This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
USER/PRIVILEGED EXEC COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
clear frame-relay-inarp configure terminal copy running-config startup-config copy startup-config running-config disable disconnect enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <all supported interfaces> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <all supported interfaces> show configuration show controllers show frame-relay lmi show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show history show interfaces show interfaces <all supported interfaces> (including bri0:1, bri0:2) show ip access-lists show ip interface show ip interface <all supported interfaces>
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
show ip route show ipx route show ipx servers show isdn active show isdn history show isdn status show running-config show startup-config show version terminal editing terminal history terminal history size <size> terminal no editing terminal no history traceroute <ip address>
GLOBAL CONFIGURATION COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
access-list <1-99> deny/permit access-list <1-99> deny/permit <wildcard mask> access-list <1-99> deny/permit <address> banner <banner text> banner exec <banner text> banner incoming <banner text> banner login <banner text> banner motd <banner text> cdp holdtime <time> cdp timer <time> cdp run dialer-list <1-10> protocol ip enable password <password> enable secret <password> end exit
<address> <address> host
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
help hostname <name> interface bri <number> interface ethernet <number> (with subinterfaces) interface serial <number> (with subinterfaces) ip route <address> <mask> <interface> <next hop address> ip routing ipx routing isdn switch-type <type> line console 0 line vty <number> line vty <number> <number> router rip router igrp <AS number> router eigrp <AS number> router ospf <process id>
ETHERNET INTERFACE COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • •
cdp enable description <LINE> exit help ip access-group <number> in/out ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown
SERIAL INTERFACE COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clock rate <number> description <LINE> encapsulation frame-relay encapsulation hdlc encapsulation ppp exit frame-relay interface-dlci <number> frame-relay inverse-arp frame-relay map ip <address> <dlci> help ip access-group <1-99> ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown BRI COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • description <LINE> dialer fast-idle dialer idle-timeout dialer map ip <address> <string> dialer string <string> dialer-group <number> exit help ip address <address> <mask> isdn spid1 <string> <string> isdn spid2 <string> <string> isdn switch-type <type> shutdown LINE/CONSOLE COMMANDS 4 .
• • • • exit help login password <password> ROUTER COMMANDS • network SWITCH USER/PRIVILEGED MODE COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • configure configure terminal disable enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show history show interfaces show interfaces <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show ip show running-config show spanning-tree show spanning-tree <number> show version show vlan show vlan <number> show vlan-membership 5 .
switchport access vlan <number> vlan <number> vlan <number> name <name> vtp client/server/transparent SWITCH ETHERNET/FAST ETHERNET COMMANDS • • • • • • cdp enable description <WORD> exit help shutdown vlan-membership static <number> 6 ..• show vtp SWITCH GLOBAL COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cdp holdtime <number> cdp timer <number> enable password level 15 <password> end exit help hostname <name> interface <ethernet/fastethernet port> ip address <address> <mask> ip default-gateway <address> spanning-tree <number> ..
and error correction. You should also know the following facts about connectionless communication: • • • • Connectionless services assume an existing link between devices and allow transmission without extensive session establishment.CONNECTION-ORIENTED VS. Session termination (connection release). Session maintenance (data transfer). The three phases of connection-oriented communication are: 1. because it is the most widely used method for talking about network communications. error-free communications are more important than speed. They perform session initiation. 2. A connection-oriented protocol is a good choice where reliable. However. Connectionless communications include no error checking or acknowledgement mechanisms. They identify and retransmit lost packets. or acknowledgements. efficient communication. CONNECTIONLESS • • • Connection-oriented protocols are reliable. not a model of actual physical layers. session establishment. Session initialization (connection establishment). data errors and packet loss might occur. However. Connectionless communications use no error checking. error detection. and 3. Using the OSI model to discuss networking concepts has the following advantages: • • • Provides a common language or reference point between network professionals Divides networking tasks into logical layers for easier comprehension Allows specialization of features at different levels 7 . USES OF THE OSI MODEL You should be familiar with the OSI model. remember that it is only a theoretical model that defines standards for programmers and network administrators. Connectionless protocols allow quick.
and compression Data format and exchange Keeps data streams separate (session identification) Set up. • • • OSI layers are theoretical and do not actually perform real functions. OSI MODEL LAYERS L Description and keywords • Protocols • • • • • • Encapsul ation Messages and Packets User interface Communication partner identification A • HTTP Telnet FTP TFTP • P • Data format (file formats) Encryption. Packets AVI ASCII. WAV SQL NFS ASP RPC X window TCP (connection- • • • • • • • • S • Packets T • Segments . PICT MPEG. BMP. WMV.• • • Aids in troubleshooting Promotes standards interoperability between networks and devices Provides modularity in networking features (developers can change features without changing the entire approach) However. Different protocols within the stack perform different functions that help send or receive the overall message. 8 . maintain. translation. EBCDIC MIDI. and tear down communication sessions Reliable (connection-oriented) and unreliable (connectionless) • • • SNMP JPEG. TIFF. you must remember the following limitations of the OSI model. Industry implementations rarely have a layer-to-layer correspondence with the OSI layers.
11 Frames (Wireless) WAN protocols: HDLC. bit synchronization) Physical topology (network layout) Datagram s.a. Frame Relay. PPP. 802.• • • communications End-to-end flow control Port and socket numbers • oriented) • N • Segmentation. connectors.35 (modem Bits signaling) Cat5 RJ45 • • • • • • • • • P • 9 . hardware address Logical network topology Media access Flow control o Acknowledgements o Buffering o Windowing Parity and CRC Move bits across media Cables. a.k. pin positions Electrical signals (voltage. ATM EIA/TIA 232 (serial signaling) V.2 (LLC). 802.5 (Token Ring). and UDP (connectionless) Packets IP IPX AppleTalk Packets and Datagram s • • • • • • • • • D • • DECNET LAN protocols: 802. and combination Logical addresses Path determination (identification and selection) Routing packets Convert bits into bytes and bytes into frames MAC address. 802.3 (Ethernet). sequencing. burned in address (BIA). ISDN.
0.255.255.255.0 C 255.255.255. The subnet mask is used to separate the network and host addresses.255.0 to 126. The following table shows the default address class for each IP address range.255.255 240.0.255.0.255 First Octet Range 1-126 (00000001--01111111 binary) 128-191 (10000000--10111111 binary) 192-223 (11000000--11011111 binary) 224-239 (11100000--11101111 binary) 240-255 (11110000--11111111 binary) Default Subnet Mask 255.0.255 192.255 22.214.171.124.0 to 126.96.36.199.0. IP addresses have a default class.0 B 255.255. Class Address Range A 188.8.131.52 D n/a E n/a 10 .0 to 255. The address class identifies the range of IP addresses and a default subnet mask used for the range.255.255 224.0.IP ADDRESS CLASSES A single IP address identifies both the network address and the host address.0.0 to 239.0.0 to 191.
255 192.77.52--Specific host on a Class B network 0.0.233--Specific host on a Class A network 0.0.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class A network 115.777.) An address with all bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 refers to a host on "this" network.255.255.255.0 All bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 0.255.168.0 Class B network address: 154.0 to 10.0.0 to 192.0. SPECIAL ADDRESSES The following address ranges have been reserved for private use.168. Class B addresses give you 65.0.255. Class C addresses give you 254 hosts per network.69--Specific host on a Class C network An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 refers to the network itself.0.90. Examples: • • • IP Address 0.0 to 172.When using the default subnet mask for an IP address.0 Class C network address: 221. (Some older routers use this address as a broadcast address.214 hosts per network. • • • 10.255.534 hosts per network.0.0.0.77.31.0. Examples: to 1 • 184.108.40.206.0 All bits of the host An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 1 is a portion of an address set broadcast message for all hosts on the network.0. you have the following number of available host addresses: • • • Class A addresses give you 16.255 Use This network address is used by routers to specify the "default" route.0.0.0.244. Examples: All bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 • • • Class A network address: 115.16.255 172. Using a generic value reduces the number of routing table entries.65.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class B network 11 .0 • 154.
This caused two problems: • Collisions occur when two devices transmit at the same time.1 refers to the local host. The Network layer converts the segments into packets. Upper layers--data Transport layer--segments Network layer--packets containing logical addresses Data Link layer--framing that adds physical addresses Physical layer--bits HALF. The Data Link layer converts the packets into frames.0 This network address is reserved for the loopback address.255 SERVICE DATA UNITS AND ENCAPSULATION Encapsulation is the process of breaking a message into packets. adding logical network and device addresses. 12 .0. 2. adding physical device addressing information. adding sequencing and control information.244.0. and transmitting the message through the transmission media. 5.0.255.AND FULL-DUPLEX With the original Ethernet standards. 4.0. Devices needed to be able to detect and recover from collisions.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class C network 220.127.116.11. 3. You need to know the following five-step data encapsulation process: 1. 4. The Physical layer converts the frames into bits for transmission across the transmission media.0 255. Upper layers prepare the data to be sent through the network. all devices shared the same cable.0 222.) The address 127. The following short descriptions can help you remember the steps of the data encapsulation process: 1. 5. • 127. adding control and other information.65.90. This address is used to indicate a broadcast message intended for all hosts on this network.255.65. 2. The Transport layer breaks the data into pieces called segments. 3. (Note: This address is not included in the range of Class A or Class B addresses.
• Each device could either transmit or receive data at any given time. Using switches. devices with collision detection turned off operate in full-duplex mode. etc.) • Requires switches with dedicated switch ports (a single device per port) Halfduplex Fullduplex BRIDGE FACTS You should understand the following concepts relating to the operation of bridges. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. • • • • Bridges connect two media segments that use the same protocol. Devices with collision detection turned on operate in half-duplex mode. Bridges examine the source address to determine the media segment of network devices. 100 Mbps for 100BaseT. and can begin transmitting data as soon as they have data to send. you can turn off collision detection. With a single device connected to a switch port. These two problems were solved in the following ways: • • Using twisted pair cable.) • Devices connected to a hub must use half-duplex communication • Collision detection is turned off • The device can send and receive at the same time Double the rated bandwidth (20 Mbps • Requires full-duplex capable NICs for 10BaseT. etc. devices are given a dedicated communication path. Bridges maintain a table of device addresses and their corresponding segments. Devices can transmit and receive data simultaneously. Devices can use different wires to send and receive data (allowing them to do both simultaneously). With these problems solved. Mode Description Bandwidth • Collision detection is turned on • The device can only send or receive at any given time Up to the rated bandwidth (10 Mbps for 10BaseT. collisions are eliminated. 13 . 200 Mbps for 100BaseT. multiple strands of wires are combined into a single cable. Devices were not able to both send and receive at the same time (much like using a one-lane road for traffic in two different directions). This meant that the device was either receiving data or listening for incoming data.
You can connect a single device to a switch port or multiple devices to a switch port by using a hub. • • At least 80% of network traffic should stay within a segment. • • Switches create separate collision domains. When designing the placement of bridges on the network. 14 . No more than 20% of network traffic should pass through the bridge to another segment. Switches provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices (if dedicated ports are used). Switches build a forwarding database in a manner similar to bridges. follow the 80/20 rule. Bridges have the following limitations: • • • • Bridges cannot link multiple architectures because different frame types are used. Messages within a media segment are prevented from crossing over to another segment. Bridges offer the following advantages: • • • • Bridges prevent wasted bandwidth by eliminating unnecessary traffic between segments. Bridges forward packets for multiple upper-layer protocols. Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. Bridges increase the maximum network length. Bridges can link segments with dissimilar transmission media and media access methods.• • Each segment connected by a bridge can have the same network address. SWITCH FACTS Switches provide functionality similar to bridges. Use bridges to isolate traffic to a segment. but typically on a larger scale and with higher performance. Bridges cannot translate upper-layer protocols. Switches examine the source and destination Data Link (MAC) address in each packet to build the database and make forwarding decisions. Switches offer the following advantages over a non-switched network. or to prevent unwanted traffic from crossing over to other segments. • • • • Switches are associated with the Data Link layer of the OSI Model. Bridges cannot forward packets to different networks based on the network address. Bridges do not filter broadcast packets. or to slow WAN links.
The frame is not addressed to the bridge. Switches can mix 10 Mbps. A network administrator can also program the device database manually.• • • • • • Switches can be used to provide collision-free networking (i. If the source address is not in the forwarding database. Switches induce less latency than other segmentation solutions. The frame's integrity has been verified (a valid CRC).e. the packet is forwarded to the appropriate port if the port is different than the one on which it was received. Switches can simultaneously switch multiple messages. The following table compares the different methods the switch uses to forward packets (Cisco switches support all three methods). Switches enable full-duplex communication. How switches forward packets depends on the switch type. o If the destination address is not in the database. the packet is sent out all ports except for the one on which it was received. The destination address is then examined. o Broadcast packets are forwarded to all ports except the one on which they were received. o If the destination address is in the database. Method Store-andforward Characteristics Store-and-forward switches: • • Receive the entire frame.and 100 Mbps-capable devices (if the switch is a 100 Mbps switch). BRIDGE AND SWITCH FORWARDING FACTS Both bridges and switches build a forwarding database. The port it came in on is also recorded. • • • The frame contains upper-layer data (data from the LLC sublayer on up). an entry for the address is made in the database. Bridges and switches use the following process to dynamically build the forwarding database: • • The process begins by examining the source address of an incoming packet. Frames with errors are 15 . Bridges and switches can automatically learn about devices to build the forwarding database. Ethernet switches can be implemented without re-cabling. The database is a list of Data Link (MAC) addresses and the port used to reach the device. Verify the frame's integrity (check the CRC). if only one device is connected to each switch port). Transparent bridges forward packets only if the following conditions are met.
but not as great as store-and-forward switching. updates to the routing table) are communicated between routers 16 . Introduce some latency. Introduce more latency (delay) than cut-through switches. Cut-through switches: Cut-through • • • Read the destination device address.• • not forwarded. Forward the packet without verifying frame integrity. Forward the frame to the destination device. Are faster than store-and-forward switches (less latency). The exact format of these exchanges is based on the routing protocol. They can automatically switch to store-and-forward if the number of errors on a port exceeds a configurable threshold. ROUTING FACTS Routers can forward packets through an internetwork by maintaining routing information in a database called a routing table. Fragment-free switches: • • • • Fragment-free Read the first 64 bytes of a frame. The routing protocol determines: • • • The information contained in the routing table How messages are routed from one network to another How topology changes (i. The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and routing information about that network such as: • • • • • Interface Routing Path Next Hop Route Metric (Cost) Route Timeout Routers build and maintain their routing database by periodically sharing information with other routers.e. Forward non-fragmented frames. Newer switches can monitor each port and determine which method to use. Verify that the packet is not a fragment.
By segmenting a LAN. you will need to consider the collision and broadcast domains on the network. Both the source and destination Network and Data Link addresses are typically contained in the packet. The Network address contains both a logical network address and a logical device address. and reduce congestion. MAC (Data Link) addresses are contained in the Ethernet frame header. SEGMENTATION FACTS LAN segmentation is the process of dividing the network to overcome problems such as excessive collisions. The term convergence is used to describe the condition when all routers have the same (or correct) routing information. Data Link addresses in the packet change as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. MESSAGE ROUTING FACTS Keep in mind the following points about how a packet is addressed as it travels through an internetwork. Both Data Link physical addresses and Network logical addresses are used. As you segment the network. IP (Network) addresses are contained in the IP header. Network addresses remain constant as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. or heavy network traffic. 17 . maximize bandwidth. The Data Link destination address indicates the physical address of the next hop on the route. the Data Link layer address is the MAC address. broadcast traffic. On an IP network.Regardless of the method used. The Network destination addresses indicate the address of the final destination device. changes in routing information take some time to be propagated to all routers on the network. A router uses the logical network address specified at the Network layer to forward messages to the appropriate LAN segment. the IP address is the Network layer address. you can increase network performance. • • • • • • • • • On an Ethernet network.
• • • Route packets between separate networks Modify packet size through fragmentation and combination Route packets based on service address Choose a router if you need to: • • • • • Connect your network to a WAN (such as the Internet) Filter broadcast traffic (prevent broadcast storms) Connect two separate networks that use the same protocol Improve performance in the event of a topology change (routers recover faster than bridges or switches) Reduce the number of devices within a domain (increase the number of broadcast domains) 18 . the amount of broadcast traffic on a segment also increases. A broadcast domain is any network or subnetwork where computers can receive frame-level broadcasts from their neighbors. and responded to. Device Characteristics Router Routers perform the following functions that are not performed by bridges or switches. The main differences between routers. As you add devices to a network segment. Segmentation may increase the number of both the collision and broadcast domains. and then identify the device that is best suited for that situation. In this condition. Device Collision Domain All devices connected to the hub are in the Hub same collision domain All devices connected to a single port are in Bridge or the same collision domain (each port is its Switch own collision domain) Router All devices connected to a single interface are in the same collision domain Broadcast Domain All devices are in the same broadcast domain All devices connected to the bridge or the switch are in the same broadcast domain All devices accessible through an interface (network) are in the same broadcast domain In considering a network expansion solution. Collisions naturally increase as the number of devices in a collision domain increase. switches. it is important to identify the connectivity problems you need to resolve. Faulty devices or improper configuration conditions can lead to a broadcast storm. Membership within collision or broadcast domains differs depending on the connection device used.• • A collision domain is any network or subnetwork where devices share the same transmission medium and where packets can collide. regenerated. Note: A special condition called a broadcast storm happens when broadcast traffic is sent. and bridges is the range of services each performs and the OSI layer at which they operate. the amount of broadcast traffic consumes network bandwidth and prevents normal communications.
In general. • • • Use a bridge to segment the network (divide network traffic) and to provide fault tolerance. Ethernet to token ring) Choose a switch if you need to: • • Switch • • • • Provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices Reduce collisions by decreasing the number of devices in a collision domain (i. or connect between different networks. create multiple collision domains) Implement full-duplex communication Connect two network segments or devices using the same protocol Provide improved performance over a current bridged network Switch traffic without the cost or administration involved with routers Choose a bridge if you need to: • • • • • Bridge Isolate data traffic to one network segment Route traffic from one segment to another (with the same network ID) Link unlike physical media (e. implement security. choose a switch instead. twisted pair and coaxial Ethernet) of the same architecture type Link segments that use the same protocol Create segments without the expense and administration of routers In most cases where you might use a bridge. Use a switch to reduce collisions and offer guaranteed bandwidth between devices.e.g.• • • Enforce network security Dynamically select the best route through an internetwork Connect two networks of different architectures (e. 19 . Use a router to filter broadcast messages. follow these guidelines to make decisions about the appropriate connectivity device. STARTUP FACTS The following graphic details the process used to boot the router.g.
SETUP MODE FACTS If the router is brand new. it runs through the following boot process. A setting of 0x2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router). The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router's hardware. The router can load a configuration file from: 1. Therefore. If a configuration file is not found. ROM (used if no other source is found) 3. it immediately enters Setup mode. TFTP server 3. NVRAM (startup-configuration file) 2. the router starts in setup mode. it has no startup-config file. it will check the following locations for the IOS image: 1. If the startupconfig file is missing or does not specify a location. guided routine that asks you a series of questions and uses your responses to make basic configuration entries. This happens when you erase the current startup-config file. 20 . 2. Use the setup command from privileged mode. or when you boot a new router. There are two ways to enter setup mode: • • Boot the router without the startup-config file. The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. the System OK LED indicator comes on.When you turn the router on. 1. Setup mode is a special. TFTP server 3. When the POST completes successfully. when it boots. Flash (the default location) 2.
.. and all interfaces are in shutdown mode until they're enabled. To . Note: By default. To. It is context sensitive.... The information you've entered to that point will not be saved. new Cisco routers have no passwords set. COMMAND HELP FACTS Help is available in all router modes. You do not need to retype the command after you ask for help on it... so the information you see depends on what you are doing.. WORD (in caps) Type a one-word response LINE (in caps) Type a multiple-word response keyword <0-4567> <0-FFFFFF> <cr> A.You can exit setup mode without answering all the questions by pressing <Ctrl> + C.B. Use. Cisco bases this on the mode you are in and the words or partial words you type with the ?.D Identifies a specific keyword that must be typed as shown Enter a number within the range in brackets Enter a hexadecimal number within the range in brackets The command is complete as typed. When you use Help to display the possible keywords for a command.. When you see. Show list of all commands available in the current ? mode Show commands that begin with specific letter(s) xx? (no space between the letter and ?) Show keywords for a command Get the full command from a partial command command ? (space between command and ?) partial command + <tab> (no space) Note: Typing ? acts as a return. Supply.. 21 . press Enter to execute the command Enter an IP address EDITING FEATURES FACTS This feature uses the same keystrokes as UNIX emacs editing. The following lists summarize the router advanced editing features.. Use this . and repeats the last command you entered after the Help information displays..C. you will see the following types of items.
To . the IOS automatically saves the last 10 commands in the command history buffer. . COMMAND HISTORY COMMAND LIST By default. The command history is specific to the configuration mode you are in. <Ctrl> + A Move cursor to beginning of line <Ctrl> + E Move cursor to the end of line <Ctrl> + Z Quit a configuration mode <Ctrl> + B Move cursor back one character <Esc> + B Move cursor back one word <Esc> + F Move the cursor ahead one word <Ctrl> + P or Up arrow Show the previous command <Ctrl> + N or Down arrow Show the next command terminal history Turn the command history on terminal no history Turn the command history off terminal history size <number> Set the size of the history buffer show history Show all the commands in the history buffer ROUTER MEMORY Be sure you understand the difference between the following types of router storage. As you type. . smaller-scale version of the operating system (IOS) memory) software. commands longer than the command line appear to scroll under the prompt.<Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + B Left arrow <Ctrl> + F Right arrow <Esc> + B <Esc> + F terminal editing terminal no editing Move to the beginning of the line Move to the end of the line Go back one character Go forward one character Go back one word Move forward one word Turn advanced editing on Turn advanced editing off When you are in advanced editing mode. the $ indicator appears after the prompt. Memory Type Characteristics Preprogrammed. . Use . an older. . non-writable memory containing the bootstrap startup ROM (read-only program. and the Power-on Self-Test (POST) program 22 .
Use . use the copy command in privileged EXEC mode. you must specific the location (flash or flash <filename> rom) of the IOS image file as well as the IOS image file name. . The contents of volatile memory (RAM) are lost when the router is powered down.Non-volatile but programmable memory containing the proprietary Cisco operating system (IOS) images RAM (random Volatile memory containing the running operating system and current access memory) (unsaved) configuration information NVRAM (non. .Non-volatile but persistent memory that contains the backup copy of the volatile RAM) startup configuration (startup-config) file and virtual configuration register Flash The contents of non-volatile memory (such as ROM. When using Router(config)#tftp-server this command. To . COPY COMMAND LIST The router can load a configuration file from: • • NVRAM (startup-configuration file by default value 0x2102) TFTP server Changes to the configuration are stored in RAM in the running-config file. To save your configuration changes permanently. . . flash. and to load different versions of the configuration files from various locations. and NVRAM) remain when the router is powered off (however. Save the contents of the running-config file to Router#copy run start NVRAM Router#copy start run Copy the startup-config file into RAM Save the contents of the running-config file to a TFTP Router#copy run tftp server Save the contents of the startup-config file to a TFTP Router#copy start tftp server Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp start NVRAM Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp run RAM Configure a Cisco router as a TFTP server. You can also use the erase command to delete the configuration files--but be very careful not to erase files you need! 23 . you must modify the configuration registry and NVRAM during password recovery).
2 and below) Router(config)#boot system flash version stored in ROM at boot. or replace an IOS image.0 and above Router#copy flash tftp Router#copy tftp flash Back up (copy) the IOS image from Flash to the TFTP server. bootflash: (IOS versions 12. . . upgrade. Restore the IOS image from backup on the TFTP server to Flash. . Identify an IOS image file on a TFTP server to use at boot.Use . 24 . Delete the contents of Flash memory (deletes the IOS image) Erase the contents of the startup-config file Delete the contents of NVRAM (which also erases startup-config) Restarts the router You can also use the following commands to manage system files: Use . Router(config)#boot system flash <IOSfilename> Router(config)#boot system tftp <IOSfilename> <tftp_address> To . . . Identify an IOS image file in flash to use at boot. Use . Router(config)#boot system rom (IOS versions Specify to use the limited IOS 11. Display information about hardware and firmware including the configuration register value Copy configuration information from another source (like NVRAM) Configure information into the RAM of a router IOS BOOT AND UPGRADE LOCATION COMMAND LIST The router can load an IOS image from the following locations: • • • Flash TFTP server ROM (limited version of the IOS software) Use the boot system command in global configuration mode to identify alternate locations for the IOS image. Router#erase flash Router#erase start Router#erase nvram Router#reload To . . . . Use the copy command to archive. show version configure memory or copy startup-config running-config configure terminal To . . . . .
It tries each location in turn. Unlike the router itself. This is the name that appears in the EXEC prompt. . However. ROUTER AND INTERFACE IDENTIFICATION COMMAND LIST During initial setup.Note: When you use the boot system command. Router(config)#hostname <name> Change the host name of the router Router(config)#int serial 0 Go to interface configuration mode for the first 25 . .. ROM bootstrap show version version. nor are you replacing the default IOS search order. . . running IOS version. until it finds a valid IOS image.. and RAM and processor information show runningView the currently running configuration file config show startupconfig View the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM (the saved copy or of the configuration file) show config show flash* View the size of the configuration files and the available flash memory View information for all IOS image files stored on the router View the commands in the command history list show history show protocols or show interfaces View the IP addresses assigned to a specific interface or show ip interfaces show protocols or View the status of all interfaces show interfaces *The show flash command is not enabled in the simulations. If one is not found. it returns to the default load sequence. To. To . SHOW COMMAND LIST (BASIC) The following list summarizes common information you can display using common show commands.. Use this command. you are not making backup copies of the IOS image. you can add a description to the configuration file that helps you identify the interface. you can configure a host name for your router. the router interfaces do not have specific names that change the prompt. View hardware configuration. You are directing the router where to look for the IOS image on boot-up. Use ..
The enable secret password is stored encrypted in the configuration file.Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config)#int ser0 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#description <description text> serial interface. There are two different passwords that might be used: • • EXEC mode The enable password is stored in clear text in the configuration file. ROUTER PASSWORD FACTS The following table list three of the most common passwords that you can configure on your router: Password Type Console Line Description Controls the ability to log on to the router through a console connection Controls the ability to log on to the router using a virtual terminal (VTY) or Telnet connection Controls the ability to switch to configuration modes. Use the Ethernet (e. use the same command preceded by the no keyword followed by the command. The router always uses the enable secret password if it exists. For example. 26 . use the following command: Router(config-if)#no description Notice that in many cases you can leave off additional parameters when using the no command. eth) keywords to switch to Ethernet interface mode. to remove a description from an interface. Set a description for a specific interface Examples The following set of commands sets the hostname of the router to ATL1: Router#config t Router(config)#hostname ATL1 ATL1(config)# The following set of commands adds a description of "ATL to NYC" for the first serial interface on the router: Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#description ATL to NYC Note: To undo any configuration change.
This password <password> password is used if the enable secret is not set. no password = access is allowed without a password 27 . a password will not be required for access. To . The secret <password> enable secret is always used if it exists. However. Note: If you do not use the login command in line mode. you should not use the same password for both your enable and enable secret passwords. Require the password for line access. Set the line password (for either console or VTY access). Remove the password.Be aware of the following recommendations for configuring router passwords: • • • • Passwords are case-sensitive. Router(config)#enable Set the unencrypted password for privileged mode access. Access is allowed based on the following conditions: • no login. there must be a login entry without a password set. . Cisco routers support Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) and Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) to centrally validate users attempting to gain access to the router. Switch to the line configuration mode for the virtual terminal. . . even though one is set. The no login command disables password checking. . Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config)#line vty <0-197> <1-197> Router(configline)#password Router(configline)#login Router(config)#no enable secret Router(config)#no enable password Router(config-line)#no login Router(config-line)#no password Router(config)#service password-encryption Switch to the line configuration mode for the console. For security reasons. To prevent VTY access. there are other passwords that you cannot set in setup mode. PASSWORD COMMAND LIST Use . Specify one line number or a range of line numbers (line vty 0 4). You can set the enable. Encrypt all passwords. enable secret. Access to the router console through a telnet session is controlled by the login and the password entries. and line passwords in setup mode. Router(config)#enable Set the encrypted password used for privileged mode access.
This allows you to construct multiple-line banners. and helps the router identify the beginning and ending of the banner. Use . password = access is allowed without a password login. Removes the specified banner Note: The banner command without a keyword defaults to set the MOTD banner. . password = access is allowed only with correct password BANNER COMMAND LIST Banners display messages that anyone logging into the router can see. Set the incoming banner. using # as the delimiting character and inserting a hard return between each banner: Router(config)#banner motd # This is the Message-of-the-day banner! # Router(config)#banner login # This is the Login banner! # Router(config)#banner exec # This is the Exec banner! # 28 . Example The following commands set the MOTD. The MOTD banner displays immediately after a connection is made. Set the login banner. . The exec banner displays after a successful login.• • • login. Router(config)#banner Router(config)#banner motd Router(config)#banner login Router(config)#banner exec Router(config)#banner incoming Router(config)#no banner <type> To . The login banner displays after the MOTD banner and before the login prompt. login. Set the Message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. no password = access is denied (the error message indicates that a password is required but none is set) no login. . The delimiter encloses the banner text. The incoming banner displays for a reverse telnet session. and EXEC banners. The following four types of banners display at various times during the login or startup sequence. Set the EXEC banner. . Follow the banner command with a delimiting character.
The following table summarizes some possible conditions indicated by the interface status.255." you might need to perform additional tasks for router-to-router communication to take place (such as assigning an IP address). .229 with a mask of 255. Test communication with a specific interface using its IP address. .INTERFACE COMMAND LIST Use the following commands to configure interfaces and view interface information. The interface status indicates whether Data Link layer communications are enabled. Note: You can include or omit the space between the interface keyword and the interface number.1.. line protocol is up Even though the interface status shows "up. Use .. administratively down. most networking tasks occur at higher layers (Network through Application layers).255. line protocol is down down.168. A status of. Assign an IP address to the interface. line protocol is down up. line protocol is up. View the IP configuration of all interfaces. Router>sh ip int Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config)#no shutdown Router#ping <ip address> To ..0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown INTERFACE STATUSES You can use the interface status to troubleshoot connectivity problems and quickly see whether the link between the router and the network is operational.168. Enable an interface (remove the shutdown command). Example The following set of commands configures the IP address 192. The interface is shut down (with the shutdown command) Hardware or network connection problem (Physical layer) No carrier detect signal Connection or communication problem (Data Link layer) No keepalives The link is functional up.229 255. . 29 . Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192. .0 for the first Serial interface on the router and activates the interface.1. line protocol down Indicates. Enter configuration mode for an interface..255. However.255.
Router(config)#cdp holdtime <10-255> Router(config)#cdp timer <5-900> To . Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface you want to be the DCE device. Use the following commands to customize and view CDP information. CDP only shares information with directly connected (neighboring) devices. The router not providing clocking is known as the DTE (data terminal equipment). can discover neighboring Cisco devices through CDP. . . CDP works when there is a valid Data Link layer connection. and other network architectures. one router interface must be configured to provide the clocking signals for the connection. When you configure two routers in a back-to-back configuration through their serial ports. Use . and the line between the two routers will not change to up. The DCE interface is configured to provide a clocking signal with the clock rate command. such as routers and switches. The DCE interface is identified in two ways: • • The cable connecting the two routers has both a DCE and a DTE end. Cisco devices. If the clock rate command is not issued. Frame Relay. the router must be connected to a device (such as a CSU/DSU or another router) that provides clocking signals. • • The router providing clocking is known as the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). Specify the amount of time that information in a packet is still valid (default = 180 seconds) Specify how often CDP packets are exchanged (default = 60 seconds) 30 . clocking is not provided. . It can discover information on LANs. . CDP COMMAND LIST The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a protocol that Cisco devices use to learn and share information about each other. CDP is enabled on all interfaces.BACK-TO-BACK CONFIGURATION FACTS When you configure a router to connect to a network through a serial interface. • • • • By default. CDP works regardless of the Network layer and other protocols used.
Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#cdp timer 90 The following commands turns off CDP on the router's first Ethernet interface.Enable CDP on the router Disable CDP on a router. encapsulation. Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#no cdp enable SWITCH COMPONENTS 31 . and CDP exchange interval Show information about all neighboring Cisco devices including: • • • • • • Router#show cdp neighbors Device ID Local interface Holdtime Capability Platform Port ID Shows all information for the show cdp neighbors command and adds: Router#show cdp neighbors detail • • • Network address Enabled protocols Software version Examples The following commands turns on CDP for the router and configures it to send CDP packets every 90 seconds. to prevent the router from Router(config)#no cdp run exchanging CDP packets Router(config)#cdp run Router(config-if)#cdp enable Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Router#show cdp Turns CDP for an interface on Turns CDP for an interface off View CDP information Show information about neighbors accessed through an interface Router#show cdp interface Show CDP configuration information for the router including the holdtime.
Use the same options to get help. The color of the LEDs change to give you information about how the switch is working. In this course. SWITCH CONFIGURATION COMMAND LIST Using the switch command line interface is similar to using the router command line interface. The switch comes preconfigured to work out-of-the-box without configuration. and it will automatically begin switching traffic to the correct ports. Mode Meaning Solid green = Operational Stat Flashing green = Link activity Off = Non-functional All switch port lights act as a meter to indicate overall utilization. the higher the utilization. Port LEDs mean different things based on the mode selected with the Mode button. you can connect the switch to the network. Solid green = Full duplex Duplex Off = Half duplex Solid green = 100 Mbps Speed Off = 10 Mbps On a simple LAN. If you are familiar with router configuration. you will learn how to configure the Catalyst 2950 series switch. Task Command Move to privileged mode from user mode switch>enable Move to user mode from privileged mode switch#disable 32 . The following table lists common switch configuration commands. An important characteristic of a switch is multiple ports. you will probably be able to guess how to complete many switch configuration tasks. The more lights that Util are lit. To customize the switch configuration. connect devices. and to save and load configuration files. Each switch port has a single LED.Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. Modern switches can also be used to create virtual LANs (VLANs) and perform some tasks previously performed only by routers (Layer 3 switches). to move between configuration modes. connect to the switch in one of the following ways: • • • Console connection Telnet session Web management software (connect through the LAN through a Web browser) Note: You must configure an IP address for the switch to manage it through a Telnet or Web session. all of which are part of the same network segment. to set the hostname.
or exit the system Exit all configuration modes Show the current switch configuration Show switch information such as software version and hardware components Show interface status and configuration information Save the current switch configuration Load a configuration file from another location Set the enable password (to cisco) Set the secret password (to cisco) Set the default gateway Set the switch hostname Set a description for a port Enable CDP on the switch Enable CDP on a port Set CDP parameters Set the port speed switch(config-if)#exit switch(config)#^Z switch#show running-config switch#show version switch#show interfaces switch#show interfaces fastethernet 0/14 Set the duplex mode switch#copy running-config startup-config switch#copy tftp://1. and therefore do not need an IP address to function.cfg switch(config)#enable password cisco switch(config)#enable secret cisco switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1.1.0. a switch performs switching functions just fine without an IP address set.0/my_config.1 switch(config)#hostname ATL switch(config-if)#description IS_VLAN switch(config)#cdp run switch(config-if)#cdp enable switch(config)#cdp holdtime 181 switch(config)#cdp timer 66 switch(config-if)#speed 10 switch(config-if)#speed 100 switch(config-if)#speed auto switch(config-if)#duplex half switch(config-if)#duplex full switch(config-if)#duplex auto SWITCH IP ADDRESS FACTS One task that is different for switches than for routers is configuring the IP address. Keep in mind the following facts about IP addresses configured on switches: • Basic switches operate at Layer 2. 33 . In fact.Move to global configuration mode switch#configure terminal switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface 0/17 switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface fastethernet0/14 gigabitethernet con 0 vty 0 4 vlan 1 Move to interface configuration mode Leave the current configuration mode.0.1.
you might need to stick with one switch vendor. The switch itself has only a single (active) IP address.1.255. each switch must be able to identify the destination virtual LAN. Use the following commands to configure the switch IP address: switch#config terminal switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#ip address 1.1. a function which is not supported on 2950 switches). To configure the switch IP address.1q-capable switches to ensure a consistent tagging protocol. This process. As a frame moves from switch to switch within the switch fabric. you will also need to configure the default gateway on the switch using the following command (notice that the default gateway is set in global configuration mode): switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1.• • You only need to configure a switch IP address if you want to perform in-band management of the switch from a Telnet or Web session. you set the address on the management VLAN logical interface. However. Each switch port does not have an IP address (unless the switch is performing Layer 3 switching. Only VLAN-capable devices understand the frame tag. Tags must be removed before a frame is forwarded to a non-VLAN-capable device. Tags are appended by the first switch in the path. and removed by the last. called frame tagging or frame coloring. VLAN FACTS 34 . Cisco's proprietary protocol is called the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol. this solution does not scale well.254 FRAME TAGGING FACTS Although you can create VLANs with only one switch. Use 802. When designing VLANs. • • • • • VLAN IDs identify the VLAN of the destination device. most networks involve connecting multiple switches. One way to identify the VLAN is for the switch to use a filtering table that maps VLANs to MAC addresses. Remember the following facts regarding switch frame tagging (or coloring). This is a logical interface defined on the switch to allow management functions. this VLAN is VLAN 1 on the switch. The IP address identifies the switch as a host on the network but is not required for switching functions. switches append a VLAN ID to each frame. identifies the VLAN of the destination device. The area between switches is called the switch fabric. Tag formats and specifications can vary from vendor to vendor. By default.1.255.1. For large networks.0 switch(config-if)#no shutdown Note: To enable management from a remote network.1 255.
By default. workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. all ports are members of VLAN 1. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits. In the graphic above. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: • • • • • In the graphic above.A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: • • Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. The above example has two broadcast domains. even though they are connected to the same physical switch. protocol. The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. 35 . FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs.
The following table shows common VLAN configuration commands. Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor.) switch(config)#vlan 2 switch(config-vlan)#name name** switch(config-if)#switchport Assign ports to the VLAN access vlan number*** switch#show vlan Show a list of VLANs on the system switch#show vlan id number Show information for a specific VLAN 36 . and then assign ports to that VLAN.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs.• • • • • You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup. or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks. When using multiple vendors in a switched network. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network. Despite advances in switch technology. routers are still needed to: • • • Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN COMMAND LIST To configure a simple VLAN. Task Command(s) switch#vlan database* switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name Define a VLAN (You can create VLANs in either name** vlan database mode or by using the vlan command switch(vlan)#exit OR apply in global configuration mode. be sure each switch supports the 802. protocol. • • • Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor. first create the VLAN.
Gigabit Ethernet ports are used for trunk ports. Trunking is important when you configure VLANs that span multiple switches as shown in the diagram. Typically. Trunk ports identify which ports are connected to other switches. switch#config t switch(config)#vlan 12 switch(config-vlan)#name IS_VLAN switch(config-vlan)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 TRUNKING Trunking is a term used to describe connecting two switches together. each switch has two VLANs. One port on each switch has been assigned to each VLAN. 37 . This means that the two workstations connected to the same switch cannot communicate with each other. **Giving the VLAN a name is optional. Trunk ports are automatically members of all VLANs defined on the switch. Example The following commands create VLAN 12 named IS_VLAN. ***If you have not yet defined the VLAN. it will be created automatically when you assign the port to the VLAN. and assigns the port to VLAN 12. identifies port 0/12 as having only workstations attached to it. Communications within the VLAN must pass through the trunk link to the other switch. Workstations in VLAN 1 can only communicate with workstations in VLAN 1. Be aware of the following facts regarding trunking and VLANs: • • • • • In the above graphic.*Notice that the vlan database command is issued in privileged EXEC mode.
frames that are sent over a trunk port are tagged with the VLAN ID number so that the receiving switch knows to which VLAN the frame belongs. (ISL) ISL tags each frame with the VLAN ID. Cisco supports two trunking protocols that are used for tagging frames. frames from the default VLAN 1 are not tagged. and to negotiate the trunking protocol used between devices. Cisco switches have the ability to automatically detect ports that are trunk ports. An IEEE standard for trunking and therefore supported by a wide range of devices. Sets the trunking protocol to use 2950 switches only support 802. Inter-Switch Link ISL can only be used between Cisco devices.1Q for 2950 Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic auto Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic desirable • • • • 38 . when you connect two switches together. Catalyst 2950 switches do not support ISL. they will automatically recognize each other and select the trunking protocol to use. For example. If a switch is connected. it will attempt to use the desired trunking protocol (802. Frames from all other VLANs are tagged. TRUNKING COMMAND LIST The following table lists important commands for configuring and monitoring trunking on a switch.1Q With 802. Switches use the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) to detect and configure trunk ports. Command Switch(configif)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation isl Function • Enables trunking on the interface. The switch uses DTP to configure trunking.When trunking is used. Trunking Protocol Characteristics A Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol. • • • The port will not use DTP on the interface. Enables dynamic trunking configuration.1Q and therefore you will not use this command on 2950 switches Enables automatic trunking discovery and configuration. 802.1Q trunking.
Server Configuration information is then broadcast to other VTP devices. the switch must be in either server or transparent mode. it will communicate as a normal port. 39 . Switch(configif)#switchport mode access You must disable trunking before you can assign a port to a VLAN. If you cannot modify the VLAN configuration. but the changes apply only to the local switch (changes are not sent to other devices). With the VTP. However. Disables trunking configuration on the port. Use the vtp mode command to configure the VTP mode of the switch. A switch in transparent mode does not receive VTP configuration information from other switches. you cannot modify the VLAN configuration from a switch in client mode. It passes VTP information to other switches as it receives the Transparent information. You can modify VLAN configuration information from a switch in transparent mode. Shows interface trunking information with the following: • • • • Switch#show interface trunk Switch#show interface fa0/1 trunk Mode Encapsulation Trunking status VLAN assignments VTP FACTS The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies VLAN configuration on a multi-switch network by propagating configuration changes to other switches.switches). the switch is in client mode. switches are placed in one of the following three configuration modes. Keep in mind the following facts about VTP: • • • • • To make VLAN changes on a switch. switches are configured in server mode. Mode Characteristics A switch in server mode is used to modify the VLAN configuration. By default. • • • If a switch is not connected. Use the show vtp status command to view the current vtp mode of the switch. A switch in client mode receives changes from a VTP server and passes VTP Client information to other switches.
A backup bridge can take over if the root bridge or a designated bridge fails. To prevent bridging loops. 40 . one bridge (or switch) for each route is assigned as the designated bridge. However. select the bridge that is closest to the physical center of the network. However.1d committee defined a standard called the spanning tree algorithm (STA). This condition is known as a bridging loop. providing redundant paths between segments causes packets to be passed between the redundant paths endlessly. Role Characteristics The root bridge is the master or controlling bridge. The spanning tree algorithm provides the following benefits: • • • • • Eliminates bridging loops Provides redundant paths between devices Enables dynamic role configuration Recovers automatically from a topology change or device failure Identifies the optimal path between any two network devices The spanning tree algorithm automatically discovers the network topology. optimum path through a network by assigning one of the following roles to each bridge or switch. the IEEE 802. It should be assigned by the network administrator. There is only one root bridge Root Bridge per network. To prevent bridging loops. Redundant bridges (and switches) are assigned as backups. A designated bridge is any other device that participates in forwarding packets Designated through the network. They are selected automatically by exchanging bridge Bridge configuration packets. All redundant devices are classified as backup bridges. many networks implement redundant paths between devices using multiple switches. they will not forward Bridge packets. and creates a single. When selecting the root bridge. The root bridge periodically broadcasts configuration messages. With this protocol.SPANNING TREE FACTS To provide for fault tolerance. Backup bridges listen to Backup network traffic and build the bridge database. or spanning tree protocol (STP). The bridge role determines how the device functions in relation to other devices. there is only one designated bridge per segment. These messages are used to select routes and reconfigure the roles of other bridges if necessary. and whether the device forwards traffic to other segments. Only the designated bridge can forward packets.
The listening state is a transitionary state between blocking and learning. it is in the blocking state. Note: When you use spanning tree on a switch with multiple VLANs. During this time the bridges redefine their roles. In addition. A port in the forwarding state can both learn and forward. 41 . Switches use information in the BPDUs to elect a root bridge. The port state determines whether the port receives and forwards normal network messages. This time period allows Listening network traffic to settle down after a change has occurred. each of its ports is placed into one of five states. all other bridges go to the listening state for a period of time. BPDUs sent and received from other bridges are used to determine the bridge roles. Devices participating in the spanning tree algorithm use the following process to configure themselves: 1. and recover from network topology changes. The port goes to the forwarding state after the timer expires. Port State Description A device in the disabled state is powered on but does not participate in listening to Disabled network messages or forwarding them. if a bridge goes down. backup Blocking bridges are always in a blocking state. After configuration. A bridge must be manually placed in the disabled state. Switches on redundant paths are configured as either designated (active) or backup (inactive) switches. verify that neighbor devices are still functioning. switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) out each port. At startup. switches periodically send BPDUs to ensure connectivity and discover topology changes. 3. and while it operates. As the switch participates in the configuration process. The bridge receives packets and BPDUs sent to all bridges. For example. 2. A timer is also associated with this state. The root bridge and designated bridges are in the forwarding state when they can Forwarding receive and forward packets. 4. each VLAN runs a separate instance of the spanning tree protocol. The port remains in listening state for a specific period of time.Devices send special packets called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out each port. but will not process any other packets. A port in the learning state is receiving packets and building the bridge database Learning (associating MAC addresses with ports). When a device is first powered on.
Switch#show spanning-tree Example The following commands disable spanning tree for VLAN 12 and force the switch to be the root of the spanning tree for VLAN 1. Like bridges. Forces the switch to be the root of the spanning tree. To determine if the VLAN is functioning properly. Switch port configuration is automatic when the switch is connected to the network and powered on. Use the following commands to customize the spanning tree protocol. the spanning tree protocol is enabled on all Cisco switches. switches can run the spanning tree algorithm to prevent such loops from forming. having multiple paths means that the network is susceptible to data transmission (bridging) loops. Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 12 Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary 42 . As you know. Show spanning tree configuration information. By default.SPANNING TREE COMMAND LIST You can configure multiple paths with switches to provide fault-tolerance. Command Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan number Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan number root primary Function Disables spanning tree on the selected VLAN. verify that the first line of the output is: VLAN1 is executing the IEEE compatible spanning tree protocol.
Note: If you do not use the channel-group command. the spanning tree algorithm will identify each link as a redundant path to the other bridge and will put one of the ports in blocking state. Use EtherChannel to establish automatic-redundant paths between switches. logical link between two switches. If one link fails. Use EtherChannel to reduce spanning tree convergence times. 43 . With EtherChannel: • • • • • You can combine 2-8 ports into a single link. All ports assigned to the same channel group will be viewed as a single logical link.ETHERCHANNEL FACTS EtherChannel combines multiple switch ports into a single. Use the channel-group command for a port to enable EtherChannel as follows: Switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 Switch(config-if)#channel-group 1 mode on Each channel group has its own number. communication will still occur over the other links in the group. All links in the channel group are used for communication between the switches. Use EtherChannel to increase the bandwidth between switches.
h Function Identifies the port as an access port. take the following general actions on the port: • • • Explicitly configure the port as an access port (a port with attached hosts. there are no restrictions on the devices that can be attached to a switch port. Enable switch port security. Under normal circumstances. Use this command to increase the number allowed.h is a hexadecimal number). you configure the switch to allow only specific devices to use a given port. The following commands list the switch port configuration commands: Command switch(configif)#switchport mode access switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address h. 44 . Identify the MAC addresses that can use the switch. the switch learns the MAC address of the device(s) connected to each of its ports. not with an attached switch). Enables port security. With switch port security. When a device is connected to the switch port.PORT SECURITY FACTS The basic function of a switch is to pass packets from one host to another. the MAC address of the frame from the connected device is place in a forwarding table.h. Under normal operations. You identify the MAC address of allowed devices. The default allows only a single if)#switchport portsecurity maximum number MAC address per port. To configure port security. Configures the maximum number of MAC addresses that switch(configcan be allowed for a port.h. Any devices not explicitly identified will not be allowed to send frames through the switch. Identifies the allowed MAC address (h.
Note: The Catalyst switch can sticky learn a maximum of 132 MAC addresses. 45 .02af The following commands configures Fast Ethernet port 0/15 to accept the first MAC address it receives as the allowed MAC address for the port: switch(config)#interface fast 0/15 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky DEFAULT SWITCH CONFIGURATION By default. Identifies the action the switch will take when an unauthorized device attempts to use the port. The address in the first frame received by the switch port is the allowed MAC address for the port. Action keywords are: • • switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation action protect drops the frames from the unauthorized device restrict does the same as protect and also generates an SNMP trap shutdown disables the port • switch#show portsecurity interface interfacetype and number Examples Shows port security information for the specified port. All ports will automatically detect the duplex mode.0012.0012.switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address sticky Configures the switch to dynamically identify the allowed MAC address.02af to use Fast Ethernet port 0/12: switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 5ab9. a Catalyst 2950 switch comes configured as follows: • • All ports are enabled (no shutdown). The following commands configure switch port security to allow only host 5ab9.
• • • • • • • •
All ports will automatically detect the port speed. All ports will perform automatic trunking negotiation. The switch uses fragment-free switching. Spanning tree is enabled. VTP mode is set to transparent. All ports are members of VLAN 1. Default VLANs of 1, 1002, 1003, 1004, and 1005 exist. 802.1Q trunking is used (2950 switches only support 802.1Q trunking).
Inter-VLAN Routing In a typical configuration with multiple VLANs and a single or multiple switches, workstations in one VLAN will not be able to communicate with workstations in other VLANs. To enable inter-VLAN communication, you will need to use a router (or a Layer 3 switch) as shown in the following graphic.
Be aware of the following conditions with inter-VLAN routing:
The top example uses two physical interfaces on the router. The bottom example uses a single physical interface on the router. In this configuration, the physical interface is divided into two logical interfaces called subinterfaces. This configuration is also called a router on a stick. In each case, the router interfaces are connected to switch trunk ports. The router interfaces or subinterfaces must be running a trunking protocol (either ISL or 802.1Q). Each interface or subinterface requires an IP address.
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) You can think of the Internet as one big network. As such, each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. In the early days of the Internet, every device would receive a registered IP address. As the Internet grew, however, it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). Classfull addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features:
Subnetting, dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. For example, this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. Supernetting, combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. For example, this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. Route aggregation (also called route summarization), where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route.
CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks.
The beginning network address in the range The number of bits used in the subnet mask
For example, the routing table represents the address as 18.104.22.168/21, where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. In addition to CIDR, the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses:
IP version 6. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4. IPv6 is not yet used on the Internet. Private addressing with address translation. With private addressing, hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. A special router (called a network address translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address.
Subnetting Operations Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. Scenario Solution 2^n-2 Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. Then use the formula to find the number of subnets and hosts. To find the number of valid subnets, n = the number of additional bits borrowed from the default mask. To find the number of valid hosts, n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. 2^n-2 Write out the default subnet mask in binary. Then borrow bits and use the formula to find the number that gives you enough subnets and hosts. Magic number The magic number is the decimal value of the last one bit in the subnet mask. The magic number identifies:
Given a network address and subnet mask, how many subnets can you have and how many hosts per subnet?
Given a network address and customer requirements, what subnet mask should you use?
Given a network address and a subnet mask, identify the valid subnet addresses.
The first valid subnet address
The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Trust the line Use the following process to find the information you need: Given an IP address and subnet mask, find the:
• • •
Subnet address Broadcast address Valid host address range
1. Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask, draw a line 2. To find the subnet address, set all host bits to 0 3. To find the broadcast address, set all host bits to 1 4. The valid host range is: o First address = Subnet address + 1
Last address = Broadcast address - 1
use the secondary parameter with the ip address command as follows: ip address 10. Be sure to include an IP address for each router interface. Identify the valid subnet addresses. You can also assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface. To do this. This is the most common form used and recognized by network administrators. 5. 4.Assigning IP Addresses With Cisco routers. use the following command: terminal ip netmask-format <format keyword> Format keywords are bit-count. Assign IP addresses to hosts. you have the following three choices for viewing the subnet mask. 3. Use the following process to identify and assign IP addresses throughout your network.0 secondary 49 . In addition.0 /24 (identifies 24 bits in the mask) 0xFFFFFF00 (the 0x indicates a hexadecimal number follows) You can modify how the router displays the subnet mask. Method Dotted decimal Description Four octets with set incremental values between 0 and 255. or plan on using DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses. and assign them to network segments. the host address range).255. Each network segment will require its own network (subnet) address.0.e. The bit count is typically found in routing tables. decimal. you will have to make various decisions about the addresses used on the network. or hexadecimal. each WAN connection must have its own network address (typically assigned by the WAN service provider).2 255.10. Hexadecimal Eight hexadecimal numbers (each number ranges from 0 to F). Identify the number of hosts for each subnet. Bit count The bit count is a number that follows the IP address and indicates the total number of masked bits. When setting up a network for IP. Identify the number of network addresses.0. 1. Identify valid IP addresses on each subnet (i. Example 255. You will need one IP address for each device. 2.10.255. In privileged EXEC mode. Calculate the subnet mask that will subdivide your network.
Managing Host Names Host names allow you to identify network devices using logical names instead of IP addresses. DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP address and other TCP/IP configuration parameters. Used by a host to discover the IP address of a computer from its MAC address. creating static DNS entries Identifies the router default domain (for DNS) Sets the default DNS name server Enables the router to use DNS to identify IP addresses from host names Use the show hosts command to display a list of known IP hosts. An improvement on BootP. A DHCP server can use a static list to assign a specific IP address to a specific host. Used by a host (such as a diskless workstation) to query a bootstrap computer and receive an IP address assignment. Use the following commands to configure static host names or enable DNS on a router. the DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address from a preset range of possible addresses. A BootP server has a static list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. More commonly. 50 . Address Resolution Protocols You should know the following protocols that perform address resolution. however. Command ip host <name> <address> ip domain-name <name> ip name-server <address> ip domain-lookup Function Identifies hostnames. Protocol Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Description Used by hosts to discover the MAC address of a computer from its IP address.
NAT can be used to provide a measure of security for your private network. it's important to understand the following terminology. when you visit a Web site. As you work with NAT. The inside global address is the IP address of the host after it has been translated for use on the Internet. The inside local address is the IP address of the host on the inside network. A router interface that connects to the public network is also called the outside interface.NAT Facts Network Address Translation (NAT) allows you to connect a private network to the Internet without obtaining registered addresses for every host. Private addresses are translated to the public address of the NAT router. A router interface that connects to the private network is also called the inside interface. your computer will use the global outside address to contact Outside Inside local address Inside global address Outside global 51 . For example. The outside network is the public network (the Internet). The term global refers to the registered IP address that identifies the inside host on the Internet. Term Inside Definition The inside network is the private network. The outside global address is an IP address of an Internet host. or to provide Internet connectivity with a limited number of registered IP addresses.
0 to 192.16.255 192.168.55. be sure to use an IP address in the private IP address ranges for the inside local IP addresses. Private IP addresses do not need to be registered. An outside local address is an outside global address that has been translated for inside (or private) use. In other words. Instead of using the Web server address.31.255. Dynamic NAT is just like static NAT.255. Dynamic NAT Overload with Port Address Translation (PAT) Note: When you configure NAT. A Cisco router can be configured to overcome this problem.168. Overloading is the process of assigning multiple inside local addresses to a single inside global address. Otherwise.168. In other words.0.0 to 172.0.44. The port number is appended to the inside global IP address. you have the following options on a Cisco router.0 to 10.0. you manually map an inside local address to an inside global address.255.255.1 Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Static NAT 52 . The NAT router has a pool of inside global IP addresses that it uses to map to inside local addresses. except that the address mappings are done automatically. but the configuration is difficult. the NAT router translates an Internet host IP address into a private IP address.1. each inside host IP address is manually associated with a registered IP address. Port numbers are used to identify specific inside local hosts. Implementation Static NAT Characteristics With static NAT.0.255 172. hosts on your network might not be able to access outside hosts with the same IP address.1 203. the internal computer will use the translated address instead.address Outside local address the Web server.255 NAT Command List Method Configuration Process Configure static mappings (mapping inside local addresses to outside local addresses) Identify inside and outside interfaces Command Examples Router(config)#ip nat inside source static 192. and fall within the following ranges: • • • 10. When you configure NAT.
Note: When you use the overloaded method.55.0. intermediary.168.254 netmask 255.255.0.250 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.1 0.1.Define an inside global address pool Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list with the pool Identify inside and outside interfaces Router(config)#ip nat pool mary 203.1 0. IP Troubleshooting Tools Three tools you can use to help troubleshoot are ping.1 203. traceroute. and Telnet.0. and destination devices traceroute Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets and TTL destination Operates at the Network Network layer layer configuration of source. Tool Description Tests Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets destination Operates at the Network Network layer ping layer configuration of source.22.214.171.124.255.0.1. and destination devices Reports Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) Round trip time to destination IP address of each hop to destination Host name of each hop (if configured) Round trip time to destination and each 53 . intermediate.255 Dynamic NAT Overloaded with PAT Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list Router(config)#ip nat inside with the inside interface and source list 1 interface ethernet0 identify the translation type overload as overloaded Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Identify inside and outside Router(config-if)#interface interfaces serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside **These examples use access lists to identify a range of inside addresses that will be translated. You will learn about access lists in Module 7.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mary Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192. the outside global address that is used is the IP address of the outside router interface.
and so on. and the protocol. With extended traceroute. Utility Considerations • By default. the second pings with a TTL of 2. if the TTL is set to 3. then X. • ping • • • traceroute Extended ping lets you modify the number of tests. A period indicates a failure. you can test non-IP protocols. It waits 2 seconds for a response from the target router. Traceroute includes an extended version that lets you modify the number of packets sent. Responses to each test within the traceroute command are as follows: o A time exceeded message indicates that a router has received the packet but the TTL has expired. o A destination unreachable message indicates that the router in the path does not have a route to the destination network or device. the first test pings the destination using a TTL of 1. and destination devices Upper-layer configuration of source and destination devices intermediary device Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) No report generated. It waits three seconds for a response. you can test non-IP protocols (such as AppleTalk or Novell IPX). By default. An open connection indicates a valid connection. lower-layer protocols) intermediate. o An asterisk ( * ) indicates that the timer has expired without a response. debug information shows only on the console. the timeout. • Ping includes an extended mode (available only in privileged EXEC mode). The following table describes special conventions that you should be aware of when working with these utilities. not in the Telnet 54 • telnet • • • . For example. To suspend a Telnet session. the third router in the path responds with the time exceeded message. For example. the ping command performs five tests to the destination. With extended ping. To resume a Telnet session. Traceroute sends successive ICMP messages to a destination with increasing TTL values. press Ctrl + Shift + 6. traceroute sends three ping tests for each TTL value. the timeout.telnet Uses upper-layer The physical path to the protocols destination Operates above the Network layer Network layer (relies on configuration of source. • An exclamation mark indicates a successful ping. use the resume command. By default. and even the protocol tested.
It might indicate the host is unavailable. They do not exchange routing information. Remember that IP is a connectionless protocol and as such. it slows its rate of transmission. and to verify Echo that they are reachable. The time exceeded message is sent when the packet's time-to-live (TTL) Time exceeded counter has expired. The router discovery message is a special broadcast message sent by hosts to Router discover the routers on a network. When a sending device receives a source quench message. subnet mask. The ping utility is a popular utility that uses ICMP echo messages. contains no procedures that help to monitor successful packet delivery or test connectivity. ICMP messages include the following types: Message Characteristics The ICMP echo message is used to discover hosts and networks.session window. 55 . Keep in mind the following as you troubleshoot IP: • All computers must be assigned a unique IP address. The redirect message Redirect can be sent if a better route is in the router's table. The redirect message is sent from a router to the sending device to indicate that a different route should be chosen for the packet. The source quench message is sent by a receiving device to indicate that the Source quench flow of packets is too fast. The destination unreachable message is sent if a packet cannot reach its Destination destination for a variety of reasons. Hosts use ICMP to send error messages to other hosts. or if the selected route is unavailable or congested. IP Troubleshooting Tips One important step in troubleshooting network communications is to verify the IP address. ICMP Messages The Internet Control Message Protocol is a special-purpose message mechanism added to the TCP/IP suite that lets computers and routers in an internetwork report errors or provide information about unexpected circumstances. Routers respond to the message indicating discovery their presence. and default gateway settings of each host. or unreachable that there were problems detected in the packet header. but simply announce their availability. Use the terminal monitor command to show debug information in a Telnet session.
ping to hosts on other networks with all hosts on the same Verify the default gateway setting network. host outside of the local network. troubleshoot the configuration of the host with the problem. or The routing table on the configure the gateway of last resort router does not show the (default route) on the router. default gateway setting delivered All hosts can communicate Traceroute on the host by the DHCP server. Problem A single host cannot communicate with any other host. traceroute network. verify the fails. Listed below are several common symptoms and things to try to correct communication problems. Ping to hosts on the same A single host can communicate network succeed. of the host with the problem. Communication with on the host times out other networks is fine. destination network. ping to hosts on other networks If DHCP is used to assign IP information to hosts. The subnet mask value for all computers on the same physical network must be the same. 56 . You do not need to configure an IP address on a switch for frames to be switched through the switch. or the gateway of last resort is not set. but can't communicate fails. within the same network. All hosts cannot communicate Ping to the remote with hosts on a specific outside network fails. Add a route to the routing table.• • • • • Hosts on the same physical network should have IP addresses in the same address range. configure an IP address on the switch. The routing table has a Troubleshoot other routers in the route to the destination path to the destination network. The routing table on the router shows only Verify the routing configuration of directly-connected the default gateway router. with any host on any other Traceroute on the host network. Ping to hosts on the same network succeed. Symptoms Ping to any other host fails. with only a single entry. times out with only a single entry. The default gateway address must be on the same subnet as the host's IP address. networks. Solution Because the problem exists with only one host. Configure the default gateway value to enable internetwork communication. To ping to and from a switch or to remotely manage the switch. but times out with only a cannot communicate with any single entry.
Access list entries describe the traffic characteristics. but filter traffic only for the interfaces to which they have been applied. Traceroute on responding router and begin the router times out. Access List Facts Routers use access lists to control incoming or outgoing traffic.. For a list to allow any traffic. Source hostname or host IP address Source IP protocol (i.e. or allow or restrict all traffic. You should know the following characteristics of an access list.. Troubleshoot the configuration of Communication with other the remote host. Each access list can be applied to more than one interface. it must have at least one permit statement. When an access list is applied to an interface. an access list contains an implicit "deny all" entry at the end of the access list. it identifies whether the list restricts incoming or outgoing traffic. Each router interface can have up to two access lists for each protocol. troubleshooting there. However. When created.. etc. response from the host. Access lists can be used to log traffic that matches the list statements. Access list entries identify either permitted or denied traffic. Ping to the remote host fails. network (or the gateway of last resort is used). it automatically contains a "deny any" statement. TCP..Use traceroute to identify the last network. remote hosts in the same remote The routing table shows a route to the destination network is fine. although this statement does not appear in the list itself. one for incoming traffic and one for outgoing traffic. • • • • • • • • • • • Access lists describe the traffic type that will be controlled. Traceroute to the All hosts cannot communicate remote host indicates no with a specific remote host. IP. There are two general types of access lists: basic and extended. When you create an access list. Use an extended list to filter on. either permitting a specific traffic type or permitting all traffic not specifically restricted.) Source hostname or host IP address 57 . each interface can only have one incoming and one outgoing list. Access lists exist globally on the router. Each access list applies only to a specific protocol. UDP. Access list entries can describe a specific traffic type. Use a standard list to filter on.
.0 0. and applies the list to the Ethernet0 interface.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in The following commands create an extended IP access list that does not forward TCP packets from any host on network 10.0.1.0.0 15.0. .0. and applies the list to the first serial interface.0 to network 11.0.1 0.12. Router(config)#access-list 1 deny 10.1.1.1 0.1.1.Source or destination socket number Destination hostname or host IP address Precedence or TOS values IP Access List Command List Configuring access lists involves two general steps: 1.1 sent to host 15. When created.0.255. Apply the list to a specific interface with the ip access-group command Use .0.0.16. Create the list and list entries with the access-list command 2. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit 10. and applies the list to the second serial interface.255. the access list denies all traffic except traffic explicitly permitted by permit statements in the list. Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10. Use the following number ranges to define the access list: 1-99 = Standard IP access lists 100-199 = Extended IP access lists Apply the standard or extended IP access list to a specific interface. The following commands create an extended IP access list that rejects packets from host 10.255 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out The following commands create a standard IP access list that rejects all traffic except traffic from host 10. 58 . .0.1.12.0.12. and applies the list to the Serial0 interface.0.1.12. Create an access list entry.0.12. .1. Router(config)#access-list <number> Router(config-if)#ip accessgroup <number> To .16 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 2 in Note: Remember that each access list contains an explicit deny any entry. Examples The following commands create a standard IP access list that permits all outgoing traffic except the traffic from network 10.1.
0 0.16.00000000 11111126.96.36.199. A bit with a 1 value means that the bit does not have to match. To calculate the wildcard mask: 1.16.255 00001010.0 Subnet mask 255.12.248.0 = 255 This gives you the mask of: 0. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.7. Any bit in the wildcard mask with a 0 value means that the bit must match to match the access list statement.255 = 0 o Second octet: 255 .255.255 Suppose that a packet addressed to 10.0.11111111. and wildcard mask in binary form for the preceding example. To find the wildcard mask: 1.248 = 7 o Fourth octet: 255 .255 = 0 o Third octet: 255 . Identify the decimal value of the subnet mask.255.00010000. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values 59 .0/21.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in Calculating Wildcard Masks The wildcard mask is used with access list statements to identify a range of IP addresses (such as all addresses on a specific network). Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values Subnet address 10. For example.255. 2.Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 10.0. wildcard masks operate at the bit level. The wildcard mask would be: o First octet: 255 .12.00001100. For example.0. suppose you wanted to allow all traffic on network 10.255.00000000. Subtract each octet in the subnet mask from 255. let's examine the subnet address.16.0 Wildcard mask 0.0. A mask that covers 21 bits converts to 255.16.11111000. subnet mask.00000000 00000000.7.0 2.0 0.255 Like subnet masks.11111111 Notice how the bits in the wildcard mask are exactly opposite of the bits in the subnet mask. When used to identify network addresses in access list statements.7. wildcard masks are the exact opposite of a subnet mask.0 0.12.12.12.0.15 was received.255 11.248.00000111. Suppose an access list were created with a statement as follows: access-list 12 deny 10.
Now suppose that a packet addressed to 10. but not both.15 was received.15 matches the access list statement and the traffic is denied. you must apply it to an interface. In this case. Keep in mind the following: • Each interface can only have one inbound and one outbound access list for each protocol.00010000.7.iiiiiiii In this example.16. with port.12. Address Type Subnet address Decimal Values 10.0.11111111 00001010. In this example.00001111 mmmmmmmm. This means that an interface can have either a standard inbound or an extended inbound IP access list.0 Binary Values 00001010.00001100.13. this means you will need to decide which router.mmmmmiii. traffic would be permitted.00000000 00000000.00000000 00000000.00000111. Any bit identified with a 1 is ignored.mmmmmmmm. Designing Access Lists After you have created an access list.00001111 Wildcard mask 0. 60 .0.7.17. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.188.8.131.5211111 00001010. 10.17.0 Wildcard mask 0. and which direction to apply the access list to.00001100. all bits identified with a 0 in the wildcard mask must match between the address and the network address.00010000.16.00001101.00000000.15 How the router applies the mask to the address m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match 00001010. In many cases.Subnet address 10.00010001.00000000.iiiiiiii Notice that this address does not match the access list statement as identified with the wildcard mask.13.00001184.108.40.206 How the router applies the mask to the address • • • m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match mmmmmmmm.mmmmmmmx.mmmmmiii.00010000.255 Target address #1 10.00000111.255 Target address #1 10.
All access lists that exist on the show run show access-lists router All access lists applied to an interface Rejected traffic information IP access lists configured on the router A specific access list show ip int show run show log show run show ip access-lists show access-lists <number> 61 . Identify blocked and allowed traffic. This keeps the packets from being sent throughout the rest of the network. If you want to view. Placing the list too close to the source will prevent any traffic from the source from getting to any other parts of the network. as well as the direction that traffic will be traveling.. When making placement decisions.. apply extended access lists as close to the source router as possible.• • • • • • • You can have two access lists for the same direction applied to an interface if the lists restrict different networking protocols. apply standard access lists as close to the destination router as possible. subsequent statements will not be applied to the traffic. Monitoring Access Lists The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific access list information on the router. Access lists applied to inbound traffic filter packets before the routing decision is made. Your access list must contain at least one allow statement. carefully read all access lists statements and requirements. This is because standard access lists can only filter on source address. Each access list has an implicit deny any statement at the end of the access list. If traffic matches a statement high in the list. or no traffic will be allowed. As a general rule.. you can have one outbound IP access list and one outbound IPX access list. Place the access list on the interface where a single list will block (or allow) all necessary traffic. Access lists applied to outbound traffic filter packets after the routing decision is made. As a general rule. Use. When constructing access lists.. place the most restrictive statements at the top. For example. Traffic is matched to access list statements in the order they appear in the list.
Routing protocols can be classified based on whether they are routing traffic within or between autonomous systems. Each autonomous system is identified by an AS number. • • • • Routers send updates only to their neighbor routers Routers send their entire routing table Tables are sent at regular intervals (each router is configured to specify its own update interval) Routers modify their tables based on information received from their neighbors Because routers using the distance vector method send their entire routing table at specified intervals. or registered if the AS is connected to the Internet. The following methods can be used to minimize the effects of a routing loop.Routing Protocol Facts Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS). or divide the network into subnets. you will learn about the following Interior Gateway Protocols: • • • • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Distance Vector Routing Facts Keep in mind the following principles about the distance vector method. Routers are used within an AS to segment (subnet) the network. they are susceptible to a condition known as a routing loop (also called a count-toinfinity condition). build routing tables. This number can be locally administered. and make decisions about how to send packets through the internetwork. • • • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)--protocol that routes traffic within the AS Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)--protocol that routes traffic outside of or between ASs Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)--enhancement of EGP that routes traffic between ASs In this course. Like a bridging loop. they are used to connect multiple ASs together. In addition. That organization is free to create one large network. 62 . Routers use a routing protocol to dynamically discover routes. a routing loop occurs when two routers share different information.
routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. but advertise the path as unreachable. With the triggered update method (also known as a flash updates). routers will. the path timeout has been reached. "hold" an update that reinstates an expired link. routers continue to send information about routes back to the next hop router. However. In other words. routers broadcast their routing tables periodically. Convergence happens faster with poison reverse than with simple split horizon. The distance vector method has the following advantages: • • • • Stable and proven method (distance vector was the original routing algorithm) Easy to implement and administer Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Requires less hardware and processing power than other routing methods Distance vector has the following disadvantages: • • • • Relatively long time to reach convergence (updates sent at specified intervals) Routers must recalculate their routing tables before forwarding changes Susceptible to routing loops (count-to-infinity) Bandwidth requirements can be too great for WAN or complex LAN environments 63 . however. it results in greater network traffic because the entire table is broadcast each time an update is sent. for a period of time. routers that receive updated (changed) information broadcast those changes immediately rather than waiting for the next reporting interval. the route is immediately set to unreachable (16 hops for RIP). The time period typically reflects the time required to attain convergence on the network. The hold down timer is reset when the timer runs out or when a network change occurs. If the next hop router notices that the route is still reachable. With this method. Routers do not report route information to the routers on that path. punctuated by special broadcasts if conditions have changed.Method Split horizon Split horizon with poison reverse Triggered updates Hold downs Characteristics Using the split horizon method (also called best information). it ignores the information. Using the split horizon with poison reverse method (also called poison reverse or route poisoning). This method reduces the convergence time. With the hold down method. If. routers do not report information back to the router from which their information originated.
Link-state protocols send hello packets to discover new neighbors. • Slowing the LSP update rate keeps information more consistent. In particular. or if the bandwidth between links vary (i. o There is a new neighbor. Routers select routes based on the shortest route using an algorithm known as Shortest Path First (SPF). o A neighbor has gone down. • • • • Less convergence time (because updates are forwarded immediately) Not susceptible to routing loops Less susceptible to erroneous information (because only firsthand information is broadcast) Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Although more stable than the distance vector method.e. 64 . Neighboring routers exchange LSAs (link-state advertisements) to construct a topological database. Network administrators have greater flexibility in setting the metrics used to calculate routes. LSPs are sent at regular intervals and when any of the following conditions occur. Routers use LSPs to build their tables and calculate the best route. o The cost to a neighbor has changed. the last problem is of greatest concern.Link State Routing Facts Keep in mind the following information about the link state method. Routers send information about only their own links. It is possible for LSPs to get delayed or lost. The following solutions are often implemented to overcome some of the effects of inconsistent LSP information. It generates a high amount of traffic when LSPs are initially flooded through the network or when the topology changes. LSPs travel faster through parts of the network than through others). if parts of the network come on line at different times. • • • • • • • • • Routers broadcast LSPs to all routers (this process is known as flooding). The SPF algorithm is applied to the topological database to create an SPF tree from which a table of routing paths and associated ports is built. resulting in an inconsistent view of the network. The link state method has the following advantages over the distance vector method. after the initial configuration occurs. However. the traffic from the link state method is smaller than that from the distance vector method. the link state method has the following problems: • • • The link state algorithm requires greater CPU and memory capability to calculate the network topology and select the route because the algorithm re-creates the exact topology of the network for route computation. This is particularly a problem for larger networks.
Each area router receives updates from the designated router. Static Route Command List Static routes lock a router into using the route you specify for all packets. Identify a default network on which all packets sent to unknown networks are forwarded. Use .255. Router(config)#ip route 192. Static Route Facts Most networks will use one (or more) routing protocols to automatically share and learn routes.) One router in each area is designated as the authoritative source of routing information (called a designated router). it sends the packet to the default router. and routers on area borders share information between areas.1. and for small networks or networks that have only one possible path.168. a collection of areas under common administration. LSPs can be identified with a time stamp. sequence or ID number. Listed below are several situations when you might want to configure static routes. You can also configure a default router.35 25 65 . .35 and gives it a value of 25. Identify a next hop router to receive packets sent to the specified destination network. .0 255. or aging timer to ensure proper synchronization. Enables the router to match routes based on the number of bits in the mask and not the default subnet mask.1. . Examples The following command creates a static route to network 192.168. (Areas logically subdivide an Autonomous System (AS). When your router cannot find a packet's address in its routing table.1. Routers share information within the area. To turn off all routing protocols and reduce traffic or improve security.• • • Routers can be grouped into areas. To configure routes that are lost due to route summarization.1. Router(config)#ip route <destination> <next_hop> Router(config)#ip route <destination> <interface> Router(config)#ip defaultnetwork <network> Router(config)#ip classless To . Identify the interface used to forward packets to the specified destination network. For small networks that do not change very often and that have only a few networks. Configuring static routes is useful for increasing security.0 192. • • • • To configure a default route or a route out of a stub network (a stub network is one that has a single route into and out of the network).220.127.116.11 through the router with the IP address 192. .
168. Note: Because RIP uses the hop count in determining the best route to a remote network.1. RIP Command List To configure any routing protocol. RIP uses only classful routing. RIP uses the split horizon with poison reverse method to prevent the count-to-infinity problem.0.0. RIP broadcasts updates to the entire network. while the other route uses a Gigabit link that has two hops.1. For example.255.0 serial 1 30 permanent The following command designates network 10. and the flush timer default is 240. RIP will select this route as the optimal route. but only if the cost is the same.0 as the default network for the local router.1.1. • • • • • • • • RIP uses hop and tick counts to calculate optimal routes.1.0 through the router's second serial interface.0 0.The following command creates a permanent static route to network 192.to medium-sized networks. so it uses full address classes.1. Router(config)#ip route 0. Because the first route has fewer hops.1. effective routing protocol for small. Router(config)#ip default-network 10.2. The update interval default is 30. RIP routing is limited to 15 hops to any location (16 hops indicates the network is unreachable). the invalid timer default is 180.1. Router(config)#ip route 192.0. Enable IP routing if it is not already enabled (use the ip routing command).168. One route uses a 56 Kbps link with a single hop. suppose that two routes exist between two networks. not subnets.255. RIP can maintain up to six multiple paths to each network.2 RIP Facts The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple.1. use the following three steps: 1.0 10.0 The following command identifies a default route through an interface with address 10. RIP supports load balancing over same-cost paths. the holddown timer default is 180. It has the following characteristics when running on a Cisco router. it might end up selecting a less than optimal route.0. 66 .1.0 255.
0. and not interfaces. It is Cisco's proprietary routing protocol.0. Enter router RIP configuration mode (also referred to as "enabling RIP"). IP routing is enabled by default. .0 Router(config-router)#network 192. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 10. Use . which Cisco recommends that you use instead of RIP. . not a subnetted network address. • • Identify only networks to which the router is directly connected. Use this command only if it has been disabled. Identify the networks that will participate in dynamic routing (use the network command. followed by the address of a network to which the router is directly connected).2. Example The following commands enable IP routing and identify two networks that will participate in the RIP routing protocol. Use the classful network address. IGRP has the following characteristics: 67 . Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. . Disable IP routing on the router. follow these rules. Switch to router configuration mode (use the router command. Notice that you identify networks. Disable RIP and remove all RIP networks. When you use the network command to identify the networks that will participate in RIP routing.10. Remove a specific RIP network. 3.0 IGRP Facts Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a dynamic routing protocol that sends neighboring routers updates of its routing table. This identifies the interfaces that will share and process received routing updates. Prevent routing update messages from behind sent through a router interface. followed by the routing protocol you want to configure).168. Enable IP routing for the entire router. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <address> Router(config)#no ip routing Router(config)#no router rip Router(config-router)#no network <network> Router(config)#passiveinterface <interface> To . .
and not interfaces. use the classful network address (the network specified with the default subnet mask). IGRP supports multiple-path connections. delay. To . IGRP uses a composite metric (a 24-bit number assigned to each path that can include such factors as bandwidth. It will keep track of same-cost and different-cost routes.0 68 . and MTU). Enter router IGRP configuration mode for the specified Router(config)#router igrp Autonomous System. reliability. the AS number must match on all routers. with a hop count limit of 255 (rather than 16). IGRP uses an autonomous system (AS) number as part of the configuration. . Defaults are: o Update interval = 90 seconds o Invalid route = 270 seconds (3 times the update) o Holddown = 280 seconds (3 times the update + 10) o Flush = 630 seconds (7 times the update) IGRP Command List Configuring IGRP is very similar to configuring RIP. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. Router(configNotice that you identify networks. When using the router command. router)#network <address> When identifying networks. IP routing is enabled Router(config)#ip routing by default. . Enable IP routing for the entire router. The default update interval is higher for IGRP than RIP because it uses flash updates. Example The following commands identify two networks that will participate in the IGRP routing protocol for AS number 25 (assuming IP routing is already enabled). you must include the AS number. Use . This AS number must be the same on each router that will share information. . . You can also configure the hop count limit. Use this command only if it has been disabled.0 Router(config-router)#network 192.• • • • • • • • IGRP can handle much larger networks. Router(config)#router igrp 25 Router(config-router)#network 10.10. Note: When configuring multiple <ASnumber> routers to share information with IGRP. It can keep track of up to six different paths.0. loading. however. IGRP uses flash updates (sending changed information immediately) for faster convergence.0. IGRP uses split horizon with poison reverse.168.
Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. You should remember the following characteristics of link state protocols that apply to OSPF: • • • • • • • • • • • • Is a public (non-proprietary) routing protocol. It sends the subnet mask in the routing update and supports route summarization and VLSM. Because the loopback interface takes precedence over the physical interfaces in determining the router ID.0. o The backbone is a specialized area connected to all other areas. The Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm (also called the Dijkstra SPF algorithm) is used to identify and select the optimal route. Its address is always 0. each router is assigned a router ID (RID). o A stub area is an area with a single path in to and out of the area. the highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces. Converges faster than a distance vector protocol. Instead.0. 69 . Maintains a logical topographical map of the network in addition to maintaining routes to various networks. OSPF uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. Routers within an area share information about the area. Routers on the edge of areas (called Area Border Routers (ABR)) share summarized information between areas.0. OSPF only sends out updated information rather than exchanging the entire routing table. Uses link costs as a metric for determining best routes. Can require additional processing power (and therefore increased system requirements). Mechanisms such as holddown timers. (Unadvertised links save on IP space. or poison reverse are not needed. Is not susceptible to routing loops. All OSPF networks must have a backbone area. Is considered a classless routing protocol because it does not assume the default subnet masks are used.) Under normal conditions. split horizon. Shares routing information through Link State Advertisements (LSAs). You can think of the backbone as the "master" or "root" area. Good design can minimize this impact. you can force a specific router ID by defining a loopback interface and assigning it an IP address. It contains networks not held within another area. If a loopback interface is not defined. but they cannot be pinged because they won't appear in an OSPF routing table. As part of the OSPF process.OSPF Facts The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link state routing protocol well-suited for large networks. The router ID is: • • The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. LSAs contain small bits of information about routes. Uses areas to subdivide large networks. and distributes routing information between areas.
m. with only a few variations from the RIP and IGRP configuration steps you have previously use. Note: Although similar.m.m. n. The area number must match between routers.m is a wildcard mask (not the normal subnet mask).n m.n. Identifies networks that participate in OSPF routing.m area number Example The following graphic shows a sample network with two OSPF areas. Command Purpose Use to enter configuration mode for OSPF. and then identifying the networks that will participate in OSPF routing. Use the following commands to configure OSPF on each router: 70 .n. number is the area number in the OSPF topology.m. the process ID number is not the same thing as the AS number used in IGRP/EIGRP routing. two routers configured with different process IDs might still share OSPF information). The following table lists the commands and details for configuring OSPF.OSPF Command List OSPF is fairly simple.n is the network address.n. The process ID identifies a separate routing process on the router. Configuration is as simple as defining the OSPF process using the router ospf command. This can be a subnetted. m. Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network n. classless network. The wildcard mask identifies the subnet address. Process IDs do not need to match between routers (in other words.n.
EIGRP: • • • • • • • • • • Sends the subnet mask in the routing update. manual route summarization can also be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the routing table size. The network command identifies the subnet.255 area 1 router ospf 2 network 10.15. not the process ID. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like RIP and IGRP.1. only routing table changes are propagated in EIGRP not the entire table.0.0.0.16.0 area 1 network 10.0.16.16. Exchanges the full routing table at startup.255).255 area 1 network 10.0.0 0. You can use the subnet address with the appropriate wildcard mask (as in 10.255 area 0 network 10.15.0. split horizon.0.1. EIGRP Facts Enhanced IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary balanced hybrid routing protocol that combines the best features of distance vector and link state routing. or poison reverse are not needed. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. OSPF uses areas to identify sharing of routes.0. Uses bandwidth and delay for the route metric (similar to IGRP). Instead. Unlike IGRP and RIP.255 area 1 Notice the following in the configuration: • • • The process ID on each router does not match.18.104.22.168.0. Keeps multiple paths to a single network.32.1. Is not susceptible to routing loops.15.0 0.0. and the OSPF area of the subnet.Rout Configuration er router ospf 1 network 10.0.0 area 1 SFO LAX router ospf 1 PHX network 10.0. Supports automatic classful route summarization at major network boundaries (this is the default in EIGRP). During normal operation EIGRP transmits only hello packets across the network. Maintains partial network topology information in addition to routes.0.0. 71 .255 area 1 network 10.3.1.0 0.0 0. EIGRP uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. Minimizes network bandwidth usage for routing updates.0 0. When change occurs.1.1 0. wildcard mask.1 0.1.255.0. It supports route summarization and VLSM.15. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. A subnet can only be in one area. and then partial routing updates thereafter.0 0. Mechanisms such as holddown timers. or you can use the IP address of the router interface with a mask of 0.
168.0 Use the following commands to manage and monitor EIGRP. Converges more quickly than distance vector protocols.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. Supports multiple protocols. AppleTalk and IPX/SPX networks. In this manner. Command Router(config)#router eigrp number Router(config-router)#network n.n. 72 .n. If no appropriate route or backup exists in the routing table. In some cases. EIGRP can quickly adapt to alternate routes when changes occur. Lists the IP address of the connected router. The following table lists the applicable commands.• • • • Requires less processing and memory than link state protocols.168. Uses the DUAL link-state algorithm for calculating routes. Command show ip route show eigrp neighbors show eigrp interfaces Features View EIGRP-learned routes. EIGRP Command List You configure EIGRP just the same as you would configure IGRP. EIGRP will query neighbor routers to discover an alternate route.3.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. View the interfaces that are running EIGRP and the number of connected routers. EIGRP can exchange routes for IP. Identifies a network that participates in the routing process. Router(config)#router eigrp 2 Router(config-network)#network 192. The number must match between routers for information to be shared.n Function Defines an EIGRP process. convergence can be almost instantaneous because an EIGRP router stores backup routes for destinations.1.168. View neighboring routers from which EIGRP routes can be learned. Example The following commands enable EIGRP on a router and defines three networks that participate in the routing process.2.
split horizon.Routing Protocol Comparison The following table compares various features of the routing protocols you will need to know for this course. poison poison reverse reverse Low No No No Full network topology Can be high Yes Yes No Partial network topology Lower than OSPF No No Memory and CPU Low requirements Uses areas in network No design Uses wildcards to define No participating networks Routing Administrative Distances 73 . Hold down timers. Characteristic Routing method Public standard Metric VLSM support Classless routing Route summarization Sends mask in updates Convergence time Discovers neighbors before sending routing information RIP Distance vector Yes Hop count IGRP Distance vector No OSPF Link state Yes EIGRP Balanced hybrid No Bandwidth and delay Yes Bandwidth and delay Link cost Version 2 only No Slow (faster than RIP) No Yes Slow No Fast Yes Fast Yes Sends full routing table at Yes each update Loop avoidance Yes. also sends triggered updates of changed routes Hold down timers. split horizon.
there might be multiple paths between any two points. The following table shows the default administrative values for a Cisco router. In addition. Route Source Administrative Distance Connected interface 0 Static route 1 EIGRP summary route 5 EIGRP internal route 90 IGRP 100 OSPF 110 RIP 120 EIGRP external route 170 Note: You can modify how routes are selected by modifying the administrative distance associated with a source. When making routing decisions. Routers can learn about routes to other networks using multiple routing protocols. If a router has learned of two routes to a single network through different routing protocols (such as RIP and OSPF). WAN Structure 74 . 2. it will choose the route with the lowest administrative distance (OSPF in this example). the router uses the following criteria for choosing between multiple routes: 1. If a router has learned of two routes through the same protocol (for example two routes through EIGRP). A smaller number indicates a more trusted route. The router uses these values to select the source of information to use when multiple routes to a destination exist. the router will choose the route that has the best cost as defined by the routing metric (for EIGRP the link with the highest bandwidth and least delay will be used).The administrative distance is a number assigned to a source of routing information (such as a static route or a specific routing protocol).
A device on the network side of a WAN link that sends and receives data. but it can also be one or a combination of UTP. The demarc media is owned and maintained by the telephone company. Broadly. telephone. fiber optic. The point where the telephone company's telephone wiring connects to the subscriber's wiring. and can include all computers. both the devices premises the subscriber owns and the ones leased from the WAN provider.A typical WAN structure includes the following components. CPE is sometimes used synonymously with DTE. In a narrow sense. The phone company is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc. The demarc can also be called the network interface or Demarcation point point of presence. Local loop Typically. Fiber optic cable to the demarc is rare. and marks the point of entry Data terminal between the LAN and the WAN. and the nearest point of (CO) presence for the WAN provider. The DTE resides on the subscriber's premises. but computers equipment (DTE) and multiplexers can also act as DTEs. the DTE is the device that communicates with the DCE at the other end. DTEs are any equipment at the customer's site. CPE includes the Consumer telephone wire. or other media. and other equipment. DTEs are usually routers. the customer is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc. Cable that extends from the demarc to the central telephone office. The equipment (CPE) wiring typically includes UTP cable with RJ-11 or RJ-45 connectors. it is UTP. modem. It provides WAN-cloud entry and exit 75 . (demarc) Typically. Component Description Devices physically located on the subscriber's premises. Central office The switching facility closest to the subscriber.
a DCE is any device that terminating supplies clocking signals to DTEs. Few people thoroughly understand where data goes as it is switched through the "cloud. and arrives at its destination. and central offices that make up the network of telephone lines. COs use long-distance. WAN encapsulation methods are typically called HDLC (high-level data link control). travels through the line.points for incoming and outgoing calls. WAN Encapsulation Facts WAN Physical layer protocols specify the hardware and bit signaling methods. Thus. DCEs may be devices similar to DTEs (such as routers). The hierarchy of trunks. Long-distance carriers are usually owned and operated by companies such as AT&T or MCI. LAPD in combination with another protocol for the B channels in ISDN networks. you will select one of the following encapsulation methods. This term is both a generic name for Data Link protocols and the name of a specific protocol within a WAN protocol suite or service. Data Link layer protocols control some or all of the following functions: • • • • Error checking and correction Link establishment Frame-field composition Point-to-point flow control Data Link layer protocols also describe the encapsulation method or the frame format. In a strict sense. Packet-switching A switch on a carrier's packet-switched network. Depending on the WAN service and connection method. point-to-point connections with other Cisco routers (Cisco HDLC does not communicate with other vendors' implementations of HDLC)." What is important is that data goes in. a modem or CSU/DSU at the equipment (DCE) customer site is often classified as a DCE. switches. carriers to provide connections to almost anywhere in the world. PSEs are the intermediary exchange (PSE) points in the WAN cloud. A device that communicates with both DTEs and the WAN cloud. and different networks with common connection points WAN cloud may overlap. It is represented as a cloud because the physical structure varies. This is the default encapsulation method for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. 76 . LAPD is a Layer 2 ISDN protocol that manages flow and signaling. A CO provides services such as switching incoming telephone signals to outgoing trunk lines.25 networks. or toll. and acts as a switching point to forward data to other central offices. except that each device plays a different role. It also provides reliable DC power to the local loop to establish an electric circuit. • • • Cisco HDLC for synchronous. DCEs are typically routers at the service provider that relay messages between the Data circuitcustomer and the WAN cloud. LAPB for X.
Each Network layer protocol has a corresponding control protocol packet. LCPs are used to agree upon encapsulation. packet size. Note: Routers on each side of a WAN link must use the same encapsulation method to be able to communicate. AppleTalk. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number. and tearing down the PPP link. and numerous others. PPP is non-proprietary. LCPs also indicate whether authentication should be used. Throughout the session. LCPs are exchanged to detect and correct errors or to control the use of multiple links (multilink). and ISDN networks. IPX. Protocol Description The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing. PPP Facts The following list represents some of the key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): • • • • • • It can be used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial. When the session is terminated. the link is looped. Network Control Protocol (NCP) A single Link Control Protocol runs for each physical connection. synchronous serial (dial up). It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors. IPX. PPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link. so it works in implementations that use products from multiple vendors.• • PPP for dial-up LAN access. It supports multilink connections. and ISDN. Cisco/IETF for Frame Relay networks. including IP. LCP packets are exchanged periodically to do the following: • Link Control Protocol (LCP) • • During link establishment. or AppleTalk). LCPs are responsible for tearing down the link. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. and compression settings. Optional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3way authentication). load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links. It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. circuit-switched WAN networks. It supports multiple Network layer protocols. maintaining. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP. Examples of control protocols include: 77 .
During this phase. LCPs might continue to be exchanged. . authentication-specific packets are exchanged to configure authentication parameters and authenticate the devices. routers might exchange IPCP and CDPCP packets to agree upon using IP and CDP for Network-layer communications. NCP phase. 3. Authenticate phase (optional). Use . PPP establishes communication in three phases. packet size. Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp To . You must set the encapsulation method to PPP before you can configure authentication or compression. . one for each Networklayer protocol supported on the link.• • • • IP Control Protocol (IPCP) CDP Control Protocol (CDPCP) IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP) AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) A single PPP link can run multiple control protocols. the first method will be pap tried first Router(config-if)#ppp compression Set compression options Router(config-if)#ppp chap|pap password Set the password used with CHAP <password> or PAP for an unknown host Router(config)#username <hostname> password <password> Set the username and password for the local router 78 . LCPs are exchanged to open the link and agree upon link settings such as encapsulation. PPP Command List PPP configuration is often done in connection with configuring other services. If authentication is used. 1. configure username/password combinations. Select CHAP and/or PAP as the authentication method (optional). . LCPs might also be exchanged during this phase to maintain the link. 2. you complete the following tasks: 1. To configure PPP on the router. 2. PPP options are configured in interface mode for a specific interface. Set PPP encapsulation on the interface. During this phase. Set the encapsulation type to PPP Set the authentication method(s) Router(config-if)#ppp authentication <chap| When multiple methods are pap> Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap specified. 3. . For example. and whether authentication will be used. LCP phase. NCPs are exchanged to agree on upper-layer protocols to use.
When you sign up for Frame Relay service. When network traffic is low. you are assigned a level of service called a Committed Information Rate (CIR). Frame Relay switches begin dropping packets when congestion occurs. T-3). Example The following commands configure the SFO router to use PPP and enable it to connect to the LAX router using PAP authentication. 79 . Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K. In any case. Frame Relay switches perform error checking but not correction. The CIR is the maximum guaranteed data transmission rate you will receive on the Frame Relay network. you are guaranteed to have at least the amount of bandwidth specified by the CIR. You should be familiar with the following concepts about how Frame Relay networks send data. Can provide data transfer up to 1. digital lines. you will likely be able to send data faster than the CIR. T-1. Frame relay networks simulate an "always on" connection with PVCs. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets. Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Frame-relay networks: • • • • • • Provide error detection but not error recovery. priority is given to data coming from customers with a higher CIR. Corrupted packets are simply dropped without notification. Sending routers send data immediately without establishing a session. • • • • • • • • Routers connect to a Frame Relay switch either directly or through a CSU/DSU. use the service password-encryption command from the global configuration mode. Have a variable packet size (called a frame) . Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs. Error correction is performed by sending and receiving devices.54 Mbps.Router(config)#bandwidth <value> Set a bandwidth value for an interface View encapsulation and PPP information on an interface Router#show interface To hide the CHAP password from view in the configuration file. and the effective rate may drop. As network traffic increases. Packets travel through the Frame Relay cloud without acknowledgments. SFO(config)#hostname LAX password cisco5 SFO(config)#int s0 SFO(config-if)#encap ppp SFO(config-if)#ppp auth pap Frame Relay Facts Frame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality.
Each DLCI is unique for the local network. The DLCI represents the connection between two frame relay devices. Enable dynamic DLCI assignment through multicasting support. Make DLCIs globally significant for the entire network. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. Gather status information about other routers and connections on the network. • • Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) • The DLCI ranges between 16 and 1007. you have the following options: 80 . LMI is responsible for managing the connection and reporting connection status. Local Management Interface (LMI) is a set of management protocol extensions that automates many Frame Relay management tasks. The Frame Relay network is made up of multiple switches for moving packets. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. The router connects to a CSU/DSU. Frame Relay switches send Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) messages to slow data transfer rates. Frame Relay Protocols Most Frame Relay installations involve connecting to a Frame Relay network through a T-1 line. Packets are discarded based on information in the Discard Eligible (DE) bit. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. The Frame Relay service provider assigns the DLCI when the virtual circuit is set up. DLCIs identify each virtual circuit. through LMI these numbers can be globally significant (i. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. the same number is used throughout the entire network to identify a specific link). Cisco routers support three LMI types: Cisco.• • • Congestion is the most common cause of packet loss on a Frame Relay network. which is connected to the Frame Relay network. the same DLCI number can be used multiple times in the entire network to identify different devices. You should be aware of the following Frame Relay protocols: Protocol Characteristics Like an Ethernet MAC address. ANSI. and Q933a. Although DLCI numbers are only locally significant.e. In other words. but not for the entire WAN. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. LMI can: • • • • • Local Management Interface (LMI) Maintain the link between the router and the switch.
you will need to associate logical. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly.• • Point-to-Point. and associates each address with a DLCI. the DLCI number acts like a Data Link or physical device address. This is the default. • • Dynamically associate DLCIs with inverse ARP. . By default. Because Frame Relay supports multiple upper-layer protocols (such as IP. . IPX. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. Multipoint. you have the following configuration options. Cisco is the default frame relay encapsulation. Frame Relay Command List When configuring a router for Frame Relay. 81 . Router(configif)#frame-relay Turn on inverse ARP (it is on by default) inverse-arp Router(configif)#frame-relay map Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Note: Add the broadcast parameter to the command to configure the router to forward broadcast traffic over the link. Use . . results are less prone to errors than when using inverse ARP. Set the encapsulation method Router(config-if)#encap You can following this command by various keywords to frame-relay set a specific frame relay encapsulation protocol. . To configure Frame Relay on an interface. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. The router uses the inverse ARP protocol to dynamically discover destination addresses associated with a specific DLCI. Although more work. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. Note: You must set the encapsulation method on the interface before you can issue any other Frame Relay commands. For multipoint connections. assign a DLCI to the subinterface Configure the LMI settings (optional). The administrator identifies the address of each destination device. complete the following tasks: • • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface by setting the encapsulation type Assign a Network layer address to the interface (such as an IP address) Configure dynamic (inverse ARP) or static (mapped) addresses For a point-to-point subinterface. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. With a point-to-point connection. Network layer destination addresses with the DLCI number used to reach that address. and DECnet). To . Manually map addresses to DLCIs.
1. Instead of adding physical interfaces. you can expand your router's capability without adding modules containing physical interfaces. you have the following options: • • Point-to-Point. Show DLCI statistics and information. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. and map IP address 10. They make it possible to support multiple connections and/or networks through a single physical port. 82 . Using subinterfaces in this manner overcomes the split horizon problem that can occur when sending updates out the same interface.55 to DLCI 25. Clear the dynamic entries from the frame-relay map cache. Multipoint. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. A subinterface is a virtual interface that you configure on a Cisco router's physical interface. Configure LMI on the Cisco router Examples The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 1 using IETF as the encapsulation method and dynamic addressing. disable inverse ARP. Using subinterfaces also lets you send routing updates out the same physical interface on which they were received.Router#show frame map Router#clear framerelay-inarp Router#show frame pvc Router#frame lmi-type <LMI type> Display the contents of the frame-relay map cache (showing IP address to DLCI number mappings). With a point-to-point connection. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 0 using Cisco as the encapsulation method.1. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations.1. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. using subinterfaces lets you subdivide a single physical interface into several separate virtual channels. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. With subinterfaces.55 25 Subinterfaces Facts Cisco uses the term interface to describe the physical component that connects the router to a network. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#no frame inverse Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit.1.
specifying either point-to-point or multipoint For a point-to-point connection or a multipoint connection using inverse ARP. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s1. .155 111 Frame Relay Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot Frame Relay. assign the DLCI number to the subinterface For a multipoint connection using static assignments. . The subinterface is configured to use inverse ARP. 83 . Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s0.12. Create the subinterface Assign the DLCI to the interface Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Examples The following commands create a point-to-point subinterface on the first serial interface and assign it to DLCI 44. . map DLCIs to protocol addresses In addition.X <type> Router(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci Router(config-subif)#frame-relay map To .16.16. Do not assign an IP address to the main interface.12. Router(config-if)#int sX. you will need to assign a Network layer address to the subinterface. and configure it with a static IP mapping of device 199.Frame Relay Subinterface Command List To configure Frame Relay on a subinterface. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. Use . .155 to DLCI 111. complete the following tasks: • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface and set the encapsulation method Create the subinterface.103 mult Router(config-subif)#frame map ip 199.55 point Router(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 44 The following commands create a multipoint subinterface on the second serial interface.
do not set an IP address on the main interface. Instead. keep in mind the following tips: • • • • • All routers at all locations must be configured to use the same frame relay encapsulation method. Use inverse arp to dynamically discover DLCI numbers. When using routers of multiple vendors. Frame Relay routers must know the DLCI number that is used to reach remote routers. use the ietf encapsulation type. When using all Cisco routers. • • • • • • • • ping sh frame map sh frame pvc sh int/sh ip int sh run no ip sh frame-relay sh frame-relay traffic Frame Relay Troubleshooting Tips As you troubleshoot Frame Relay. you can use the default Frame Relay encapsulation type (cisco). 84 . When configuring subinterfaces. you must manually assign a DLCI to the subinterface. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem.The scenario description for each exercise identifies whether the routers should be configured using inverse-arp or static mappings. set IP addresses on each subinterface. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. Use static mappings to associate DLCI numbers with IP addresses manually. For a point-to-point subinterface. Each scenario has some misconfiguration that prevents communication.
. This information is not the DLCI number associated with the interface. video. show run show frame pvc show int show run show frame lmi show int show frame pvc show int show frame traffic show frame map Note: Output for the show interfaces command shows an entry for DLCI followed by a number. The physical cable of an ISDN connection is divided into logical channels. It allows fast. Monitoring Frame Relay If you want to view . . Data Link. Service Basic Rate B channels D channel Characteristics Two 64 Kbps One 16 Uses existing phone lines (but may not be available 85 . D channels are used to carry control and signaling information. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. digital transmission of both voice and data (including graphics. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. . ISDN uses T-carrier technology to quickly and efficiently send digital data streams. Channels are classified as one of two types: • • B channels are used to carry data. It supports the majority of upper-level protocols and encapsulation protocols.• By default. and so on) over existing telephone lines. When you order ISDN service. DLCI numbers Frame Relay encapsulation method LMI information and traffic statistics Interface configuration (DCE or DTE) Global traffic statistics Addresses and associated DLCIs Use . and Network layers. . ISDN Facts Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards covering the Physical. you have the choice between the following services.
flow control. and error correction In practice. E for Existing networks I for Identifying concepts Q for Quality switching signals 86 . • • • Faster data transfer rates (128 Kbps) than dial-up modems (56 Kbps maximum) Faster call establishment (dial-up) than modems Lower cost than other WAN solutions (users pay a monthly fee plus connection charges) ISDN Protocol Standards ISDN standards are grouped according to function. ISDN BRI is a relatively low-cost WAN service that is ideal for the following situations: • • Home office or telecommuters who need a relatively fast connection Businesses that need to periodically send data between sites (bursty traffic patterns) ISDN BRI offers the following benefits over dial-up modems and other WAN connection options. such as call setup. Use the following to help remember the classifications. such as network services Standards for switching and signaling. but you will need to memorize them for the certification exam.ISDN (BRI) Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) Kbps Twenty-three One 64 64 Kbps Kbps where existing copper wires don't support it) The connection is "demand-dial" (established only when data needs to be sent) Uses an entire T-1 line Sometimes called 23B+D The connection is "always on" Note: The total bandwidth of an ISDN BRI line is 144 Kbps (two B channels and one D channel). you will probably not need to know these standards. Protocol Designation E I Q Standard Standards for ISDN on the existing phone network. terminology. such as international addressing Standards for ISDN concepts. The protocol groupings and descriptions follow a lettering standard. The total data transfer rate is 128 Kbps (data is sent only on the two B channels). and services.
where different protocols and devices connect with each other. a TA (Terminal Adapter) is any device that generates traffic on an ISDN line. although it does not convert digital signals to analog signals. In North NT1 America. Rather. computer. The TA is often called an ISDN modem. 87 . Generically speaking. the term is usually used to describes TA a device that converts non-ISDN signals to ISDN signals. An NT2 (Network Switching Equipment) connects with an NT1. The ISDN standard defines several reference points. and/or split the signal into data and voice transmissions. A TE2 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 2) is a non-ISDN-compatible device TE2 such as a computer without an ISDN adapter. the customer is responsible for the NT1. ISDN Device Function Designation An NT1 (Network Terminator) is the connection point between the local loop and ISDN network. NT2s are optional. A TE1 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 1) is an ISDN-compatible device such TE1 as a router. or ISDN telephone. Reference Designation Interface Type R Interface between a TA and non-ISDN equipment (TE2). S Interface between the NT2 and an ISDN device (TE1 or TA). it converts ISDN signals to non-ISDN signals. A Cisco router might be classified as an NT1. T Interface between an NT2 and the NT1. It lets you NT2 connect multiple devices. NT1 functionality is the responsibility of the service provider. It identifies proper connections with the following interface designations. More specifically.ISDN Components and Reference Points ISDN devices are classified based on whether they are ISDN-capable and the role they can play on the network. Outside of North America.
you might have the following options (depending on the configuration of the router): • • • Connect a router with an S/T interface to either an NT1 or an NT2 (but not directly to the local loop). to connect a router to an ISDN network. place the letters in order (R. Be sure to connect the correct device to the correct interface. ISDN Addressing ISDN is a Network layer protocol that operates over a specific hardware interface configuration. or U) of each device. Your router must be configured to communicate with the switch type used by your WAN service 88 . For example. Network layer address (similar to a telephone number that that allows each channel to make and receive calls). T. To remember the reference points. S. S. Label the wire between each device with the corresponding letter. then follow a packet from a non-ISDN device to the local loop. When connecting devices on an ISDN network. Your ISDN router will be connected to an ISDN switch at the WAN service provider. • • • Service Protocol Identifier (SPID) One SPID is assigned to the entire device Each B channel has its own SPID Each B channel can have more than one assigned SPID The WAN service provide assigns the SPIDs for you to configure on the router. The TA can then connect to the NT1 or NT2. each device can have one or more SPIDs. For this reason. Each ISDN device is assigned one TEI. Connect a router with a U interface directly to the local loop. T. pay attention to the interface type (R. TEIs are dynamically assigned to the router by the ISDN switch when the connection is made. an R reference point) to a TA. Do not connect the U interface to an NT1 or an NT2. ISDN uses the following addresses: Address Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) Characteristics Data Link layer address (similar to an Ethernet MAC address). The following are common SPID assignments. U).e.U Interface between the NT1 and the local loop (ISDN wall connection). Depending on the specific ISDN implementation. the S and T interfaces are often identified as an S/T interface. ISDN has its own Network and Data Link layer addressing. Note: Because they are electrically the same. Connect a router with a serial interface (i.
The router uses the D channel to perform Data Link (layer 2) initialization. The sending device requests a connection through the D channel. the most common types are: • • • AT&T 5ESS Northern DMS-100 National ISDN-1 ISDN Communication Facts The following process is used to initialize an ISDN router. Maintaining the session. After the transmission is over. As its name implies. Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel (LAPD) is the Data Link encapsulation protocol used on an ISDN network. Assigning TEIs. the D channel is used to tear down the link. 1. the following process is used. 1. The router uses the D channel to perform Network (layer 3) initialization. 89 . 2. The D channel is used for session maintenance. 2. ISDN Command List To configure an ISDN connection. it operates on the D channel of an ISDN connection and is used for: • • • • Initializing Layer 2 and Layer 3 communications. 3. The receiving device answers and the link is established. 4.provider. When a router needs to communicate with another ISDN device. The exact commands you will use depend on the equipment used at the central office. you need to complete the following configuration processes: • • • Configure the ISDN switch type Assign SPIDs (if required) Configure encapsulation Use the following commands to configure an ISDN connection. In North America. The B channel is used to transmit data. Cisco routers support over 10 switch types. Terminating the link. TEIs are dynamically assigned to identify the router. It uses its preconfigured SPIDs (if required) to set up the B channels.
. Example The following commands set the switch type. Identify SPIDs for an interface.Use . Router(config)#interface bri0 Router(config)#isdn switchtype <type> Router(config-if)#isdn spid<#> <number> <number> Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router#show isdn status Router#show isdn active Router#show isdn history Router(config-if)#ppp multilink Router(config)#dialer loadthreshold To . Switch to ISDN interface configuration mode. encapsulation method. . bri0:1.3 and above. Enables multilink on the interface. For IOS 11. this is a global configuration command. For IOS 11. Show all past and current ISDN phone calls. . To use multiple channels at the same time. use this command in interface mode or global configuration mode. An ISDN connection consists of multiple logical B channels on a single physical connection. . enable multilink PPP (MLP).2 and below. Use only if SPID numbers are not dynamically assigned. bri0:2 90 . Show active ISDN phone calls. and assigns two SPIDs for an ISDN interface: Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-5ess Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866201 8358662 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664 About ISDN Simulations The following commands have been enabled in the simulations for configuring and testing an ISDN connection: • • • • • • • interface bri0 isdn switch-type isdn spid1. Identifies the utilization percentage that must exist for the additional channels to be used. Set the encapsulation method for the interface (PPP is the most common). isdn spid2 show isdn status show isdn active show isdn history show interface bri0. Set the ISDN switch type to match that used by the service provider. View the status of the ISDN connection.
o For IOS versions 11. and what is required. BRI interfaces are up only when a call is successfully placed to another router. Verify that the configuration settings are correct before bringing the interface up. Channels are up when a call is initiated that uses that specific channel. BRI1. Setting it globally automatically adds it to the interface. This product simulates the IOS version 12. Normally. keep in mind the following: • • • • • Each BRI interface represents a single connection to an ISDN network. BRI Interface Facts As you work with ISDN BRI interfaces. Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up. In addition. you may need to use the clear interface bri0 command or restart the router on a live system before some configuration changes take place. On a Cisco router.3 up to (but not including) 12. but if it is removed from the interface. you can only set the switch type globally. etc.0. or take several minutes to change. the switch at the service provider may report excessive errors and disable itself. You will then need to contact your service provider to reset the switch.0 and above. How the switch type is set. the connection cannot be made. differs depending on the IOS version: o For IOS versions 11. these statuses may not update. o For IOS versions 11.x method of setting the switch type. you can set the switch type globally or on an interface basis. o For IOS versions 12. even if one is not defined for the interface. Each physical BRI interface has three separate channels (1 D channel and 2 B channels). DDR Facts 91 . Spoofing allows the router to place entries in the routing table for dial-ondemand interfaces.3 and above. It is possible to have one channel active and the other channel inactive. The two B channels for the first BRI interface are identified as BRI0:1 and BRI0:2. BRI interfaces are identified as BRI0. the switch type must be defined for the interface. you should set the ISDN switch type and SPIDs with the interface shut down.2 and below. When you remove the shutdown for a BRI interface. the router can still make a connection if the switch type is defined globally. If you misconfigure the interface and connect to the ISDN switch. On a live system. routes that correspond to an interface are not placed in the routing table until the interface status is up.You should be aware of the following conditions regarding configuring ISDN connections on a live system: • • • As best practice. the interface status changes to spoofing. The status reported with the show isdn status command in the simulations updates automatically and immediately after making configuration changes.
both interesting and non-interesting. to identify a single number to dial for all connections.A dial-on-demand link is one that is non-persistent (not always on). This process is much like placing a telephone call. will be sent over the link. If a DDR link is up. to identify a specific destination and the corresponding number to dial. Identify the host called by the router using one of the following commands in interface mode: • • dialer string. 92 . all traffic. dialer map. only interesting traffic will bring it up. not which traffic can cross the link once it is established. the connection is terminated. If a DDR link is down. Non-interesting traffic is ignored (never sent). When the link is idle. Interesting traffic is identified and applied to an interface using the following three items: Access List Contains multiple entries that define interesting traffic Each list applies only to one protocol in type Access lists are optional Dialer List Identifies all traffic of a specific protocol. or identifies an access list Contains multiple entries. Use access lists to identify the type of traffic that will bring the link up (called interesting traffic). The link between two devices is established when one device calls another and the answering device answers the request. Non-interesting traffic that needs to be sent will not keep the link up if the time limit has expired. The list of interesting traffic only defines which traffic brings the link up. The link is brought up (or dialed) when traffic needs to cross the link. The DDR link will be brought down if no interesting traffic has crossed the link in a specified period of time. Keep in mind the following points about dial-on-demand routing (DDR): • • • • Access lists define interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). a maximum of one per protocol Dialer Group Applies a dialer list to an interface Maximum of one group per interface Dialer interfaces (such as ISDN BRI) are non-persistent and might be used to connect to multiple devices.
0. This allows Router(config)#ip route hosts on the local network to access hosts on the remote network(s). Identify the number to dial to contact the Router(config-if)#dialer map ip destination router. .0. Configure access list statements that define Router(config)#access-list interesting traffic Router(config)#dialer-list <#> Identify the traffic type or access list that protocol <type> permit/deny defines interesting traffic. such as: o Configuring the ISDN connection o Configuring IP addresses for applicable interfaces Define interesting traffic Apply the interesting traffic definition to the dial-on-demand interface Configure the numbers to call when interesting traffic is received Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link Configure the DDR timers (optional) Use .1 eq 21 Router(config)#dialer-list 9 protocol ip list 101 93 . The link will be brought up for HTTP or FTP traffic. apply it to an interface.DDR Command List Configuring dial-on-demand routing involves completing the following general steps: • • • • • • Configure the interface to connect to the network. Use this command if the <number> router contacts only one other router. Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link. Router(config-if)#dialer-group Apply the dialer-list to an interface. . <#> Router(config-if)#dialer string Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. Examples The following commands define all IP traffic as interesting traffic for BRI0 and identifies two numbers of a single destination router to dial when traffic must be sent. and configures a static route to the remote device.1 eq 80 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. defines a called device. . Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.0. . Use this command if the <address> <number> router contacts multiple routers over the same physical interface. To .0. Router(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip permit Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 7 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5551111 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5552222 The following commands create an access list and dialer list.
Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 9 Router(config-if)#dialer map ip 22.214.171.124 name LAX 5552345 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 bri0 126.96.36.199
Note: You can also configure serial or asynchronous interfaces to support dial-on-demand routing. To enable DDR on a serial interface, use the following command:
Dialer Profiles In a typical ISDN BRI connection, the router has a single BRI interface that is used to connect to all other sites. If your router has multiple BRI (or PRI) interfaces, or if you want to use different B channels to reach multiple sites, you have the following choices:
Use dialer lists to configure specific interfaces to connect with specific sites. For example, if you have two interfaces and four sites, one interface could connect to half of the sites, and the other interface could connect to the other half. Use dialer profiles to pool all physical interfaces into a single logical interface. In this way, traffic to any of the four sites could be sent out either of the two interfaces.
Configuring dialer profiles is beyond the scope of this course, but involves the following general process.
• • • • •
Create access list statements to define interesting traffic. Create a dialer-list statement pointing to the access list. Create a special dialer interface. This is a logical interface that groups multiple physical interfaces. Configure the dialer interface as you would a physical interface with dialergroup commands and dialer map statements. Associate a dialer pool number with the logical dialer interface. Assign each physical interface to the dialer pool.
DDR Timers DDR timers identify the amount of time that passes without interesting traffic before the link is brought down. You do this by setting one or both of the following timeouts: Timer Idletimeout Description The idle-timeout identifies when the DDR link will be brought down. If no interesting traffic has crossed the link during the specified time interval, the DDR
link is closed. The fast-idle timer is a special timer that allows the DDR link to be brought down before the idle-timeout timer has expired. It identifies an alternate timer that is used if: Fast-idle
• • • •
The physical interface connects to multiple sites (phone numbers) The interface has an existing link to one site Packets are ready to be sent to a different site There is no interesting traffic currently being sent
Use the following commands to configure the DDR timers: Use . . . To . . . Router(configSet the amount of time that elapses without interesting if)#dialer idle-timeout traffic before the DDR link is disconnected. Set the amount of time that must elapse before the DDR Router(configlink can be disconnected early if a call to another if)#dialer fast-idle destination is received.
ISDN Configuration Process When configuring ISDN DDR links, remember to complete the following processes: 1. Configure the interface for the link. o Configure the ISDN switch type (for the router or the interface. o Configure SPIDs if necessary. o Configure encapsulation. o Assign IP addresses and remove the shutdown from the link. 2. Identify devices to call (dial). 3. Define the interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). 4. Set link timeouts to bring the link down.
DDR Show Commands You should be familiar with the information shown for each of the following commands as they relate to DDR routing.
Use... show isdn active To view... Details of active calls such as:
The number dialed 95
• • • • • • • •
The device called Time left until disconnect ISDN switch type ISDN status by layer (layers 1-3) Number of active calls Number of available ISDN channels Idle and fast idle timer settings for an interface Reason for the connection (source and destination addresses) Number and hostname dialed Time connected Time left until disconnect
show isdn status
show dialer int bri
• • •
ISDN Troubleshooting Tips As you work with ISDN connections, use the show isdn status command to check the status of the ISDN interfaces. Here you can examine the status of each of the three OSI model layers. The following table describes the possible meaning of each layer status. Status Information Actions to Take There is no physical connection to the ISDN network. Layer 1 Status = NOT Activated Check the physical connection or remove the shutdown from the interface. A physical connection exists, but communication to the ISDN network is not taking place. (TEI and Layer 1 Status = ACTIVE SPID messages will show if SPIDs are Layer 2 Status = NOT Activated configured.) TEI Not Assigned Verify the ISDN switch type configuration on the spid1 NOT sent router. Note: SPIDs will not be sent or validated until Layer 2 communications have been established. A single TEI is assigned and Layer 2 is active. The router is communicating with the ISDN network over the D channel. SPID statuses do not Layer 2 State = show. MULTIPLE_STATE_ESTABLISHED Either the router does not require SPIDs, or SPIDs are not yet assigned. Validate the SPID configuration. SPID status = spid1 configured, spid1 sent, An incorrect SPID number was configured. spid1 NOT valid Reverify the SPID configuration. Note: SPID2 will not be sent and cannot be
In each case. • show isdn status 97 . Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem. one or more routers have been misconfigured. For each scenario. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. check the following: • • If the ISDN status shows active but a ping between the two routers fails. Layer 3 will not show active until a call has been placed to open communication. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. ISDN Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot ISDN configuration. If you can successfully ping the remote ISDN router from the local ISDN router. but devices on either network cannot communicate over the link. begin by verifying the problem. verify that interesting traffic is properly defined to bring the link up. check to make sure that static routes have been defined on each router. If Layer 1 and Layer 2 statuses are active.spid1 valid Endpoint ID Info shown Layer 3 shows 0 active calls validated until SPID1 has been configured correctly. Check to make sure the dialer group command has been used for the interface to associate the list with the interface. The problem may be with either router. SPIDs have been validated and EIDs assigned. Problems with the communication are limited to those configuration settings taught in this section. but you cannot communicate through the ISDN link.
• • • • • • ping show show show show show interface bri0 interface bri0:1 interface bri0:2 ip route run Tip: For most troubleshooting activities. you should be able to diagnose the problem using the output from the show isdn status command. 98 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.