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**A method for predicting the rolling resistance
**

of aircraft tires in dry snow

G.W.H. van Es

NLR-TP-99240

This report is based on an article to be published in the Journal of Aircraft,

December 1999, by AIAA.

Division: Air Transport

Issued: June 1999

Classification of title: unclassified

A method for predicting the rolling resistance

of aircraft tires in dry snow

G.W.H. van Es

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NLR-TP-99240

Summary

This paper describes a method for predicting the rolling resistance of aircraft tires rolling in dry

snow. Knowledge about the rolling resistance on a snow-covered surface is required when

complying with aircraft certification and operational rules, which account for runway surface

conditions. In addition to the rules, the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) have issued Advisory

Material Joint AMJ 25X1591, a document providing information, guidelines, and

recommendations for calculating the rolling resistance of aircraft tires in dry snow. The

analytical method presented in AMJ 25X1591 gives unsatisfactory results when compared to

experimental data. In this paper a new method is presented for predicting the rolling resistance

due to snow. This new method and the AMJ method are validated by comparing the results of

both methods for single tires and full-scale aircraft with available experiments. In general, a

much better agreement with experimental data is found for the new method than for the AMJ

method.

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NLR-TP-99240

Contents

Nomenclature 5

1 Introduction 7

2 Basic snow characteristics 8

3 Description of the method 9

3.1 Introduction 9

3.2 Resistance due to compression 9

3.3 Resistance due to motion 11

4 Calculation of the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft rolling in dry snow 13

4.1 Basic approach 13

4.2 Limitations of the presented method 14

5 Comparison with test data 15

5.1 Single tire test data 15

5.2 Full scale test data 15

5.2.1 Comparison with the Citation II test data 16

5.2.2 Comparison with the SAAB 2000 test data 16

5.2.3 Comparison with the Falcon 2000 test data 17

5.2.4 Comparison with the Falcon 20 test data 17

6 Conclusions and recommendations 20

7 Acknowledgements 21

8 References 22

Appendix: Calculation method of JAR AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14, 27 May 1994) 24

(38 pages in total)

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NLR-TP-99240

Nomenclature

b = effective tire width

D

c

= rolling resistance due to compression

D

d

= rolling resistance due to motion

D

r

= rolling resistance on a dry hard surface

h

o

= initial snow depth

h

f

= final snow depth after compression

f

l = tire footprint length

p = pressure

R = tire radius

r = void ratio

u

o

= dimensionless initial snow depth

u

f

= dimensionless final snow depth

V

g

= ground speed

w = maximum tire width

δ = static vertical tire deflection

λ = grain structure index

ρ = snow density

ρ

o

= initial snow density

ρ

f

= final snow density

ρ

i

= density of ice

σ = unconfined compressive strength of snow

σ

i

= compressive strength of ice

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NLR-TP-99240

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NLR-TP-99240

1 Introduction

When taking off from a runway covered with slush, standing water or snow, the required take-

off ground-run distance will be longer than on a dry runway. This is the result of the fact that

slush, standing water and snow on the runway will generate a rolling resistance that increases

the total resistance on the aircraft during the ground-run. For this reason the Joint Aviation

Authorities (JAA) have established aircraft certification and operational rules accounting for

runway surface conditions (see JAR 25X1591). In addition to the rules, the JAA have issued

Advisory Material Joint AMJ 25X1591, a document providing information, guidelines,

recommendations and acceptable means of compliance concerning take-offs and landings on

wet and contaminated runways. A study conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR

(Ref. 1), has shown that there is a four-fold increase in the probability of an accident for aircraft

operating on wet and contaminated runways. This indicates the importance of certification and

operational rules for wet and contaminated runway operations.

AMJ 25X1591 considers a number of contaminates like water, slush, ice, wet snow and dry

snow. The current version of AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14, 27 May 1994) assumes that the rolling

resistance caused by dry snow on the runway, can be calculated using the models originally

developed for water and slush covered runways. Since snow is compressible and water and

slush are not, this assumption is incorrect from a physical point of view. This is also clearly

illustrated in Ref. 2, where experimentally determined rolling resistance in dry snow for a

Falcon 20 aircraft shows quite different results from rolling resistance calculated according to

AMJ 25X1591.

Currently a number of models are available to calculate the rolling resistance of tires in dry

snow (See Ref. 3). Many of these models have been developed to analyse the mobility of

military vehicles. These mobility models vary from purely empirical to analytical. From the

study presented in Ref. 3 it becomes clear that these mobility models are not suited for aircraft

tires. A more suitable model is developed by Lidstrom (Ref. 4). This model gives better results

for aeronautical use than the mobility models (See Ref. 3). However, Lidstrom’s model can only

be used for low snow densities and high tire pressures. Furthermore, a number of

approximations and assumptions are made which reduce the accuracy of the model.

The objective of this paper is to present an accurate method for predicting the rolling resistance

of aircraft tires in dry snow which can be used for all practical snow densities. This method

should be considered instead of the current method recommended by the JAA. The paper is

organised as follows. Basic snow characteristics are outlined first. A theoretical method for

predicting the rolling resistance of a tire in dry snow is then described. The presented method is

then compared with experimental data from tests employing single tires and full-scale aircraft.

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NLR-TP-99240

2 Basic snow characteristics

Snow is a porous, permeable aggregate of ice grains, which can be single crystals, or close

groupings of several crystals. Air and water vapor surround the crystals. Snow is a complicated

material because of the variety of forms it can take and because it is thermodynamically

unstable, which means that the physical properties of the snow can change with time (known as

snow metamorphism). A large number of different types of snow are known. A possible

classification of these types including typical densities, is given as follows:

• New snow (50-200 kg/m

3

)

• Powder snow (200-450 kg/m

3

)

• Compacted snow (450-700 kg/m

3

)

• Wet snow (300-700 kg/m

3

)

All these types of snow are compressible. This means that the volume changes when the snow is

loaded. This volume change becomes evident as surface compaction. Density is probably the

most useful single parameter of snow properties because e.g. structural characteristics show

some correlation with density. The compression strength of snow, and thus its bearing capacity,

also appears to be strongly influenced by its density. Below a density of 400 kg/m

3

the bearing

capacity of snow is usually very low resulting in large volume changes of the snow when it is

loaded. At higher densities higher loads are required to compress the snow. Whenever snow is

subjected to loads e.g. by moving the snow with a bulldozer or running a tire over it, the snow

becomes stronger than natural snow of the same density. This is a result of bond growth

between the ice crystals. As already pointed out, snow is metamorphic. Environmental

influences like wind, temperature fluctuations, and rain can change the characteristics of snow

within days and even within hours.

The behaviour of undisturbed snow under loading has been studied by the US ARMY Cold

Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory CRREL (See e.g. Ref. 5 and 6). Results of such

studies show that the tire pressure has a significant influence on the final snow density after

loading. Table 1 gives an overview of the final snow densities used in the CRREL snow

mobility models as a function of the tire pressure. Note that the values listed in table 1 refer to

undisturbed snow. An adjustment to the original table was made for tires having a pressure of

less than 150 kPa, based on experimental data for these tires. Most aircraft tires have pressures

in the range of 560-1400 kPa. For such tire pressures the final snow density will be 600 or 650

kg/m

3

according to table 1.

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NLR-TP-99240

3 Description of the method

3.1 Introduction

When a tire moves over a surface covered with dry snow, it will deform the snow. The work

needed for this deformation results in forces acting on the tire opposite to the direction of

motion. In general the resistance of dry snow results from two forces (Ref. 3):

• compression resistance D

c

• vertical displacement resistance D

d

Theoretical methods for predicting both these forces will be discussed.

3.2 Resistance due to compression

When a tire rolls over a snow-covered surface, compaction of the snow occurs. The work

needed to compact the snow layer from an initial snow volume V

1

to a final snow volume V

2

is

given by (Ref. 3):

∫

·

1

2

V

V

dV p W (1)

With p the pressure exerted on the snow. Because the rolling resistance in snow due to

compression is the work needed to compress the snow per distance covered, Eq.1 can be

rewritten into (using the relation dV=b.ds.dh, with ds distance travelled)

3, 4

:

D b dh

c

h

f

h

o

·

∫

σ (2)

In which σ is the unconfined compressive strength of snow, b is the effective tire width at the

point of contact between tire and snow surface, h

o

is the initial snow depth, and h

f

is the snow

depth after compression. The effective tire width can be obtained through a geometrical analysis

of the tire section in combination with the snow surface. This width is given by (Ref. 3):

2

o o

w

h

w

h

w 2 b

,

_

¸

¸ + δ

−

+ δ

·

With δvertical tire deflection (static load)

w = maximum tire width

For (δh

o

w ≥ 0.5 the effective tire width can be regarded as equal to the maximum tire width

w.

The bearing capacity of natural snow is usually very low, especially for snow with a density of

less than 400 kg/m

3

. This results in large snow deformations in the form of compaction. This

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NLR-TP-99240

deformation continues until there is equilibrium between the snow’s bearing capacity and the

load placed on the tire. Strength studies of snow have shown that a relation exists between the

initial snow density and its unconfined compressive strength. Ref. 8 gives the following

empirical equation for the unconfined compressive strength of snow:

2

r

i

e

λ −

σ · σ (4)

Where σ

i

is the compressive strength of ice (=1.10

6

N/m

2

), λ is a grain structure index, and r is

the void ratio defined as the ratio of void volume to the volume of solid ice grains. The void

ratio is given by:

1 r

i

−

ρ

ρ

· (5)

In which ρ

i

is the density of ice (=920 kg/m

3

) and ρ the actual snow density. The grain structure

index λ is an empirical constant, which varies between 1 and 2 (Ref. 8). For natural snow this

index is equal to 1.5 (Ref. 3).

Combining Eq. 2 and 4 results in:

∫

λ −

σ ·

o

f

2

h

h

r

i c

h d e b D (6)

By introducing the relation

( ) ( )

u h h

i i

· − · − λ λ ρ ρ 1 1 , Eq. 6 can be written as:

∫

−

λ ρ

ρ σ

·

o

f

2

u

u

u

i

o o i

c

du e

h b

D (7)

In which:

,

_

¸

¸

−

ρ

ρ

λ ·

,

_

¸

¸

−

ρ

ρ

λ ·

1 u

and 1 u

f

i

f

o

i

o

Note that ρ

o

is the initial snow density and ρ

f

is the final snow density after compression by the

tire. The integral in Eq. 7 is equal to the standard error function except for the missing term

2/√π. Numerical solutions of the integral in Eq. 7 are presented in figure 1 for the five final

snow densities of table 1. The resistance due to snow compression can be obtained from Eq. 7 in

combination with figure 1.

Figure 2 gives an example of the resistance due to compression of a single tire of type VII with

a diameter of 0.37 m, a width of 0.14 m, tire pressure of 937 kPa, and with a normal load of

4400 Newton. Up to a snow density of about 350 kg/m

3

the resistance due to compression

increases linearly with increasing initial snow density. Around a snow density of 420 kg/m

3

a

maximum occurs in the resistance due to compression. For higher snow densities the resistance

decreases because the bearing capacity of the snow increases, resulting in less deformation of

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NLR-TP-99240

the snow. For the same tire the variation of the grain structure index λ is analysed. For a snow

depth of 80 mm, D

c

is calculated as function of initial snow density for three values of λ. The

results are shown in figure 3. A higher grain structure index indicates stronger snow which

results in a lower rolling resistance due to compression. Furthermore, the maximum drag due to

compression occurs at a higher initial snow density when the grain structure index is increased.

3.3 Resistance due to motion

When a tire moves over a surface covered with snow, the snow particles that are being

compressed have to be given enough dynamic energy to move them in vertical direction. The

energy needed for this will result in a force acting on the tire opposing the forward movement of

the tire. This force can be obtained by considering the kinetic energy of a snow particle being

compressed. The resulting force acting on the tire opposite to the direction of motion is given by

(Ref. 3 and 4):

∫

α ρ ·

o

f

h

h

2 2

g d

dh sin V

2

b

D (8)

Where V

g

is the ground speed and α is defined in figure 4.

With the help of figure 4 and standard trigonometric relations Eq. 8 can be solved. The result is:

( ) ( )

1

1

]

1

− −

,

_

¸

¸

+ α − +

+

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− α − α −

¸

ρ ·

2

f

2

o

2 2

f

1

R

2

f o

f

o

R

h

1 f

R

2

1

2 2

g o o

2

b

d

h h

R 2

1

R

h 2

cos h h

h

h

n cos h cos 1 V h D

2

2

f

l

(9)

Where R is the tire radius. The final snow depth is given by the relation h

f

= h

o

ρ

o

/ρ

f

(preservation of mass) assuming that all compacting in front of the tire occurs in the vertical

direction only.

The dynamic resistance D

d

appears to be directly influenced by the final snow depth and

therefore by the initial snow density according to the relation h

f

= h

o

ρ

o

/ρ

f

. To illustrate this

effect the dynamic snow resistance is defined by D

d

= k V

g

2

. Figure 5 gives an example of k as a

function of initial snow density and snow depth for a single tire of type VII, with a diameter of

0.37 m, a tire width of 0.14 m, tire pressure of 937 kPa, and a normal load of 4400 Newton. It

becomes clear that k in this example has a maximum around an initial snow density ρ

o

of 200

kg/m

3

. Below this density the influence of the low density of the snow becomes a dominant

factor (see Eq. 9). Above 200 kg/m

3

the effect of the reduced sinkage ( = h

o

- h

f

) becomes the

dominant factor (see Eq. 9). This example shows that at low densities of approximately 150-300

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NLR-TP-99240

kg/m

3

, the ground speed has a strong influence on the rolling resistance. In general the

maximum dynamic resistance is a complex function of tire radius, final snow depth, tire foot

print length, and initial snow depth. An analysis of a number of aircraft configurations showed

that in general the maximum dynamic resistance occurs at a snow density of around 200 kg/m

3

.

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NLR-TP-99240

4 Calculation of the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft rolling in dry snow

4.1 Basic approach

The total rolling resistance of an aircraft rolling along a snow-covered runway is given by:

d c r rolling

D D D D + + · (10)

In which D

r

is the rolling resistance on a dry hard surface. The equations presented in this paper

for D

c

and D

d

are for single tires. A complete aircraft has at least 3 tires, one on each main

landing gear and one on the nose landing gear. To obtain the total aircraft rolling resistance due

to snow, the resistance D

c

and D

d

for each single tire have to be calculated and summed.

The rolling resistance on dual tire landing gears (found on both nose and main gears) is simply

the resistance of both single tires added together. The interference effects between both tires as

found on dual tire configurations running through slush or water, is not likely to be present

when rolling over a snow covered surface. The rolling resistance originates from the vertical

compaction of the snow layer. Although there is some deformation perpendicular to the tire

motion direction present, this deformation occurs mainly at or below the bottom of the rut (Ref.

9) and therefore does not affect the deformation in front of the adjacent tire. Hence interference

effects can be ignored.

Another multiple-tire configuration is the bogie landing gear. After the initial compression of

the snow by the leading tires, the snow in the rut becomes stronger and a higher pressure must

be applied to compress the snow further (Ref. 4). Therefore, the trailing tires will have a lower

rolling resistance than the leading tires. Experimental data presented in Ref. 10 for tires with an

inflation pressure of 179 kPa, show that the resistance of the trailing tire can be around 20% of

the resistance of the leading tire. However, as shown in Ref. 6, aircraft tires which have an

inflation pressure in the range of 560-1400 kPa, compact the snow such that further compaction

of a significant level is only possible if the pressure of the trailing tire is at least more than 2100

kPa. The compaction of the snow in the rut by the trailing tires, which have an inflation pressure

of 560-1400 kPa, will be minimal (Ref. 6). Therefore the rolling resistance of the trailing tires

can be neglected when compared to the rolling resistance of the leading tires. Hence, the

resistance on a bogie landing gear is equal to that of a dual tire configuration.

All other multiple-tire configurations can be treated in the same manner as described above.

Unpublished experimental results have shown that the snow sprays coming from the tires are

limited to small portions, which hardly strike the airframe. The speed and the density of the

snow spray are much less than for instance water spray. Therefore, the resistance due to snow

impingement on the airframe can be neglected.

In order to calculate the rolling resistance the static tire deflection δ and tire footprint length

have to be known. In the absence of experimental data empirical equations presented in Ref. 11

and 12 can be used.

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NLR-TP-99240

4.2 Limitations of the presented method

For all calculations the following limitations apply:

• The snow depth must not exceed the tire radius. If so, there will be additional resistance due

to "bulldozing" which is not considered in the presented method.

• Great care must be taken when comparing the results of the presented method with results

obtained on surfaces with processed snow (e.g. snow that has been blown back onto the

runway by snow removal equipment). It is known that processed snow behaves in a

significantly different manner than natural snow (Ref. 13). This will result in different

values for the final snow densities than the snow densities presented in table 1. Also the

grain structure index λ for processed snow will be different than for natural snow.

• The method only applies to dry snow.

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NLR-TP-99240

5 Comparison with test data

5.1 Single tire test data

Test data of single aircraft tires rolling in dry snow are scarce. A literature search revealed only

a very limited number of sources which could be used. Unfortunately, most data cannot be used

for analysis due to the fact that processed snow was used during the tests and no natural snow.

Two data sources were found which could be used. First single tire test data from Ref. 14 are

used for comparison with the presented method. Ref. 14 provides test data obtained from a

modified BV friction test vehicle. Tests were conducted with two different tires (radius 0.35 m,

width between 0.12-0.254 m and inflation pressures between 165-550 kPa) at a limited number

of ground speeds which varied between 27-43 kts. The natural snow used in these tests had a

low density which did not exceed 130 kg/m

3

. The snow depth varied between 10 and 90 mm.

Ref. 14 also presents data of several runs made on a dry, snow-free surface. These results are

subtracted from the resistance values measured on a snow-covered surface to obtain the rolling

resistance due to snow. These results are compared with the present method and the AMJ

method. The method of JAA AMJ 25X1591 is presented in an appendix to this paper. The

results are shown in figure 6. The theoretical and experimental results for the presented method

correlate better than the AMJ method. The standard deviation for the presented method is 31%

compared to 50% of the AMJ method.

In addition to the data obtained from Ref. 14, resistance data for single tires rolling in natural

snow presented in Ref. 10 are used. The tires used had a diameter of around 0.74 m, a width of

0.27 m, and an inflation pressure of 179 kPa. All tests reported in Ref. 10 were conducted at

ground speeds of less than 6 kts. The natural snow used in these tests was of low density and did

not exceed 250 kg/m

3

. The snow depth varied between 100 and 360 mm. The comparison

between experimental results and theory is shown in figure 7. The theoretical and experimental

results for the presented method appear to correlate much better than the AMJ method. The

standard deviation for the presented method is 36% compared to 98% of the AMJ method. The

AMJ method completely underestimates the resistance.

Although in these two cases the presented method has a reasonable high standard deviation, it

can still be regarded as useful when considering the number of variables involved and the

inaccuracies of e.g. the measurements of snow depth, snow density and the resistance itself.

5.2 Full scale test data

Full scale test data of aircraft rolling on snow covered runways are available for a number of

aircraft. Most of these tests were conducted in combination with braking friction tests.

Unfortunately, a large number of the tests were not conducted in natural snow. Snow was either

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NLR-TP-99240

blown onto the runway or processed in another way before it was put on the runway surface.

Examples of tests conducted in processed snow are given in references 15, 16 and 17. These test

results cannot be used to validate the presented method. Fortunately, there are tests conducted in

natural snow. Tests in natural snow have been conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory

NLR, SAAB AB, and Dassault Aviation using a Citation II, a SAAB 2000 and a Falcon 2000

respectively. These tests were conducted as part of a project known as "CONTAMRUNWAY".

This project was funded by the European Commission under the transport RTD programme, 4

th

framework. The National Research Council Canada NRC has conducted tests in natural snow

using a Falcon 20. This work is part of the international Joint Winter Runway Friction

Measurement Program.

The test results obtained in the “CONTAMRUNWAY” project and the Joint Winter Runway

Friction Measurement Program will be compared with theoretical results of the method

presented in this paper and with the method of JAA AMJ 25X1591 in the following sections.

5.2.1 Comparison with the Citation II test data

The National Aerospace Laboratory NLR has conducted tests with a Citation II on a snow-

covered runway of Skavsta airport, in Sweden (See Ref. 18 for details). The results of these tests

will be compared with the method presented in this paper. Figure 8 shows the comparison

between experimental results, the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method (noted as AMJ), and with the

presented method. Correlation between the experimental data and presented method appears to

be good. The differences all lie within the overall accuracy of the experimental data. Note that

the error bars in figure 8 were calculated considering the data reduction method and

inaccuracies of the measured variables. The AMJ method does not correlate well with the

experimental data. At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the

experimental data and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these

low speeds.

5.2.2 Comparison with the SAAB 2000 test data

SAAB AG has conducted tests with a SAAB 2000 on a snow-covered runway of Linköping

airport, in Sweden (See Ref. 19 for details). The results of these tests will be compared with the

method presented in this paper. Figure 9 shows the comparison between experimental results,

the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method, and with the presented method. The present method predicts a

higher rolling resistance than measured. The resistance due to compression D

c

is overestimated

whereas the variation of rolling resistance with ground speed is similar to the experimental

found variation. The snow in the tests was very homogenous and constant in depth. It is

therefore unlikely that the difference between present method and experimental data is caused

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NLR-TP-99240

by variations in snow depth and/or density. During the tests the acceleration was measured. This

acceleration was then compared to the calculated acceleration on a dry runway. The difference

between both accelerations is then multiplied with the mass of the aircraft to obtain the rolling

resistance due to snow. Ref. 19 does not provide details about the accuracy of this approach.

In general the AMJ method underestimates the rolling resistance due to snow. At low speeds the

AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method

do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds.

5.2.3 Comparison with the Falcon 2000 test data

Dassault Aviation has conducted tests with a Falcon 2000 on a snow-covered runway of Ivalo

airport, in Finland (See Ref. 20 for details). The results of these tests will be compared with the

method presented in this paper. Figure 10 shows the comparison between experimental results,

the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method, and with the presented method. In figure 10 the average rolling

resistance due to snow for each test run is presented. To indicate the variation in the

experimental derived rolling resistance, the standard deviation of each data point is also plotted

in figure 10. Correlation between the experimental data and presented method appears to be

good. However, the two data points at low ground speeds are above the present method. The

standard deviation of one data point at these low ground speeds is significant, which indicates

some uncertainty for this result. The standard deviation of the other data point is much less, so

for this result it is unclear why the present method underestimates the rolling resistance at low

speeds. The AMJ method does not correlate well with the experimental data. At low speeds the

AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method

do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds.

Besides results for all tires in the snow also results for the nose gear only in snow are presented

in Ref. 20. Figure 11 shows the results of these tests compared with results of the present

method and the AMJ method. Only results at high ground speeds are available. The present

method correlates reasonable well with the experimental data. This confirms that the

interference effects between both tires can be ignored and that the rolling resistance due to snow

of a dual tire configuration is simply the resistance of both tires added together. The AMJ

method underestimates the rolling resistance of the nose gear only.

5.2.4 Comparison with the Falcon 20 test data

The Falcon 20 of the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research (IAR-NRC) was tested on a

number of contaminated runways, including snow-covered runways. Some results of these tests

are presented in Ref. 2, 15 and 19. Most of the tests were conducted in snow that was obtained

by blowing snow from the runway infields onto the test sections. Only a limited number of tests

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NLR-TP-99240

were conducted in natural snow (See Ref. 21). The results of the tests conducted in natural snow

will be compared with the method presented in this report.

Figure 12 and figure 13 show the comparison between experimental results, the JAR AMJ

25X1591 method, and the presented method. In Ref. 21 the average rolling resistance for each

run is presented. To indicate the variation in the experimental derived rolling resistance, the

standard deviation of each data point is also plotted in figure 12 and figure 13. There is a similar

variation of the rolling resistance with ground speed as for the Citation II tests. At low ground

speeds a considerable amount of resistance is present as for the Citation II results. The

presented method tends to overestimate the rolling resistance. This difference between test data

and the results of the presented method can be explained as follows. During the tests conducted

by IAR-NRC, no engine parameters were recorded. It is assumed that all tests are conducted

with idle thrust. In Ref. 21 Newton’s second law is applied to an aircraft moving on the runway.

The measured accelerations and ground speeds are combined with the data for the lift, drag,

thrust and other basic characteristics of the aircraft, to calculate the rolling resistance due to

snow. A simple equation is used to calculate the idle thrust as a function of air speed only. This

simple approach for calculating the idle thrust can introduce inaccuracies in the derived rolling

resistance. For instance if there was actually more thrust than in the idle setting during the tests,

the derived rolling resistance would be too low. Tests conducted with idle thrust settings can

also be influenced by considerable effective lags in the engine cycle during the transition from

full take-off thrust to idle thrust. Bias will be introduced into the thrust calculation when these

lags are not accounted for. If these lags in engine cycle were present in the IAR-NRC tests, the

derived rolling resistance due to snow would be too low. Note that the lags in engine cycle were

accounted for when analysing the data of the tests with the Citation II, which were also

conducted with idle thrust settings (Ref. 18). The tests presented in figure 13 were conducted

with almost identical snow conditions (snow density and depth) as the Citation II tests presented

in figure 8. The nose and main gear tires of the Falcon 20 and the Citation II are similar in size.

The Falcon 20 has a dual tire configuration on both nose and main gear whereas the Citation II

has single tires on both the nose and main gear. The rolling resistance due to snow compression

for the Falcon under the conditions noted in figure 13 should therefore be roughly twice as high

as the rolling resistance of the Citation II presented in figure 8. However, the rolling resistance

of the Falcon 20 is of the same order as that of the Citation II. The present method does predict

a rolling resistance that is almost twice as high as that for the Citation II. During the tests with

the Citation II engine parameters, needed to calculate the thrust using an engine database, were

recorded. This approach results in a much more accurate and reliable estimation of the thrust

during the tests than the simple method used by IAR-NRC. With the assumption that the results

obtained with Citation II are accurate, it can be concluded that the rolling resistance due to snow

obtained by IAR-NRC with the Falcon 20 is likely to be too low. However, a more detailed

analysis of the IAR-NRC results should be conducted to confirm these conclusions.

-19-

NLR-TP-99240

The AMJ method does not correlate well with the experimental data obtained with the Falcon

20. At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data

and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds. The

AMJ method also shows a stronger variation of the rolling resistance with the ground speed than

the experimental data.

-20-

NLR-TP-99240

6 Conclusions and recommendations

A new method for predicting the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft in dry snow is

presented in this paper. It is concluded from a comparison with test data that the presented

method is better than the method suggested in the current JAA AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14, 27

May 1994), which is used for certification. It is therefore recommended to consider the use of

the presented method for the prediction of the rolling resistance due to dry snow, instead of the

JAA AMJ 25X1591 method. However, further validation of the presented method is

recommended. Especially larger aircraft with bogie landing gears should be analysed.

-21-

NLR-TP-99240

7 Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Dr. Paul W. Richmond of the US ARMY

Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The author also thanks Mr. Jean-Marie

Wolff and Mr. Guy Renee both of Dassault Aviation and Mr. Anders Andersson of SAAB AB

for providing experimental data obtained in the CONTAMRUNWAY project. Furthermore, the

author thanks Mr. Matthew Bastian of the Canadian National Research Council, IAR for

providing experimental data from the Falcon 20 tests. Finally the author thanks Mr. Eric A.C.

Kruijsen of NLR for reviewing this paper and giving useful suggestions.

-22-

NLR-TP-99240

8 References

1. Van Es, G.W.H. et. al.,"Safety Aspects of Aircraft Performance on Wet and Contaminated

Runways," Proceedings of the 10th annual European Aviation Safety Seminar Flight Safety

Foundation, Amsterdam, March 16-18, 1998.

2. Bastian, M. et al,"Braking Friction Coefficient and Contamination Drag Obtained for a

Falcon 20 Aircraft on Winter Contaminated Runways," National Research Council Canada

NRC, LTR-FR-132, Sept. 1996.

3. Van Es, G.W.H.,”Rolling Resistance of Aircraft Tires in Dry Snow,” National Aerospace

Laboratory NLR, Technical Report TR-98165, Amsterdam, 1998.

4. Lidstrom, M., “Aircraft Rolling Resistance in Loose Dry Snow,” VTI, Report 173A, 1979.

5. Abele, G. and Gow, A.J.,”Compressibility Characteristics of Undisturbed Snow,” US

ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL Research Report 336,

1975.

6. Abele, G. and Gow, A.J.,”Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Snow,” US

ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL Report 76-21, 1976.

7. Richmond, P.W.,”Vehicle Motion Resistance Due to Snow,” ARMY Science Conference

Proceedings, 1990.

8. Mellor, M. and Smith, J.H.,”Strength Studies of Snow,” US ARMY Cold regions Research

and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL Research Report 168, 1966.

9. Richmond, P.W.,”Observations of Snow deformation by a Wheel,” Proceedings of the 5

th

ISTVS Conference, Canada, 1995.

10. Richmond, P.W.,”Motion Resistance of Wheeled Vehicles in Snow,” US ARMY Cold

regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL Report 95-7, 1995.

11. Mitchell, D.J., “Vertical Deflection Characteristics of Aircraft Tires,” ESDU Item Number

86005, 1986.

-23-

NLR-TP-99240

12. Tanner, J.A et. Al.,”Static and Yawed rolling Mechanical Properties of Two Type VII

Aircraft Tires,” NASA, TP 1863, 1981.

13. Sinha, N.K.,"Characteristics of Winter Contaminates on Runway Surfaces in North Bay -

January and February - March 1997 Tests," National Research Council Canada NRC,

LTR-ST-2159, 1998.

14. Kihlgren, B. “The Rolling Resistance of Aircraft Wheels in Dry New Snow,” VTI, Report

128, 1977 (In Swedish).

15. Bastian, M., Croll, J.B. and Martin, J.C.T,”Falcon 20 Aircraft Performance Testing on

Contaminated Runway Surfaces during the Winter of 1996/1997,” National Research

Council Canada NRC, LTR-FR-137, 1997.

16. Bastian, M. and Lamont, P.J.,”Braking Friction Coefficient and Contaminated Drag of a

B727 on Contaminated Runways,” National Research Council Canada NRC, LTR-FR-147,

TP13258E, 1998.

17. Doogan, M. Herrmann, E. and Lamont, P.J.,”Braking Friction Coefficient and

Contaminated Drag of the Dash 8 on Winter Contaminated Runways,” De Havilland Inc.,

Report DHC-D4547-97-09, 1997.

18. Van Es, G.W.H. and Giesberts, M.,”Precipitation Drag Measurements Obtained in Snow

for a Citation II,” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Technical Report TR-98192,

Amsterdam, 1998.

19. Andersson, A., “CONTAMRUNWAY Complementary Tests Turboprops,” SAAB AB,

Engineering Report 73ADS4283, 1999.

20. Wolff, J.M. and Renee, G.,”CONTAMRUNWAY Complementary Tests with a Falcon 2000

on a snow covered runway,” Dassault Aviation, 1999.

21. Bastian, M., Croll, J.B. and Martin, J.C.T,”Falcon 20 Aircraft Performance Testing on

Contaminated Runway Surfaces during the Winter of 1997/1998,” National Research

Council Canada NRC, LTR-FR-151, 1998.

-24-

NLR-TP-99240

Appendix: Calculation method of JAR AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14, 27 May 1994)

According to JAR AMJ 25X1591, calculations should take account of landing gear

displacement drag as follows.

Basic Tire Drag

The drag on a single tire is given by

D = ½ ρV

2

b d C

D

Where ρ is the density of the precipitation, d is the depth of precipitation and b is the tire width

at the surface and may be found from Eq. 3. The value of C

D

may be taken as 0.75 for an

isolated tyre.

Multiple Wheels

A typical dual wheel trailing arm arrangement shows a drag 1.6 times the single wheel drag

(including interference) whereas the factor can be up to twice the single wheel drag if the

wheels are in front of the main leg. For a typical four wheel bogie layout the drag was 3.35

times the single wheel drag (again including interference).

Note: The JAR AMJ 25X1591 uses the term “drag”, whereas in this paper the term “resistance”

is used instead of “drag”.

-25-

NLR-TP-99240

Table 1: Final snow densities used in the CRREL shallow snow mobility model (Ref. 7).

Tire pressure

kPa (psi)

Final Snow

density

kg/m

3

<150 (<22) 450

150-211 (22-31) 500

211-350 (31-50) 550

351-700 (51-101) 600

> 700 (>101) 650

-26-

NLR-TP-99240

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

∫

u

f

U

o

e

-u

2

du

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Initial snow density (kg/m

3

)

final snow density = 650 kg/m

3

final snow density = 600 kg/m

3

final snow density = 550 kg/m

3

final snow density = 500 kg/m

3

final snow density = 450 kg/m

3

Fig. 1: Solution of the integral in Eq. 7 for several final snow densities as function of

initial snow density ( λ=1.5).

-27-

NLR-TP-99240

2000

1500

1000

500

0

D

c

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Initial snow density (kg/m

3

)

Initial snow depth = 80 mm

= 60 mm

= 40 mm

= 20 mm

Fig. 2: Dc as function of initial snow density and snow depth.

-28-

NLR-TP-99240

2000

1500

1000

500

0

D

c

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Initial snow density (kg/m

3

)

λ=2.0

λ=1.0

λ=1.5

Fig. 3: Influence of grain structure index on Dc.

-29-

NLR-TP-99240

Fig. 4: Geometry of a tire rolling in snow.

-30-

NLR-TP-99240

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

k

600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Initial snow density (kg/m

3

)

Initial snow depth = 100 mm

80 mm

60 mm

40 mm

Fig. 5: k as function of initial snow density and snow depth for a single tire.

-31-

NLR-TP-99240

1000

800

600

400

200

0

E

x

p

e

r

i

m

e

n

t

a

l

s

n

o

w

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

1000 800 600 400 200 0

Predicted snow resistance (Newton)

Line of perfect correlation

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 6: Correlation of experimental data and theoretical results for a single tire (data

Ref. 14).

-32-

NLR-TP-99240

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

E

x

p

e

r

i

m

e

n

t

a

l

s

n

o

w

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

1200 800 400 0

Predicted snow resistance (Newton)

Line of perfect correlation

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 7: Correlation of experimental data and theoretical results for a single tire (data

Ref. 10).

-33-

NLR-TP-99240

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Ground speed (kts)

Test data ( ρ

o

=125 kg/m

3

, depth=40 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 8: Citation II rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =40 mm,

snow density=120 kg/m

3

).

-34-

NLR-TP-99240

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Ground speed (kts)

Test data ( ρ

o

=109 kg/m

3

, depth=87.5 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 9: SAAB 2000 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =87.5

mm, snow density=109 kg/m

3

).

-35-

NLR-TP-99240

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

160 120 80 40 0

Ground speed (kts)

Only one data point available

Test data ( ρ

o

=110 kg/m

3

, depth=100 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 10: Falcon 2000 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =100

mm, snow density=110 kg/m

3

).

-36-

NLR-TP-99240

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Ground speed (kts)

Test data ( ρ

o

=110 kg/m

3

, depth=100 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 11: Falcon 2000 nose gear rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow

depth =100 mm, snow density=110 kg/m

3

).

-37-

NLR-TP-99240

16000

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Ground speed (kts)

Test data ( ρ

o

=280 kg/m

3

, depth=58 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 12: Falcon 20 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =58 mm,

snow density=280 kg/m

3

).

-38-

NLR-TP-99240

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

R

o

l

l

i

n

g

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

d

u

e

t

o

s

n

o

w

(

N

e

w

t

o

n

)

100 80 60 40 20 0

Ground speed (kts)

Test data ( ρ

o

=130 kg/m

3

, depth=40 mm)

Present method

AMJ

Fig. 13: Falcon 20 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =40 mm,

snow density=130 kg/m

3

).

NLR-TP-99240

**A method for predicting the rolling resistance of aircraft tires in dry snow
**

G.W.H. van Es

This report is based on an article to be published in the Journal of Aircraft, December 1999, by AIAA.

Division: Issued: Classification of title:

Air Transport June 1999 unclassified

-3NLR-TP-99240

Summary

This paper describes a method for predicting the rolling resistance of aircraft tires rolling in dry snow. Knowledge about the rolling resistance on a snow-covered surface is required when complying with aircraft certification and operational rules, which account for runway surface conditions. In addition to the rules, the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) have issued Advisory Material Joint AMJ 25X1591, a document providing information, guidelines, and recommendations for calculating the rolling resistance of aircraft tires in dry snow. The analytical method presented in AMJ 25X1591 gives unsatisfactory results when compared to experimental data. In this paper a new method is presented for predicting the rolling resistance due to snow. This new method and the AMJ method are validated by comparing the results of both methods for single tires and full-scale aircraft with available experiments. In general, a much better agreement with experimental data is found for the new method than for the AMJ method.

2. 27 May 1994) (38 pages in total) .1 5.2 Limitations of the presented method Comparison with test data 5.2.4 Single tire test data Full scale test data Comparison with the Citation II test data Comparison with the SAAB 2000 test data Comparison with the Falcon 2000 test data Comparison with the Falcon 20 test data 6 7 8 Conclusions and recommendations Acknowledgements References Appendix: Calculation method of JAR AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14.2 5.2.3 4 4.1 5.-4NLR-TP-99240 Contents Nomenclature 1 2 3 Introduction Basic snow characteristics Description of the method 3.2 3.1 5 Introduction Resistance due to compression Resistance due to motion Basic approach 5 7 8 9 9 9 11 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 20 21 22 24 Calculation of the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft rolling in dry snow 4.2 5.2.3 5.1 3.

-5NLR-TP-99240 Nomenclature b Dc Dd Dr ho hf = effective tire width = rolling resistance due to compression = rolling resistance due to motion = rolling resistance on a dry hard surface = initial snow depth = final snow depth after compression = tire footprint length = pressure = tire radius = void ratio = dimensionless initial snow depth = dimensionless final snow depth = ground speed = maximum tire width = static vertical tire deflection = grain structure index = snow density = initial snow density = final snow density = density of ice = unconfined compressive strength of snow = compressive strength of ice lf p R r uo uf Vg w δ λ ρ ρo ρf ρi σ σi .

-6NLR-TP-99240 This page is intentionally left blank .

this assumption is incorrect from a physical point of view. For this reason the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) have established aircraft certification and operational rules accounting for runway surface conditions (see JAR 25X1591). AMJ 25X1591 considers a number of contaminates like water. ice. These mobility models vary from purely empirical to analytical. has shown that there is a four-fold increase in the probability of an accident for aircraft operating on wet and contaminated runways. the required takeoff ground-run distance will be longer than on a dry runway. slush. The paper is organised as follows. guidelines. The current version of AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14. Furthermore. This model gives better results for aeronautical use than the mobility models (See Ref. However. Currently a number of models are available to calculate the rolling resistance of tires in dry snow (See Ref. the JAA have issued Advisory Material Joint AMJ 25X1591. Basic snow characteristics are outlined first. This is the result of the fact that slush. where experimentally determined rolling resistance in dry snow for a Falcon 20 aircraft shows quite different results from rolling resistance calculated according to AMJ 25X1591. The presented method is then compared with experimental data from tests employing single tires and full-scale aircraft. Lidstrom’s model can only be used for low snow densities and high tire pressures. This is also clearly illustrated in Ref. Since snow is compressible and water and slush are not. standing water and snow on the runway will generate a rolling resistance that increases the total resistance on the aircraft during the ground-run. This indicates the importance of certification and operational rules for wet and contaminated runway operations. A more suitable model is developed by Lidstrom (Ref. In addition to the rules. 3).-7NLR-TP-99240 1 Introduction When taking off from a runway covered with slush. a number of approximations and assumptions are made which reduce the accuracy of the model. 2. 27 May 1994) assumes that the rolling resistance caused by dry snow on the runway. A study conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR (Ref. 1). From the study presented in Ref. wet snow and dry snow. a document providing information. Many of these models have been developed to analyse the mobility of military vehicles. A theoretical method for predicting the rolling resistance of a tire in dry snow is then described. standing water or snow. 3 it becomes clear that these mobility models are not suited for aircraft tires. 4). recommendations and acceptable means of compliance concerning take-offs and landings on wet and contaminated runways. 3). This method should be considered instead of the current method recommended by the JAA. The objective of this paper is to present an accurate method for predicting the rolling resistance of aircraft tires in dry snow which can be used for all practical snow densities. . can be calculated using the models originally developed for water and slush covered runways.

also appears to be strongly influenced by its density. Air and water vapor surround the crystals.g. Note that the values listed in table 1 refer to undisturbed snow. The compression strength of snow. or close groupings of several crystals. 5 and 6). Ref. The behaviour of undisturbed snow under loading has been studied by the US ARMY Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory CRREL (See e.g. by moving the snow with a bulldozer or running a tire over it. the snow becomes stronger than natural snow of the same density. Snow is a complicated material because of the variety of forms it can take and because it is thermodynamically unstable. Environmental influences like wind. which means that the physical properties of the snow can change with time (known as snow metamorphism). . A possible classification of these types including typical densities. temperature fluctuations. Most aircraft tires have pressures in the range of 560-1400 kPa. Whenever snow is subjected to loads e. snow is metamorphic. An adjustment to the original table was made for tires having a pressure of less than 150 kPa. Table 1 gives an overview of the final snow densities used in the CRREL snow mobility models as a function of the tire pressure. and rain can change the characteristics of snow within days and even within hours. A large number of different types of snow are known. This is a result of bond growth between the ice crystals. based on experimental data for these tires. Results of such studies show that the tire pressure has a significant influence on the final snow density after loading. As already pointed out. This means that the volume changes when the snow is loaded. Below a density of 400 kg/m3 the bearing capacity of snow is usually very low resulting in large volume changes of the snow when it is loaded. For such tire pressures the final snow density will be 600 or 650 kg/m3 according to table 1. permeable aggregate of ice grains. Density is probably the most useful single parameter of snow properties because e.-8NLR-TP-99240 2 Basic snow characteristics Snow is a porous. is given as follows: • • • • New snow (50-200 kg/m3) Powder snow (200-450 kg/m3) Compacted snow (450-700 kg/m3) Wet snow (300-700 kg/m3) All these types of snow are compressible. structural characteristics show some correlation with density.g. At higher densities higher loads are required to compress the snow. which can be single crystals. and thus its bearing capacity. This volume change becomes evident as surface compaction.

1 Introduction When a tire moves over a surface covered with dry snow. Eq. 3): V1 W= V2 ∫ p dV (1) With p the pressure exerted on the snow. Because the rolling resistance in snow due to compression is the work needed to compress the snow per distance covered. 3. This width is given by (Ref. ho is the initial snow depth. compaction of the snow occurs.1 can be rewritten into (using the relation dV=b.2 Resistance due to compression When a tire rolls over a snow-covered surface. 3): 2 δ + ho δ + ho − b =2 w w w . In general the resistance of dry snow results from two forces (Ref.-9NLR-TP-99240 3 Description of the method 3.ds. The effective tire width can be obtained through a geometrical analysis of the tire section in combination with the snow surface. 3): • • compression resistance Dc vertical displacement resistance Dd Theoretical methods for predicting both these forces will be discussed. with ds distance travelled)3. it will deform the snow. The work needed to compact the snow layer from an initial snow volume V1 to a final snow volume V2 is given by (Ref.dh. 4: ho Dc = hf ∫ b σ dh (2) In which σ is the unconfined compressive strength of snow. and hf is the snow depth after compression. The work needed for this deformation results in forces acting on the tire opposite to the direction of motion. b is the effective tire width at the point of contact between tire and snow surface.

With δ vertical tire deflection (static load) w = maximum tire width For (δ ho.

5 the effective tire width can be regarded as equal to the maximum tire width w. This results in large snow deformations in the form of compaction. especially for snow with a density of less than 400 kg/m3. This . The bearing capacity of natural snow is usually very low.w ≥ 0.

For higher snow densities the resistance decreases because the bearing capacity of the snow increases. resulting in less deformation of . Eq. For natural snow this index is equal to 1. Strength studies of snow have shown that a relation exists between the initial snow density and its unconfined compressive strength.37 m. The grain structure index λ is an empirical constant. 7 is equal to the standard error function except for the missing term 2/√π.106 N/m2). The integral in Eq. tire pressure of 937 kPa.-10NLR-TP-99240 deformation continues until there is equilibrium between the snow’s bearing capacity and the load placed on the tire. 2 and 4 results in: ho 2 D c = bσ i e − λ r d h hf ∫ (6) By introducing the relation u = λ ( h h i − 1) = λ (ρ i ρ − 1) . a width of 0. Numerical solutions of the integral in Eq. Up to a snow density of about 350 kg/m3 the resistance due to compression increases linearly with increasing initial snow density. 6 can be written as: u bσ i ρ o h o o − u 2 Dc = e du ρi λ uf ∫ (7) In which: ρ u o = λ i − 1 ρ o ρ u f = λ i − 1 ρ f and Note that ρo is the initial snow density and ρf is the final snow density after compression by the tire. which varies between 1 and 2 (Ref. and r is the void ratio defined as the ratio of void volume to the volume of solid ice grains.5 (Ref. 8). Combining Eq. 7 are presented in figure 1 for the five final snow densities of table 1.14 m. The void ratio is given by: ρ r = i −1 ρ (5) In which ρi is the density of ice (=920 kg/m3) and ρ the actual snow density. 3). The resistance due to snow compression can be obtained from Eq. λ is a grain structure index. Figure 2 gives an example of the resistance due to compression of a single tire of type VII with a diameter of 0. 7 in combination with figure 1. Around a snow density of 420 kg/m3 a maximum occurs in the resistance due to compression. and with a normal load of 4400 Newton. Ref. 8 gives the following empirical equation for the unconfined compressive strength of snow: 2 σ = σi e − λr (4) Where σi is the compressive strength of ice (=1.

To illustrate this effect the dynamic snow resistance is defined by Dd = k Vg2. The final snow depth is given by the relation hf = ho ρo/ρf (preservation of mass) assuming that all compacting in front of the tire occurs in the vertical direction only. 9). It becomes clear that k in this example has a maximum around an initial snow density ρo of 200 kg/m3. Below this density the influence of the low density of the snow becomes a dominant factor (see Eq. The result is: 2 D d = b h o ρ o Vg 2 h2 h 1 − cos 2 α1 − 2 h f cos α1 − f2 ln o R R hf + 2h 1 2 + (h o − h f ) 2 cos α1 + f − h2 − hf R 2 2 o R 2R ( ) (9) Where R is the tire radius. The dynamic resistance Dd appears to be directly influenced by the final snow depth and therefore by the initial snow density according to the relation hf = ho ρo/ρf. 3. a tire width of 0. This example shows that at low densities of approximately 150-300 . This force can be obtained by considering the kinetic energy of a snow particle being compressed. the snow particles that are being compressed have to be given enough dynamic energy to move them in vertical direction. The energy needed for this will result in a force acting on the tire opposing the forward movement of the tire. tire pressure of 937 kPa. The resulting force acting on the tire opposite to the direction of motion is given by (Ref. and a normal load of 4400 Newton. Dc is calculated as function of initial snow density for three values of λ.hf) becomes the dominant factor (see Eq. The results are shown in figure 3.3 Resistance due to motion When a tire moves over a surface covered with snow. Furthermore. Above 200 kg/m3 the effect of the reduced sinkage ( = ho . With the help of figure 4 and standard trigonometric relations Eq.14 m. A higher grain structure index indicates stronger snow which results in a lower rolling resistance due to compression.-11NLR-TP-99240 the snow. 9). with a diameter of 0. the maximum drag due to compression occurs at a higher initial snow density when the grain structure index is increased. For the same tire the variation of the grain structure index λ is analysed. Figure 5 gives an example of k as a function of initial snow density and snow depth for a single tire of type VII.37 m. 3 and 4): ho Dd = b 2 hf ∫ ρVg sin 2 2 α dh (8) Where Vg is the ground speed and α is defined in figure 4. 8 can be solved. For a snow depth of 80 mm.

In general the maximum dynamic resistance is a complex function of tire radius.-12NLR-TP-99240 kg/m3. final snow depth. tire foot print length. the ground speed has a strong influence on the rolling resistance. An analysis of a number of aircraft configurations showed that in general the maximum dynamic resistance occurs at a snow density of around 200 kg/m3. . and initial snow depth.

aircraft tires which have an inflation pressure in the range of 560-1400 kPa. The rolling resistance originates from the vertical compaction of the snow layer. After the initial compression of the snow by the leading tires. which have an inflation pressure of 560-1400 kPa. The equations presented in this paper for Dc and Dd are for single tires. 4). In order to calculate the rolling resistance the static tire deflection δ and tire footprint length have to be known. The compaction of the snow in the rut by the trailing tires. 6). All other multiple-tire configurations can be treated in the same manner as described above. The interference effects between both tires as found on dual tire configurations running through slush or water. The speed and the density of the snow spray are much less than for instance water spray. However. 9) and therefore does not affect the deformation in front of the adjacent tire. In the absence of experimental data empirical equations presented in Ref. is not likely to be present when rolling over a snow covered surface. the resistance on a bogie landing gear is equal to that of a dual tire configuration. Therefore. 10 for tires with an inflation pressure of 179 kPa. one on each main landing gear and one on the nose landing gear. 11 and 12 can be used. Experimental data presented in Ref. Hence. the resistance Dc and Dd for each single tire have to be calculated and summed. Another multiple-tire configuration is the bogie landing gear. this deformation occurs mainly at or below the bottom of the rut (Ref. Therefore. The rolling resistance on dual tire landing gears (found on both nose and main gears) is simply the resistance of both single tires added together. Hence interference effects can be ignored. Therefore the rolling resistance of the trailing tires can be neglected when compared to the rolling resistance of the leading tires. the resistance due to snow impingement on the airframe can be neglected. 6.-13NLR-TP-99240 4 Calculation of the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft rolling in dry snow 4. . which hardly strike the airframe. the snow in the rut becomes stronger and a higher pressure must be applied to compress the snow further (Ref. A complete aircraft has at least 3 tires. as shown in Ref. show that the resistance of the trailing tire can be around 20% of the resistance of the leading tire. the trailing tires will have a lower rolling resistance than the leading tires. Although there is some deformation perpendicular to the tire motion direction present. To obtain the total aircraft rolling resistance due to snow. will be minimal (Ref. compact the snow such that further compaction of a significant level is only possible if the pressure of the trailing tire is at least more than 2100 kPa.1 Basic approach The total rolling resistance of an aircraft rolling along a snow-covered runway is given by: D rolling = D r + D c + D d (10) In which Dr is the rolling resistance on a dry hard surface. Unpublished experimental results have shown that the snow sprays coming from the tires are limited to small portions.

This will result in different values for the final snow densities than the snow densities presented in table 1.g. • The method only applies to dry snow. there will be additional resistance due to "bulldozing" which is not considered in the presented method. Also the grain structure index λ for processed snow will be different than for natural snow. If so.-14NLR-TP-99240 4. snow that has been blown back onto the runway by snow removal equipment). . It is known that processed snow behaves in a significantly different manner than natural snow (Ref. 13).2 Limitations of the presented method For all calculations the following limitations apply: • • The snow depth must not exceed the tire radius. Great care must be taken when comparing the results of the presented method with results obtained on surfaces with processed snow (e.

The AMJ method completely underestimates the resistance. The results are shown in figure 6. Ref. Most of these tests were conducted in combination with braking friction tests. the measurements of snow depth. 14 provides test data obtained from a modified BV friction test vehicle.2 Full scale test data Full scale test data of aircraft rolling on snow covered runways are available for a number of aircraft. All tests reported in Ref. a width of 0. These results are compared with the present method and the AMJ method. The natural snow used in these tests had a low density which did not exceed 130 kg/m3. A literature search revealed only a very limited number of sources which could be used. 5. These results are subtracted from the resistance values measured on a snow-covered surface to obtain the rolling resistance due to snow. The snow depth varied between 10 and 90 mm. Unfortunately. Tests were conducted with two different tires (radius 0. In addition to the data obtained from Ref. Unfortunately. snow density and the resistance itself. snow-free surface. width between 0. The method of JAA AMJ 25X1591 is presented in an appendix to this paper. most data cannot be used for analysis due to the fact that processed snow was used during the tests and no natural snow. 10 were conducted at ground speeds of less than 6 kts.-15NLR-TP-99240 5 Comparison with test data 5. The standard deviation for the presented method is 36% compared to 98% of the AMJ method. Snow was either . 14.74 m. First single tire test data from Ref. Although in these two cases the presented method has a reasonable high standard deviation. 14 also presents data of several runs made on a dry. The standard deviation for the presented method is 31% compared to 50% of the AMJ method.27 m. The theoretical and experimental results for the presented method correlate better than the AMJ method. 14 are used for comparison with the presented method. it can still be regarded as useful when considering the number of variables involved and the inaccuracies of e. Two data sources were found which could be used.1 Single tire test data Test data of single aircraft tires rolling in dry snow are scarce. The natural snow used in these tests was of low density and did not exceed 250 kg/m3.35 m. The theoretical and experimental results for the presented method appear to correlate much better than the AMJ method. The comparison between experimental results and theory is shown in figure 7. and an inflation pressure of 179 kPa. The snow depth varied between 100 and 360 mm.g.254 m and inflation pressures between 165-550 kPa) at a limited number of ground speeds which varied between 27-43 kts.12-0. 10 are used. Ref. resistance data for single tires rolling in natural snow presented in Ref. a large number of the tests were not conducted in natural snow. The tires used had a diameter of around 0.

This work is part of the international Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program. The resistance due to compression Dc is overestimated whereas the variation of rolling resistance with ground speed is similar to the experimental found variation. Note that the error bars in figure 8 were calculated considering the data reduction method and inaccuracies of the measured variables. Tests in natural snow have been conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR. The test results obtained in the “CONTAMRUNWAY” project and the Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program will be compared with theoretical results of the method presented in this paper and with the method of JAA AMJ 25X1591 in the following sections. The National Research Council Canada NRC has conducted tests in natural snow using a Falcon 20. The results of these tests will be compared with the method presented in this paper. The AMJ method does not correlate well with the experimental data. The snow in the tests was very homogenous and constant in depth. the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method. Figure 9 shows the comparison between experimental results. These tests were conducted as part of a project known as "CONTAMRUNWAY". 5. These test results cannot be used to validate the presented method. It is therefore unlikely that the difference between present method and experimental data is caused . At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds. the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method (noted as AMJ).2. and with the presented method.2 Comparison with the SAAB 2000 test data SAAB AG has conducted tests with a SAAB 2000 on a snow-covered runway of Linköping airport. This project was funded by the European Commission under the transport RTD programme. in Sweden (See Ref. 19 for details). and Dassault Aviation using a Citation II. Fortunately. The results of these tests will be compared with the method presented in this paper. 4th framework. in Sweden (See Ref. The differences all lie within the overall accuracy of the experimental data. Figure 8 shows the comparison between experimental results.1 Comparison with the Citation II test data The National Aerospace Laboratory NLR has conducted tests with a Citation II on a snowcovered runway of Skavsta airport. 18 for details). a SAAB 2000 and a Falcon 2000 respectively. 16 and 17.2. 5. and with the presented method. The present method predicts a higher rolling resistance than measured. there are tests conducted in natural snow. SAAB AB. Correlation between the experimental data and presented method appears to be good. Examples of tests conducted in processed snow are given in references 15.-16NLR-TP-99240 blown onto the runway or processed in another way before it was put on the runway surface.

including snow-covered runways.2.-17NLR-TP-99240 by variations in snow depth and/or density. so for this result it is unclear why the present method underestimates the rolling resistance at low speeds. Most of the tests were conducted in snow that was obtained by blowing snow from the runway infields onto the test sections.3 Comparison with the Falcon 2000 test data Dassault Aviation has conducted tests with a Falcon 2000 on a snow-covered runway of Ivalo airport. 20 for details). The results of these tests will be compared with the method presented in this paper. 5. 19 does not provide details about the accuracy of this approach. In general the AMJ method underestimates the rolling resistance due to snow. Only results at high ground speeds are available. Figure 10 shows the comparison between experimental results. Only a limited number of tests . Correlation between the experimental data and presented method appears to be good. 20. 2. To indicate the variation in the experimental derived rolling resistance. 15 and 19. However. and with the presented method. 5. Ref. the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method. Figure 11 shows the results of these tests compared with results of the present method and the AMJ method. which indicates some uncertainty for this result. the two data points at low ground speeds are above the present method. The AMJ method underestimates the rolling resistance of the nose gear only. Some results of these tests are presented in Ref. The present method correlates reasonable well with the experimental data. in Finland (See Ref. This confirms that the interference effects between both tires can be ignored and that the rolling resistance due to snow of a dual tire configuration is simply the resistance of both tires added together. The standard deviation of the other data point is much less. Besides results for all tires in the snow also results for the nose gear only in snow are presented in Ref. At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds. The standard deviation of one data point at these low ground speeds is significant. At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds. The AMJ method does not correlate well with the experimental data.4 Comparison with the Falcon 20 test data The Falcon 20 of the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research (IAR-NRC) was tested on a number of contaminated runways. This acceleration was then compared to the calculated acceleration on a dry runway. In figure 10 the average rolling resistance due to snow for each test run is presented. the standard deviation of each data point is also plotted in figure 10. The difference between both accelerations is then multiplied with the mass of the aircraft to obtain the rolling resistance due to snow.2. During the tests the acceleration was measured.

The nose and main gear tires of the Falcon 20 and the Citation II are similar in size. 21 the average rolling resistance for each run is presented. Note that the lags in engine cycle were accounted for when analysing the data of the tests with the Citation II. This simple approach for calculating the idle thrust can introduce inaccuracies in the derived rolling resistance. the derived rolling resistance would be too low. For instance if there was actually more thrust than in the idle setting during the tests. . 21). The measured accelerations and ground speeds are combined with the data for the lift. This difference between test data and the results of the presented method can be explained as follows. drag.-18NLR-TP-99240 were conducted in natural snow (See Ref. There is a similar variation of the rolling resistance with ground speed as for the Citation II tests. The rolling resistance due to snow compression for the Falcon under the conditions noted in figure 13 should therefore be roughly twice as high as the rolling resistance of the Citation II presented in figure 8. With the assumption that the results obtained with Citation II are accurate. To indicate the variation in the experimental derived rolling resistance. In Ref. the standard deviation of each data point is also plotted in figure 12 and figure 13. which were also conducted with idle thrust settings (Ref. no engine parameters were recorded. Bias will be introduced into the thrust calculation when these lags are not accounted for. It is assumed that all tests are conducted with idle thrust. and the presented method. However. 18). A simple equation is used to calculate the idle thrust as a function of air speed only. At low ground speeds a considerable amount of resistance is present as for the Citation II results. However. Tests conducted with idle thrust settings can also be influenced by considerable effective lags in the engine cycle during the transition from full take-off thrust to idle thrust. to calculate the rolling resistance due to snow. it can be concluded that the rolling resistance due to snow obtained by IAR-NRC with the Falcon 20 is likely to be too low. a more detailed analysis of the IAR-NRC results should be conducted to confirm these conclusions. The presented method tends to overestimate the rolling resistance. the derived rolling resistance due to snow would be too low. The results of the tests conducted in natural snow will be compared with the method presented in this report. In Ref. needed to calculate the thrust using an engine database. thrust and other basic characteristics of the aircraft. The Falcon 20 has a dual tire configuration on both nose and main gear whereas the Citation II has single tires on both the nose and main gear. were recorded. During the tests with the Citation II engine parameters. If these lags in engine cycle were present in the IAR-NRC tests. Figure 12 and figure 13 show the comparison between experimental results. the rolling resistance of the Falcon 20 is of the same order as that of the Citation II. the JAR AMJ 25X1591 method. During the tests conducted by IAR-NRC. The present method does predict a rolling resistance that is almost twice as high as that for the Citation II. This approach results in a much more accurate and reliable estimation of the thrust during the tests than the simple method used by IAR-NRC. The tests presented in figure 13 were conducted with almost identical snow conditions (snow density and depth) as the Citation II tests presented in figure 8. 21 Newton’s second law is applied to an aircraft moving on the runway.

At low speeds the AMJ method gives almost no resistance whereas the experimental data and the present method do show a considerable amount of resistance at these low speeds. The AMJ method also shows a stronger variation of the rolling resistance with the ground speed than the experimental data.-19NLR-TP-99240 The AMJ method does not correlate well with the experimental data obtained with the Falcon 20. .

instead of the JAA AMJ 25X1591 method. . Especially larger aircraft with bogie landing gears should be analysed.-20NLR-TP-99240 6 Conclusions and recommendations A new method for predicting the rolling resistance of a complete aircraft in dry snow is presented in this paper. However. further validation of the presented method is recommended. It is concluded from a comparison with test data that the presented method is better than the method suggested in the current JAA AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14. 27 May 1994). which is used for certification. It is therefore recommended to consider the use of the presented method for the prediction of the rolling resistance due to dry snow.

-21NLR-TP-99240 7 Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Dr. .C. Matthew Bastian of the Canadian National Research Council. Richmond of the US ARMY Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Eric A. Anders Andersson of SAAB AB for providing experimental data obtained in the CONTAMRUNWAY project. Furthermore. Jean-Marie Wolff and Mr. Guy Renee both of Dassault Aviation and Mr. IAR for providing experimental data from the Falcon 20 tests. Paul W. Finally the author thanks Mr. Kruijsen of NLR for reviewing this paper and giving useful suggestions. The author also thanks Mr. the author thanks Mr.

LTR-FR-132. and Smith.. March 16-18.” Proceedings of the 5th ISTVS Conference. D. 4.W.” US ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory..J.. 1979.W. Amsterdam.W.J. 1998. 3. CRREL Research Report 168. 1995. Technical Report TR-98165.” US ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. 1986. 1966.. 1975. P.” US ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. et al.”Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Snow. Mellor. Amsterdam.”Rolling Resistance of Aircraft Tires in Dry Snow. A. CRREL Report 95-7. 8.-22NLR-TP-99240 8 References 1.” US ARMY Cold regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.”Motion Resistance of Wheeled Vehicles in Snow. “Aircraft Rolling Resistance in Loose Dry Snow. 6. Van Es.W. CRREL Research Report 336. G.” ARMY Science Conference Proceedings."Safety Aspects of Aircraft Performance on Wet and Contaminated Runways. A. Mitchell. CRREL Report 76-21.H. 1998. M. Richmond. M. 1996. G. 11... 10. P. and Gow. Bastian."Braking Friction Coefficient and Contamination Drag Obtained for a Falcon 20 Aircraft on Winter Contaminated Runways.W. G. et. . 1976. G.. Richmond. Van Es.. 9. and Gow..” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR. 5. Abele. J. 2. Lidstrom. Report 173A.” ESDU Item Number 86005. Sept. 7. P. M.” VTI." Proceedings of the 10th annual European Aviation Safety Seminar Flight Safety Foundation. “Vertical Deflection Characteristics of Aircraft Tires.H." National Research Council Canada NRC. 1995.”Vehicle Motion Resistance Due to Snow.”Observations of Snow deformation by a Wheel. Richmond. Abele.”Strength Studies of Snow.”Compressibility Characteristics of Undisturbed Snow..H. 1990. Canada. al.J.

” National Research Council Canada NRC. Report DHC-D4547-97-09. 1998. 1981.” National Research Council Canada NRC. J.K. Technical Report TR-98192.”Braking Friction Coefficient and Contaminated Drag of a B727 on Contaminated Runways. and Renee. Herrmann.March 1997 Tests.H. 1999. 1997. Bastian. Tanner. M.”Falcon 20 Aircraft Performance Testing on Contaminated Runway Surfaces during the Winter of 1996/1997. M.T. J. Kihlgren. . 1998.. 19. 1997. 20. 17."Characteristics of Winter Contaminates on Runway Surfaces in North Bay January and February . “The Rolling Resistance of Aircraft Wheels in Dry New Snow. J. E. 13. J.” De Havilland Inc. 16.W. 14. J.M. 1999..”Precipitation Drag Measurements Obtained in Snow for a Citation II. LTR-FR-151. 1998. M. LTR-ST-2159.” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR. Report 128. 1998.”CONTAMRUNWAY Complementary Tests with a Falcon 2000 on a snow covered runway.C. N. and Lamont. TP 1863. G. 18. and Lamont. Wolff. J.”Braking Friction Coefficient and Contaminated Drag of the Dash 8 on Winter Contaminated Runways.” SAAB AB. 15.. Andersson. and Martin. M. A. Engineering Report 73ADS4283. P. G.. Croll. M. “CONTAMRUNWAY Complementary Tests Turboprops. Amsterdam...”Falcon 20 Aircraft Performance Testing on Contaminated Runway Surfaces during the Winter of 1997/1998.. Van Es. Sinha.J. Bastian. Bastian.” VTI.A et. 21.. Doogan. B.C.B.” NASA.J. Al.-23NLR-TP-99240 12. 1977 (In Swedish).” Dassault Aviation. LTR-FR-137. Croll. TP13258E.T.”Static and Yawed rolling Mechanical Properties of Two Type VII Aircraft Tires. LTR-FR-147... and Martin. P." National Research Council Canada NRC. and Giesberts.B.” National Research Council Canada NRC.

3.75 for an isolated tyre. d is the depth of precipitation and b is the tire width at the surface and may be found from Eq.35 times the single wheel drag (again including interference). calculations should take account of landing gear displacement drag as follows. Basic Tire Drag The drag on a single tire is given by D = ½ ρV2 b d CD Where ρ is the density of the precipitation. whereas in this paper the term “resistance” is used instead of “drag”. . Multiple Wheels A typical dual wheel trailing arm arrangement shows a drag 1. For a typical four wheel bogie layout the drag was 3.6 times the single wheel drag (including interference) whereas the factor can be up to twice the single wheel drag if the wheels are in front of the main leg. 27 May 1994) According to JAR AMJ 25X1591.-24NLR-TP-99240 Appendix: Calculation method of JAR AMJ 25X1591 (Change 14. The value of CD may be taken as 0. Note: The JAR AMJ 25X1591 uses the term “drag”.

-25NLR-TP-99240 Table 1: Final snow densities used in the CRREL shallow snow mobility model (Ref. 7). Tire pressure kPa (psi) <150 (<22) 150-211 (22-31) 211-350 (31-50) 351-700 (51-101) > 700 (>101) Final Snow density 3 kg/m 450 500 550 600 650 .

3 final snow density = 550 kg/m 0. 7 for several final snow densities as function of initial snow density ( λ=1. 1: Solution of the integral in Eq.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Initial snow density (kg/m ) Fig. 3 600 700 .5).2 final snow density = 500 kg/m 0.-26NLR-TP-99240 0.4 3 ∫U u o e du -u 2 f final snow density = 600 kg/m 3 0.5 final snow density = 650 kg/m 0.1 3 3 final snow density = 450 kg/m 3 0.

2: Dc as function of initial snow density and snow depth.-27NLR-TP-99240 2000 Initial snow depth = 80 mm 1500 = 60 mm 1000 = 40 mm Dc (Newton) 500 = 20 mm 0 0 100 200 300 400 Initial snow density (kg/m ) Fig. 3 500 600 .

0 1500 Dc (Newton) 1000 λ=1.0 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 Initial snow density (kg/m ) Fig.-28NLR-TP-99240 2000 λ=1. 3: Influence of grain structure index on Dc.5 λ=2. 3 500 600 .

.-29NLR-TP-99240 Fig. 4: Geometry of a tire rolling in snow.

3 500 600 .4 80 mm k 0.3 60 mm 0.6 Initial snow depth = 100 mm 0.7 0. 5: k as function of initial snow density and snow depth for a single tire.1 0.0 0 100 200 300 400 Initial snow density (kg/m ) Fig.2 40 mm 0.-30NLR-TP-99240 0.5 0.

14). 6: Correlation of experimental data and theoretical results for a single tire (data Ref.-31NLR-TP-99240 1000 Experimental snow resistance (Newton) 800 600 Present method AMJ Line of perfect correlation 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Predicted snow resistance (Newton) Fig. .

7: Correlation of experimental data and theoretical results for a single tire (data Ref.-32NLR-TP-99240 1400 Experimental snow resistance (Newton) Present method AMJ 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 400 800 1200 Line of perfect correlation Predicted snow resistance (Newton) Fig. 10). .

depth=40 mm) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Present method AMJ 3 Ground speed (kts) Fig. 8: Citation II rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =40 mm. snow density=120 kg/m3). .-33NLR-TP-99240 3500 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) Test data ( ρo =125 kg/m .

depth=87. 9: SAAB 2000 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =87.5 mm) Present method AMJ 3 20 40 60 80 100 120 Ground speed (kts) Fig.-34NLR-TP-99240 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 Test data ( ρo =109 kg/m . snow density=109 kg/m3). .5 mm.

-35NLR-TP-99240 20000 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) Test data ( ρo =110 kg/m . snow density=110 kg/m3). . depth=100 mm) Present method AMJ 3 15000 10000 5000 Only one data point available 0 0 40 80 120 160 Ground speed (kts) Fig. 10: Falcon 2000 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =100 mm.

. 11: Falcon 2000 nose gear rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =100 mm.-36NLR-TP-99240 5000 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) Test data ( ρo =110 kg/m . snow density=110 kg/m3). depth=100 mm) Present method AMJ 3 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Ground speed (kts) Fig.

depth=58 mm) Present method AMJ 3 20 40 60 80 100 120 Ground speed (kts) Fig. . 12: Falcon 20 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =58 mm.-37NLR-TP-99240 16000 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 Test data ( ρo =280 kg/m . snow density=280 kg/m3).

13: Falcon 20 rolling resistance on a snow covered surface (snow depth =40 mm. snow density=130 kg/m3). depth=40 mm) Present method AMJ 3 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ground speed (kts) Fig. .-38NLR-TP-99240 5000 Rolling resistance due to snow (Newton) 4000 Test data ( ρo =130 kg/m .

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