulation. Yun. W.) McGraw-Hill.” in Proc. G.V. and Nt = 4 antennas is shown. and SM. “V-BLAST: an architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel. Mesleh. Sinanovi´ . 1-5.e. we introduced a new modulation method (referred to as GSSK) for MIMO wireless links by exploiting the inherent fading process.” In the Proceedings of the 11th International OFDM-Workshop 2006 (InOWo’06). Rather than transmitting information through symbols. n =2) t t t t t t GSSK bound (N =7. and 1 dB over V-BLAST (for Pe. 8-QAM transmission with Nt = 1 (single antenna transmission). Oct. we compare GSSK’s performance for varying Nt and nt . August 2006. C. the constellation points share common columns of H. Nt = 3.” Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals. Third. Haas. Yun. We target m = 3 bits/s/Hz transmission. Oct. We presented GSSK improvements over APM (up to 3 dB). Sept. Pisa. C. to appear. and M = 8. where we observe gains of 3 dB over APM. [6] R. pp. and S. V-BLAST. San Francisco. Dec. Kammeyer. For reference. N =3) t GSSK (N =8. Ganesan. to appear.bit -2 GSSK bound (N =5. the constellation points are all unique (i. resulting in a union bound that is more loose (in this case. International Symposium on Signals. September 1999. Foschini. USA. “A uniﬁed approach for calculating error rates of linearly modulated signals over generalized fading channels. 2003. and derived closed form upper bounds on the bit error probability. Alouini and A. and X obtained from (12).G. and greater design ﬂexibility. pp. “Reduced complexity MMSE detection for BLAST architectures. 47. Yun. we demonstrate GSSK’s performance versus VBLAST. we use three different transmission setups. “On the performance of spatial modulation OFDM. H. Haas. and K. The simulation and analytical results are a close match. 9. [9] M. Wolniansky. H. H. 10 0 complexity reduction is attributed to the fact that symbols do not carry information (as in SM. C. pp. “Spatial Modulation: Optimal Detection and Performance Analysis. 295-300. GSSK’s performance degrades as Nt is decreased. Commun. and practical GSSK implementation issues in current MIMO communication standards. D. the union bound for these higher nt values result in tighter bounds. [7] J. for m = 3 bits/s/Hz transmission (Nr = 4). Haas. (4th ed. The bounds of (8) are also plotted for comparison. 1324–1334.e. W. C ONCLUSION In this paper. N =1) 10 -1 t V-BLAST (M=2. We use Gray (or quasi-Gray) mapping when appropriate (i. [5] S. and hence. V. 2006. 4.” IEEE Trans. we laid out GSSK fundamentals as the building ground for hybrid modulation schemes (which combine GSSK and APM) such as in [6]. S. nt = 2. n =2) MRC-QAM (M=8. GSSK’s performance improvements is clearly shown in the ﬁgure. 1998. and R. N =4) t 10 Pe. and V-BLAST). We also note that.bit = 10−5 ). “Spatial modulationOFDM. C. 4. Italy. the transmitter antenna indices were used as the sole information conveying mechanism. R EFERENCES [1] P. D. Therefore. Yun. The second is with Nt = 5. Mesleh. Digital Communications. Future research directions will involve the adaptive case. Proakis. 2006. IEEE Globecom’03. and ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) with the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receiver [2]. H. as expected. therefore reducing the optimization problem’s overhead when detecting the message. Goldsmith. 2001. Systems and Computers(ACSSC ’06). This . The bounds are tighter for nt = 2 than nt = 1. vol. The ﬁrst one is APM. Ahn and S. [3] R. R. Wübben. MRC. but still outperforms APM in most cases. We plot GSSK for two different constraints. G.” IEEE Trans. VI. Jeganathan. When nt = 1. California. Monte Carlo simulations are run for at least 105 channel realizations. GSSK has almost identical performance to that of SM. A. and consider Nr = 4.W. GSSK (N =5. [8] J.” First international Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom’06). and SM. In Fig.-Oct. Haas. n =1) 10 -3 10 -4 10 -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ρ (dB) 12 14 16 18 20 Fig. no. [4] R. especially for high SNRs. and S. distinct columns of H). Letters. BER performance of GSSK versus MRC-QAM. and L. Valenzuela. On the other hand. Mesleh.-S.. the nearest neighbor approximation is better suited). SM [3] using optimal detection [7] with BPSK modulation. Vehicular Technology. and Electronics (ISSSE’98). but with lower complexity. The ﬁrst is with Nt = M = 8.

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