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USER/PRIVILEGED EXEC COMMANDS
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clear frame-relay-inarp configure terminal copy running-config startup-config copy startup-config running-config disable disconnect enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <all supported interfaces> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <all supported interfaces> show configuration show controllers show frame-relay lmi show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show history show interfaces show interfaces <all supported interfaces> (including bri0:1, bri0:2) show ip access-lists show ip interface show ip interface <all supported interfaces>
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show ip route show ipx route show ipx servers show isdn active show isdn history show isdn status show running-config show startup-config show version terminal editing terminal history terminal history size <size> terminal no editing terminal no history traceroute <ip address>
GLOBAL CONFIGURATION COMMANDS
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access-list <1-99> deny/permit access-list <1-99> deny/permit <wildcard mask> access-list <1-99> deny/permit <address> banner <banner text> banner exec <banner text> banner incoming <banner text> banner login <banner text> banner motd <banner text> cdp holdtime <time> cdp timer <time> cdp run dialer-list <1-10> protocol ip enable password <password> enable secret <password> end exit
<address> <address> host
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help hostname <name> interface bri <number> interface ethernet <number> (with subinterfaces) interface serial <number> (with subinterfaces) ip route <address> <mask> <interface> <next hop address> ip routing ipx routing isdn switch-type <type> line console 0 line vty <number> line vty <number> <number> router rip router igrp <AS number> router eigrp <AS number> router ospf <process id>
ETHERNET INTERFACE COMMANDS
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cdp enable description <LINE> exit help ip access-group <number> in/out ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown
SERIAL INTERFACE COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clock rate <number> description <LINE> encapsulation frame-relay encapsulation hdlc encapsulation ppp exit frame-relay interface-dlci <number> frame-relay inverse-arp frame-relay map ip <address> <dlci> help ip access-group <1-99> ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown BRI COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • description <LINE> dialer fast-idle dialer idle-timeout dialer map ip <address> <string> dialer string <string> dialer-group <number> exit help ip address <address> <mask> isdn spid1 <string> <string> isdn spid2 <string> <string> isdn switch-type <type> shutdown LINE/CONSOLE COMMANDS 4 .
• • • • exit help login password <password> ROUTER COMMANDS • network SWITCH USER/PRIVILEGED MODE COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • configure configure terminal disable enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show history show interfaces show interfaces <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show ip show running-config show spanning-tree show spanning-tree <number> show version show vlan show vlan <number> show vlan-membership 5 .
..• show vtp SWITCH GLOBAL COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cdp holdtime <number> cdp timer <number> enable password level 15 <password> end exit help hostname <name> interface <ethernet/fastethernet port> ip address <address> <mask> ip default-gateway <address> spanning-tree <number> . switchport access vlan <number> vlan <number> vlan <number> name <name> vtp client/server/transparent SWITCH ETHERNET/FAST ETHERNET COMMANDS • • • • • • cdp enable description <WORD> exit help shutdown vlan-membership static <number> 6 .
Using the OSI model to discuss networking concepts has the following advantages: • • • Provides a common language or reference point between network professionals Divides networking tasks into logical layers for easier comprehension Allows specialization of features at different levels 7 . or acknowledgements.CONNECTION-ORIENTED VS. error detection. and error correction. Connectionless communications include no error checking or acknowledgement mechanisms. 2. USES OF THE OSI MODEL You should be familiar with the OSI model. because it is the most widely used method for talking about network communications. session establishment. Session initialization (connection establishment). The three phases of connection-oriented communication are: 1. remember that it is only a theoretical model that defines standards for programmers and network administrators. Session maintenance (data transfer). CONNECTIONLESS • • • Connection-oriented protocols are reliable. Session termination (connection release). data errors and packet loss might occur. You should also know the following facts about connectionless communication: • • • • Connectionless services assume an existing link between devices and allow transmission without extensive session establishment. and 3. Connectionless protocols allow quick. They perform session initiation. They identify and retransmit lost packets. However. not a model of actual physical layers. Connectionless communications use no error checking. efficient communication. However. error-free communications are more important than speed. A connection-oriented protocol is a good choice where reliable.
EBCDIC MIDI. maintain. • • • OSI layers are theoretical and do not actually perform real functions. you must remember the following limitations of the OSI model. Different protocols within the stack perform different functions that help send or receive the overall message. Packets AVI ASCII. and tear down communication sessions Reliable (connection-oriented) and unreliable (connectionless) • • • SNMP JPEG. OSI MODEL LAYERS L Description and keywords • Protocols • • • • • • Encapsul ation Messages and Packets User interface Communication partner identification A • HTTP Telnet FTP TFTP • P • Data format (file formats) Encryption. BMP. and compression Data format and exchange Keeps data streams separate (session identification) Set up. WAV SQL NFS ASP RPC X window TCP (connection- • • • • • • • • S • Packets T • Segments . 8 . translation. WMV. Industry implementations rarely have a layer-to-layer correspondence with the OSI layers. TIFF.• • • Aids in troubleshooting Promotes standards interoperability between networks and devices Provides modularity in networking features (developers can change features without changing the entire approach) However. PICT MPEG.
ISDN.2 (LLC). PPP. Frame Relay. bit synchronization) Physical topology (network layout) Datagram s. and combination Logical addresses Path determination (identification and selection) Routing packets Convert bits into bytes and bytes into frames MAC address. 802. 802. pin positions Electrical signals (voltage. sequencing. 802.k. connectors. burned in address (BIA).5 (Token Ring).a. a. ATM EIA/TIA 232 (serial signaling) V.35 (modem Bits signaling) Cat5 RJ45 • • • • • • • • • P • 9 .3 (Ethernet).11 Frames (Wireless) WAN protocols: HDLC.• • • communications End-to-end flow control Port and socket numbers • oriented) • N • Segmentation. hardware address Logical network topology Media access Flow control o Acknowledgements o Buffering o Windowing Parity and CRC Move bits across media Cables. and UDP (connectionless) Packets IP IPX AppleTalk Packets and Datagram s • • • • • • • • • D • • DECNET LAN protocols: 802.
255.0.0.0 C 255.255.255.0.255.0 to 255. The following table shows the default address class for each IP address range.0.255.255 240.0.IP ADDRESS CLASSES A single IP address identifies both the network address and the host address.255.0.255.0 to 191.0.0. The address class identifies the range of IP addresses and a default subnet mask used for the range.255 First Octet Range 1-126 (00000001--01111111 binary) 128-191 (10000000--10111111 binary) 192-223 (11000000--11011111 binary) 224-239 (11100000--11101111 binary) 240-255 (11110000--11111111 binary) Default Subnet Mask 255.255.255 128.255 224.0 to 126. IP addresses have a default class.255. Class Address Range A 1.0. The subnet mask is used to separate the network and host addresses.0.255.0 to 239.0 to 223.0 D n/a E n/a 10 .0.0.255.255.255.255 192.0 B 255.0.
(Some older routers use this address as a broadcast address.255.) An address with all bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 refers to a host on "this" network.0 Class B network address: 188.8.131.52. you have the following number of available host addresses: • • • Class A addresses give you 16.0. Class C addresses give you 254 hosts per network.31. SPECIAL ADDRESSES The following address ranges have been reserved for private use.255 Use This network address is used by routers to specify the "default" route.16. Examples: to 1 • 184.108.40.206--Broadcast to all hosts on Class A network 115.0.0 to 192.0.When using the default subnet mask for an IP address.0 • 154.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class B network 11 .214 hosts per network.0. Using a generic value reduces the number of routing table entries. Examples: • • • IP Address 0.0.244.0.0 to 10. • • • 10.168.168.233--Specific host on a Class A network 0.90.0.77.52--Specific host on a Class B network 0.255. Examples: All bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 • • • Class A network address: 115.65.69--Specific host on a Class C network An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 refers to the network itself.255.0.0.0.534 hosts per network.0.0 Class C network address: 221.0.0 to 172.0 All bits of the host An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 1 is a portion of an address set broadcast message for all hosts on the network. Class B addresses give you 65.0.777.255 172.0 All bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 0.255 220.127.116.11.
12 .) The address 127.0.AND FULL-DUPLEX With the original Ethernet standards. The Network layer converts the segments into packets. The Data Link layer converts the packets into frames.0. 2. all devices shared the same cable. This address is used to indicate a broadcast message intended for all hosts on this network. and transmitting the message through the transmission media. • 127. adding physical device addressing information.0. Upper layers prepare the data to be sent through the network.0 This network address is reserved for the loopback address. You need to know the following five-step data encapsulation process: 1.0 222.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class C network 18.104.22.168. This caused two problems: • Collisions occur when two devices transmit at the same time. 2. 3. 5. adding sequencing and control information. 4.0. The Transport layer breaks the data into pieces called segments. 3.244. 5.255.65. adding control and other information.244.65.255 SERVICE DATA UNITS AND ENCAPSULATION Encapsulation is the process of breaking a message into packets. The Physical layer converts the frames into bits for transmission across the transmission media. Upper layers--data Transport layer--segments Network layer--packets containing logical addresses Data Link layer--framing that adds physical addresses Physical layer--bits HALF. Devices needed to be able to detect and recover from collisions. The following short descriptions can help you remember the steps of the data encapsulation process: 1.90.0 255. adding logical network and device addresses.1 refers to the local host. 4. (Note: This address is not included in the range of Class A or Class B addresses.
With a single device connected to a switch port. This meant that the device was either receiving data or listening for incoming data.) • Requires switches with dedicated switch ports (a single device per port) Halfduplex Fullduplex BRIDGE FACTS You should understand the following concepts relating to the operation of bridges. Bridges maintain a table of device addresses and their corresponding segments. Devices can transmit and receive data simultaneously.• Each device could either transmit or receive data at any given time. Devices were not able to both send and receive at the same time (much like using a one-lane road for traffic in two different directions). Devices can use different wires to send and receive data (allowing them to do both simultaneously).) • Devices connected to a hub must use half-duplex communication • Collision detection is turned off • The device can send and receive at the same time Double the rated bandwidth (20 Mbps • Requires full-duplex capable NICs for 10BaseT. etc. 200 Mbps for 100BaseT. devices with collision detection turned off operate in full-duplex mode. Using switches. multiple strands of wires are combined into a single cable. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. With these problems solved. Devices with collision detection turned on operate in half-duplex mode. 100 Mbps for 100BaseT. Mode Description Bandwidth • Collision detection is turned on • The device can only send or receive at any given time Up to the rated bandwidth (10 Mbps for 10BaseT. and can begin transmitting data as soon as they have data to send. These two problems were solved in the following ways: • • Using twisted pair cable. you can turn off collision detection. etc. 13 . devices are given a dedicated communication path. collisions are eliminated. Bridges examine the source address to determine the media segment of network devices. • • • • Bridges connect two media segments that use the same protocol.
Switches build a forwarding database in a manner similar to bridges.• • Each segment connected by a bridge can have the same network address. or to slow WAN links. Bridges cannot forward packets to different networks based on the network address. SWITCH FACTS Switches provide functionality similar to bridges. 14 . Use bridges to isolate traffic to a segment. • • Switches create separate collision domains. Messages within a media segment are prevented from crossing over to another segment. but typically on a larger scale and with higher performance. Switches examine the source and destination Data Link (MAC) address in each packet to build the database and make forwarding decisions. Bridges forward packets for multiple upper-layer protocols. Bridges offer the following advantages: • • • • Bridges prevent wasted bandwidth by eliminating unnecessary traffic between segments. Bridges increase the maximum network length. follow the 80/20 rule. or to prevent unwanted traffic from crossing over to other segments. Bridges cannot translate upper-layer protocols. No more than 20% of network traffic should pass through the bridge to another segment. Bridges can link segments with dissimilar transmission media and media access methods. Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. Switches provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices (if dedicated ports are used). Switches offer the following advantages over a non-switched network. • • • • Switches are associated with the Data Link layer of the OSI Model. You can connect a single device to a switch port or multiple devices to a switch port by using a hub. • • At least 80% of network traffic should stay within a segment. Bridges do not filter broadcast packets. Bridges have the following limitations: • • • • Bridges cannot link multiple architectures because different frame types are used. When designing the placement of bridges on the network.
If the source address is not in the forwarding database. The frame's integrity has been verified (a valid CRC). Bridges and switches can automatically learn about devices to build the forwarding database. The frame is not addressed to the bridge. The port it came in on is also recorded. The following table compares the different methods the switch uses to forward packets (Cisco switches support all three methods). BRIDGE AND SWITCH FORWARDING FACTS Both bridges and switches build a forwarding database. The destination address is then examined. • • • The frame contains upper-layer data (data from the LLC sublayer on up). Method Store-andforward Characteristics Store-and-forward switches: • • Receive the entire frame. the packet is forwarded to the appropriate port if the port is different than the one on which it was received. Transparent bridges forward packets only if the following conditions are met. Verify the frame's integrity (check the CRC). if only one device is connected to each switch port). How switches forward packets depends on the switch type. o Broadcast packets are forwarded to all ports except the one on which they were received. Switches enable full-duplex communication. Switches induce less latency than other segmentation solutions. o If the destination address is not in the database. Switches can mix 10 Mbps. the packet is sent out all ports except for the one on which it was received.e.• • • • • • Switches can be used to provide collision-free networking (i. Frames with errors are 15 . o If the destination address is in the database. The database is a list of Data Link (MAC) addresses and the port used to reach the device. Switches can simultaneously switch multiple messages. Ethernet switches can be implemented without re-cabling. Bridges and switches use the following process to dynamically build the forwarding database: • • The process begins by examining the source address of an incoming packet.and 100 Mbps-capable devices (if the switch is a 100 Mbps switch). A network administrator can also program the device database manually. an entry for the address is made in the database.
The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and routing information about that network such as: • • • • • Interface Routing Path Next Hop Route Metric (Cost) Route Timeout Routers build and maintain their routing database by periodically sharing information with other routers.• • not forwarded. Verify that the packet is not a fragment. Are faster than store-and-forward switches (less latency). ROUTING FACTS Routers can forward packets through an internetwork by maintaining routing information in a database called a routing table. Forward non-fragmented frames. Forward the packet without verifying frame integrity. Cut-through switches: Cut-through • • • Read the destination device address. Introduce more latency (delay) than cut-through switches. Introduce some latency. Fragment-free switches: • • • • Fragment-free Read the first 64 bytes of a frame.e. They can automatically switch to store-and-forward if the number of errors on a port exceeds a configurable threshold. The routing protocol determines: • • • The information contained in the routing table How messages are routed from one network to another How topology changes (i. Newer switches can monitor each port and determine which method to use. updates to the routing table) are communicated between routers 16 . The exact format of these exchanges is based on the routing protocol. Forward the frame to the destination device. but not as great as store-and-forward switching.
The Network address contains both a logical network address and a logical device address. On an IP network.Regardless of the method used. and reduce congestion. MESSAGE ROUTING FACTS Keep in mind the following points about how a packet is addressed as it travels through an internetwork. maximize bandwidth. Network addresses remain constant as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. The Data Link destination address indicates the physical address of the next hop on the route. SEGMENTATION FACTS LAN segmentation is the process of dividing the network to overcome problems such as excessive collisions. The Network destination addresses indicate the address of the final destination device. the Data Link layer address is the MAC address. Data Link addresses in the packet change as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. Both Data Link physical addresses and Network logical addresses are used. As you segment the network. IP (Network) addresses are contained in the IP header. broadcast traffic. By segmenting a LAN. • • • • • • • • • On an Ethernet network. The term convergence is used to describe the condition when all routers have the same (or correct) routing information. you can increase network performance. changes in routing information take some time to be propagated to all routers on the network. the IP address is the Network layer address. A router uses the logical network address specified at the Network layer to forward messages to the appropriate LAN segment. 17 . you will need to consider the collision and broadcast domains on the network. or heavy network traffic. Both the source and destination Network and Data Link addresses are typically contained in the packet. MAC (Data Link) addresses are contained in the Ethernet frame header.
and bridges is the range of services each performs and the OSI layer at which they operate. A broadcast domain is any network or subnetwork where computers can receive frame-level broadcasts from their neighbors. and responded to. Device Characteristics Router Routers perform the following functions that are not performed by bridges or switches. • • • Route packets between separate networks Modify packet size through fragmentation and combination Route packets based on service address Choose a router if you need to: • • • • • Connect your network to a WAN (such as the Internet) Filter broadcast traffic (prevent broadcast storms) Connect two separate networks that use the same protocol Improve performance in the event of a topology change (routers recover faster than bridges or switches) Reduce the number of devices within a domain (increase the number of broadcast domains) 18 . In this condition. it is important to identify the connectivity problems you need to resolve. As you add devices to a network segment. the amount of broadcast traffic on a segment also increases. switches. regenerated. and then identify the device that is best suited for that situation. The main differences between routers. Device Collision Domain All devices connected to the hub are in the Hub same collision domain All devices connected to a single port are in Bridge or the same collision domain (each port is its Switch own collision domain) Router All devices connected to a single interface are in the same collision domain Broadcast Domain All devices are in the same broadcast domain All devices connected to the bridge or the switch are in the same broadcast domain All devices accessible through an interface (network) are in the same broadcast domain In considering a network expansion solution. Segmentation may increase the number of both the collision and broadcast domains. Collisions naturally increase as the number of devices in a collision domain increase. the amount of broadcast traffic consumes network bandwidth and prevents normal communications. Membership within collision or broadcast domains differs depending on the connection device used. Faulty devices or improper configuration conditions can lead to a broadcast storm. Note: A special condition called a broadcast storm happens when broadcast traffic is sent.• • A collision domain is any network or subnetwork where devices share the same transmission medium and where packets can collide.
create multiple collision domains) Implement full-duplex communication Connect two network segments or devices using the same protocol Provide improved performance over a current bridged network Switch traffic without the cost or administration involved with routers Choose a bridge if you need to: • • • • • Bridge Isolate data traffic to one network segment Route traffic from one segment to another (with the same network ID) Link unlike physical media (e. In general. choose a switch instead. follow these guidelines to make decisions about the appropriate connectivity device. twisted pair and coaxial Ethernet) of the same architecture type Link segments that use the same protocol Create segments without the expense and administration of routers In most cases where you might use a bridge. implement security. Use a switch to reduce collisions and offer guaranteed bandwidth between devices.g.• • • Enforce network security Dynamically select the best route through an internetwork Connect two networks of different architectures (e. STARTUP FACTS The following graphic details the process used to boot the router. or connect between different networks.g. 19 .e. • • • Use a bridge to segment the network (divide network traffic) and to provide fault tolerance. Use a router to filter broadcast messages. Ethernet to token ring) Choose a switch if you need to: • • Switch • • • • Provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices Reduce collisions by decreasing the number of devices in a collision domain (i.
A setting of 0x2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. ROM (used if no other source is found) 3. The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. Use the setup command from privileged mode. 1. Flash (the default location) 2. it runs through the following boot process. or when you boot a new router. If the startupconfig file is missing or does not specify a location. The router can load a configuration file from: 1. guided routine that asks you a series of questions and uses your responses to make basic configuration entries. when it boots. it will check the following locations for the IOS image: 1. the router starts in setup mode. TFTP server 3.When you turn the router on. it immediately enters Setup mode. If a configuration file is not found. Therefore. SETUP MODE FACTS If the router is brand new. Setup mode is a special. The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router's hardware. When the POST completes successfully. This happens when you erase the current startup-config file. 2. it has no startup-config file. NVRAM (startup-configuration file) 2. The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router). TFTP server 3. 20 . There are two ways to enter setup mode: • • Boot the router without the startup-config file. the System OK LED indicator comes on.
you will see the following types of items. 21 . When you see.. Use..C.. To. and repeats the last command you entered after the Help information displays. The information you've entered to that point will not be saved.. Cisco bases this on the mode you are in and the words or partial words you type with the ?. It is context sensitive. Note: By default. To . When you use Help to display the possible keywords for a command.D Identifies a specific keyword that must be typed as shown Enter a number within the range in brackets Enter a hexadecimal number within the range in brackets The command is complete as typed. You do not need to retype the command after you ask for help on it.You can exit setup mode without answering all the questions by pressing <Ctrl> + C. new Cisco routers have no passwords set. Use this .B. and all interfaces are in shutdown mode until they're enabled. The following lists summarize the router advanced editing features.... Show list of all commands available in the current ? mode Show commands that begin with specific letter(s) xx? (no space between the letter and ?) Show keywords for a command Get the full command from a partial command command ? (space between command and ?) partial command + <tab> (no space) Note: Typing ? acts as a return. Supply... COMMAND HELP FACTS Help is available in all router modes... WORD (in caps) Type a one-word response LINE (in caps) Type a multiple-word response keyword <0-4567> <0-FFFFFF> <cr> A.. press Enter to execute the command Enter an IP address EDITING FEATURES FACTS This feature uses the same keystrokes as UNIX emacs editing. so the information you see depends on what you are doing.
The command history is specific to the configuration mode you are in. . <Ctrl> + A Move cursor to beginning of line <Ctrl> + E Move cursor to the end of line <Ctrl> + Z Quit a configuration mode <Ctrl> + B Move cursor back one character <Esc> + B Move cursor back one word <Esc> + F Move the cursor ahead one word <Ctrl> + P or Up arrow Show the previous command <Ctrl> + N or Down arrow Show the next command terminal history Turn the command history on terminal no history Turn the command history off terminal history size <number> Set the size of the history buffer show history Show all the commands in the history buffer ROUTER MEMORY Be sure you understand the difference between the following types of router storage. To . commands longer than the command line appear to scroll under the prompt.<Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + B Left arrow <Ctrl> + F Right arrow <Esc> + B <Esc> + F terminal editing terminal no editing Move to the beginning of the line Move to the end of the line Go back one character Go forward one character Go back one word Move forward one word Turn advanced editing on Turn advanced editing off When you are in advanced editing mode. Use . . non-writable memory containing the bootstrap startup ROM (read-only program. and the Power-on Self-Test (POST) program 22 . the IOS automatically saves the last 10 commands in the command history buffer. Memory Type Characteristics Preprogrammed. . smaller-scale version of the operating system (IOS) memory) software. As you type. an older. COMMAND HISTORY COMMAND LIST By default. . the $ indicator appears after the prompt.
you must specific the location (flash or flash <filename> rom) of the IOS image file as well as the IOS image file name. Use . . To save your configuration changes permanently. flash. Save the contents of the running-config file to Router#copy run start NVRAM Router#copy start run Copy the startup-config file into RAM Save the contents of the running-config file to a TFTP Router#copy run tftp server Save the contents of the startup-config file to a TFTP Router#copy start tftp server Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp start NVRAM Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp run RAM Configure a Cisco router as a TFTP server. . .Non-volatile but persistent memory that contains the backup copy of the volatile RAM) startup configuration (startup-config) file and virtual configuration register Flash The contents of non-volatile memory (such as ROM. You can also use the erase command to delete the configuration files--but be very careful not to erase files you need! 23 . The contents of volatile memory (RAM) are lost when the router is powered down. use the copy command in privileged EXEC mode. . To . COPY COMMAND LIST The router can load a configuration file from: • • NVRAM (startup-configuration file by default value 0x2102) TFTP server Changes to the configuration are stored in RAM in the running-config file. and to load different versions of the configuration files from various locations. When using Router(config)#tftp-server this command. and NVRAM) remain when the router is powered off (however. you must modify the configuration registry and NVRAM during password recovery).Non-volatile but programmable memory containing the proprietary Cisco operating system (IOS) images RAM (random Volatile memory containing the running operating system and current access memory) (unsaved) configuration information NVRAM (non.
Identify an IOS image file in flash to use at boot. . upgrade. Router#erase flash Router#erase start Router#erase nvram Router#reload To . show version configure memory or copy startup-config running-config configure terminal To . Router(config)#boot system rom (IOS versions Specify to use the limited IOS 11. Display information about hardware and firmware including the configuration register value Copy configuration information from another source (like NVRAM) Configure information into the RAM of a router IOS BOOT AND UPGRADE LOCATION COMMAND LIST The router can load an IOS image from the following locations: • • • Flash TFTP server ROM (limited version of the IOS software) Use the boot system command in global configuration mode to identify alternate locations for the IOS image. . . Delete the contents of Flash memory (deletes the IOS image) Erase the contents of the startup-config file Delete the contents of NVRAM (which also erases startup-config) Restarts the router You can also use the following commands to manage system files: Use . Use the copy command to archive. . . Restore the IOS image from backup on the TFTP server to Flash. 24 . Use .0 and above Router#copy flash tftp Router#copy tftp flash Back up (copy) the IOS image from Flash to the TFTP server. or replace an IOS image.2 and below) Router(config)#boot system flash version stored in ROM at boot. . . Router(config)#boot system flash <IOSfilename> Router(config)#boot system tftp <IOSfilename> <tftp_address> To .Use . . . . . bootflash: (IOS versions 12. . Identify an IOS image file on a TFTP server to use at boot.
and RAM and processor information show runningView the currently running configuration file config show startupconfig View the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM (the saved copy or of the configuration file) show config show flash* View the size of the configuration files and the available flash memory View information for all IOS image files stored on the router View the commands in the command history list show history show protocols or show interfaces View the IP addresses assigned to a specific interface or show ip interfaces show protocols or View the status of all interfaces show interfaces *The show flash command is not enabled in the simulations. until it finds a valid IOS image. View hardware configuration. ROUTER AND INTERFACE IDENTIFICATION COMMAND LIST During initial setup. However. the router interfaces do not have specific names that change the prompt. running IOS version.. . you can configure a host name for your router. you can add a description to the configuration file that helps you identify the interface. ROM bootstrap show version version. This is the name that appears in the EXEC prompt. To.. It tries each location in turn. You are directing the router where to look for the IOS image on boot-up. Router(config)#hostname <name> Change the host name of the router Router(config)#int serial 0 Go to interface configuration mode for the first 25 . . nor are you replacing the default IOS search order. SHOW COMMAND LIST (BASIC) The following list summarizes common information you can display using common show commands. it returns to the default load sequence. .. To . Use this command. . you are not making backup copies of the IOS image.. If one is not found. Use .Note: When you use the boot system command. Unlike the router itself.
26 . eth) keywords to switch to Ethernet interface mode. Set a description for a specific interface Examples The following set of commands sets the hostname of the router to ATL1: Router#config t Router(config)#hostname ATL1 ATL1(config)# The following set of commands adds a description of "ATL to NYC" for the first serial interface on the router: Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#description ATL to NYC Note: To undo any configuration change. The router always uses the enable secret password if it exists.Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config)#int ser0 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#description <description text> serial interface. For example. There are two different passwords that might be used: • • EXEC mode The enable password is stored in clear text in the configuration file. ROUTER PASSWORD FACTS The following table list three of the most common passwords that you can configure on your router: Password Type Console Line Description Controls the ability to log on to the router through a console connection Controls the ability to log on to the router using a virtual terminal (VTY) or Telnet connection Controls the ability to switch to configuration modes. Use the Ethernet (e. to remove a description from an interface. use the same command preceded by the no keyword followed by the command. use the following command: Router(config-if)#no description Notice that in many cases you can leave off additional parameters when using the no command. The enable secret password is stored encrypted in the configuration file.
Encrypt all passwords. Access is allowed based on the following conditions: • no login. . You can set the enable. enable secret. and line passwords in setup mode. Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config)#line vty <0-197> <1-197> Router(configline)#password Router(configline)#login Router(config)#no enable secret Router(config)#no enable password Router(config-line)#no login Router(config-line)#no password Router(config)#service password-encryption Switch to the line configuration mode for the console. there must be a login entry without a password set. Access to the router console through a telnet session is controlled by the login and the password entries. Switch to the line configuration mode for the virtual terminal. . Note: If you do not use the login command in line mode. The secret <password> enable secret is always used if it exists. The no login command disables password checking. . there are other passwords that you cannot set in setup mode. you should not use the same password for both your enable and enable secret passwords. Router(config)#enable Set the encrypted password used for privileged mode access. PASSWORD COMMAND LIST Use . Set the line password (for either console or VTY access).Be aware of the following recommendations for configuring router passwords: • • • • Passwords are case-sensitive. Remove the password. Router(config)#enable Set the unencrypted password for privileged mode access. no password = access is allowed without a password 27 . Require the password for line access. To . However. even though one is set. To prevent VTY access. Specify one line number or a range of line numbers (line vty 0 4). This password <password> password is used if the enable secret is not set. Cisco routers support Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) and Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) to centrally validate users attempting to gain access to the router. For security reasons. . a password will not be required for access.
. Follow the banner command with a delimiting character. Use . and EXEC banners. The MOTD banner displays immediately after a connection is made. login. . The exec banner displays after a successful login. The delimiter encloses the banner text. and helps the router identify the beginning and ending of the banner. Router(config)#banner Router(config)#banner motd Router(config)#banner login Router(config)#banner exec Router(config)#banner incoming Router(config)#no banner <type> To . The following four types of banners display at various times during the login or startup sequence. The incoming banner displays for a reverse telnet session. . Example The following commands set the MOTD. no password = access is denied (the error message indicates that a password is required but none is set) no login. password = access is allowed only with correct password BANNER COMMAND LIST Banners display messages that anyone logging into the router can see. This allows you to construct multiple-line banners. The login banner displays after the MOTD banner and before the login prompt. Set the incoming banner. Set the login banner. Set the EXEC banner. password = access is allowed without a password login. using # as the delimiting character and inserting a hard return between each banner: Router(config)#banner motd # This is the Message-of-the-day banner! # Router(config)#banner login # This is the Login banner! # Router(config)#banner exec # This is the Exec banner! # 28 . . Removes the specified banner Note: The banner command without a keyword defaults to set the MOTD banner. Set the Message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.• • • login.
. View the IP configuration of all interfaces. ..255. Note: You can include or omit the space between the interface keyword and the interface number. Router>sh ip int Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config)#no shutdown Router#ping <ip address> To .0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown INTERFACE STATUSES You can use the interface status to troubleshoot connectivity problems and quickly see whether the link between the router and the network is operational. Example The following set of commands configures the IP address 192. The interface is shut down (with the shutdown command) Hardware or network connection problem (Physical layer) No carrier detect signal Connection or communication problem (Data Link layer) No keepalives The link is functional up. Assign an IP address to the interface.. Test communication with a specific interface using its IP address.168.1. most networking tasks occur at higher layers (Network through Application layers).255.229 255. line protocol is up. A status of. . line protocol down Indicates..1.168. . . The following table summarizes some possible conditions indicated by the interface status. line protocol is down down. 29 .INTERFACE COMMAND LIST Use the following commands to configure interfaces and view interface information.255.0 for the first Serial interface on the router and activates the interface." you might need to perform additional tasks for router-to-router communication to take place (such as assigning an IP address).255. line protocol is up Even though the interface status shows "up. administratively down. Use . The interface status indicates whether Data Link layer communications are enabled. line protocol is down up. Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192. Enable an interface (remove the shutdown command).229 with a mask of 255. Enter configuration mode for an interface. However.
one router interface must be configured to provide the clocking signals for the connection. The DCE interface is identified in two ways: • • The cable connecting the two routers has both a DCE and a DTE end. Use the following commands to customize and view CDP information. CDP is enabled on all interfaces. When you configure two routers in a back-to-back configuration through their serial ports. . Router(config)#cdp holdtime <10-255> Router(config)#cdp timer <5-900> To . • • • • By default.BACK-TO-BACK CONFIGURATION FACTS When you configure a router to connect to a network through a serial interface. Use . Specify the amount of time that information in a packet is still valid (default = 180 seconds) Specify how often CDP packets are exchanged (default = 60 seconds) 30 . Cisco devices. CDP only shares information with directly connected (neighboring) devices. CDP works when there is a valid Data Link layer connection. and other network architectures. CDP COMMAND LIST The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a protocol that Cisco devices use to learn and share information about each other. It can discover information on LANs. CDP works regardless of the Network layer and other protocols used. such as routers and switches. . . clocking is not provided. • • The router providing clocking is known as the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). The router not providing clocking is known as the DTE (data terminal equipment). . Frame Relay. Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface you want to be the DCE device. the router must be connected to a device (such as a CSU/DSU or another router) that provides clocking signals. and the line between the two routers will not change to up. If the clock rate command is not issued. can discover neighboring Cisco devices through CDP. The DCE interface is configured to provide a clocking signal with the clock rate command.
Enable CDP on the router Disable CDP on a router. Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#cdp timer 90 The following commands turns off CDP on the router's first Ethernet interface. to prevent the router from Router(config)#no cdp run exchanging CDP packets Router(config)#cdp run Router(config-if)#cdp enable Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Router#show cdp Turns CDP for an interface on Turns CDP for an interface off View CDP information Show information about neighbors accessed through an interface Router#show cdp interface Show CDP configuration information for the router including the holdtime. and CDP exchange interval Show information about all neighboring Cisco devices including: • • • • • • Router#show cdp neighbors Device ID Local interface Holdtime Capability Platform Port ID Shows all information for the show cdp neighbors command and adds: Router#show cdp neighbors detail • • • Network address Enabled protocols Software version Examples The following commands turns on CDP for the router and configures it to send CDP packets every 90 seconds. Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#no cdp enable SWITCH COMPONENTS 31 . encapsulation.
SWITCH CONFIGURATION COMMAND LIST Using the switch command line interface is similar to using the router command line interface. Solid green = Full duplex Duplex Off = Half duplex Solid green = 100 Mbps Speed Off = 10 Mbps On a simple LAN. all of which are part of the same network segment. The switch comes preconfigured to work out-of-the-box without configuration. Task Command Move to privileged mode from user mode switch>enable Move to user mode from privileged mode switch#disable 32 . Modern switches can also be used to create virtual LANs (VLANs) and perform some tasks previously performed only by routers (Layer 3 switches). An important characteristic of a switch is multiple ports. If you are familiar with router configuration. connect to the switch in one of the following ways: • • • Console connection Telnet session Web management software (connect through the LAN through a Web browser) Note: You must configure an IP address for the switch to manage it through a Telnet or Web session. The more lights that Util are lit. Each switch port has a single LED. The following table lists common switch configuration commands. connect devices. The color of the LEDs change to give you information about how the switch is working. to set the hostname. you can connect the switch to the network. and it will automatically begin switching traffic to the correct ports. you will learn how to configure the Catalyst 2950 series switch.Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. the higher the utilization. you will probably be able to guess how to complete many switch configuration tasks. Use the same options to get help. Port LEDs mean different things based on the mode selected with the Mode button. In this course. To customize the switch configuration. and to save and load configuration files. Mode Meaning Solid green = Operational Stat Flashing green = Link activity Off = Non-functional All switch port lights act as a meter to indicate overall utilization. to move between configuration modes.
and therefore do not need an IP address to function.cfg switch(config)#enable password cisco switch(config)#enable secret cisco switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1. a switch performs switching functions just fine without an IP address set.1 switch(config)#hostname ATL switch(config-if)#description IS_VLAN switch(config)#cdp run switch(config-if)#cdp enable switch(config)#cdp holdtime 181 switch(config)#cdp timer 66 switch(config-if)#speed 10 switch(config-if)#speed 100 switch(config-if)#speed auto switch(config-if)#duplex half switch(config-if)#duplex full switch(config-if)#duplex auto SWITCH IP ADDRESS FACTS One task that is different for switches than for routers is configuring the IP address.0.0. 33 . or exit the system Exit all configuration modes Show the current switch configuration Show switch information such as software version and hardware components Show interface status and configuration information Save the current switch configuration Load a configuration file from another location Set the enable password (to cisco) Set the secret password (to cisco) Set the default gateway Set the switch hostname Set a description for a port Enable CDP on the switch Enable CDP on a port Set CDP parameters Set the port speed switch(config-if)#exit switch(config)#^Z switch#show running-config switch#show version switch#show interfaces switch#show interfaces fastethernet 0/14 Set the duplex mode switch#copy running-config startup-config switch#copy tftp://22.214.171.124/my_config. In fact.Move to global configuration mode switch#configure terminal switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface 0/17 switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface fastethernet0/14 gigabitethernet con 0 vty 0 4 vlan 1 Move to interface configuration mode Leave the current configuration mode. Keep in mind the following facts about IP addresses configured on switches: • Basic switches operate at Layer 2.
Cisco's proprietary protocol is called the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol. Remember the following facts regarding switch frame tagging (or coloring). VLAN FACTS 34 . this solution does not scale well. Tags must be removed before a frame is forwarded to a non-VLAN-capable device. To configure the switch IP address. By default.1. you set the address on the management VLAN logical interface. However. When designing VLANs. This process. Use the following commands to configure the switch IP address: switch#config terminal switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#ip address 1. most networks involve connecting multiple switches. and removed by the last. this VLAN is VLAN 1 on the switch.0 switch(config-if)#no shutdown Note: To enable management from a remote network.1.1.254 FRAME TAGGING FACTS Although you can create VLANs with only one switch. Tags are appended by the first switch in the path. called frame tagging or frame coloring. each switch must be able to identify the destination virtual LAN. As a frame moves from switch to switch within the switch fabric.1 255.1. Only VLAN-capable devices understand the frame tag. This is a logical interface defined on the switch to allow management functions.1q-capable switches to ensure a consistent tagging protocol. you might need to stick with one switch vendor. a function which is not supported on 2950 switches). Each switch port does not have an IP address (unless the switch is performing Layer 3 switching.255. identifies the VLAN of the destination device. For large networks. • • • • • VLAN IDs identify the VLAN of the destination device. One way to identify the VLAN is for the switch to use a filtering table that maps VLANs to MAC addresses. Tag formats and specifications can vary from vendor to vendor.• • You only need to configure a switch IP address if you want to perform in-band management of the switch from a Telnet or Web session. The switch itself has only a single (active) IP address. Use 802. The area between switches is called the switch fabric. switches append a VLAN ID to each frame. you will also need to configure the default gateway on the switch using the following command (notice that the default gateway is set in global configuration mode): switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1. The IP address identifies the switch as a host on the network but is not required for switching functions.255.
35 . FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs. protocol. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time.A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: • • Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: • • • • • In the graphic above. or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. In the graphic above. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. The above example has two broadcast domains. The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. all ports are members of VLAN 1. Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. even though they are connected to the same physical switch. By default.
or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks. When using multiple vendors in a switched network. be sure each switch supports the 802.• • • • • You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network. and then assign ports to that VLAN. Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor. protocol.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs. first create the VLAN.) switch(config)#vlan 2 switch(config-vlan)#name name** switch(config-if)#switchport Assign ports to the VLAN access vlan number*** switch#show vlan Show a list of VLANs on the system switch#show vlan id number Show information for a specific VLAN 36 . Task Command(s) switch#vlan database* switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name Define a VLAN (You can create VLANs in either name** vlan database mode or by using the vlan command switch(vlan)#exit OR apply in global configuration mode. The following table shows common VLAN configuration commands. • • • Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor. Despite advances in switch technology. routers are still needed to: • • • Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN COMMAND LIST To configure a simple VLAN.
**Giving the VLAN a name is optional. each switch has two VLANs.*Notice that the vlan database command is issued in privileged EXEC mode. This means that the two workstations connected to the same switch cannot communicate with each other. Trunking is important when you configure VLANs that span multiple switches as shown in the diagram. Typically. Trunk ports are automatically members of all VLANs defined on the switch. identifies port 0/12 as having only workstations attached to it. Example The following commands create VLAN 12 named IS_VLAN. One port on each switch has been assigned to each VLAN. Gigabit Ethernet ports are used for trunk ports. it will be created automatically when you assign the port to the VLAN. and assigns the port to VLAN 12. ***If you have not yet defined the VLAN. Be aware of the following facts regarding trunking and VLANs: • • • • • In the above graphic. 37 . Trunk ports identify which ports are connected to other switches. switch#config t switch(config)#vlan 12 switch(config-vlan)#name IS_VLAN switch(config-vlan)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 TRUNKING Trunking is a term used to describe connecting two switches together. Communications within the VLAN must pass through the trunk link to the other switch. Workstations in VLAN 1 can only communicate with workstations in VLAN 1.
802. The switch uses DTP to configure trunking. Frames from all other VLANs are tagged. when you connect two switches together. For example. Cisco supports two trunking protocols that are used for tagging frames.1Q With 802. Catalyst 2950 switches do not support ISL. they will automatically recognize each other and select the trunking protocol to use. frames from the default VLAN 1 are not tagged. Inter-Switch Link ISL can only be used between Cisco devices. Enables dynamic trunking configuration. and to negotiate the trunking protocol used between devices.1Q trunking. • • • The port will not use DTP on the interface. TRUNKING COMMAND LIST The following table lists important commands for configuring and monitoring trunking on a switch.When trunking is used. Cisco switches have the ability to automatically detect ports that are trunk ports. Trunking Protocol Characteristics A Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol. Sets the trunking protocol to use 2950 switches only support 802. frames that are sent over a trunk port are tagged with the VLAN ID number so that the receiving switch knows to which VLAN the frame belongs. An IEEE standard for trunking and therefore supported by a wide range of devices. Switches use the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) to detect and configure trunk ports. If a switch is connected.1Q and therefore you will not use this command on 2950 switches Enables automatic trunking discovery and configuration. it will attempt to use the desired trunking protocol (802. (ISL) ISL tags each frame with the VLAN ID.1Q for 2950 Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic auto Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic desirable • • • • 38 . Command Switch(configif)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation isl Function • Enables trunking on the interface.
you cannot modify the VLAN configuration from a switch in client mode. Use the vtp mode command to configure the VTP mode of the switch.switches). 39 . Mode Characteristics A switch in server mode is used to modify the VLAN configuration. Use the show vtp status command to view the current vtp mode of the switch. Switch(configif)#switchport mode access You must disable trunking before you can assign a port to a VLAN. A switch in client mode receives changes from a VTP server and passes VTP Client information to other switches. the switch is in client mode. Shows interface trunking information with the following: • • • • Switch#show interface trunk Switch#show interface fa0/1 trunk Mode Encapsulation Trunking status VLAN assignments VTP FACTS The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies VLAN configuration on a multi-switch network by propagating configuration changes to other switches. By default. Disables trunking configuration on the port. but the changes apply only to the local switch (changes are not sent to other devices). A switch in transparent mode does not receive VTP configuration information from other switches. Server Configuration information is then broadcast to other VTP devices. Keep in mind the following facts about VTP: • • • • • To make VLAN changes on a switch. the switch must be in either server or transparent mode. it will communicate as a normal port. It passes VTP information to other switches as it receives the Transparent information. switches are configured in server mode. You can modify VLAN configuration information from a switch in transparent mode. With the VTP. If you cannot modify the VLAN configuration. • • • If a switch is not connected. However. switches are placed in one of the following three configuration modes.
A backup bridge can take over if the root bridge or a designated bridge fails.SPANNING TREE FACTS To provide for fault tolerance. These messages are used to select routes and reconfigure the roles of other bridges if necessary. 40 . Only the designated bridge can forward packets. There is only one root bridge Root Bridge per network. The spanning tree algorithm provides the following benefits: • • • • • Eliminates bridging loops Provides redundant paths between devices Enables dynamic role configuration Recovers automatically from a topology change or device failure Identifies the optimal path between any two network devices The spanning tree algorithm automatically discovers the network topology. All redundant devices are classified as backup bridges. However. providing redundant paths between segments causes packets to be passed between the redundant paths endlessly. there is only one designated bridge per segment. many networks implement redundant paths between devices using multiple switches. and creates a single. select the bridge that is closest to the physical center of the network. To prevent bridging loops. When selecting the root bridge. With this protocol. A designated bridge is any other device that participates in forwarding packets Designated through the network. the IEEE 802. The bridge role determines how the device functions in relation to other devices. It should be assigned by the network administrator. and whether the device forwards traffic to other segments.1d committee defined a standard called the spanning tree algorithm (STA). They are selected automatically by exchanging bridge Bridge configuration packets. one bridge (or switch) for each route is assigned as the designated bridge. This condition is known as a bridging loop. Role Characteristics The root bridge is the master or controlling bridge. However. or spanning tree protocol (STP). Redundant bridges (and switches) are assigned as backups. To prevent bridging loops. optimum path through a network by assigning one of the following roles to each bridge or switch. Backup bridges listen to Backup network traffic and build the bridge database. The root bridge periodically broadcasts configuration messages. they will not forward Bridge packets.
41 . BPDUs sent and received from other bridges are used to determine the bridge roles. The port remains in listening state for a specific period of time. if a bridge goes down. Devices participating in the spanning tree algorithm use the following process to configure themselves: 1. 3. Switches use information in the BPDUs to elect a root bridge. The root bridge and designated bridges are in the forwarding state when they can Forwarding receive and forward packets. After configuration. and while it operates. During this time the bridges redefine their roles. A port in the forwarding state can both learn and forward. In addition.Devices send special packets called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out each port. each VLAN runs a separate instance of the spanning tree protocol. Port State Description A device in the disabled state is powered on but does not participate in listening to Disabled network messages or forwarding them. For example. The port state determines whether the port receives and forwards normal network messages. This time period allows Listening network traffic to settle down after a change has occurred. As the switch participates in the configuration process. The bridge receives packets and BPDUs sent to all bridges. verify that neighbor devices are still functioning. The port goes to the forwarding state after the timer expires. 4. each of its ports is placed into one of five states. and recover from network topology changes. At startup. The listening state is a transitionary state between blocking and learning. A port in the learning state is receiving packets and building the bridge database Learning (associating MAC addresses with ports). switches periodically send BPDUs to ensure connectivity and discover topology changes. A timer is also associated with this state. A bridge must be manually placed in the disabled state. Note: When you use spanning tree on a switch with multiple VLANs. 2. it is in the blocking state. switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) out each port. backup Blocking bridges are always in a blocking state. Switches on redundant paths are configured as either designated (active) or backup (inactive) switches. all other bridges go to the listening state for a period of time. but will not process any other packets. When a device is first powered on.
verify that the first line of the output is: VLAN1 is executing the IEEE compatible spanning tree protocol. Use the following commands to customize the spanning tree protocol. By default. Forces the switch to be the root of the spanning tree. Show spanning tree configuration information. Command Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan number Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan number root primary Function Disables spanning tree on the selected VLAN. As you know. the spanning tree protocol is enabled on all Cisco switches.SPANNING TREE COMMAND LIST You can configure multiple paths with switches to provide fault-tolerance. Like bridges. having multiple paths means that the network is susceptible to data transmission (bridging) loops. To determine if the VLAN is functioning properly. switches can run the spanning tree algorithm to prevent such loops from forming. Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 12 Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary 42 . Switch#show spanning-tree Example The following commands disable spanning tree for VLAN 12 and force the switch to be the root of the spanning tree for VLAN 1. Switch port configuration is automatic when the switch is connected to the network and powered on.
ETHERCHANNEL FACTS EtherChannel combines multiple switch ports into a single. All links in the channel group are used for communication between the switches. 43 . the spanning tree algorithm will identify each link as a redundant path to the other bridge and will put one of the ports in blocking state. With EtherChannel: • • • • • You can combine 2-8 ports into a single link. Note: If you do not use the channel-group command. Use EtherChannel to increase the bandwidth between switches. Use EtherChannel to reduce spanning tree convergence times. Use the channel-group command for a port to enable EtherChannel as follows: Switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 Switch(config-if)#channel-group 1 mode on Each channel group has its own number. logical link between two switches. Use EtherChannel to establish automatic-redundant paths between switches. If one link fails. communication will still occur over the other links in the group. All ports assigned to the same channel group will be viewed as a single logical link.
h Function Identifies the port as an access port. not with an attached switch). You identify the MAC address of allowed devices. Configures the maximum number of MAC addresses that switch(configcan be allowed for a port. the switch learns the MAC address of the device(s) connected to each of its ports. Enables port security. When a device is connected to the switch port.PORT SECURITY FACTS The basic function of a switch is to pass packets from one host to another. Under normal operations. Under normal circumstances. Identifies the allowed MAC address (h. there are no restrictions on the devices that can be attached to a switch port.h is a hexadecimal number). you configure the switch to allow only specific devices to use a given port. Enable switch port security. Any devices not explicitly identified will not be allowed to send frames through the switch. To configure port security. The default allows only a single if)#switchport portsecurity maximum number MAC address per port. With switch port security. the MAC address of the frame from the connected device is place in a forwarding table.h. Identify the MAC addresses that can use the switch. Use this command to increase the number allowed.h. take the following general actions on the port: • • • Explicitly configure the port as an access port (a port with attached hosts. The following commands list the switch port configuration commands: Command switch(configif)#switchport mode access switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address h. 44 .
switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address sticky Configures the switch to dynamically identify the allowed MAC address.02af The following commands configures Fast Ethernet port 0/15 to accept the first MAC address it receives as the allowed MAC address for the port: switch(config)#interface fast 0/15 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky DEFAULT SWITCH CONFIGURATION By default. All ports will automatically detect the duplex mode. 45 . a Catalyst 2950 switch comes configured as follows: • • All ports are enabled (no shutdown). The following commands configure switch port security to allow only host 5ab9.0012. Action keywords are: • • switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation action protect drops the frames from the unauthorized device restrict does the same as protect and also generates an SNMP trap shutdown disables the port • switch#show portsecurity interface interfacetype and number Examples Shows port security information for the specified port.02af to use Fast Ethernet port 0/12: switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 5ab9.0012. The address in the first frame received by the switch port is the allowed MAC address for the port. Note: The Catalyst switch can sticky learn a maximum of 132 MAC addresses. Identifies the action the switch will take when an unauthorized device attempts to use the port.
• • • • • • • •
All ports will automatically detect the port speed. All ports will perform automatic trunking negotiation. The switch uses fragment-free switching. Spanning tree is enabled. VTP mode is set to transparent. All ports are members of VLAN 1. Default VLANs of 1, 1002, 1003, 1004, and 1005 exist. 802.1Q trunking is used (2950 switches only support 802.1Q trunking).
Inter-VLAN Routing In a typical configuration with multiple VLANs and a single or multiple switches, workstations in one VLAN will not be able to communicate with workstations in other VLANs. To enable inter-VLAN communication, you will need to use a router (or a Layer 3 switch) as shown in the following graphic.
Be aware of the following conditions with inter-VLAN routing:
The top example uses two physical interfaces on the router. The bottom example uses a single physical interface on the router. In this configuration, the physical interface is divided into two logical interfaces called subinterfaces. This configuration is also called a router on a stick. In each case, the router interfaces are connected to switch trunk ports. The router interfaces or subinterfaces must be running a trunking protocol (either ISL or 802.1Q). Each interface or subinterface requires an IP address.
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) You can think of the Internet as one big network. As such, each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. In the early days of the Internet, every device would receive a registered IP address. As the Internet grew, however, it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). Classfull addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features:
Subnetting, dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. For example, this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. Supernetting, combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. For example, this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. Route aggregation (also called route summarization), where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route.
CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks.
The beginning network address in the range The number of bits used in the subnet mask
For example, the routing table represents the address as 126.96.36.199/21, where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. In addition to CIDR, the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses:
IP version 6. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4. IPv6 is not yet used on the Internet. Private addressing with address translation. With private addressing, hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. A special router (called a network address translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address.
Subnetting Operations Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. Scenario Solution 2^n-2 Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. Then use the formula to find the number of subnets and hosts. To find the number of valid subnets, n = the number of additional bits borrowed from the default mask. To find the number of valid hosts, n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. 2^n-2 Write out the default subnet mask in binary. Then borrow bits and use the formula to find the number that gives you enough subnets and hosts. Magic number The magic number is the decimal value of the last one bit in the subnet mask. The magic number identifies:
Given a network address and subnet mask, how many subnets can you have and how many hosts per subnet?
Given a network address and customer requirements, what subnet mask should you use?
Given a network address and a subnet mask, identify the valid subnet addresses.
The first valid subnet address
The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Trust the line Use the following process to find the information you need: Given an IP address and subnet mask, find the:
• • •
Subnet address Broadcast address Valid host address range
1. Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask, draw a line 2. To find the subnet address, set all host bits to 0 3. To find the broadcast address, set all host bits to 1 4. The valid host range is: o First address = Subnet address + 1
Last address = Broadcast address - 1
the host address range). The bit count is typically found in routing tables. Hexadecimal Eight hexadecimal numbers (each number ranges from 0 to F). Method Dotted decimal Description Four octets with set incremental values between 0 and 255.255.0 secondary 49 .0. Identify the valid subnet addresses. Use the following process to identify and assign IP addresses throughout your network.255. Bit count The bit count is a number that follows the IP address and indicates the total number of masked bits.e.Assigning IP Addresses With Cisco routers. Calculate the subnet mask that will subdivide your network. In addition.10.0. or plan on using DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses. Be sure to include an IP address for each router interface. Identify valid IP addresses on each subnet (i. use the following command: terminal ip netmask-format <format keyword> Format keywords are bit-count. Identify the number of hosts for each subnet. Assign IP addresses to hosts. To do this.2 255. You can also assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface.0 /24 (identifies 24 bits in the mask) 0xFFFFFF00 (the 0x indicates a hexadecimal number follows) You can modify how the router displays the subnet mask. you have the following three choices for viewing the subnet mask. Identify the number of network addresses. Each network segment will require its own network (subnet) address. Example 255. decimal. 2. or hexadecimal. You will need one IP address for each device. each WAN connection must have its own network address (typically assigned by the WAN service provider). 5. This is the most common form used and recognized by network administrators. you will have to make various decisions about the addresses used on the network. 1. and assign them to network segments.10. 3. In privileged EXEC mode. use the secondary parameter with the ip address command as follows: ip address 10. 4. When setting up a network for IP.
An improvement on BootP. More commonly. Use the following commands to configure static host names or enable DNS on a router. however. A DHCP server can use a static list to assign a specific IP address to a specific host. the DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address from a preset range of possible addresses. Command ip host <name> <address> ip domain-name <name> ip name-server <address> ip domain-lookup Function Identifies hostnames. 50 . Protocol Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Description Used by hosts to discover the MAC address of a computer from its IP address. A BootP server has a static list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. Address Resolution Protocols You should know the following protocols that perform address resolution. Used by a host to discover the IP address of a computer from its MAC address.Managing Host Names Host names allow you to identify network devices using logical names instead of IP addresses. DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP address and other TCP/IP configuration parameters. Used by a host (such as a diskless workstation) to query a bootstrap computer and receive an IP address assignment. creating static DNS entries Identifies the router default domain (for DNS) Sets the default DNS name server Enables the router to use DNS to identify IP addresses from host names Use the show hosts command to display a list of known IP hosts.
Private addresses are translated to the public address of the NAT router. or to provide Internet connectivity with a limited number of registered IP addresses.NAT Facts Network Address Translation (NAT) allows you to connect a private network to the Internet without obtaining registered addresses for every host. The inside local address is the IP address of the host on the inside network. The term global refers to the registered IP address that identifies the inside host on the Internet. A router interface that connects to the public network is also called the outside interface. The outside global address is an IP address of an Internet host. your computer will use the global outside address to contact Outside Inside local address Inside global address Outside global 51 . when you visit a Web site. Term Inside Definition The inside network is the private network. For example. it's important to understand the following terminology. As you work with NAT. NAT can be used to provide a measure of security for your private network. A router interface that connects to the private network is also called the inside interface. The outside network is the public network (the Internet). The inside global address is the IP address of the host after it has been translated for use on the Internet.
except that the address mappings are done automatically. hosts on your network might not be able to access outside hosts with the same IP address. Instead of using the Web server address. A Cisco router can be configured to overcome this problem. the internal computer will use the translated address instead.0 to 10.255. The port number is appended to the inside global IP address.0 to 192. Port numbers are used to identify specific inside local hosts.255 192. but the configuration is difficult. be sure to use an IP address in the private IP address ranges for the inside local IP addresses. When you configure NAT.255.44. you have the following options on a Cisco router.16.0.168. In other words. The NAT router has a pool of inside global IP addresses that it uses to map to inside local addresses. the NAT router translates an Internet host IP address into a private IP address.55.0.0. Overloading is the process of assigning multiple inside local addresses to a single inside global address.168. Otherwise.168.0.1.address Outside local address the Web server. you manually map an inside local address to an inside global address.255 172. Implementation Static NAT Characteristics With static NAT.1 203.1 Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Static NAT 52 . Dynamic NAT Overload with Port Address Translation (PAT) Note: When you configure NAT.0 to 172. In other words. each inside host IP address is manually associated with a registered IP address.255 NAT Command List Method Configuration Process Configure static mappings (mapping inside local addresses to outside local addresses) Identify inside and outside interfaces Command Examples Router(config)#ip nat inside source static 192. and fall within the following ranges: • • • 10.255.255. An outside local address is an outside global address that has been translated for inside (or private) use. Dynamic NAT is just like static NAT.31. Private IP addresses do not need to be registered.
44. and destination devices Reports Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) Round trip time to destination IP address of each hop to destination Host name of each hop (if configured) Round trip time to destination and each 53 .0.44. Note: When you use the overloaded method.168. and destination devices traceroute Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets and TTL destination Operates at the Network Network layer layer configuration of source. intermediary. the outside global address that is used is the IP address of the outside router interface. intermediate.188.8.131.52 0. traceroute.255.255 Dynamic NAT Overloaded with PAT Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list Router(config)#ip nat inside with the inside interface and source list 1 interface ethernet0 identify the translation type overload as overloaded Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Identify inside and outside Router(config-if)#interface interfaces serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside **These examples use access lists to identify a range of inside addresses that will be translated. and Telnet.55.1 203.0.250 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.255.1 0.Define an inside global address pool Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list with the pool Identify inside and outside interfaces Router(config)#ip nat pool mary 203. Tool Description Tests Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets destination Operates at the Network Network layer ping layer configuration of source.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mary Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192. IP Troubleshooting Tools Three tools you can use to help troubleshoot are ping.254 netmask 255.0.1. You will learn about access lists in Module 7.55.
Traceroute sends successive ICMP messages to a destination with increasing TTL values. use the resume command. Responses to each test within the traceroute command are as follows: o A time exceeded message indicates that a router has received the packet but the TTL has expired. Traceroute includes an extended version that lets you modify the number of packets sent. and so on. the timeout. For example. With extended traceroute. • ping • • • traceroute Extended ping lets you modify the number of tests. By default. debug information shows only on the console.telnet Uses upper-layer The physical path to the protocols destination Operates above the Network layer Network layer (relies on configuration of source. then X. It waits 2 seconds for a response from the target router. the timeout. if the TTL is set to 3. the third router in the path responds with the time exceeded message. press Ctrl + Shift + 6. traceroute sends three ping tests for each TTL value. you can test non-IP protocols (such as AppleTalk or Novell IPX). With extended ping. and even the protocol tested. the ping command performs five tests to the destination. you can test non-IP protocols. the first test pings the destination using a TTL of 1. It waits three seconds for a response. and destination devices Upper-layer configuration of source and destination devices intermediary device Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) No report generated. lower-layer protocols) intermediate. For example. • Ping includes an extended mode (available only in privileged EXEC mode). Utility Considerations • By default. and the protocol. o An asterisk ( * ) indicates that the timer has expired without a response. To suspend a Telnet session. not in the Telnet 54 • telnet • • • . To resume a Telnet session. By default. the second pings with a TTL of 2. The following table describes special conventions that you should be aware of when working with these utilities. o A destination unreachable message indicates that the router in the path does not have a route to the destination network or device. An open connection indicates a valid connection. • An exclamation mark indicates a successful ping. A period indicates a failure.
It might indicate the host is unavailable. The redirect message is sent from a router to the sending device to indicate that a different route should be chosen for the packet.session window. and default gateway settings of each host. They do not exchange routing information. Hosts use ICMP to send error messages to other hosts. or unreachable that there were problems detected in the packet header. The destination unreachable message is sent if a packet cannot reach its Destination destination for a variety of reasons. The redirect message Redirect can be sent if a better route is in the router's table. contains no procedures that help to monitor successful packet delivery or test connectivity. The time exceeded message is sent when the packet's time-to-live (TTL) Time exceeded counter has expired. Keep in mind the following as you troubleshoot IP: • All computers must be assigned a unique IP address. 55 . The source quench message is sent by a receiving device to indicate that the Source quench flow of packets is too fast. and to verify Echo that they are reachable. subnet mask. The router discovery message is a special broadcast message sent by hosts to Router discover the routers on a network. When a sending device receives a source quench message. The ping utility is a popular utility that uses ICMP echo messages. Use the terminal monitor command to show debug information in a Telnet session. or if the selected route is unavailable or congested. but simply announce their availability. Routers respond to the message indicating discovery their presence. Remember that IP is a connectionless protocol and as such. it slows its rate of transmission. ICMP Messages The Internet Control Message Protocol is a special-purpose message mechanism added to the TCP/IP suite that lets computers and routers in an internetwork report errors or provide information about unexpected circumstances. ICMP messages include the following types: Message Characteristics The ICMP echo message is used to discover hosts and networks. IP Troubleshooting Tips One important step in troubleshooting network communications is to verify the IP address.
The routing table on the router shows only Verify the routing configuration of directly-connected the default gateway router. Symptoms Ping to any other host fails. The routing table has a Troubleshoot other routers in the route to the destination path to the destination network. 56 . or The routing table on the configure the gateway of last resort router does not show the (default route) on the router. Solution Because the problem exists with only one host. but times out with only a cannot communicate with any single entry. with any host on any other Traceroute on the host network. Communication with on the host times out other networks is fine. You do not need to configure an IP address on a switch for frames to be switched through the switch. To ping to and from a switch or to remotely manage the switch. host outside of the local network. within the same network. of the host with the problem. networks. but can't communicate fails. All hosts cannot communicate Ping to the remote with hosts on a specific outside network fails. Add a route to the routing table. Configure the default gateway value to enable internetwork communication. troubleshoot the configuration of the host with the problem. Listed below are several common symptoms and things to try to correct communication problems. Ping to hosts on the same A single host can communicate network succeed.• • • • • Hosts on the same physical network should have IP addresses in the same address range. configure an IP address on the switch. Ping to hosts on the same network succeed. ping to hosts on other networks If DHCP is used to assign IP information to hosts. with only a single entry. verify the fails. or the gateway of last resort is not set. Problem A single host cannot communicate with any other host. traceroute network. destination network. default gateway setting delivered All hosts can communicate Traceroute on the host by the DHCP server. times out with only a single entry. The subnet mask value for all computers on the same physical network must be the same. The default gateway address must be on the same subnet as the host's IP address. ping to hosts on other networks with all hosts on the same Verify the default gateway setting network.
When created. or allow or restrict all traffic. it identifies whether the list restricts incoming or outgoing traffic. troubleshooting there. Source hostname or host IP address Source IP protocol (i. but filter traffic only for the interfaces to which they have been applied. either permitting a specific traffic type or permitting all traffic not specifically restricted... You should know the following characteristics of an access list. an access list contains an implicit "deny all" entry at the end of the access list.. • • • • • • • • • • • Access lists describe the traffic type that will be controlled. Access lists can be used to log traffic that matches the list statements.) Source hostname or host IP address 57 . Traceroute to the All hosts cannot communicate remote host indicates no with a specific remote host. each interface can only have one incoming and one outgoing list. response from the host. TCP. Access lists exist globally on the router. remote hosts in the same remote The routing table shows a route to the destination network is fine. Each router interface can have up to two access lists for each protocol. Access list entries identify either permitted or denied traffic. Ping to the remote host fails. Use an extended list to filter on.Use traceroute to identify the last network. UDP. one for incoming traffic and one for outgoing traffic. network (or the gateway of last resort is used). it must have at least one permit statement. Use a standard list to filter on. When you create an access list.e. Traceroute on responding router and begin the router times out. Each access list can be applied to more than one interface. Access list entries can describe a specific traffic type. When an access list is applied to an interface. Access List Facts Routers use access lists to control incoming or outgoing traffic. IP. it automatically contains a "deny any" statement.. Each access list applies only to a specific protocol. Troubleshoot the configuration of Communication with other the remote host. although this statement does not appear in the list itself. However. Access list entries describe the traffic characteristics. For a list to allow any traffic. etc. There are two general types of access lists: basic and extended.
and applies the list to the Serial0 interface. and applies the list to the first serial interface.12.16 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 2 in Note: Remember that each access list contains an explicit deny any entry.16.1. Create an access list entry. Examples The following commands create a standard IP access list that permits all outgoing traffic except the traffic from network 10.0 15. the access list denies all traffic except traffic explicitly permitted by permit statements in the list.0.0.12.1 0.0.0.12.184.108.40.206 0.12.0.255.1.1. Router(config)#access-list 1 deny 10.0. and applies the list to the Ethernet0 interface.255 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out The following commands create a standard IP access list that rejects all traffic except traffic from host 10. The following commands create an extended IP access list that rejects packets from host 10. . and applies the list to the second serial interface. Use the following number ranges to define the access list: 1-99 = Standard IP access lists 100-199 = Extended IP access lists Apply the standard or extended IP access list to a specific interface.255. Create the list and list entries with the access-list command 2. When created.220.127.116.11. . Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10. .Source or destination socket number Destination hostname or host IP address Precedence or TOS values IP Access List Command List Configuring access lists involves two general steps: 18.104.22.168 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in The following commands create an extended IP access list that does not forward TCP packets from any host on network 10.0.1. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit 10.0 to network 11. .1 sent to host 15. 58 .0.0.1.0 0. Apply the list to a specific interface with the ip access-group command Use . Router(config)#access-list <number> Router(config-if)#ip accessgroup <number> To .
To calculate the wildcard mask: 1.248 = 7 o Fourth octet: 255 . Subtract each octet in the subnet mask from 255.00000000 11111111.00000000 00000000.255.0. wildcard masks operate at the bit level. wildcard masks are the exact opposite of a subnet mask.0 0.16. Suppose an access list were created with a statement as follows: access-list 12 deny 10. let's examine the subnet address.0 = 255 This gives you the mask of: 0.1111122.214.171.12411111 Notice how the bits in the wildcard mask are exactly opposite of the bits in the subnet mask.0/21. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.255.255 00001010.12.16.Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 10.7.12.00010000.00000000.0.11111000. For example. and wildcard mask in binary form for the preceding example.00000111.00001126.96.36.199 Suppose that a packet addressed to 10.255 = 0 o Second octet: 255 .255. A mask that covers 21 bits converts to 255.255 = 0 o Third octet: 255 .12.15 was received.248. subnet mask. When used to identify network addresses in access list statements.0 Subnet mask 255.0 Wildcard mask 0.0. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values Subnet address 10.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in Calculating Wildcard Masks The wildcard mask is used with access list statements to identify a range of IP addresses (such as all addresses on a specific network).0 0. The wildcard mask would be: o First octet: 255 . Any bit in the wildcard mask with a 0 value means that the bit must match to match the access list statement. 2.0.0 0. suppose you wanted to allow all traffic on network 10. For example.0. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values 59 .248.12.255 11. A bit with a 1 value means that the bit does not have to match.0. Identify the decimal value of the subnet mask.0.7.0 2. To find the wildcard mask: 1.255 Like subnet masks.16.16.
traffic would be permitted. all bits identified with a 0 in the wildcard mask must match between the address and the network address.12.mmmmmmmx.00010000. Address Type Subnet address Decimal Values 10.mmmmmiii. 10.00001101.00001111 Wildcard mask 0.0. Any bit identified with a 1 is ignored.00010000.15 How the router applies the mask to the address m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match 00001010. this means you will need to decide which router.iiiiiiii In this example.255 Target address #1 10.iiiiiiii Notice that this address does not match the access list statement as identified with the wildcard mask.00000000 00000000. with port.16.11111111 00001010. and which direction to apply the access list to.00000000. In this case. you must apply it to an interface.0.00000000 00000000. Now suppose that a packet addressed to 10. In many cases.0 Binary Values 00001010.15 matches the access list statement and the traffic is denied.15 How the router applies the mask to the address • • • m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match mmmmmmmm.00001100. Designing Access Lists After you have created an access list.00000111.17.00001188.8.131.5211111 00001010. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.17.15 was received. 60 .00000000. but not both.Subnet address 10. In this example.12.13.00010001.mmmmmiii.12. Keep in mind the following: • Each interface can only have one inbound and one outbound access list for each protocol.184.108.40.206 Wildcard mask 0.12.7.00000111.mmmmmmmm.00001100.00010000. This means that an interface can have either a standard inbound or an extended inbound IP access list.255 Target address #1 10.00001111 mmmmmmmm.
This keeps the packets from being sent throughout the rest of the network. apply standard access lists as close to the destination router as possible. Each access list has an implicit deny any statement at the end of the access list. When making placement decisions. If traffic matches a statement high in the list. This is because standard access lists can only filter on source address. or no traffic will be allowed. apply extended access lists as close to the source router as possible. Traffic is matched to access list statements in the order they appear in the list. place the most restrictive statements at the top. Placing the list too close to the source will prevent any traffic from the source from getting to any other parts of the network. Place the access list on the interface where a single list will block (or allow) all necessary traffic. As a general rule. Access lists applied to inbound traffic filter packets before the routing decision is made.. Your access list must contain at least one allow statement. For example. If you want to view. Access lists applied to outbound traffic filter packets after the routing decision is made. Use. As a general rule. subsequent statements will not be applied to the traffic. carefully read all access lists statements and requirements. All access lists that exist on the show run show access-lists router All access lists applied to an interface Rejected traffic information IP access lists configured on the router A specific access list show ip int show run show log show run show ip access-lists show access-lists <number> 61 .. you can have one outbound IP access list and one outbound IPX access list.• • • • • • • You can have two access lists for the same direction applied to an interface if the lists restrict different networking protocols. as well as the direction that traffic will be traveling. When constructing access lists.. Identify blocked and allowed traffic.. Monitoring Access Lists The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific access list information on the router.
Routing Protocol Facts Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS). Routers are used within an AS to segment (subnet) the network. Each autonomous system is identified by an AS number. and make decisions about how to send packets through the internetwork. Like a bridging loop. they are susceptible to a condition known as a routing loop (also called a count-toinfinity condition). or divide the network into subnets. they are used to connect multiple ASs together. That organization is free to create one large network. a routing loop occurs when two routers share different information. This number can be locally administered. The following methods can be used to minimize the effects of a routing loop. • • • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)--protocol that routes traffic within the AS Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)--protocol that routes traffic outside of or between ASs Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)--enhancement of EGP that routes traffic between ASs In this course. • • • • Routers send updates only to their neighbor routers Routers send their entire routing table Tables are sent at regular intervals (each router is configured to specify its own update interval) Routers modify their tables based on information received from their neighbors Because routers using the distance vector method send their entire routing table at specified intervals. Routers use a routing protocol to dynamically discover routes. 62 . or registered if the AS is connected to the Internet. you will learn about the following Interior Gateway Protocols: • • • • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Distance Vector Routing Facts Keep in mind the following principles about the distance vector method. In addition. build routing tables. Routing protocols can be classified based on whether they are routing traffic within or between autonomous systems.
routers that receive updated (changed) information broadcast those changes immediately rather than waiting for the next reporting interval. routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. This method reduces the convergence time. The time period typically reflects the time required to attain convergence on the network. punctuated by special broadcasts if conditions have changed. routers broadcast their routing tables periodically. If the next hop router notices that the route is still reachable. If. the route is immediately set to unreachable (16 hops for RIP). it ignores the information. With the triggered update method (also known as a flash updates). for a period of time. In other words. Using the split horizon with poison reverse method (also called poison reverse or route poisoning). Routers do not report route information to the routers on that path. routers will. Convergence happens faster with poison reverse than with simple split horizon. With the hold down method. However. the path timeout has been reached. it results in greater network traffic because the entire table is broadcast each time an update is sent.Method Split horizon Split horizon with poison reverse Triggered updates Hold downs Characteristics Using the split horizon method (also called best information). however. The hold down timer is reset when the timer runs out or when a network change occurs. routers do not report information back to the router from which their information originated. "hold" an update that reinstates an expired link. The distance vector method has the following advantages: • • • • Stable and proven method (distance vector was the original routing algorithm) Easy to implement and administer Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Requires less hardware and processing power than other routing methods Distance vector has the following disadvantages: • • • • Relatively long time to reach convergence (updates sent at specified intervals) Routers must recalculate their routing tables before forwarding changes Susceptible to routing loops (count-to-infinity) Bandwidth requirements can be too great for WAN or complex LAN environments 63 . but advertise the path as unreachable. With this method. routers continue to send information about routes back to the next hop router.
• • • • Less convergence time (because updates are forwarded immediately) Not susceptible to routing loops Less susceptible to erroneous information (because only firsthand information is broadcast) Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Although more stable than the distance vector method. the last problem is of greatest concern. resulting in an inconsistent view of the network. The following solutions are often implemented to overcome some of the effects of inconsistent LSP information. Routers select routes based on the shortest route using an algorithm known as Shortest Path First (SPF). Routers send information about only their own links. In particular. Neighboring routers exchange LSAs (link-state advertisements) to construct a topological database.Link State Routing Facts Keep in mind the following information about the link state method. the traffic from the link state method is smaller than that from the distance vector method. The SPF algorithm is applied to the topological database to create an SPF tree from which a table of routing paths and associated ports is built. if parts of the network come on line at different times. • • • • • • • • • Routers broadcast LSPs to all routers (this process is known as flooding). It generates a high amount of traffic when LSPs are initially flooded through the network or when the topology changes. o A neighbor has gone down. Link-state protocols send hello packets to discover new neighbors. o There is a new neighbor. o The cost to a neighbor has changed. • Slowing the LSP update rate keeps information more consistent. after the initial configuration occurs. Routers use LSPs to build their tables and calculate the best route. LSPs are sent at regular intervals and when any of the following conditions occur. However. or if the bandwidth between links vary (i. LSPs travel faster through parts of the network than through others). It is possible for LSPs to get delayed or lost. This is particularly a problem for larger networks. the link state method has the following problems: • • • The link state algorithm requires greater CPU and memory capability to calculate the network topology and select the route because the algorithm re-creates the exact topology of the network for route computation. The link state method has the following advantages over the distance vector method. Network administrators have greater flexibility in setting the metrics used to calculate routes.e. 64 .
Identify a next hop router to receive packets sent to the specified destination network. Identify the interface used to forward packets to the specified destination network.255. Each area router receives updates from the designated router.0 255. Routers share information within the area. it sends the packet to the default router. and routers on area borders share information between areas. Static Route Facts Most networks will use one (or more) routing protocols to automatically share and learn routes. When your router cannot find a packet's address in its routing table. . Listed below are several situations when you might want to configure static routes.• • • Routers can be grouped into areas. Router(config)#ip route <destination> <next_hop> Router(config)#ip route <destination> <interface> Router(config)#ip defaultnetwork <network> Router(config)#ip classless To . To configure routes that are lost due to route summarization. Identify a default network on which all packets sent to unknown networks are forwarded. (Areas logically subdivide an Autonomous System (AS).0 192. .1.35 and gives it a value of 25.255. or aging timer to ensure proper synchronization.168. LSPs can be identified with a time stamp. . Examples The following command creates a static route to network 192. • • • • To configure a default route or a route out of a stub network (a stub network is one that has a single route into and out of the network).1.0 through the router with the IP address 192. and for small networks or networks that have only one possible path. a collection of areas under common administration.1.168. For small networks that do not change very often and that have only a few networks.168. .1.35 25 65 . Use .) One router in each area is designated as the authoritative source of routing information (called a designated router). To turn off all routing protocols and reduce traffic or improve security.168. Enables the router to match routes based on the number of bits in the mask and not the default subnet mask. Configuring static routes is useful for increasing security. Static Route Command List Static routes lock a router into using the route you specify for all packets. Router(config)#ip route 192. You can also configure a default router. sequence or ID number.
and the flush timer default is 240. The update interval default is 30.1.2 RIP Facts The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple. suppose that two routes exist between two networks.0 The following command identifies a default route through an interface with address 10. RIP Command List To configure any routing protocol.0. while the other route uses a Gigabit link that has two hops.255. RIP will select this route as the optimal route. One route uses a 56 Kbps link with a single hop. Note: Because RIP uses the hop count in determining the best route to a remote network.1. 66 . For example. It has the following characteristics when running on a Cisco router. not subnets.1. Router(config)#ip route 0.1. Router(config)#ip route 192. RIP broadcasts updates to the entire network. RIP supports load balancing over same-cost paths.0.0 0.0.168. the holddown timer default is 180. so it uses full address classes. it might end up selecting a less than optimal route.to medium-sized networks. RIP uses only classful routing.255. RIP can maintain up to six multiple paths to each network.1.The following command creates a permanent static route to network 192. Because the first route has fewer hops. effective routing protocol for small.0 255. RIP routing is limited to 15 hops to any location (16 hops indicates the network is unreachable). use the following three steps: 1.0 as the default network for the local router.1.0 10. • • • • • • • • RIP uses hop and tick counts to calculate optimal routes.2.168. Router(config)#ip default-network 10.0. but only if the cost is the same.1. the invalid timer default is 180. Enable IP routing if it is not already enabled (use the ip routing command).0 serial 1 30 permanent The following command designates network 10.1.1.0 through the router's second serial interface.1. RIP uses the split horizon with poison reverse method to prevent the count-to-infinity problem.
followed by the address of a network to which the router is directly connected). Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <address> Router(config)#no ip routing Router(config)#no router rip Router(config-router)#no network <network> Router(config)#passiveinterface <interface> To . Prevent routing update messages from behind sent through a router interface. Identify the networks that will participate in dynamic routing (use the network command. .0 IGRP Facts Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a dynamic routing protocol that sends neighboring routers updates of its routing table. not a subnetted network address. . Enable IP routing for the entire router. follow these rules. which Cisco recommends that you use instead of RIP. Example The following commands enable IP routing and identify two networks that will participate in the RIP routing protocol. followed by the routing protocol you want to configure).0. . IGRP has the following characteristics: 67 .10. Remove a specific RIP network.0. 3. When you use the network command to identify the networks that will participate in RIP routing.168. Use the classful network address. Use . and not interfaces. Use this command only if it has been disabled.0 Router(config-router)#network 192. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 10. Switch to router configuration mode (use the router command. Enter router RIP configuration mode (also referred to as "enabling RIP"). Disable RIP and remove all RIP networks. It is Cisco's proprietary routing protocol. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. Notice that you identify networks. Disable IP routing on the router. . This identifies the interfaces that will share and process received routing updates.2. IP routing is enabled by default. • • Identify only networks to which the router is directly connected.
Enter router IGRP configuration mode for the specified Router(config)#router igrp Autonomous System. To . .10. . Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol.0 Router(config-router)#network 192. .168. It can keep track of up to six different paths. IGRP uses a composite metric (a 24-bit number assigned to each path that can include such factors as bandwidth. use the classful network address (the network specified with the default subnet mask). and MTU). IGRP uses flash updates (sending changed information immediately) for faster convergence. with a hop count limit of 255 (rather than 16). IGRP uses split horizon with poison reverse. router)#network <address> When identifying networks. Router(configNotice that you identify networks. IGRP supports multiple-path connections. The default update interval is higher for IGRP than RIP because it uses flash updates.0. delay. This AS number must be the same on each router that will share information. loading. Use . IP routing is enabled Router(config)#ip routing by default. When using the router command. Router(config)#router igrp 25 Router(config-router)#network 10. however. IGRP uses an autonomous system (AS) number as part of the configuration. It will keep track of same-cost and different-cost routes. and not interfaces. Note: When configuring multiple <ASnumber> routers to share information with IGRP. Enable IP routing for the entire router. You can also configure the hop count limit. the AS number must match on all routers. reliability.• • • • • • • • IGRP can handle much larger networks.0. . Use this command only if it has been disabled. you must include the AS number. Defaults are: o Update interval = 90 seconds o Invalid route = 270 seconds (3 times the update) o Holddown = 280 seconds (3 times the update + 10) o Flush = 630 seconds (7 times the update) IGRP Command List Configuring IGRP is very similar to configuring RIP.0 68 . Example The following commands identify two networks that will participate in the IGRP routing protocol for AS number 25 (assuming IP routing is already enabled).
(Unadvertised links save on IP space. Uses areas to subdivide large networks. o The backbone is a specialized area connected to all other areas. OSPF uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. If a loopback interface is not defined. Is not susceptible to routing loops. Can require additional processing power (and therefore increased system requirements). but they cannot be pinged because they won't appear in an OSPF routing table. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. Is considered a classless routing protocol because it does not assume the default subnet masks are used. Because the loopback interface takes precedence over the physical interfaces in determining the router ID. Converges faster than a distance vector protocol. Maintains a logical topographical map of the network in addition to maintaining routes to various networks. You can think of the backbone as the "master" or "root" area. Uses link costs as a metric for determining best routes. Good design can minimize this impact. split horizon. OSPF only sends out updated information rather than exchanging the entire routing table. Shares routing information through Link State Advertisements (LSAs). 69 . you can force a specific router ID by defining a loopback interface and assigning it an IP address. Instead. Mechanisms such as holddown timers.OSPF Facts The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link state routing protocol well-suited for large networks. LSAs contain small bits of information about routes. The router ID is: • • The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. Routers within an area share information about the area. You should remember the following characteristics of link state protocols that apply to OSPF: • • • • • • • • • • • • Is a public (non-proprietary) routing protocol. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. It contains networks not held within another area.0. and distributes routing information between areas. each router is assigned a router ID (RID). All OSPF networks must have a backbone area. or poison reverse are not needed.0. o A stub area is an area with a single path in to and out of the area.) Under normal conditions. Its address is always 0. the highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces. It sends the subnet mask in the routing update and supports route summarization and VLSM. The Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm (also called the Dijkstra SPF algorithm) is used to identify and select the optimal route.0. As part of the OSPF process. Routers on the edge of areas (called Area Border Routers (ABR)) share summarized information between areas.
Note: Although similar.n is the network address.m area number Example The following graphic shows a sample network with two OSPF areas. This can be a subnetted. Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network n. The process ID identifies a separate routing process on the router. Command Purpose Use to enter configuration mode for OSPF.n. Use the following commands to configure OSPF on each router: 70 .n. the process ID number is not the same thing as the AS number used in IGRP/EIGRP routing. Configuration is as simple as defining the OSPF process using the router ospf command.n.m. classless network. The following table lists the commands and details for configuring OSPF.m.m. Identifies networks that participate in OSPF routing. n. two routers configured with different process IDs might still share OSPF information).m is a wildcard mask (not the normal subnet mask). The area number must match between routers.OSPF Command List OSPF is fairly simple. number is the area number in the OSPF topology.n m. Process IDs do not need to match between routers (in other words. m.n. The wildcard mask identifies the subnet address. and then identifying the networks that will participate in OSPF routing.m. with only a few variations from the RIP and IGRP configuration steps you have previously use.
0. Keeps multiple paths to a single network.0.0 area 1 SFO LAX router ospf 1 PHX network 10.255 area 1 network 10.0. You can use the subnet address with the appropriate wildcard mask (as in 10.16.15.0 area 1 network 10.1.0. or poison reverse are not needed.0.16. manual route summarization can also be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the routing table size.0. Mechanisms such as holddown timers.1. Minimizes network bandwidth usage for routing updates. Exchanges the full routing table at startup. Instead.0 0.2. When change occurs.0.1. wildcard mask.15. Supports automatic classful route summarization at major network boundaries (this is the default in EIGRP).0 0. Maintains partial network topology information in addition to routes. split horizon. or you can use the IP address of the router interface with a mask of 0.15.Rout Configuration er router ospf 1 network 10.1. EIGRP uses built-in loop avoidance techniques.0.15. Is not susceptible to routing loops. and the OSPF area of the subnet.0.255 area 1 router ospf 2 network 10.0 0. It supports route summarization and VLSM. 71 .32. Uses bandwidth and delay for the route metric (similar to IGRP).16.3.255 area 1 network 10.0.1 0. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP.0 0.0 0. EIGRP: • • • • • • • • • • Sends the subnet mask in the routing update.0.0. The network command identifies the subnet. and then partial routing updates thereafter. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers.0.0 0.255. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like RIP and IGRP.0. During normal operation EIGRP transmits only hello packets across the network. Unlike IGRP and RIP.1 0.15.0.1.255 area 1 Notice the following in the configuration: • • • The process ID on each router does not match.255 area 0 network 10. OSPF uses areas to identify sharing of routes.1.0. not the process ID.255). A subnet can only be in one area.32. only routing table changes are propagated in EIGRP not the entire table. EIGRP Facts Enhanced IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary balanced hybrid routing protocol that combines the best features of distance vector and link state routing.
0 Use the following commands to manage and monitor EIGRP. Uses the DUAL link-state algorithm for calculating routes. View the interfaces that are running EIGRP and the number of connected routers. Supports multiple protocols.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. EIGRP Command List You configure EIGRP just the same as you would configure IGRP. Command Router(config)#router eigrp number Router(config-router)#network n. In some cases. Converges more quickly than distance vector protocols.n.3. EIGRP can quickly adapt to alternate routes when changes occur.n. In this manner. View neighboring routers from which EIGRP routes can be learned. AppleTalk and IPX/SPX networks. Identifies a network that participates in the routing process. The following table lists the applicable commands.168. Command show ip route show eigrp neighbors show eigrp interfaces Features View EIGRP-learned routes. If no appropriate route or backup exists in the routing table. Example The following commands enable EIGRP on a router and defines three networks that participate in the routing process. 72 . EIGRP can exchange routes for IP.n Function Defines an EIGRP process.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. convergence can be almost instantaneous because an EIGRP router stores backup routes for destinations. EIGRP will query neighbor routers to discover an alternate route.2.168. The number must match between routers for information to be shared.1.• • • • Requires less processing and memory than link state protocols. Router(config)#router eigrp 2 Router(config-network)#network 192.168. Lists the IP address of the connected router.
also sends triggered updates of changed routes Hold down timers. split horizon. Characteristic Routing method Public standard Metric VLSM support Classless routing Route summarization Sends mask in updates Convergence time Discovers neighbors before sending routing information RIP Distance vector Yes Hop count IGRP Distance vector No OSPF Link state Yes EIGRP Balanced hybrid No Bandwidth and delay Yes Bandwidth and delay Link cost Version 2 only No Slow (faster than RIP) No Yes Slow No Fast Yes Fast Yes Sends full routing table at Yes each update Loop avoidance Yes. poison poison reverse reverse Low No No No Full network topology Can be high Yes Yes No Partial network topology Lower than OSPF No No Memory and CPU Low requirements Uses areas in network No design Uses wildcards to define No participating networks Routing Administrative Distances 73 . Hold down timers.Routing Protocol Comparison The following table compares various features of the routing protocols you will need to know for this course. split horizon.
In addition. The following table shows the default administrative values for a Cisco router. WAN Structure 74 . A smaller number indicates a more trusted route. there might be multiple paths between any two points. Route Source Administrative Distance Connected interface 0 Static route 1 EIGRP summary route 5 EIGRP internal route 90 IGRP 100 OSPF 110 RIP 120 EIGRP external route 170 Note: You can modify how routes are selected by modifying the administrative distance associated with a source. Routers can learn about routes to other networks using multiple routing protocols. the router will choose the route that has the best cost as defined by the routing metric (for EIGRP the link with the highest bandwidth and least delay will be used). If a router has learned of two routes to a single network through different routing protocols (such as RIP and OSPF).The administrative distance is a number assigned to a source of routing information (such as a static route or a specific routing protocol). it will choose the route with the lowest administrative distance (OSPF in this example). If a router has learned of two routes through the same protocol (for example two routes through EIGRP). 2. The router uses these values to select the source of information to use when multiple routes to a destination exist. When making routing decisions. the router uses the following criteria for choosing between multiple routes: 1.
and marks the point of entry Data terminal between the LAN and the WAN. but computers equipment (DTE) and multiplexers can also act as DTEs.A typical WAN structure includes the following components. Local loop Typically. modem. In a narrow sense. the customer is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc. CPE includes the Consumer telephone wire. Cable that extends from the demarc to the central telephone office. The equipment (CPE) wiring typically includes UTP cable with RJ-11 or RJ-45 connectors. The DTE resides on the subscriber's premises. A device on the network side of a WAN link that sends and receives data. Broadly. The demarc media is owned and maintained by the telephone company. Fiber optic cable to the demarc is rare. or other media. it is UTP. Component Description Devices physically located on the subscriber's premises. and other equipment. It provides WAN-cloud entry and exit 75 . The demarc can also be called the network interface or Demarcation point point of presence. but it can also be one or a combination of UTP. DTEs are any equipment at the customer's site. The point where the telephone company's telephone wiring connects to the subscriber's wiring. and can include all computers. Central office The switching facility closest to the subscriber. The phone company is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc. fiber optic. CPE is sometimes used synonymously with DTE. the DTE is the device that communicates with the DCE at the other end. telephone. (demarc) Typically. DTEs are usually routers. both the devices premises the subscriber owns and the ones leased from the WAN provider. and the nearest point of (CO) presence for the WAN provider.
25 networks. In a strict sense. a modem or CSU/DSU at the equipment (DCE) customer site is often classified as a DCE. It also provides reliable DC power to the local loop to establish an electric circuit.points for incoming and outgoing calls. The hierarchy of trunks. PSEs are the intermediary exchange (PSE) points in the WAN cloud. This term is both a generic name for Data Link protocols and the name of a specific protocol within a WAN protocol suite or service. travels through the line. Packet-switching A switch on a carrier's packet-switched network. Thus. switches. • • • Cisco HDLC for synchronous. Depending on the WAN service and connection method. except that each device plays a different role. point-to-point connections with other Cisco routers (Cisco HDLC does not communicate with other vendors' implementations of HDLC). LAPD is a Layer 2 ISDN protocol that manages flow and signaling. WAN encapsulation methods are typically called HDLC (high-level data link control). COs use long-distance. or toll. Data Link layer protocols control some or all of the following functions: • • • • Error checking and correction Link establishment Frame-field composition Point-to-point flow control Data Link layer protocols also describe the encapsulation method or the frame format. LAPB for X. and central offices that make up the network of telephone lines. a DCE is any device that terminating supplies clocking signals to DTEs. 76 ." What is important is that data goes in. DCEs may be devices similar to DTEs (such as routers). WAN Encapsulation Facts WAN Physical layer protocols specify the hardware and bit signaling methods. carriers to provide connections to almost anywhere in the world. Long-distance carriers are usually owned and operated by companies such as AT&T or MCI. A CO provides services such as switching incoming telephone signals to outgoing trunk lines. A device that communicates with both DTEs and the WAN cloud. and arrives at its destination. It is represented as a cloud because the physical structure varies. and different networks with common connection points WAN cloud may overlap. and acts as a switching point to forward data to other central offices. LAPD in combination with another protocol for the B channels in ISDN networks. DCEs are typically routers at the service provider that relay messages between the Data circuitcustomer and the WAN cloud. This is the default encapsulation method for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. you will select one of the following encapsulation methods. Few people thoroughly understand where data goes as it is switched through the "cloud.
IPX. Protocol Description The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing. It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors. maintaining. or AppleTalk). Note: Routers on each side of a WAN link must use the same encapsulation method to be able to communicate. LCPs are exchanged to detect and correct errors or to control the use of multiple links (multilink). and numerous others. AppleTalk. Optional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3way authentication). including IP.• • PPP for dial-up LAN access. and tearing down the PPP link. LCP packets are exchanged periodically to do the following: • Link Control Protocol (LCP) • • During link establishment. When the session is terminated. circuit-switched WAN networks. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP. and ISDN networks. Each Network layer protocol has a corresponding control protocol packet. LCPs are responsible for tearing down the link. IPX. Cisco/IETF for Frame Relay networks. Network Control Protocol (NCP) A single Link Control Protocol runs for each physical connection. packet size. PPP Facts The following list represents some of the key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): • • • • • • It can be used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial. Examples of control protocols include: 77 . LCPs are used to agree upon encapsulation. It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. It supports multilink connections. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number. LCPs also indicate whether authentication should be used. load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links. the link is looped. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. PPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link. It supports multiple Network layer protocols. and compression settings. so it works in implementations that use products from multiple vendors. PPP is non-proprietary. and ISDN. synchronous serial (dial up). Throughout the session.
NCP phase. configure username/password combinations. 3. 2. packet size. you complete the following tasks: 1. Set PPP encapsulation on the interface. Select CHAP and/or PAP as the authentication method (optional). Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp To . Use . the first method will be pap tried first Router(config-if)#ppp compression Set compression options Router(config-if)#ppp chap|pap password Set the password used with CHAP <password> or PAP for an unknown host Router(config)#username <hostname> password <password> Set the username and password for the local router 78 . . You must set the encapsulation method to PPP before you can configure authentication or compression. 2. Set the encapsulation type to PPP Set the authentication method(s) Router(config-if)#ppp authentication <chap| When multiple methods are pap> Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap specified. and whether authentication will be used. PPP establishes communication in three phases. routers might exchange IPCP and CDPCP packets to agree upon using IP and CDP for Network-layer communications.• • • • IP Control Protocol (IPCP) CDP Control Protocol (CDPCP) IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP) AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) A single PPP link can run multiple control protocols. LCPs are exchanged to open the link and agree upon link settings such as encapsulation. To configure PPP on the router. LCP phase. one for each Networklayer protocol supported on the link. If authentication is used. 1. PPP Command List PPP configuration is often done in connection with configuring other services. NCPs are exchanged to agree on upper-layer protocols to use. . During this phase. Authenticate phase (optional). For example. . LCPs might also be exchanged during this phase to maintain the link. 3. LCPs might continue to be exchanged. PPP options are configured in interface mode for a specific interface. . authentication-specific packets are exchanged to configure authentication parameters and authenticate the devices. During this phase.
Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K. Sending routers send data immediately without establishing a session. Packets travel through the Frame Relay cloud without acknowledgments. you will likely be able to send data faster than the CIR. Example The following commands configure the SFO router to use PPP and enable it to connect to the LAX router using PAP authentication. Have a variable packet size (called a frame) . T-3). Frame-relay networks: • • • • • • Provide error detection but not error recovery. and the effective rate may drop. you are guaranteed to have at least the amount of bandwidth specified by the CIR.Router(config)#bandwidth <value> Set a bandwidth value for an interface View encapsulation and PPP information on an interface Router#show interface To hide the CHAP password from view in the configuration file. Frame Relay switches begin dropping packets when congestion occurs. Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs. you are assigned a level of service called a Committed Information Rate (CIR). T-1. When network traffic is low. Can provide data transfer up to 1. Frame relay networks simulate an "always on" connection with PVCs. • • • • • • • • Routers connect to a Frame Relay switch either directly or through a CSU/DSU. Error correction is performed by sending and receiving devices. digital lines. You should be familiar with the following concepts about how Frame Relay networks send data. Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model.54 Mbps. Frame Relay switches perform error checking but not correction. As network traffic increases. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets. use the service password-encryption command from the global configuration mode. Corrupted packets are simply dropped without notification. When you sign up for Frame Relay service. priority is given to data coming from customers with a higher CIR. In any case. The CIR is the maximum guaranteed data transmission rate you will receive on the Frame Relay network. SFO(config)#hostname LAX password cisco5 SFO(config)#int s0 SFO(config-if)#encap ppp SFO(config-if)#ppp auth pap Frame Relay Facts Frame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality. 79 .
When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. Packets are discarded based on information in the Discard Eligible (DE) bit. You should be aware of the following Frame Relay protocols: Protocol Characteristics Like an Ethernet MAC address.• • • Congestion is the most common cause of packet loss on a Frame Relay network. the same number is used throughout the entire network to identify a specific link). Although DLCI numbers are only locally significant. Make DLCIs globally significant for the entire network. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. DLCIs identify each virtual circuit. LMI is responsible for managing the connection and reporting connection status. you have the following options: 80 . Frame Relay switches send Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) messages to slow data transfer rates. ANSI. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. which is connected to the Frame Relay network. Each DLCI is unique for the local network. Cisco routers support three LMI types: Cisco. through LMI these numbers can be globally significant (i. but not for the entire WAN.e. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. In other words. Enable dynamic DLCI assignment through multicasting support. Local Management Interface (LMI) is a set of management protocol extensions that automates many Frame Relay management tasks. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. Gather status information about other routers and connections on the network. the same DLCI number can be used multiple times in the entire network to identify different devices. Frame Relay Protocols Most Frame Relay installations involve connecting to a Frame Relay network through a T-1 line. The DLCI represents the connection between two frame relay devices. • • Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) • The DLCI ranges between 16 and 1007. LMI can: • • • • • Local Management Interface (LMI) Maintain the link between the router and the switch. and Q933a. The router connects to a CSU/DSU. The Frame Relay network is made up of multiple switches for moving packets. The Frame Relay service provider assigns the DLCI when the virtual circuit is set up.
A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. Because Frame Relay supports multiple upper-layer protocols (such as IP. Manually map addresses to DLCIs. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. By default. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. Although more work. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations.• • Point-to-Point. To . and DECnet). A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. you will need to associate logical. you have the following configuration options. Network layer destination addresses with the DLCI number used to reach that address. and associates each address with a DLCI. . Set the encapsulation method Router(config-if)#encap You can following this command by various keywords to frame-relay set a specific frame relay encapsulation protocol. . or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. Note: You must set the encapsulation method on the interface before you can issue any other Frame Relay commands. . IPX. Multipoint. • • Dynamically associate DLCIs with inverse ARP. The router uses the inverse ARP protocol to dynamically discover destination addresses associated with a specific DLCI. 81 . Frame Relay Command List When configuring a router for Frame Relay. assign a DLCI to the subinterface Configure the LMI settings (optional). For multipoint connections. The administrator identifies the address of each destination device. . With a point-to-point connection. Router(configif)#frame-relay Turn on inverse ARP (it is on by default) inverse-arp Router(configif)#frame-relay map Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Note: Add the broadcast parameter to the command to configure the router to forward broadcast traffic over the link. the DLCI number acts like a Data Link or physical device address. To configure Frame Relay on an interface. Cisco is the default frame relay encapsulation. complete the following tasks: • • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface by setting the encapsulation type Assign a Network layer address to the interface (such as an IP address) Configure dynamic (inverse ARP) or static (mapped) addresses For a point-to-point subinterface. results are less prone to errors than when using inverse ARP. Use . This is the default.
Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch.1. With a point-to-point connection.1. Instead of adding physical interfaces. Configure LMI on the Cisco router Examples The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 1 using IETF as the encapsulation method and dynamic addressing. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. With subinterfaces. using subinterfaces lets you subdivide a single physical interface into several separate virtual channels. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. you have the following options: • • Point-to-Point.1. you can expand your router's capability without adding modules containing physical interfaces.55 25 Subinterfaces Facts Cisco uses the term interface to describe the physical component that connects the router to a network. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network.Router#show frame map Router#clear framerelay-inarp Router#show frame pvc Router#frame lmi-type <LMI type> Display the contents of the frame-relay map cache (showing IP address to DLCI number mappings). Show DLCI statistics and information.1. Using subinterfaces also lets you send routing updates out the same physical interface on which they were received. Using subinterfaces in this manner overcomes the split horizon problem that can occur when sending updates out the same interface. disable inverse ARP. 82 . Clear the dynamic entries from the frame-relay map cache. They make it possible to support multiple connections and/or networks through a single physical port. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#no frame inverse Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. Multipoint. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. A subinterface is a virtual interface that you configure on a Cisco router's physical interface. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 0 using Cisco as the encapsulation method. and map IP address 10.55 to DLCI 25.
Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s1.16. . Use . Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s0.12. . Do not assign an IP address to the main interface.X <type> Router(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci Router(config-subif)#frame-relay map To . complete the following tasks: • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface and set the encapsulation method Create the subinterface.55 point Router(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 44 The following commands create a multipoint subinterface on the second serial interface. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. Router(config-if)#int sX.155 111 Frame Relay Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot Frame Relay. map DLCIs to protocol addresses In addition. and configure it with a static IP mapping of device 199. assign the DLCI number to the subinterface For a multipoint connection using static assignments. .Frame Relay Subinterface Command List To configure Frame Relay on a subinterface.16. 83 . The subinterface is configured to use inverse ARP.155 to DLCI 111. specifying either point-to-point or multipoint For a point-to-point connection or a multipoint connection using inverse ARP.103 mult Router(config-subif)#frame map ip 199. Create the subinterface Assign the DLCI to the interface Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Examples The following commands create a point-to-point subinterface on the first serial interface and assign it to DLCI 44. . you will need to assign a Network layer address to the subinterface.12.
Instead. When configuring subinterfaces. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. keep in mind the following tips: • • • • • All routers at all locations must be configured to use the same frame relay encapsulation method. 84 . The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. • • • • • • • • ping sh frame map sh frame pvc sh int/sh ip int sh run no ip sh frame-relay sh frame-relay traffic Frame Relay Troubleshooting Tips As you troubleshoot Frame Relay. Use static mappings to associate DLCI numbers with IP addresses manually. you must manually assign a DLCI to the subinterface. Frame Relay routers must know the DLCI number that is used to reach remote routers.The scenario description for each exercise identifies whether the routers should be configured using inverse-arp or static mappings. use the ietf encapsulation type. do not set an IP address on the main interface. set IP addresses on each subinterface. For a point-to-point subinterface. you can use the default Frame Relay encapsulation type (cisco). When using routers of multiple vendors. Each scenario has some misconfiguration that prevents communication. Use inverse arp to dynamically discover DLCI numbers. When using all Cisco routers.
It supports the majority of upper-level protocols and encapsulation protocols. . DLCI numbers Frame Relay encapsulation method LMI information and traffic statistics Interface configuration (DCE or DTE) Global traffic statistics Addresses and associated DLCIs Use . and Network layers. Monitoring Frame Relay If you want to view . Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. digital transmission of both voice and data (including graphics. ISDN Facts Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards covering the Physical. you have the choice between the following services. Data Link. It allows fast. This information is not the DLCI number associated with the interface. ISDN uses T-carrier technology to quickly and efficiently send digital data streams. . D channels are used to carry control and signaling information. Channels are classified as one of two types: • • B channels are used to carry data. The physical cable of an ISDN connection is divided into logical channels. and so on) over existing telephone lines. . Service Basic Rate B channels D channel Characteristics Two 64 Kbps One 16 Uses existing phone lines (but may not be available 85 . video. show run show frame pvc show int show run show frame lmi show int show frame pvc show int show frame traffic show frame map Note: Output for the show interfaces command shows an entry for DLCI followed by a number.• By default. When you order ISDN service. .
ISDN BRI is a relatively low-cost WAN service that is ideal for the following situations: • • Home office or telecommuters who need a relatively fast connection Businesses that need to periodically send data between sites (bursty traffic patterns) ISDN BRI offers the following benefits over dial-up modems and other WAN connection options. such as network services Standards for switching and signaling. flow control. you will probably not need to know these standards.ISDN (BRI) Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) Kbps Twenty-three One 64 64 Kbps Kbps where existing copper wires don't support it) The connection is "demand-dial" (established only when data needs to be sent) Uses an entire T-1 line Sometimes called 23B+D The connection is "always on" Note: The total bandwidth of an ISDN BRI line is 144 Kbps (two B channels and one D channel). such as international addressing Standards for ISDN concepts. but you will need to memorize them for the certification exam. The protocol groupings and descriptions follow a lettering standard. and services. terminology. such as call setup. Use the following to help remember the classifications. and error correction In practice. E for Existing networks I for Identifying concepts Q for Quality switching signals 86 . • • • Faster data transfer rates (128 Kbps) than dial-up modems (56 Kbps maximum) Faster call establishment (dial-up) than modems Lower cost than other WAN solutions (users pay a monthly fee plus connection charges) ISDN Protocol Standards ISDN standards are grouped according to function. The total data transfer rate is 128 Kbps (data is sent only on the two B channels). Protocol Designation E I Q Standard Standards for ISDN on the existing phone network.
The ISDN standard defines several reference points. A TE1 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 1) is an ISDN-compatible device such TE1 as a router. S Interface between the NT2 and an ISDN device (TE1 or TA). Rather. The TA is often called an ISDN modem. the customer is responsible for the NT1.ISDN Components and Reference Points ISDN devices are classified based on whether they are ISDN-capable and the role they can play on the network. it converts ISDN signals to non-ISDN signals. A TE2 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 2) is a non-ISDN-compatible device TE2 such as a computer without an ISDN adapter. NT2s are optional. or ISDN telephone. Outside of North America. It lets you NT2 connect multiple devices. Generically speaking. and/or split the signal into data and voice transmissions. computer. although it does not convert digital signals to analog signals. where different protocols and devices connect with each other. the term is usually used to describes TA a device that converts non-ISDN signals to ISDN signals. Reference Designation Interface Type R Interface between a TA and non-ISDN equipment (TE2). A Cisco router might be classified as an NT1. In North NT1 America. a TA (Terminal Adapter) is any device that generates traffic on an ISDN line. T Interface between an NT2 and the NT1. NT1 functionality is the responsibility of the service provider. ISDN Device Function Designation An NT1 (Network Terminator) is the connection point between the local loop and ISDN network. 87 . It identifies proper connections with the following interface designations. An NT2 (Network Switching Equipment) connects with an NT1. More specifically.
• • • Service Protocol Identifier (SPID) One SPID is assigned to the entire device Each B channel has its own SPID Each B channel can have more than one assigned SPID The WAN service provide assigns the SPIDs for you to configure on the router. S. Network layer address (similar to a telephone number that that allows each channel to make and receive calls). To remember the reference points. TEIs are dynamically assigned to the router by the ISDN switch when the connection is made. T. Your ISDN router will be connected to an ISDN switch at the WAN service provider. For example. The TA can then connect to the NT1 or NT2. Each ISDN device is assigned one TEI. U). Note: Because they are electrically the same. each device can have one or more SPIDs. to connect a router to an ISDN network. Connect a router with a U interface directly to the local loop. Do not connect the U interface to an NT1 or an NT2. For this reason.e. ISDN Addressing ISDN is a Network layer protocol that operates over a specific hardware interface configuration. an R reference point) to a TA. Depending on the specific ISDN implementation. ISDN uses the following addresses: Address Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) Characteristics Data Link layer address (similar to an Ethernet MAC address). you might have the following options (depending on the configuration of the router): • • • Connect a router with an S/T interface to either an NT1 or an NT2 (but not directly to the local loop). or U) of each device. pay attention to the interface type (R. S. ISDN has its own Network and Data Link layer addressing. Label the wire between each device with the corresponding letter. place the letters in order (R. Be sure to connect the correct device to the correct interface. the S and T interfaces are often identified as an S/T interface. Connect a router with a serial interface (i. then follow a packet from a non-ISDN device to the local loop. T.U Interface between the NT1 and the local loop (ISDN wall connection). The following are common SPID assignments. When connecting devices on an ISDN network. Your router must be configured to communicate with the switch type used by your WAN service 88 .
The sending device requests a connection through the D channel. Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel (LAPD) is the Data Link encapsulation protocol used on an ISDN network. The D channel is used for session maintenance. As its name implies. TEIs are dynamically assigned to identify the router. The router uses the D channel to perform Network (layer 3) initialization. Assigning TEIs. the most common types are: • • • AT&T 5ESS Northern DMS-100 National ISDN-1 ISDN Communication Facts The following process is used to initialize an ISDN router. It uses its preconfigured SPIDs (if required) to set up the B channels. the D channel is used to tear down the link. you need to complete the following configuration processes: • • • Configure the ISDN switch type Assign SPIDs (if required) Configure encapsulation Use the following commands to configure an ISDN connection. ISDN Command List To configure an ISDN connection. The receiving device answers and the link is established. The exact commands you will use depend on the equipment used at the central office. 4. 89 . Terminating the link. 3.provider. 2. After the transmission is over. it operates on the D channel of an ISDN connection and is used for: • • • • Initializing Layer 2 and Layer 3 communications. In North America. When a router needs to communicate with another ISDN device. Maintaining the session. Cisco routers support over 10 switch types. The B channel is used to transmit data. 2. 1. the following process is used. The router uses the D channel to perform Data Link (layer 2) initialization. 1.
For IOS 11. To use multiple channels at the same time. Show all past and current ISDN phone calls. For IOS 11. Enables multilink on the interface. and assigns two SPIDs for an ISDN interface: Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-5ess Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866201 8358662 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664 About ISDN Simulations The following commands have been enabled in the simulations for configuring and testing an ISDN connection: • • • • • • • interface bri0 isdn switch-type isdn spid1. bri0:1.3 and above. isdn spid2 show isdn status show isdn active show isdn history show interface bri0. use this command in interface mode or global configuration mode. Example The following commands set the switch type. . Router(config)#interface bri0 Router(config)#isdn switchtype <type> Router(config-if)#isdn spid<#> <number> <number> Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router#show isdn status Router#show isdn active Router#show isdn history Router(config-if)#ppp multilink Router(config)#dialer loadthreshold To . this is a global configuration command.2 and below. Set the encapsulation method for the interface (PPP is the most common). bri0:2 90 . encapsulation method. Set the ISDN switch type to match that used by the service provider. An ISDN connection consists of multiple logical B channels on a single physical connection. Switch to ISDN interface configuration mode. .Use . Identify SPIDs for an interface. . Show active ISDN phone calls. Identifies the utilization percentage that must exist for the additional channels to be used. Use only if SPID numbers are not dynamically assigned. View the status of the ISDN connection. enable multilink PPP (MLP). .
differs depending on the IOS version: o For IOS versions 11. When you remove the shutdown for a BRI interface. or take several minutes to change. o For IOS versions 12. BRI interfaces are up only when a call is successfully placed to another router. The status reported with the show isdn status command in the simulations updates automatically and immediately after making configuration changes. Spoofing allows the router to place entries in the routing table for dial-ondemand interfaces. In addition.3 up to (but not including) 12.3 and above. but if it is removed from the interface. the router can still make a connection if the switch type is defined globally. the switch at the service provider may report excessive errors and disable itself.2 and below. you can only set the switch type globally. you may need to use the clear interface bri0 command or restart the router on a live system before some configuration changes take place. o For IOS versions 11. On a live system. It is possible to have one channel active and the other channel inactive.x method of setting the switch type. Normally. Channels are up when a call is initiated that uses that specific channel. etc. these statuses may not update. Verify that the configuration settings are correct before bringing the interface up. routes that correspond to an interface are not placed in the routing table until the interface status is up. BRI1.0 and above. even if one is not defined for the interface. DDR Facts 91 . On a Cisco router. If you misconfigure the interface and connect to the ISDN switch. You will then need to contact your service provider to reset the switch. This product simulates the IOS version 12. the switch type must be defined for the interface. you should set the ISDN switch type and SPIDs with the interface shut down. keep in mind the following: • • • • • Each BRI interface represents a single connection to an ISDN network. the connection cannot be made. Setting it globally automatically adds it to the interface. and what is required. How the switch type is set. Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up. you can set the switch type globally or on an interface basis. the interface status changes to spoofing. BRI interfaces are identified as BRI0. Each physical BRI interface has three separate channels (1 D channel and 2 B channels). o For IOS versions 11.0. The two B channels for the first BRI interface are identified as BRI0:1 and BRI0:2. BRI Interface Facts As you work with ISDN BRI interfaces.You should be aware of the following conditions regarding configuring ISDN connections on a live system: • • • As best practice.
or identifies an access list Contains multiple entries. Keep in mind the following points about dial-on-demand routing (DDR): • • • • Access lists define interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). dialer map. If a DDR link is up. The link between two devices is established when one device calls another and the answering device answers the request. The link is brought up (or dialed) when traffic needs to cross the link. to identify a specific destination and the corresponding number to dial. When the link is idle.A dial-on-demand link is one that is non-persistent (not always on). The DDR link will be brought down if no interesting traffic has crossed the link in a specified period of time. The list of interesting traffic only defines which traffic brings the link up. Use access lists to identify the type of traffic that will bring the link up (called interesting traffic). Non-interesting traffic is ignored (never sent). Non-interesting traffic that needs to be sent will not keep the link up if the time limit has expired. This process is much like placing a telephone call. will be sent over the link. If a DDR link is down. both interesting and non-interesting. to identify a single number to dial for all connections. only interesting traffic will bring it up. Interesting traffic is identified and applied to an interface using the following three items: Access List Contains multiple entries that define interesting traffic Each list applies only to one protocol in type Access lists are optional Dialer List Identifies all traffic of a specific protocol. not which traffic can cross the link once it is established. a maximum of one per protocol Dialer Group Applies a dialer list to an interface Maximum of one group per interface Dialer interfaces (such as ISDN BRI) are non-persistent and might be used to connect to multiple devices. the connection is terminated. 92 . Identify the host called by the router using one of the following commands in interface mode: • • dialer string. all traffic.
0.DDR Command List Configuring dial-on-demand routing involves completing the following general steps: • • • • • • Configure the interface to connect to the network.0. The link will be brought up for HTTP or FTP traffic.1 eq 80 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. Use this command if the <address> <number> router contacts multiple routers over the same physical interface. Router(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip permit Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 7 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5551111 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5552222 The following commands create an access list and dialer list.1 eq 21 Router(config)#dialer-list 9 protocol ip list 101 93 . apply it to an interface. . Examples The following commands define all IP traffic as interesting traffic for BRI0 and identifies two numbers of a single destination router to dial when traffic must be sent. . defines a called device. Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link. To .0. Configure access list statements that define Router(config)#access-list interesting traffic Router(config)#dialer-list <#> Identify the traffic type or access list that protocol <type> permit/deny defines interesting traffic. and configures a static route to the remote device. Router(config-if)#dialer-group Apply the dialer-list to an interface. Use this command if the <number> router contacts only one other router. Identify the number to dial to contact the Router(config-if)#dialer map ip destination router.0. . such as: o Configuring the ISDN connection o Configuring IP addresses for applicable interfaces Define interesting traffic Apply the interesting traffic definition to the dial-on-demand interface Configure the numbers to call when interesting traffic is received Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link Configure the DDR timers (optional) Use . This allows Router(config)#ip route hosts on the local network to access hosts on the remote network(s). Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. <#> Router(config-if)#dialer string Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. .
Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 9 Router(config-if)#dialer map ip 220.127.116.11 name LAX 5552345 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 bri0 18.104.22.168
Note: You can also configure serial or asynchronous interfaces to support dial-on-demand routing. To enable DDR on a serial interface, use the following command:
Dialer Profiles In a typical ISDN BRI connection, the router has a single BRI interface that is used to connect to all other sites. If your router has multiple BRI (or PRI) interfaces, or if you want to use different B channels to reach multiple sites, you have the following choices:
Use dialer lists to configure specific interfaces to connect with specific sites. For example, if you have two interfaces and four sites, one interface could connect to half of the sites, and the other interface could connect to the other half. Use dialer profiles to pool all physical interfaces into a single logical interface. In this way, traffic to any of the four sites could be sent out either of the two interfaces.
Configuring dialer profiles is beyond the scope of this course, but involves the following general process.
• • • • •
Create access list statements to define interesting traffic. Create a dialer-list statement pointing to the access list. Create a special dialer interface. This is a logical interface that groups multiple physical interfaces. Configure the dialer interface as you would a physical interface with dialergroup commands and dialer map statements. Associate a dialer pool number with the logical dialer interface. Assign each physical interface to the dialer pool.
DDR Timers DDR timers identify the amount of time that passes without interesting traffic before the link is brought down. You do this by setting one or both of the following timeouts: Timer Idletimeout Description The idle-timeout identifies when the DDR link will be brought down. If no interesting traffic has crossed the link during the specified time interval, the DDR
link is closed. The fast-idle timer is a special timer that allows the DDR link to be brought down before the idle-timeout timer has expired. It identifies an alternate timer that is used if: Fast-idle
• • • •
The physical interface connects to multiple sites (phone numbers) The interface has an existing link to one site Packets are ready to be sent to a different site There is no interesting traffic currently being sent
Use the following commands to configure the DDR timers: Use . . . To . . . Router(configSet the amount of time that elapses without interesting if)#dialer idle-timeout traffic before the DDR link is disconnected. Set the amount of time that must elapse before the DDR Router(configlink can be disconnected early if a call to another if)#dialer fast-idle destination is received.
ISDN Configuration Process When configuring ISDN DDR links, remember to complete the following processes: 1. Configure the interface for the link. o Configure the ISDN switch type (for the router or the interface. o Configure SPIDs if necessary. o Configure encapsulation. o Assign IP addresses and remove the shutdown from the link. 2. Identify devices to call (dial). 3. Define the interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). 4. Set link timeouts to bring the link down.
DDR Show Commands You should be familiar with the information shown for each of the following commands as they relate to DDR routing.
Use... show isdn active To view... Details of active calls such as:
The number dialed 95
• • • • • • • •
The device called Time left until disconnect ISDN switch type ISDN status by layer (layers 1-3) Number of active calls Number of available ISDN channels Idle and fast idle timer settings for an interface Reason for the connection (source and destination addresses) Number and hostname dialed Time connected Time left until disconnect
show isdn status
show dialer int bri
• • •
ISDN Troubleshooting Tips As you work with ISDN connections, use the show isdn status command to check the status of the ISDN interfaces. Here you can examine the status of each of the three OSI model layers. The following table describes the possible meaning of each layer status. Status Information Actions to Take There is no physical connection to the ISDN network. Layer 1 Status = NOT Activated Check the physical connection or remove the shutdown from the interface. A physical connection exists, but communication to the ISDN network is not taking place. (TEI and Layer 1 Status = ACTIVE SPID messages will show if SPIDs are Layer 2 Status = NOT Activated configured.) TEI Not Assigned Verify the ISDN switch type configuration on the spid1 NOT sent router. Note: SPIDs will not be sent or validated until Layer 2 communications have been established. A single TEI is assigned and Layer 2 is active. The router is communicating with the ISDN network over the D channel. SPID statuses do not Layer 2 State = show. MULTIPLE_STATE_ESTABLISHED Either the router does not require SPIDs, or SPIDs are not yet assigned. Validate the SPID configuration. SPID status = spid1 configured, spid1 sent, An incorrect SPID number was configured. spid1 NOT valid Reverify the SPID configuration. Note: SPID2 will not be sent and cannot be
In each case. one or more routers have been misconfigured. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. check to make sure that static routes have been defined on each router. verify that interesting traffic is properly defined to bring the link up. Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem. check the following: • • If the ISDN status shows active but a ping between the two routers fails. Layer 3 will not show active until a call has been placed to open communication. For each scenario. SPIDs have been validated and EIDs assigned. Check to make sure the dialer group command has been used for the interface to associate the list with the interface. If Layer 1 and Layer 2 statuses are active.spid1 valid Endpoint ID Info shown Layer 3 shows 0 active calls validated until SPID1 has been configured correctly. If you can successfully ping the remote ISDN router from the local ISDN router. The problem may be with either router. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. ISDN Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot ISDN configuration. begin by verifying the problem. Problems with the communication are limited to those configuration settings taught in this section. • show isdn status 97 . but you cannot communicate through the ISDN link. but devices on either network cannot communicate over the link.
you should be able to diagnose the problem using the output from the show isdn status command. 98 .• • • • • • ping show show show show show interface bri0 interface bri0:1 interface bri0:2 ip route run Tip: For most troubleshooting activities.
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