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USER/PRIVILEGED EXEC COMMANDS
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clear frame-relay-inarp configure terminal copy running-config startup-config copy startup-config running-config disable disconnect enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <all supported interfaces> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <all supported interfaces> show configuration show controllers show frame-relay lmi show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show history show interfaces show interfaces <all supported interfaces> (including bri0:1, bri0:2) show ip access-lists show ip interface show ip interface <all supported interfaces>
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show ip route show ipx route show ipx servers show isdn active show isdn history show isdn status show running-config show startup-config show version terminal editing terminal history terminal history size <size> terminal no editing terminal no history traceroute <ip address>
GLOBAL CONFIGURATION COMMANDS
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access-list <1-99> deny/permit access-list <1-99> deny/permit <wildcard mask> access-list <1-99> deny/permit <address> banner <banner text> banner exec <banner text> banner incoming <banner text> banner login <banner text> banner motd <banner text> cdp holdtime <time> cdp timer <time> cdp run dialer-list <1-10> protocol ip enable password <password> enable secret <password> end exit
<address> <address> host
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help hostname <name> interface bri <number> interface ethernet <number> (with subinterfaces) interface serial <number> (with subinterfaces) ip route <address> <mask> <interface> <next hop address> ip routing ipx routing isdn switch-type <type> line console 0 line vty <number> line vty <number> <number> router rip router igrp <AS number> router eigrp <AS number> router ospf <process id>
ETHERNET INTERFACE COMMANDS
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cdp enable description <LINE> exit help ip access-group <number> in/out ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown
SERIAL INTERFACE COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clock rate <number> description <LINE> encapsulation frame-relay encapsulation hdlc encapsulation ppp exit frame-relay interface-dlci <number> frame-relay inverse-arp frame-relay map ip <address> <dlci> help ip access-group <1-99> ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown BRI COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • description <LINE> dialer fast-idle dialer idle-timeout dialer map ip <address> <string> dialer string <string> dialer-group <number> exit help ip address <address> <mask> isdn spid1 <string> <string> isdn spid2 <string> <string> isdn switch-type <type> shutdown LINE/CONSOLE COMMANDS 4 .
• • • • exit help login password <password> ROUTER COMMANDS • network SWITCH USER/PRIVILEGED MODE COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • configure configure terminal disable enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show history show interfaces show interfaces <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show ip show running-config show spanning-tree show spanning-tree <number> show version show vlan show vlan <number> show vlan-membership 5 .
• show vtp SWITCH GLOBAL COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cdp holdtime <number> cdp timer <number> enable password level 15 <password> end exit help hostname <name> interface <ethernet/fastethernet port> ip address <address> <mask> ip default-gateway <address> spanning-tree <number> ... switchport access vlan <number> vlan <number> vlan <number> name <name> vtp client/server/transparent SWITCH ETHERNET/FAST ETHERNET COMMANDS • • • • • • cdp enable description <WORD> exit help shutdown vlan-membership static <number> 6 .
Session initialization (connection establishment). CONNECTIONLESS • • • Connection-oriented protocols are reliable. 2. because it is the most widely used method for talking about network communications. error-free communications are more important than speed. A connection-oriented protocol is a good choice where reliable. data errors and packet loss might occur. and error correction.CONNECTION-ORIENTED VS. They perform session initiation. Using the OSI model to discuss networking concepts has the following advantages: • • • Provides a common language or reference point between network professionals Divides networking tasks into logical layers for easier comprehension Allows specialization of features at different levels 7 . The three phases of connection-oriented communication are: 1. You should also know the following facts about connectionless communication: • • • • Connectionless services assume an existing link between devices and allow transmission without extensive session establishment. Connectionless communications use no error checking. However. remember that it is only a theoretical model that defines standards for programmers and network administrators. and 3. or acknowledgements. USES OF THE OSI MODEL You should be familiar with the OSI model. They identify and retransmit lost packets. session establishment. error detection. Connectionless protocols allow quick. efficient communication. However. Session termination (connection release). Session maintenance (data transfer). not a model of actual physical layers. Connectionless communications include no error checking or acknowledgement mechanisms.
WAV SQL NFS ASP RPC X window TCP (connection- • • • • • • • • S • Packets T • Segments . translation. maintain. Industry implementations rarely have a layer-to-layer correspondence with the OSI layers. EBCDIC MIDI. 8 . Different protocols within the stack perform different functions that help send or receive the overall message. and tear down communication sessions Reliable (connection-oriented) and unreliable (connectionless) • • • SNMP JPEG. and compression Data format and exchange Keeps data streams separate (session identification) Set up. BMP. • • • OSI layers are theoretical and do not actually perform real functions. Packets AVI ASCII. PICT MPEG. you must remember the following limitations of the OSI model. TIFF.• • • Aids in troubleshooting Promotes standards interoperability between networks and devices Provides modularity in networking features (developers can change features without changing the entire approach) However. WMV. OSI MODEL LAYERS L Description and keywords • Protocols • • • • • • Encapsul ation Messages and Packets User interface Communication partner identification A • HTTP Telnet FTP TFTP • P • Data format (file formats) Encryption.
connectors. sequencing.a. burned in address (BIA).• • • communications End-to-end flow control Port and socket numbers • oriented) • N • Segmentation. PPP.3 (Ethernet). and combination Logical addresses Path determination (identification and selection) Routing packets Convert bits into bytes and bytes into frames MAC address.k. ISDN. Frame Relay. and UDP (connectionless) Packets IP IPX AppleTalk Packets and Datagram s • • • • • • • • • D • • DECNET LAN protocols: 802. 802.2 (LLC). hardware address Logical network topology Media access Flow control o Acknowledgements o Buffering o Windowing Parity and CRC Move bits across media Cables. pin positions Electrical signals (voltage. a. 802. bit synchronization) Physical topology (network layout) Datagram s.35 (modem Bits signaling) Cat5 RJ45 • • • • • • • • • P • 9 .5 (Token Ring).11 Frames (Wireless) WAN protocols: HDLC. 802. ATM EIA/TIA 232 (serial signaling) V.
0 D n/a E n/a 10 .255.0.255 240.255.0.255 192.0. IP addresses have a default class.255 First Octet Range 1-126 (00000001--01111111 binary) 128-191 (10000000--10111111 binary) 192-223 (11000000--11011111 binary) 224-239 (11100000--11101111 binary) 240-255 (11110000--11111111 binary) Default Subnet Mask 255.255. The subnet mask is used to separate the network and host addresses.255.255.255.0 to 191.0 C 255.255 188.8.131.52 to 255.0.0 to 184.108.40.206.0.255 128.0 B 255.0.0. The following table shows the default address class for each IP address range.0 to 223.0.255.IP ADDRESS CLASSES A single IP address identifies both the network address and the host address. The address class identifies the range of IP addresses and a default subnet mask used for the range.255.0.0.255.0 to 239.255.0. Class Address Range A 1.
0 All bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 0.255.255.65.31.0.255. SPECIAL ADDRESSES The following address ranges have been reserved for private use.0. Examples: • • • IP Address 0. (Some older routers use this address as a broadcast address.0 Class B network address: 154.) An address with all bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 refers to a host on "this" network. Class B addresses give you 65.0.52--Specific host on a Class B network 0.0.0.255 172.0.77. Using a generic value reduces the number of routing table entries.220.127.116.11.0. Examples: All bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 • • • Class A network address: 115.0.233--Specific host on a Class A network 0.777.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class B network 11 .214 hosts per network.0.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class A network 115.0 • 154.16. Class C addresses give you 254 hosts per network.0 All bits of the host An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 1 is a portion of an address set broadcast message for all hosts on the network.When using the default subnet mask for an IP address. Examples: to 1 • 18.104.22.168.90.0. • • • 10.255 Use This network address is used by routers to specify the "default" route.0 Class C network address: 221.534 hosts per network.0 to 172.0 to 192. you have the following number of available host addresses: • • • Class A addresses give you 16.69--Specific host on a Class C network An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 refers to the network itself.0 to 10.0.65.255 22.214.171.124.0.0.
0.0.65.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class C network 221. Upper layers prepare the data to be sent through the network.244.65. 2. 3. 3.90. The Physical layer converts the frames into bits for transmission across the transmission media.255 SERVICE DATA UNITS AND ENCAPSULATION Encapsulation is the process of breaking a message into packets.0.AND FULL-DUPLEX With the original Ethernet standards. 5. The Network layer converts the segments into packets. all devices shared the same cable.0 222. The following short descriptions can help you remember the steps of the data encapsulation process: 1. The Transport layer breaks the data into pieces called segments.255. (Note: This address is not included in the range of Class A or Class B addresses. adding control and other information. 2.154. 12 . The Data Link layer converts the packets into frames. You need to know the following five-step data encapsulation process: 1. adding sequencing and control information.0 255.0.255.1 refers to the local host. Upper layers--data Transport layer--segments Network layer--packets containing logical addresses Data Link layer--framing that adds physical addresses Physical layer--bits HALF. adding logical network and device addresses.244. 4. This address is used to indicate a broadcast message intended for all hosts on this network. Devices needed to be able to detect and recover from collisions.0 This network address is reserved for the loopback address. and transmitting the message through the transmission media. 4. • 127.) The address 127. adding physical device addressing information. This caused two problems: • Collisions occur when two devices transmit at the same time. 5.0.
With these problems solved. and can begin transmitting data as soon as they have data to send. Devices can use different wires to send and receive data (allowing them to do both simultaneously). Mode Description Bandwidth • Collision detection is turned on • The device can only send or receive at any given time Up to the rated bandwidth (10 Mbps for 10BaseT. Devices can transmit and receive data simultaneously. 200 Mbps for 100BaseT. These two problems were solved in the following ways: • • Using twisted pair cable.) • Devices connected to a hub must use half-duplex communication • Collision detection is turned off • The device can send and receive at the same time Double the rated bandwidth (20 Mbps • Requires full-duplex capable NICs for 10BaseT. 100 Mbps for 100BaseT. etc. Bridges examine the source address to determine the media segment of network devices. collisions are eliminated.• Each device could either transmit or receive data at any given time. you can turn off collision detection. With a single device connected to a switch port. 13 . etc. Devices were not able to both send and receive at the same time (much like using a one-lane road for traffic in two different directions). Using switches. Devices with collision detection turned on operate in half-duplex mode. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.) • Requires switches with dedicated switch ports (a single device per port) Halfduplex Fullduplex BRIDGE FACTS You should understand the following concepts relating to the operation of bridges. multiple strands of wires are combined into a single cable. Bridges maintain a table of device addresses and their corresponding segments. devices are given a dedicated communication path. This meant that the device was either receiving data or listening for incoming data. devices with collision detection turned off operate in full-duplex mode. • • • • Bridges connect two media segments that use the same protocol.
but typically on a larger scale and with higher performance. 14 . Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. Bridges can link segments with dissimilar transmission media and media access methods. Switches provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices (if dedicated ports are used). Switches examine the source and destination Data Link (MAC) address in each packet to build the database and make forwarding decisions. When designing the placement of bridges on the network. • • At least 80% of network traffic should stay within a segment. Bridges forward packets for multiple upper-layer protocols. Bridges cannot translate upper-layer protocols.• • Each segment connected by a bridge can have the same network address. SWITCH FACTS Switches provide functionality similar to bridges. Bridges cannot forward packets to different networks based on the network address. Use bridges to isolate traffic to a segment. Bridges do not filter broadcast packets. Bridges have the following limitations: • • • • Bridges cannot link multiple architectures because different frame types are used. Messages within a media segment are prevented from crossing over to another segment. Bridges offer the following advantages: • • • • Bridges prevent wasted bandwidth by eliminating unnecessary traffic between segments. • • Switches create separate collision domains. or to slow WAN links. follow the 80/20 rule. • • • • Switches are associated with the Data Link layer of the OSI Model. You can connect a single device to a switch port or multiple devices to a switch port by using a hub. or to prevent unwanted traffic from crossing over to other segments. Bridges increase the maximum network length. No more than 20% of network traffic should pass through the bridge to another segment. Switches build a forwarding database in a manner similar to bridges. Switches offer the following advantages over a non-switched network.
• • • • • • Switches can be used to provide collision-free networking (i. Method Store-andforward Characteristics Store-and-forward switches: • • Receive the entire frame. an entry for the address is made in the database. Switches can simultaneously switch multiple messages. Verify the frame's integrity (check the CRC). BRIDGE AND SWITCH FORWARDING FACTS Both bridges and switches build a forwarding database. • • • The frame contains upper-layer data (data from the LLC sublayer on up). How switches forward packets depends on the switch type. Bridges and switches can automatically learn about devices to build the forwarding database. if only one device is connected to each switch port). Switches can mix 10 Mbps. o If the destination address is not in the database. the packet is sent out all ports except for the one on which it was received. o Broadcast packets are forwarded to all ports except the one on which they were received. The database is a list of Data Link (MAC) addresses and the port used to reach the device. Ethernet switches can be implemented without re-cabling.e. The port it came in on is also recorded. Switches enable full-duplex communication. o If the destination address is in the database. Transparent bridges forward packets only if the following conditions are met. The destination address is then examined. Frames with errors are 15 . The frame's integrity has been verified (a valid CRC). A network administrator can also program the device database manually.and 100 Mbps-capable devices (if the switch is a 100 Mbps switch). If the source address is not in the forwarding database. Bridges and switches use the following process to dynamically build the forwarding database: • • The process begins by examining the source address of an incoming packet. Switches induce less latency than other segmentation solutions. The frame is not addressed to the bridge. the packet is forwarded to the appropriate port if the port is different than the one on which it was received. The following table compares the different methods the switch uses to forward packets (Cisco switches support all three methods).
Newer switches can monitor each port and determine which method to use. The routing protocol determines: • • • The information contained in the routing table How messages are routed from one network to another How topology changes (i. They can automatically switch to store-and-forward if the number of errors on a port exceeds a configurable threshold. ROUTING FACTS Routers can forward packets through an internetwork by maintaining routing information in a database called a routing table. The exact format of these exchanges is based on the routing protocol. Fragment-free switches: • • • • Fragment-free Read the first 64 bytes of a frame. Forward non-fragmented frames.• • not forwarded. The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and routing information about that network such as: • • • • • Interface Routing Path Next Hop Route Metric (Cost) Route Timeout Routers build and maintain their routing database by periodically sharing information with other routers. Forward the frame to the destination device. but not as great as store-and-forward switching. updates to the routing table) are communicated between routers 16 . Introduce some latency. Introduce more latency (delay) than cut-through switches. Verify that the packet is not a fragment. Are faster than store-and-forward switches (less latency). Forward the packet without verifying frame integrity.e. Cut-through switches: Cut-through • • • Read the destination device address.
A router uses the logical network address specified at the Network layer to forward messages to the appropriate LAN segment. The term convergence is used to describe the condition when all routers have the same (or correct) routing information.Regardless of the method used. MESSAGE ROUTING FACTS Keep in mind the following points about how a packet is addressed as it travels through an internetwork. maximize bandwidth. IP (Network) addresses are contained in the IP header. or heavy network traffic. The Network address contains both a logical network address and a logical device address. and reduce congestion. The Network destination addresses indicate the address of the final destination device. Both Data Link physical addresses and Network logical addresses are used. the Data Link layer address is the MAC address. Data Link addresses in the packet change as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. By segmenting a LAN. you can increase network performance. Both the source and destination Network and Data Link addresses are typically contained in the packet. • • • • • • • • • On an Ethernet network. SEGMENTATION FACTS LAN segmentation is the process of dividing the network to overcome problems such as excessive collisions. changes in routing information take some time to be propagated to all routers on the network. you will need to consider the collision and broadcast domains on the network. broadcast traffic. 17 . Network addresses remain constant as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. the IP address is the Network layer address. The Data Link destination address indicates the physical address of the next hop on the route. MAC (Data Link) addresses are contained in the Ethernet frame header. On an IP network. As you segment the network.
Device Collision Domain All devices connected to the hub are in the Hub same collision domain All devices connected to a single port are in Bridge or the same collision domain (each port is its Switch own collision domain) Router All devices connected to a single interface are in the same collision domain Broadcast Domain All devices are in the same broadcast domain All devices connected to the bridge or the switch are in the same broadcast domain All devices accessible through an interface (network) are in the same broadcast domain In considering a network expansion solution. Faulty devices or improper configuration conditions can lead to a broadcast storm. and bridges is the range of services each performs and the OSI layer at which they operate. Device Characteristics Router Routers perform the following functions that are not performed by bridges or switches. it is important to identify the connectivity problems you need to resolve. The main differences between routers. regenerated. and then identify the device that is best suited for that situation. the amount of broadcast traffic on a segment also increases. Membership within collision or broadcast domains differs depending on the connection device used. Note: A special condition called a broadcast storm happens when broadcast traffic is sent.• • A collision domain is any network or subnetwork where devices share the same transmission medium and where packets can collide. and responded to. switches. Segmentation may increase the number of both the collision and broadcast domains. In this condition. Collisions naturally increase as the number of devices in a collision domain increase. the amount of broadcast traffic consumes network bandwidth and prevents normal communications. As you add devices to a network segment. A broadcast domain is any network or subnetwork where computers can receive frame-level broadcasts from their neighbors. • • • Route packets between separate networks Modify packet size through fragmentation and combination Route packets based on service address Choose a router if you need to: • • • • • Connect your network to a WAN (such as the Internet) Filter broadcast traffic (prevent broadcast storms) Connect two separate networks that use the same protocol Improve performance in the event of a topology change (routers recover faster than bridges or switches) Reduce the number of devices within a domain (increase the number of broadcast domains) 18 .
19 . create multiple collision domains) Implement full-duplex communication Connect two network segments or devices using the same protocol Provide improved performance over a current bridged network Switch traffic without the cost or administration involved with routers Choose a bridge if you need to: • • • • • Bridge Isolate data traffic to one network segment Route traffic from one segment to another (with the same network ID) Link unlike physical media (e. Use a router to filter broadcast messages.e. follow these guidelines to make decisions about the appropriate connectivity device. Ethernet to token ring) Choose a switch if you need to: • • Switch • • • • Provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices Reduce collisions by decreasing the number of devices in a collision domain (i. choose a switch instead. twisted pair and coaxial Ethernet) of the same architecture type Link segments that use the same protocol Create segments without the expense and administration of routers In most cases where you might use a bridge. implement security. Use a switch to reduce collisions and offer guaranteed bandwidth between devices.g.• • • Enforce network security Dynamically select the best route through an internetwork Connect two networks of different architectures (e.g. STARTUP FACTS The following graphic details the process used to boot the router. • • • Use a bridge to segment the network (divide network traffic) and to provide fault tolerance. In general. or connect between different networks.
2. or when you boot a new router. There are two ways to enter setup mode: • • Boot the router without the startup-config file. The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router's hardware. When the POST completes successfully. NVRAM (startup-configuration file) 2. 1. Setup mode is a special. the router starts in setup mode. Use the setup command from privileged mode.When you turn the router on. A setting of 0x2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. ROM (used if no other source is found) 3. The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router). Flash (the default location) 2. This happens when you erase the current startup-config file. it immediately enters Setup mode. guided routine that asks you a series of questions and uses your responses to make basic configuration entries. the System OK LED indicator comes on. when it boots. SETUP MODE FACTS If the router is brand new. 20 . If a configuration file is not found. The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. it runs through the following boot process. TFTP server 3. If the startupconfig file is missing or does not specify a location. The router can load a configuration file from: 1. it will check the following locations for the IOS image: 1. TFTP server 3. Therefore. it has no startup-config file.
When you use Help to display the possible keywords for a command..B. It is context sensitive.You can exit setup mode without answering all the questions by pressing <Ctrl> + C.C. new Cisco routers have no passwords set. so the information you see depends on what you are doing. and repeats the last command you entered after the Help information displays. When you see. 21 . You do not need to retype the command after you ask for help on it. press Enter to execute the command Enter an IP address EDITING FEATURES FACTS This feature uses the same keystrokes as UNIX emacs editing.... you will see the following types of items. Note: By default. Use this . and all interfaces are in shutdown mode until they're enabled... Show list of all commands available in the current ? mode Show commands that begin with specific letter(s) xx? (no space between the letter and ?) Show keywords for a command Get the full command from a partial command command ? (space between command and ?) partial command + <tab> (no space) Note: Typing ? acts as a return.. Cisco bases this on the mode you are in and the words or partial words you type with the ?. To..D Identifies a specific keyword that must be typed as shown Enter a number within the range in brackets Enter a hexadecimal number within the range in brackets The command is complete as typed.. Use.. WORD (in caps) Type a one-word response LINE (in caps) Type a multiple-word response keyword <0-4567> <0-FFFFFF> <cr> A. Supply. COMMAND HELP FACTS Help is available in all router modes. The information you've entered to that point will not be saved.. The following lists summarize the router advanced editing features. To ..
an older. smaller-scale version of the operating system (IOS) memory) software. . <Ctrl> + A Move cursor to beginning of line <Ctrl> + E Move cursor to the end of line <Ctrl> + Z Quit a configuration mode <Ctrl> + B Move cursor back one character <Esc> + B Move cursor back one word <Esc> + F Move the cursor ahead one word <Ctrl> + P or Up arrow Show the previous command <Ctrl> + N or Down arrow Show the next command terminal history Turn the command history on terminal no history Turn the command history off terminal history size <number> Set the size of the history buffer show history Show all the commands in the history buffer ROUTER MEMORY Be sure you understand the difference between the following types of router storage. commands longer than the command line appear to scroll under the prompt. the $ indicator appears after the prompt. . and the Power-on Self-Test (POST) program 22 . . Memory Type Characteristics Preprogrammed. Use . The command history is specific to the configuration mode you are in.<Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + B Left arrow <Ctrl> + F Right arrow <Esc> + B <Esc> + F terminal editing terminal no editing Move to the beginning of the line Move to the end of the line Go back one character Go forward one character Go back one word Move forward one word Turn advanced editing on Turn advanced editing off When you are in advanced editing mode. COMMAND HISTORY COMMAND LIST By default. the IOS automatically saves the last 10 commands in the command history buffer. As you type. To . non-writable memory containing the bootstrap startup ROM (read-only program. .
To . . When using Router(config)#tftp-server this command. COPY COMMAND LIST The router can load a configuration file from: • • NVRAM (startup-configuration file by default value 0x2102) TFTP server Changes to the configuration are stored in RAM in the running-config file. you must specific the location (flash or flash <filename> rom) of the IOS image file as well as the IOS image file name. Use . You can also use the erase command to delete the configuration files--but be very careful not to erase files you need! 23 . The contents of volatile memory (RAM) are lost when the router is powered down.Non-volatile but programmable memory containing the proprietary Cisco operating system (IOS) images RAM (random Volatile memory containing the running operating system and current access memory) (unsaved) configuration information NVRAM (non. flash. use the copy command in privileged EXEC mode. . and NVRAM) remain when the router is powered off (however. . and to load different versions of the configuration files from various locations. . To save your configuration changes permanently. Save the contents of the running-config file to Router#copy run start NVRAM Router#copy start run Copy the startup-config file into RAM Save the contents of the running-config file to a TFTP Router#copy run tftp server Save the contents of the startup-config file to a TFTP Router#copy start tftp server Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp start NVRAM Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp run RAM Configure a Cisco router as a TFTP server.Non-volatile but persistent memory that contains the backup copy of the volatile RAM) startup configuration (startup-config) file and virtual configuration register Flash The contents of non-volatile memory (such as ROM. you must modify the configuration registry and NVRAM during password recovery).
Identify an IOS image file on a TFTP server to use at boot. . Router(config)#boot system flash <IOSfilename> Router(config)#boot system tftp <IOSfilename> <tftp_address> To . . Restore the IOS image from backup on the TFTP server to Flash. .Use .0 and above Router#copy flash tftp Router#copy tftp flash Back up (copy) the IOS image from Flash to the TFTP server. Router#erase flash Router#erase start Router#erase nvram Router#reload To . . Delete the contents of Flash memory (deletes the IOS image) Erase the contents of the startup-config file Delete the contents of NVRAM (which also erases startup-config) Restarts the router You can also use the following commands to manage system files: Use . Use the copy command to archive. bootflash: (IOS versions 12. . Display information about hardware and firmware including the configuration register value Copy configuration information from another source (like NVRAM) Configure information into the RAM of a router IOS BOOT AND UPGRADE LOCATION COMMAND LIST The router can load an IOS image from the following locations: • • • Flash TFTP server ROM (limited version of the IOS software) Use the boot system command in global configuration mode to identify alternate locations for the IOS image. Identify an IOS image file in flash to use at boot. . show version configure memory or copy startup-config running-config configure terminal To . upgrade. or replace an IOS image.2 and below) Router(config)#boot system flash version stored in ROM at boot. . . 24 . . . . . Use . Router(config)#boot system rom (IOS versions Specify to use the limited IOS 11.
ROM bootstrap show version version.. Use this command. until it finds a valid IOS image. running IOS version.Note: When you use the boot system command. . Use . and RAM and processor information show runningView the currently running configuration file config show startupconfig View the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM (the saved copy or of the configuration file) show config show flash* View the size of the configuration files and the available flash memory View information for all IOS image files stored on the router View the commands in the command history list show history show protocols or show interfaces View the IP addresses assigned to a specific interface or show ip interfaces show protocols or View the status of all interfaces show interfaces *The show flash command is not enabled in the simulations.. If one is not found. To . . Router(config)#hostname <name> Change the host name of the router Router(config)#int serial 0 Go to interface configuration mode for the first 25 .. SHOW COMMAND LIST (BASIC) The following list summarizes common information you can display using common show commands. you can add a description to the configuration file that helps you identify the interface. you can configure a host name for your router.. the router interfaces do not have specific names that change the prompt. View hardware configuration. Unlike the router itself. This is the name that appears in the EXEC prompt. . It tries each location in turn. You are directing the router where to look for the IOS image on boot-up. it returns to the default load sequence. you are not making backup copies of the IOS image. However. . ROUTER AND INTERFACE IDENTIFICATION COMMAND LIST During initial setup. nor are you replacing the default IOS search order. To.
Use the Ethernet (e. to remove a description from an interface. eth) keywords to switch to Ethernet interface mode. use the same command preceded by the no keyword followed by the command. The enable secret password is stored encrypted in the configuration file. The router always uses the enable secret password if it exists. ROUTER PASSWORD FACTS The following table list three of the most common passwords that you can configure on your router: Password Type Console Line Description Controls the ability to log on to the router through a console connection Controls the ability to log on to the router using a virtual terminal (VTY) or Telnet connection Controls the ability to switch to configuration modes. Set a description for a specific interface Examples The following set of commands sets the hostname of the router to ATL1: Router#config t Router(config)#hostname ATL1 ATL1(config)# The following set of commands adds a description of "ATL to NYC" for the first serial interface on the router: Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#description ATL to NYC Note: To undo any configuration change. For example.Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config)#int ser0 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#description <description text> serial interface. There are two different passwords that might be used: • • EXEC mode The enable password is stored in clear text in the configuration file. 26 . use the following command: Router(config-if)#no description Notice that in many cases you can leave off additional parameters when using the no command.
Note: If you do not use the login command in line mode. Cisco routers support Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) and Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) to centrally validate users attempting to gain access to the router. Switch to the line configuration mode for the virtual terminal. You can set the enable. The secret <password> enable secret is always used if it exists. PASSWORD COMMAND LIST Use . there are other passwords that you cannot set in setup mode. . Access is allowed based on the following conditions: • no login. Require the password for line access. . To . Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config)#line vty <0-197> <1-197> Router(configline)#password Router(configline)#login Router(config)#no enable secret Router(config)#no enable password Router(config-line)#no login Router(config-line)#no password Router(config)#service password-encryption Switch to the line configuration mode for the console. enable secret. For security reasons. a password will not be required for access. Specify one line number or a range of line numbers (line vty 0 4). Remove the password. Set the line password (for either console or VTY access). Router(config)#enable Set the unencrypted password for privileged mode access. The no login command disables password checking. This password <password> password is used if the enable secret is not set. you should not use the same password for both your enable and enable secret passwords. Encrypt all passwords. even though one is set. . However. no password = access is allowed without a password 27 .Be aware of the following recommendations for configuring router passwords: • • • • Passwords are case-sensitive. Router(config)#enable Set the encrypted password used for privileged mode access. Access to the router console through a telnet session is controlled by the login and the password entries. there must be a login entry without a password set. . To prevent VTY access. and line passwords in setup mode.
and EXEC banners. and helps the router identify the beginning and ending of the banner. Router(config)#banner Router(config)#banner motd Router(config)#banner login Router(config)#banner exec Router(config)#banner incoming Router(config)#no banner <type> To . The incoming banner displays for a reverse telnet session. Set the EXEC banner. The MOTD banner displays immediately after a connection is made. Set the Message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. . . Removes the specified banner Note: The banner command without a keyword defaults to set the MOTD banner.• • • login. using # as the delimiting character and inserting a hard return between each banner: Router(config)#banner motd # This is the Message-of-the-day banner! # Router(config)#banner login # This is the Login banner! # Router(config)#banner exec # This is the Exec banner! # 28 . The login banner displays after the MOTD banner and before the login prompt. Follow the banner command with a delimiting character. Use . no password = access is denied (the error message indicates that a password is required but none is set) no login. This allows you to construct multiple-line banners. . The exec banner displays after a successful login. Example The following commands set the MOTD. password = access is allowed without a password login. Set the login banner. . The following four types of banners display at various times during the login or startup sequence. password = access is allowed only with correct password BANNER COMMAND LIST Banners display messages that anyone logging into the router can see. The delimiter encloses the banner text. Set the incoming banner. login.
INTERFACE COMMAND LIST Use the following commands to configure interfaces and view interface information. Use .229 with a mask of 255. Test communication with a specific interface using its IP address. Enter configuration mode for an interface. The interface is shut down (with the shutdown command) Hardware or network connection problem (Physical layer) No carrier detect signal Connection or communication problem (Data Link layer) No keepalives The link is functional up.1.255.255. View the IP configuration of all interfaces. Assign an IP address to the interface. The following table summarizes some possible conditions indicated by the interface status. line protocol is down up. line protocol is up Even though the interface status shows "up. most networking tasks occur at higher layers (Network through Application layers). Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192. Example The following set of commands configures the IP address 192.255. 29 . line protocol is down down. . . Note: You can include or omit the space between the interface keyword and the interface number.0 for the first Serial interface on the router and activates the interface. Enable an interface (remove the shutdown command).." you might need to perform additional tasks for router-to-router communication to take place (such as assigning an IP address).. line protocol down Indicates.168. . administratively down.229 255.255. However..1. A status of.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown INTERFACE STATUSES You can use the interface status to troubleshoot connectivity problems and quickly see whether the link between the router and the network is operational. .168. Router>sh ip int Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config)#no shutdown Router#ping <ip address> To . The interface status indicates whether Data Link layer communications are enabled.. line protocol is up.
Cisco devices. such as routers and switches. Use . If the clock rate command is not issued. CDP COMMAND LIST The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a protocol that Cisco devices use to learn and share information about each other. It can discover information on LANs. • • • • By default. Router(config)#cdp holdtime <10-255> Router(config)#cdp timer <5-900> To . Use the following commands to customize and view CDP information. The DCE interface is identified in two ways: • • The cable connecting the two routers has both a DCE and a DTE end. clocking is not provided. . • • The router providing clocking is known as the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). The router not providing clocking is known as the DTE (data terminal equipment). one router interface must be configured to provide the clocking signals for the connection. . and other network architectures. CDP only shares information with directly connected (neighboring) devices. CDP is enabled on all interfaces. When you configure two routers in a back-to-back configuration through their serial ports. CDP works when there is a valid Data Link layer connection. The DCE interface is configured to provide a clocking signal with the clock rate command. .BACK-TO-BACK CONFIGURATION FACTS When you configure a router to connect to a network through a serial interface. Specify the amount of time that information in a packet is still valid (default = 180 seconds) Specify how often CDP packets are exchanged (default = 60 seconds) 30 . and the line between the two routers will not change to up. Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface you want to be the DCE device. can discover neighboring Cisco devices through CDP. the router must be connected to a device (such as a CSU/DSU or another router) that provides clocking signals. Frame Relay. CDP works regardless of the Network layer and other protocols used. .
Enable CDP on the router Disable CDP on a router. Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#cdp timer 90 The following commands turns off CDP on the router's first Ethernet interface. Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#no cdp enable SWITCH COMPONENTS 31 . encapsulation. to prevent the router from Router(config)#no cdp run exchanging CDP packets Router(config)#cdp run Router(config-if)#cdp enable Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Router#show cdp Turns CDP for an interface on Turns CDP for an interface off View CDP information Show information about neighbors accessed through an interface Router#show cdp interface Show CDP configuration information for the router including the holdtime. and CDP exchange interval Show information about all neighboring Cisco devices including: • • • • • • Router#show cdp neighbors Device ID Local interface Holdtime Capability Platform Port ID Shows all information for the show cdp neighbors command and adds: Router#show cdp neighbors detail • • • Network address Enabled protocols Software version Examples The following commands turns on CDP for the router and configures it to send CDP packets every 90 seconds.
In this course. the higher the utilization. and it will automatically begin switching traffic to the correct ports. An important characteristic of a switch is multiple ports. to move between configuration modes. Each switch port has a single LED. you can connect the switch to the network. Solid green = Full duplex Duplex Off = Half duplex Solid green = 100 Mbps Speed Off = 10 Mbps On a simple LAN. To customize the switch configuration. you will probably be able to guess how to complete many switch configuration tasks. connect devices. SWITCH CONFIGURATION COMMAND LIST Using the switch command line interface is similar to using the router command line interface. The following table lists common switch configuration commands. Modern switches can also be used to create virtual LANs (VLANs) and perform some tasks previously performed only by routers (Layer 3 switches). and to save and load configuration files. Task Command Move to privileged mode from user mode switch>enable Move to user mode from privileged mode switch#disable 32 . The color of the LEDs change to give you information about how the switch is working. connect to the switch in one of the following ways: • • • Console connection Telnet session Web management software (connect through the LAN through a Web browser) Note: You must configure an IP address for the switch to manage it through a Telnet or Web session. The more lights that Util are lit. Port LEDs mean different things based on the mode selected with the Mode button. Mode Meaning Solid green = Operational Stat Flashing green = Link activity Off = Non-functional All switch port lights act as a meter to indicate overall utilization. The switch comes preconfigured to work out-of-the-box without configuration. all of which are part of the same network segment. to set the hostname. If you are familiar with router configuration.Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. you will learn how to configure the Catalyst 2950 series switch. Use the same options to get help.
0. 33 .1 switch(config)#hostname ATL switch(config-if)#description IS_VLAN switch(config)#cdp run switch(config-if)#cdp enable switch(config)#cdp holdtime 181 switch(config)#cdp timer 66 switch(config-if)#speed 10 switch(config-if)#speed 100 switch(config-if)#speed auto switch(config-if)#duplex half switch(config-if)#duplex full switch(config-if)#duplex auto SWITCH IP ADDRESS FACTS One task that is different for switches than for routers is configuring the IP address. In fact. a switch performs switching functions just fine without an IP address set.1.0. or exit the system Exit all configuration modes Show the current switch configuration Show switch information such as software version and hardware components Show interface status and configuration information Save the current switch configuration Load a configuration file from another location Set the enable password (to cisco) Set the secret password (to cisco) Set the default gateway Set the switch hostname Set a description for a port Enable CDP on the switch Enable CDP on a port Set CDP parameters Set the port speed switch(config-if)#exit switch(config)#^Z switch#show running-config switch#show version switch#show interfaces switch#show interfaces fastethernet 0/14 Set the duplex mode switch#copy running-config startup-config switch#copy tftp://1.1. Keep in mind the following facts about IP addresses configured on switches: • Basic switches operate at Layer 2.cfg switch(config)#enable password cisco switch(config)#enable secret cisco switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1.0/my_config.Move to global configuration mode switch#configure terminal switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface 0/17 switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface fastethernet0/14 gigabitethernet con 0 vty 0 4 vlan 1 Move to interface configuration mode Leave the current configuration mode. and therefore do not need an IP address to function.
and removed by the last.255. Each switch port does not have an IP address (unless the switch is performing Layer 3 switching.1 255. This process.1q-capable switches to ensure a consistent tagging protocol.1. Use 802. a function which is not supported on 2950 switches). switches append a VLAN ID to each frame. For large networks. Only VLAN-capable devices understand the frame tag.1. To configure the switch IP address. called frame tagging or frame coloring.0 switch(config-if)#no shutdown Note: To enable management from a remote network. identifies the VLAN of the destination device. most networks involve connecting multiple switches. Tags are appended by the first switch in the path. This is a logical interface defined on the switch to allow management functions. Use the following commands to configure the switch IP address: switch#config terminal switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#ip address 1. As a frame moves from switch to switch within the switch fabric. this VLAN is VLAN 1 on the switch. Cisco's proprietary protocol is called the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol. Tags must be removed before a frame is forwarded to a non-VLAN-capable device.255. When designing VLANs. One way to identify the VLAN is for the switch to use a filtering table that maps VLANs to MAC addresses.254 FRAME TAGGING FACTS Although you can create VLANs with only one switch. you will also need to configure the default gateway on the switch using the following command (notice that the default gateway is set in global configuration mode): switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1.1.1. The switch itself has only a single (active) IP address. The IP address identifies the switch as a host on the network but is not required for switching functions. VLAN FACTS 34 . this solution does not scale well. you might need to stick with one switch vendor. Tag formats and specifications can vary from vendor to vendor.• • You only need to configure a switch IP address if you want to perform in-band management of the switch from a Telnet or Web session. By default. Remember the following facts regarding switch frame tagging (or coloring). you set the address on the management VLAN logical interface. The area between switches is called the switch fabric. each switch must be able to identify the destination virtual LAN. However. • • • • • VLAN IDs identify the VLAN of the destination device.
The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: • • • • • In the graphic above. In the graphic above. workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits. 35 . even though they are connected to the same physical switch. or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time. protocol. By default. The above example has two broadcast domains. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. all ports are members of VLAN 1.A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: • • Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs.
routers are still needed to: • • • Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN COMMAND LIST To configure a simple VLAN. When using multiple vendors in a switched network. Task Command(s) switch#vlan database* switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name Define a VLAN (You can create VLANs in either name** vlan database mode or by using the vlan command switch(vlan)#exit OR apply in global configuration mode. be sure each switch supports the 802. Despite advances in switch technology. and then assign ports to that VLAN. or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network. protocol. first create the VLAN.• • • • • You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup.) switch(config)#vlan 2 switch(config-vlan)#name name** switch(config-if)#switchport Assign ports to the VLAN access vlan number*** switch#show vlan Show a list of VLANs on the system switch#show vlan id number Show information for a specific VLAN 36 . Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor. The following table shows common VLAN configuration commands. • • • Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs.
Gigabit Ethernet ports are used for trunk ports. Workstations in VLAN 1 can only communicate with workstations in VLAN 1. switch#config t switch(config)#vlan 12 switch(config-vlan)#name IS_VLAN switch(config-vlan)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 TRUNKING Trunking is a term used to describe connecting two switches together. Be aware of the following facts regarding trunking and VLANs: • • • • • In the above graphic. Trunk ports are automatically members of all VLANs defined on the switch. Trunk ports identify which ports are connected to other switches. ***If you have not yet defined the VLAN. One port on each switch has been assigned to each VLAN. each switch has two VLANs. **Giving the VLAN a name is optional. it will be created automatically when you assign the port to the VLAN. identifies port 0/12 as having only workstations attached to it. Example The following commands create VLAN 12 named IS_VLAN.*Notice that the vlan database command is issued in privileged EXEC mode. Trunking is important when you configure VLANs that span multiple switches as shown in the diagram. Communications within the VLAN must pass through the trunk link to the other switch. 37 . and assigns the port to VLAN 12. Typically. This means that the two workstations connected to the same switch cannot communicate with each other.
802. Cisco switches have the ability to automatically detect ports that are trunk ports. it will attempt to use the desired trunking protocol (802. Trunking Protocol Characteristics A Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol. • • • The port will not use DTP on the interface. Switches use the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) to detect and configure trunk ports. Enables dynamic trunking configuration. they will automatically recognize each other and select the trunking protocol to use. Sets the trunking protocol to use 2950 switches only support 802. Catalyst 2950 switches do not support ISL. when you connect two switches together.1Q With 802. If a switch is connected. For example. frames that are sent over a trunk port are tagged with the VLAN ID number so that the receiving switch knows to which VLAN the frame belongs. Inter-Switch Link ISL can only be used between Cisco devices. (ISL) ISL tags each frame with the VLAN ID.1Q for 2950 Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic auto Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic desirable • • • • 38 . and to negotiate the trunking protocol used between devices. TRUNKING COMMAND LIST The following table lists important commands for configuring and monitoring trunking on a switch. Cisco supports two trunking protocols that are used for tagging frames. The switch uses DTP to configure trunking. Frames from all other VLANs are tagged. Command Switch(configif)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation isl Function • Enables trunking on the interface. An IEEE standard for trunking and therefore supported by a wide range of devices.1Q and therefore you will not use this command on 2950 switches Enables automatic trunking discovery and configuration.When trunking is used. frames from the default VLAN 1 are not tagged.1Q trunking.
39 . A switch in client mode receives changes from a VTP server and passes VTP Client information to other switches. the switch must be in either server or transparent mode.switches). Disables trunking configuration on the port. but the changes apply only to the local switch (changes are not sent to other devices). Shows interface trunking information with the following: • • • • Switch#show interface trunk Switch#show interface fa0/1 trunk Mode Encapsulation Trunking status VLAN assignments VTP FACTS The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies VLAN configuration on a multi-switch network by propagating configuration changes to other switches. switches are configured in server mode. you cannot modify the VLAN configuration from a switch in client mode. However. • • • If a switch is not connected. It passes VTP information to other switches as it receives the Transparent information. You can modify VLAN configuration information from a switch in transparent mode. By default. Mode Characteristics A switch in server mode is used to modify the VLAN configuration. Server Configuration information is then broadcast to other VTP devices. Use the vtp mode command to configure the VTP mode of the switch. With the VTP. it will communicate as a normal port. the switch is in client mode. If you cannot modify the VLAN configuration. Keep in mind the following facts about VTP: • • • • • To make VLAN changes on a switch. switches are placed in one of the following three configuration modes. A switch in transparent mode does not receive VTP configuration information from other switches. Switch(configif)#switchport mode access You must disable trunking before you can assign a port to a VLAN. Use the show vtp status command to view the current vtp mode of the switch.
select the bridge that is closest to the physical center of the network. optimum path through a network by assigning one of the following roles to each bridge or switch. they will not forward Bridge packets. the IEEE 802. To prevent bridging loops. This condition is known as a bridging loop. To prevent bridging loops. There is only one root bridge Root Bridge per network. With this protocol. providing redundant paths between segments causes packets to be passed between the redundant paths endlessly. and whether the device forwards traffic to other segments.1d committee defined a standard called the spanning tree algorithm (STA). The spanning tree algorithm provides the following benefits: • • • • • Eliminates bridging loops Provides redundant paths between devices Enables dynamic role configuration Recovers automatically from a topology change or device failure Identifies the optimal path between any two network devices The spanning tree algorithm automatically discovers the network topology. Only the designated bridge can forward packets. It should be assigned by the network administrator. A backup bridge can take over if the root bridge or a designated bridge fails.SPANNING TREE FACTS To provide for fault tolerance. A designated bridge is any other device that participates in forwarding packets Designated through the network. Redundant bridges (and switches) are assigned as backups. Backup bridges listen to Backup network traffic and build the bridge database. 40 . However. or spanning tree protocol (STP). All redundant devices are classified as backup bridges. Role Characteristics The root bridge is the master or controlling bridge. When selecting the root bridge. The root bridge periodically broadcasts configuration messages. many networks implement redundant paths between devices using multiple switches. However. The bridge role determines how the device functions in relation to other devices. These messages are used to select routes and reconfigure the roles of other bridges if necessary. and creates a single. one bridge (or switch) for each route is assigned as the designated bridge. They are selected automatically by exchanging bridge Bridge configuration packets. there is only one designated bridge per segment.
verify that neighbor devices are still functioning. and while it operates. Switches use information in the BPDUs to elect a root bridge. each of its ports is placed into one of five states. This time period allows Listening network traffic to settle down after a change has occurred. and recover from network topology changes. but will not process any other packets. A port in the learning state is receiving packets and building the bridge database Learning (associating MAC addresses with ports). As the switch participates in the configuration process. During this time the bridges redefine their roles. The port remains in listening state for a specific period of time. The port state determines whether the port receives and forwards normal network messages. switches periodically send BPDUs to ensure connectivity and discover topology changes. Switches on redundant paths are configured as either designated (active) or backup (inactive) switches. BPDUs sent and received from other bridges are used to determine the bridge roles. 4.Devices send special packets called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out each port. A bridge must be manually placed in the disabled state. The port goes to the forwarding state after the timer expires. 2. Note: When you use spanning tree on a switch with multiple VLANs. it is in the blocking state. When a device is first powered on. The root bridge and designated bridges are in the forwarding state when they can Forwarding receive and forward packets. For example. A port in the forwarding state can both learn and forward. 3. In addition. all other bridges go to the listening state for a period of time. Port State Description A device in the disabled state is powered on but does not participate in listening to Disabled network messages or forwarding them. The bridge receives packets and BPDUs sent to all bridges. if a bridge goes down. switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) out each port. The listening state is a transitionary state between blocking and learning. backup Blocking bridges are always in a blocking state. After configuration. 41 . Devices participating in the spanning tree algorithm use the following process to configure themselves: 1. At startup. A timer is also associated with this state. each VLAN runs a separate instance of the spanning tree protocol.
the spanning tree protocol is enabled on all Cisco switches. Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 12 Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary 42 . Like bridges. having multiple paths means that the network is susceptible to data transmission (bridging) loops. Command Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan number Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan number root primary Function Disables spanning tree on the selected VLAN. By default. Switch port configuration is automatic when the switch is connected to the network and powered on. Use the following commands to customize the spanning tree protocol. As you know. To determine if the VLAN is functioning properly. Show spanning tree configuration information.SPANNING TREE COMMAND LIST You can configure multiple paths with switches to provide fault-tolerance. switches can run the spanning tree algorithm to prevent such loops from forming. verify that the first line of the output is: VLAN1 is executing the IEEE compatible spanning tree protocol. Forces the switch to be the root of the spanning tree. Switch#show spanning-tree Example The following commands disable spanning tree for VLAN 12 and force the switch to be the root of the spanning tree for VLAN 1.
Use EtherChannel to reduce spanning tree convergence times. 43 . Use EtherChannel to establish automatic-redundant paths between switches. Use EtherChannel to increase the bandwidth between switches.ETHERCHANNEL FACTS EtherChannel combines multiple switch ports into a single. All links in the channel group are used for communication between the switches. the spanning tree algorithm will identify each link as a redundant path to the other bridge and will put one of the ports in blocking state. Use the channel-group command for a port to enable EtherChannel as follows: Switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 Switch(config-if)#channel-group 1 mode on Each channel group has its own number. communication will still occur over the other links in the group. With EtherChannel: • • • • • You can combine 2-8 ports into a single link. Note: If you do not use the channel-group command. All ports assigned to the same channel group will be viewed as a single logical link. logical link between two switches. If one link fails.
Under normal operations. 44 . The following commands list the switch port configuration commands: Command switch(configif)#switchport mode access switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address h. Identifies the allowed MAC address (h. When a device is connected to the switch port. The default allows only a single if)#switchport portsecurity maximum number MAC address per port.h. Configures the maximum number of MAC addresses that switch(configcan be allowed for a port.h Function Identifies the port as an access port. the MAC address of the frame from the connected device is place in a forwarding table. Use this command to increase the number allowed. there are no restrictions on the devices that can be attached to a switch port.h. Enable switch port security. the switch learns the MAC address of the device(s) connected to each of its ports. Enables port security. not with an attached switch). Any devices not explicitly identified will not be allowed to send frames through the switch.h is a hexadecimal number). You identify the MAC address of allowed devices. With switch port security. Identify the MAC addresses that can use the switch. To configure port security. you configure the switch to allow only specific devices to use a given port. take the following general actions on the port: • • • Explicitly configure the port as an access port (a port with attached hosts. Under normal circumstances.PORT SECURITY FACTS The basic function of a switch is to pass packets from one host to another.
Note: The Catalyst switch can sticky learn a maximum of 132 MAC addresses. 45 . The address in the first frame received by the switch port is the allowed MAC address for the port.0012. All ports will automatically detect the duplex mode.02af The following commands configures Fast Ethernet port 0/15 to accept the first MAC address it receives as the allowed MAC address for the port: switch(config)#interface fast 0/15 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky DEFAULT SWITCH CONFIGURATION By default.switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address sticky Configures the switch to dynamically identify the allowed MAC address. The following commands configure switch port security to allow only host 5ab9. Identifies the action the switch will take when an unauthorized device attempts to use the port. a Catalyst 2950 switch comes configured as follows: • • All ports are enabled (no shutdown).02af to use Fast Ethernet port 0/12: switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 5ab9.0012. Action keywords are: • • switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation action protect drops the frames from the unauthorized device restrict does the same as protect and also generates an SNMP trap shutdown disables the port • switch#show portsecurity interface interfacetype and number Examples Shows port security information for the specified port.
• • • • • • • •
All ports will automatically detect the port speed. All ports will perform automatic trunking negotiation. The switch uses fragment-free switching. Spanning tree is enabled. VTP mode is set to transparent. All ports are members of VLAN 1. Default VLANs of 1, 1002, 1003, 1004, and 1005 exist. 802.1Q trunking is used (2950 switches only support 802.1Q trunking).
Inter-VLAN Routing In a typical configuration with multiple VLANs and a single or multiple switches, workstations in one VLAN will not be able to communicate with workstations in other VLANs. To enable inter-VLAN communication, you will need to use a router (or a Layer 3 switch) as shown in the following graphic.
Be aware of the following conditions with inter-VLAN routing:
The top example uses two physical interfaces on the router. The bottom example uses a single physical interface on the router. In this configuration, the physical interface is divided into two logical interfaces called subinterfaces. This configuration is also called a router on a stick. In each case, the router interfaces are connected to switch trunk ports. The router interfaces or subinterfaces must be running a trunking protocol (either ISL or 802.1Q). Each interface or subinterface requires an IP address.
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) You can think of the Internet as one big network. As such, each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. In the early days of the Internet, every device would receive a registered IP address. As the Internet grew, however, it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). Classfull addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features:
Subnetting, dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. For example, this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. Supernetting, combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. For example, this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. Route aggregation (also called route summarization), where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route.
CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks.
The beginning network address in the range The number of bits used in the subnet mask
For example, the routing table represents the address as 126.96.36.199/21, where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. In addition to CIDR, the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses:
IP version 6. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4. IPv6 is not yet used on the Internet. Private addressing with address translation. With private addressing, hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. A special router (called a network address translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address.
Subnetting Operations Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. Scenario Solution 2^n-2 Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. Then use the formula to find the number of subnets and hosts. To find the number of valid subnets, n = the number of additional bits borrowed from the default mask. To find the number of valid hosts, n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. 2^n-2 Write out the default subnet mask in binary. Then borrow bits and use the formula to find the number that gives you enough subnets and hosts. Magic number The magic number is the decimal value of the last one bit in the subnet mask. The magic number identifies:
Given a network address and subnet mask, how many subnets can you have and how many hosts per subnet?
Given a network address and customer requirements, what subnet mask should you use?
Given a network address and a subnet mask, identify the valid subnet addresses.
The first valid subnet address
The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Trust the line Use the following process to find the information you need: Given an IP address and subnet mask, find the:
• • •
Subnet address Broadcast address Valid host address range
1. Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask, draw a line 2. To find the subnet address, set all host bits to 0 3. To find the broadcast address, set all host bits to 1 4. The valid host range is: o First address = Subnet address + 1
Last address = Broadcast address - 1
the host address range). Hexadecimal Eight hexadecimal numbers (each number ranges from 0 to F). Calculate the subnet mask that will subdivide your network. 1. Method Dotted decimal Description Four octets with set incremental values between 0 and 255. To do this. Identify the number of hosts for each subnet. In addition. use the secondary parameter with the ip address command as follows: ip address 10. You will need one IP address for each device. This is the most common form used and recognized by network administrators. In privileged EXEC mode.Assigning IP Addresses With Cisco routers.e. use the following command: terminal ip netmask-format <format keyword> Format keywords are bit-count. The bit count is typically found in routing tables. 2. 3. Identify valid IP addresses on each subnet (i. you have the following three choices for viewing the subnet mask.2 255. Assign IP addresses to hosts. or plan on using DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses.0 secondary 49 . Be sure to include an IP address for each router interface. Identify the number of network addresses.255.10. Bit count The bit count is a number that follows the IP address and indicates the total number of masked bits. When setting up a network for IP. 4. Use the following process to identify and assign IP addresses throughout your network. or hexadecimal.10.255. each WAN connection must have its own network address (typically assigned by the WAN service provider). 5.0. You can also assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface. Each network segment will require its own network (subnet) address. Example 255.0 /24 (identifies 24 bits in the mask) 0xFFFFFF00 (the 0x indicates a hexadecimal number follows) You can modify how the router displays the subnet mask. you will have to make various decisions about the addresses used on the network. and assign them to network segments. decimal. Identify the valid subnet addresses.0.
Address Resolution Protocols You should know the following protocols that perform address resolution. creating static DNS entries Identifies the router default domain (for DNS) Sets the default DNS name server Enables the router to use DNS to identify IP addresses from host names Use the show hosts command to display a list of known IP hosts. An improvement on BootP. the DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address from a preset range of possible addresses.Managing Host Names Host names allow you to identify network devices using logical names instead of IP addresses. More commonly. DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP address and other TCP/IP configuration parameters. 50 . Used by a host (such as a diskless workstation) to query a bootstrap computer and receive an IP address assignment. A DHCP server can use a static list to assign a specific IP address to a specific host. however. Command ip host <name> <address> ip domain-name <name> ip name-server <address> ip domain-lookup Function Identifies hostnames. Use the following commands to configure static host names or enable DNS on a router. A BootP server has a static list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. Used by a host to discover the IP address of a computer from its MAC address. Protocol Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Description Used by hosts to discover the MAC address of a computer from its IP address.
your computer will use the global outside address to contact Outside Inside local address Inside global address Outside global 51 . A router interface that connects to the private network is also called the inside interface. For example. The outside global address is an IP address of an Internet host. A router interface that connects to the public network is also called the outside interface. The inside global address is the IP address of the host after it has been translated for use on the Internet.NAT Facts Network Address Translation (NAT) allows you to connect a private network to the Internet without obtaining registered addresses for every host. Term Inside Definition The inside network is the private network. or to provide Internet connectivity with a limited number of registered IP addresses. it's important to understand the following terminology. The term global refers to the registered IP address that identifies the inside host on the Internet. The outside network is the public network (the Internet). NAT can be used to provide a measure of security for your private network. The inside local address is the IP address of the host on the inside network. Private addresses are translated to the public address of the NAT router. when you visit a Web site. As you work with NAT.
255 NAT Command List Method Configuration Process Configure static mappings (mapping inside local addresses to outside local addresses) Identify inside and outside interfaces Command Examples Router(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.0. you have the following options on a Cisco router. A Cisco router can be configured to overcome this problem. Dynamic NAT Overload with Port Address Translation (PAT) Note: When you configure NAT. In other words. and fall within the following ranges: • • • 10. When you configure NAT.1. you manually map an inside local address to an inside global address.0 to 10.44.address Outside local address the Web server.0.0. the NAT router translates an Internet host IP address into a private IP address.1 203. each inside host IP address is manually associated with a registered IP address.0 to 172.55.255. except that the address mappings are done automatically.168.255 172. the internal computer will use the translated address instead.0.255.255. Instead of using the Web server address. hosts on your network might not be able to access outside hosts with the same IP address. be sure to use an IP address in the private IP address ranges for the inside local IP addresses. Port numbers are used to identify specific inside local hosts. Otherwise.168. Overloading is the process of assigning multiple inside local addresses to a single inside global address.0 to 192.31. The port number is appended to the inside global IP address. Dynamic NAT is just like static NAT. In other words.16.1 Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Static NAT 52 .255 192. but the configuration is difficult.255. Private IP addresses do not need to be registered. An outside local address is an outside global address that has been translated for inside (or private) use.168. Implementation Static NAT Characteristics With static NAT. The NAT router has a pool of inside global IP addresses that it uses to map to inside local addresses.
44.255. and destination devices Reports Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) Round trip time to destination IP address of each hop to destination Host name of each hop (if configured) Round trip time to destination and each 53 . intermediate. Note: When you use the overloaded method.0.0. IP Troubleshooting Tools Three tools you can use to help troubleshoot are ping. You will learn about access lists in Module 7.168.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mary Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192. Tool Description Tests Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets destination Operates at the Network Network layer ping layer configuration of source.Define an inside global address pool Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list with the pool Identify inside and outside interfaces Router(config)#ip nat pool mary 188.8.131.52.254 netmask 255. intermediary. and destination devices traceroute Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets and TTL destination Operates at the Network Network layer layer configuration of source.44.1 0. traceroute.1.250 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.55.1 203.1 0.168. and Telnet.0. the outside global address that is used is the IP address of the outside router interface.255.255 Dynamic NAT Overloaded with PAT Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list Router(config)#ip nat inside with the inside interface and source list 1 interface ethernet0 identify the translation type overload as overloaded Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Identify inside and outside Router(config-if)#interface interfaces serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside **These examples use access lists to identify a range of inside addresses that will be translated.
With extended traceroute. you can test non-IP protocols (such as AppleTalk or Novell IPX). o An asterisk ( * ) indicates that the timer has expired without a response. Utility Considerations • By default. traceroute sends three ping tests for each TTL value. lower-layer protocols) intermediate. and the protocol. and destination devices Upper-layer configuration of source and destination devices intermediary device Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) No report generated. the ping command performs five tests to the destination. • Ping includes an extended mode (available only in privileged EXEC mode). • ping • • • traceroute Extended ping lets you modify the number of tests. and even the protocol tested. if the TTL is set to 3. the third router in the path responds with the time exceeded message. A period indicates a failure. Traceroute includes an extended version that lets you modify the number of packets sent. It waits three seconds for a response. For example. the first test pings the destination using a TTL of 1. Responses to each test within the traceroute command are as follows: o A time exceeded message indicates that a router has received the packet but the TTL has expired. It waits 2 seconds for a response from the target router. the second pings with a TTL of 2. then X. Traceroute sends successive ICMP messages to a destination with increasing TTL values. For example. press Ctrl + Shift + 6. To resume a Telnet session. By default. the timeout. The following table describes special conventions that you should be aware of when working with these utilities. To suspend a Telnet session. debug information shows only on the console. and so on.telnet Uses upper-layer The physical path to the protocols destination Operates above the Network layer Network layer (relies on configuration of source. use the resume command. you can test non-IP protocols. • An exclamation mark indicates a successful ping. not in the Telnet 54 • telnet • • • . With extended ping. the timeout. o A destination unreachable message indicates that the router in the path does not have a route to the destination network or device. By default. An open connection indicates a valid connection.
55 . Remember that IP is a connectionless protocol and as such. The time exceeded message is sent when the packet's time-to-live (TTL) Time exceeded counter has expired. Keep in mind the following as you troubleshoot IP: • All computers must be assigned a unique IP address. ICMP Messages The Internet Control Message Protocol is a special-purpose message mechanism added to the TCP/IP suite that lets computers and routers in an internetwork report errors or provide information about unexpected circumstances. The router discovery message is a special broadcast message sent by hosts to Router discover the routers on a network. Use the terminal monitor command to show debug information in a Telnet session. Hosts use ICMP to send error messages to other hosts.session window. The ping utility is a popular utility that uses ICMP echo messages. It might indicate the host is unavailable. ICMP messages include the following types: Message Characteristics The ICMP echo message is used to discover hosts and networks. or unreachable that there were problems detected in the packet header. The redirect message is sent from a router to the sending device to indicate that a different route should be chosen for the packet. contains no procedures that help to monitor successful packet delivery or test connectivity. The redirect message Redirect can be sent if a better route is in the router's table. but simply announce their availability. When a sending device receives a source quench message. and default gateway settings of each host. The destination unreachable message is sent if a packet cannot reach its Destination destination for a variety of reasons. and to verify Echo that they are reachable. Routers respond to the message indicating discovery their presence. it slows its rate of transmission. The source quench message is sent by a receiving device to indicate that the Source quench flow of packets is too fast. IP Troubleshooting Tips One important step in troubleshooting network communications is to verify the IP address. subnet mask. They do not exchange routing information. or if the selected route is unavailable or congested.
You do not need to configure an IP address on a switch for frames to be switched through the switch. or The routing table on the configure the gateway of last resort router does not show the (default route) on the router. configure an IP address on the switch. Problem A single host cannot communicate with any other host. traceroute network. networks. times out with only a single entry. All hosts cannot communicate Ping to the remote with hosts on a specific outside network fails. Listed below are several common symptoms and things to try to correct communication problems. Ping to hosts on the same A single host can communicate network succeed. The default gateway address must be on the same subnet as the host's IP address. The subnet mask value for all computers on the same physical network must be the same. Communication with on the host times out other networks is fine. Symptoms Ping to any other host fails. but times out with only a cannot communicate with any single entry. Configure the default gateway value to enable internetwork communication. Ping to hosts on the same network succeed. but can't communicate fails. with any host on any other Traceroute on the host network. ping to hosts on other networks with all hosts on the same Verify the default gateway setting network. 56 . verify the fails. or the gateway of last resort is not set. host outside of the local network.• • • • • Hosts on the same physical network should have IP addresses in the same address range. Add a route to the routing table. Solution Because the problem exists with only one host. The routing table on the router shows only Verify the routing configuration of directly-connected the default gateway router. with only a single entry. ping to hosts on other networks If DHCP is used to assign IP information to hosts. within the same network. The routing table has a Troubleshoot other routers in the route to the destination path to the destination network. troubleshoot the configuration of the host with the problem. destination network. To ping to and from a switch or to remotely manage the switch. default gateway setting delivered All hosts can communicate Traceroute on the host by the DHCP server. of the host with the problem.
. either permitting a specific traffic type or permitting all traffic not specifically restricted. it must have at least one permit statement.) Source hostname or host IP address 57 . response from the host. although this statement does not appear in the list itself. but filter traffic only for the interfaces to which they have been applied. Use an extended list to filter on. For a list to allow any traffic. remote hosts in the same remote The routing table shows a route to the destination network is fine. Use a standard list to filter on. Traceroute to the All hosts cannot communicate remote host indicates no with a specific remote host.e. etc. Traceroute on responding router and begin the router times out. There are two general types of access lists: basic and extended. Each access list applies only to a specific protocol.. TCP. each interface can only have one incoming and one outgoing list. Ping to the remote host fails. Source hostname or host IP address Source IP protocol (i. You should know the following characteristics of an access list. When you create an access list. Troubleshoot the configuration of Communication with other the remote host. Access list entries can describe a specific traffic type. Each router interface can have up to two access lists for each protocol.. When created. Access list entries identify either permitted or denied traffic. Access List Facts Routers use access lists to control incoming or outgoing traffic. an access list contains an implicit "deny all" entry at the end of the access list. When an access list is applied to an interface. Access lists can be used to log traffic that matches the list statements. Access lists exist globally on the router. troubleshooting there. Each access list can be applied to more than one interface. it automatically contains a "deny any" statement. or allow or restrict all traffic. network (or the gateway of last resort is used).Use traceroute to identify the last network. Access list entries describe the traffic characteristics. UDP. IP. it identifies whether the list restricts incoming or outgoing traffic. • • • • • • • • • • • Access lists describe the traffic type that will be controlled. one for incoming traffic and one for outgoing traffic.. However.
16. When created. . .0 to network 11. Router(config)#access-list <number> Router(config-if)#ip accessgroup <number> To .12.0.1 0.0. 58 .0 15.0. and applies the list to the Serial0 interface.0. The following commands create an extended IP access list that rejects packets from host 10.0 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in The following commands create an extended IP access list that does not forward TCP packets from any host on network 10. Examples The following commands create a standard IP access list that permits all outgoing traffic except the traffic from network 10.1. Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10.255 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out The following commands create a standard IP access list that rejects all traffic except traffic from host 10.1 sent to host 184.108.40.206. and applies the list to the second serial interface.12.Source or destination socket number Destination hostname or host IP address Precedence or TOS values IP Access List Command List Configuring access lists involves two general steps: 1. Apply the list to a specific interface with the ip access-group command Use .1. Use the following number ranges to define the access list: 1-99 = Standard IP access lists 100-199 = Extended IP access lists Apply the standard or extended IP access list to a specific interface. Create the list and list entries with the access-list command 220.127.116.11. the access list denies all traffic except traffic explicitly permitted by permit statements in the list.1.1.0. . Create an access list entry.1.1.1 0.0.12.0.16 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 2 in Note: Remember that each access list contains an explicit deny any entry. and applies the list to the Ethernet0 interface.0. and applies the list to the first serial interface.0.0.1.0.255.0 0. . Router(config)#access-list 2 permit 10. Router(config)#access-list 1 deny 10.1.
255 Suppose that a packet addressed to 10.16.0/21.00000000. 2.0 0. Suppose an access list were created with a statement as follows: access-list 12 deny 10.16.0.255.0 18.104.22.168. To find the wildcard mask: 1.7.0 0. To calculate the wildcard mask: 1.255.16. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values 59 . wildcard masks are the exact opposite of a subnet mask.255.255.0 Wildcard mask 0.11111111.0.7. For example. The wildcard mask would be: o First octet: 255 .00001100.00000000 11111111. wildcard masks operate at the bit level.255 00001010.0.0.12. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.12.Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 10. let's examine the subnet address.12.255.00000000 00000000.255 11. When used to identify network addresses in access list statements. suppose you wanted to allow all traffic on network 10.00000111. For example. Identify the decimal value of the subnet mask.0.0 = 255 This gives you the mask of: 0.0 0. subnet mask.11111000.0. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values Subnet address 10. Any bit in the wildcard mask with a 0 value means that the bit must match to match the access list statement.0.255 = 0 o Third octet: 255 .11111111 Notice how the bits in the wildcard mask are exactly opposite of the bits in the subnet mask.255 Like subnet masks.248.255 = 0 o Second octet: 255 .248. and wildcard mask in binary form for the preceding example.00010000.15 was received. Subtract each octet in the subnet mask from 255. A mask that covers 21 bits converts to 255.0 Subnet mask 255.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in Calculating Wildcard Masks The wildcard mask is used with access list statements to identify a range of IP addresses (such as all addresses on a specific network). A bit with a 1 value means that the bit does not have to match.248 = 7 o Fourth octet: 255 .12.
15 was received.00001100. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address. with port. all bits identified with a 0 in the wildcard mask must match between the address and the network address.0.Subnet address 10.15 How the router applies the mask to the address m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match 00001010.13.11111111 00001010.13.12.12.00001100.mmmmmiii. Any bit identified with a 1 is ignored.255 Target address #1 10. and which direction to apply the access list to. but not both.12.iiiiiiii In this example.15 How the router applies the mask to the address • • • m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match mmmmmmmm.17.255 Target address #1 10.00000111.16.mmmmmmmm. 60 .00000111.12.0 Wildcard mask 0.16.iiiiiiii Notice that this address does not match the access list statement as identified with the wildcard mask.00001111 mmmmmmmm.7.00000000. you must apply it to an interface. Now suppose that a packet addressed to 10.16. this means you will need to decide which router.0.15 matches the access list statement and the traffic is denied.11111111 00001010.00010001.00001100.16.00000000 00000000. Address Type Subnet address Decimal Values 10.00000000. Keep in mind the following: • Each interface can only have one inbound and one outbound access list for each protocol.00010000. Designing Access Lists After you have created an access list. 10. traffic would be permitted. In this case.00010000.mmmmmmmx.0 Binary Values 00001010.00000000 00000000. In this example.00010000.7. This means that an interface can have either a standard inbound or an extended inbound IP access list.00001101.mmmmmiii.00001111 Wildcard mask 0. In many cases.17.
Placing the list too close to the source will prevent any traffic from the source from getting to any other parts of the network. This keeps the packets from being sent throughout the rest of the network. Identify blocked and allowed traffic.. as well as the direction that traffic will be traveling. Access lists applied to outbound traffic filter packets after the routing decision is made. Place the access list on the interface where a single list will block (or allow) all necessary traffic. Use.. Access lists applied to inbound traffic filter packets before the routing decision is made. subsequent statements will not be applied to the traffic. As a general rule. Each access list has an implicit deny any statement at the end of the access list. For example.• • • • • • • You can have two access lists for the same direction applied to an interface if the lists restrict different networking protocols. As a general rule. All access lists that exist on the show run show access-lists router All access lists applied to an interface Rejected traffic information IP access lists configured on the router A specific access list show ip int show run show log show run show ip access-lists show access-lists <number> 61 . If you want to view.. apply extended access lists as close to the source router as possible. Monitoring Access Lists The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific access list information on the router. or no traffic will be allowed.. This is because standard access lists can only filter on source address. When making placement decisions. place the most restrictive statements at the top. apply standard access lists as close to the destination router as possible. carefully read all access lists statements and requirements. Your access list must contain at least one allow statement. Traffic is matched to access list statements in the order they appear in the list. If traffic matches a statement high in the list. When constructing access lists. you can have one outbound IP access list and one outbound IPX access list.
That organization is free to create one large network. This number can be locally administered. or divide the network into subnets. they are used to connect multiple ASs together. and make decisions about how to send packets through the internetwork. Routers use a routing protocol to dynamically discover routes. Routers are used within an AS to segment (subnet) the network. The following methods can be used to minimize the effects of a routing loop. you will learn about the following Interior Gateway Protocols: • • • • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Distance Vector Routing Facts Keep in mind the following principles about the distance vector method. In addition. • • • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)--protocol that routes traffic within the AS Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)--protocol that routes traffic outside of or between ASs Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)--enhancement of EGP that routes traffic between ASs In this course. build routing tables. Each autonomous system is identified by an AS number. • • • • Routers send updates only to their neighbor routers Routers send their entire routing table Tables are sent at regular intervals (each router is configured to specify its own update interval) Routers modify their tables based on information received from their neighbors Because routers using the distance vector method send their entire routing table at specified intervals. Routing protocols can be classified based on whether they are routing traffic within or between autonomous systems. Like a bridging loop. or registered if the AS is connected to the Internet. they are susceptible to a condition known as a routing loop (also called a count-toinfinity condition). 62 . a routing loop occurs when two routers share different information.Routing Protocol Facts Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS).
routers will. The distance vector method has the following advantages: • • • • Stable and proven method (distance vector was the original routing algorithm) Easy to implement and administer Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Requires less hardware and processing power than other routing methods Distance vector has the following disadvantages: • • • • Relatively long time to reach convergence (updates sent at specified intervals) Routers must recalculate their routing tables before forwarding changes Susceptible to routing loops (count-to-infinity) Bandwidth requirements can be too great for WAN or complex LAN environments 63 . the route is immediately set to unreachable (16 hops for RIP). With the hold down method. routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. the path timeout has been reached.Method Split horizon Split horizon with poison reverse Triggered updates Hold downs Characteristics Using the split horizon method (also called best information). however. With the triggered update method (also known as a flash updates). but advertise the path as unreachable. punctuated by special broadcasts if conditions have changed. The hold down timer is reset when the timer runs out or when a network change occurs. it results in greater network traffic because the entire table is broadcast each time an update is sent. "hold" an update that reinstates an expired link. routers continue to send information about routes back to the next hop router. Routers do not report route information to the routers on that path. However. for a period of time. If. The time period typically reflects the time required to attain convergence on the network. it ignores the information. routers do not report information back to the router from which their information originated. If the next hop router notices that the route is still reachable. Using the split horizon with poison reverse method (also called poison reverse or route poisoning). Convergence happens faster with poison reverse than with simple split horizon. routers broadcast their routing tables periodically. This method reduces the convergence time. In other words. routers that receive updated (changed) information broadcast those changes immediately rather than waiting for the next reporting interval. With this method.
It is possible for LSPs to get delayed or lost. However. This is particularly a problem for larger networks. the last problem is of greatest concern. o The cost to a neighbor has changed. In particular. The SPF algorithm is applied to the topological database to create an SPF tree from which a table of routing paths and associated ports is built. or if the bandwidth between links vary (i. after the initial configuration occurs. the traffic from the link state method is smaller than that from the distance vector method. It generates a high amount of traffic when LSPs are initially flooded through the network or when the topology changes. Routers use LSPs to build their tables and calculate the best route. Neighboring routers exchange LSAs (link-state advertisements) to construct a topological database.e. LSPs are sent at regular intervals and when any of the following conditions occur. LSPs travel faster through parts of the network than through others). Routers select routes based on the shortest route using an algorithm known as Shortest Path First (SPF). The link state method has the following advantages over the distance vector method. o A neighbor has gone down. resulting in an inconsistent view of the network. • Slowing the LSP update rate keeps information more consistent. the link state method has the following problems: • • • The link state algorithm requires greater CPU and memory capability to calculate the network topology and select the route because the algorithm re-creates the exact topology of the network for route computation. if parts of the network come on line at different times. • • • • • • • • • Routers broadcast LSPs to all routers (this process is known as flooding). Routers send information about only their own links.Link State Routing Facts Keep in mind the following information about the link state method. The following solutions are often implemented to overcome some of the effects of inconsistent LSP information. • • • • Less convergence time (because updates are forwarded immediately) Not susceptible to routing loops Less susceptible to erroneous information (because only firsthand information is broadcast) Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Although more stable than the distance vector method. Link-state protocols send hello packets to discover new neighbors. o There is a new neighbor. 64 . Network administrators have greater flexibility in setting the metrics used to calculate routes.
or aging timer to ensure proper synchronization.1. Identify the interface used to forward packets to the specified destination network. Configuring static routes is useful for increasing security. it sends the packet to the default router. Router(config)#ip route <destination> <next_hop> Router(config)#ip route <destination> <interface> Router(config)#ip defaultnetwork <network> Router(config)#ip classless To .• • • Routers can be grouped into areas. Router(config)#ip route 192. Listed below are several situations when you might want to configure static routes.1. You can also configure a default router. . .168. Identify a next hop router to receive packets sent to the specified destination network.168.35 and gives it a value of 25. Static Route Command List Static routes lock a router into using the route you specify for all packets.168. a collection of areas under common administration. and routers on area borders share information between areas. (Areas logically subdivide an Autonomous System (AS). • • • • To configure a default route or a route out of a stub network (a stub network is one that has a single route into and out of the network).168. Enables the router to match routes based on the number of bits in the mask and not the default subnet mask.1. Identify a default network on which all packets sent to unknown networks are forwarded. . When your router cannot find a packet's address in its routing table. Examples The following command creates a static route to network 192. Routers share information within the area.0 255. and for small networks or networks that have only one possible path. sequence or ID number.0 through the router with the IP address 192. Static Route Facts Most networks will use one (or more) routing protocols to automatically share and learn routes. To configure routes that are lost due to route summarization.255.0 192. . Each area router receives updates from the designated router. To turn off all routing protocols and reduce traffic or improve security.1. For small networks that do not change very often and that have only a few networks.255. Use .) One router in each area is designated as the authoritative source of routing information (called a designated router). LSPs can be identified with a time stamp.35 25 65 .
RIP supports load balancing over same-cost paths. It has the following characteristics when running on a Cisco router. RIP routing is limited to 15 hops to any location (16 hops indicates the network is unreachable). RIP broadcasts updates to the entire network.22.214.171.124. RIP can maintain up to six multiple paths to each network. Note: Because RIP uses the hop count in determining the best route to a remote network. RIP uses only classful routing. not subnets.1. effective routing protocol for small.0 10. it might end up selecting a less than optimal route.255.0. • • • • • • • • RIP uses hop and tick counts to calculate optimal routes. Router(config)#ip route 0.to medium-sized networks.1. Because the first route has fewer hops.0 255.0.1. the holddown timer default is 180. use the following three steps: 1.168. For example.0 through the router's second serial interface.1.168. RIP Command List To configure any routing protocol. RIP uses the split horizon with poison reverse method to prevent the count-to-infinity problem. 66 . suppose that two routes exist between two networks. the invalid timer default is 180.0 0.The following command creates a permanent static route to network 192. One route uses a 56 Kbps link with a single hop.1.2 RIP Facts The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple.0 as the default network for the local router. Enable IP routing if it is not already enabled (use the ip routing command). RIP will select this route as the optimal route. The update interval default is 30.0. but only if the cost is the same.1. Router(config)#ip default-network 10. and the flush timer default is 240. while the other route uses a Gigabit link that has two hops.0 The following command identifies a default route through an interface with address 10. so it uses full address classes. Router(config)#ip route 192.0 serial 1 30 permanent The following command designates network 10.0.1.1.
Use the classful network address. . Use . . followed by the routing protocol you want to configure). When you use the network command to identify the networks that will participate in RIP routing. • • Identify only networks to which the router is directly connected. Disable IP routing on the router. follow these rules.10. Identify the networks that will participate in dynamic routing (use the network command. Enter router RIP configuration mode (also referred to as "enabling RIP"). IP routing is enabled by default.0. Switch to router configuration mode (use the router command. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 10. It is Cisco's proprietary routing protocol. .0 Router(config-router)#network 192. not a subnetted network address. Notice that you identify networks. Use this command only if it has been disabled. which Cisco recommends that you use instead of RIP. Prevent routing update messages from behind sent through a router interface. Enable IP routing for the entire router. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. Example The following commands enable IP routing and identify two networks that will participate in the RIP routing protocol. This identifies the interfaces that will share and process received routing updates. Disable RIP and remove all RIP networks. IGRP has the following characteristics: 67 . followed by the address of a network to which the router is directly connected). 3. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <address> Router(config)#no ip routing Router(config)#no router rip Router(config-router)#no network <network> Router(config)#passiveinterface <interface> To .2. Remove a specific RIP network. and not interfaces.0 IGRP Facts Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a dynamic routing protocol that sends neighboring routers updates of its routing table.0.168. .
To . IGRP uses split horizon with poison reverse. IGRP uses flash updates (sending changed information immediately) for faster convergence. It can keep track of up to six different paths.• • • • • • • • IGRP can handle much larger networks. The default update interval is higher for IGRP than RIP because it uses flash updates. IGRP uses an autonomous system (AS) number as part of the configuration.168. .0.0 Router(config-router)#network 192. .0 68 . router)#network <address> When identifying networks. Use . Defaults are: o Update interval = 90 seconds o Invalid route = 270 seconds (3 times the update) o Holddown = 280 seconds (3 times the update + 10) o Flush = 630 seconds (7 times the update) IGRP Command List Configuring IGRP is very similar to configuring RIP. use the classful network address (the network specified with the default subnet mask). IGRP uses a composite metric (a 24-bit number assigned to each path that can include such factors as bandwidth. Enable IP routing for the entire router. loading. Enter router IGRP configuration mode for the specified Router(config)#router igrp Autonomous System. the AS number must match on all routers. Note: When configuring multiple <ASnumber> routers to share information with IGRP. IGRP supports multiple-path connections. When using the router command.10. Router(configNotice that you identify networks. however. . with a hop count limit of 255 (rather than 16). It will keep track of same-cost and different-cost routes. Example The following commands identify two networks that will participate in the IGRP routing protocol for AS number 25 (assuming IP routing is already enabled). This AS number must be the same on each router that will share information. delay.0. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. reliability. Use this command only if it has been disabled. and not interfaces. and MTU). you must include the AS number. Router(config)#router igrp 25 Router(config-router)#network 10. You can also configure the hop count limit. IP routing is enabled Router(config)#ip routing by default. .
Is considered a classless routing protocol because it does not assume the default subnet masks are used. OSPF only sends out updated information rather than exchanging the entire routing table. split horizon. The Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm (also called the Dijkstra SPF algorithm) is used to identify and select the optimal route. or poison reverse are not needed. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. Uses areas to subdivide large networks. All OSPF networks must have a backbone area. Because the loopback interface takes precedence over the physical interfaces in determining the router ID. Is not susceptible to routing loops.OSPF Facts The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link state routing protocol well-suited for large networks.) Under normal conditions. You should remember the following characteristics of link state protocols that apply to OSPF: • • • • • • • • • • • • Is a public (non-proprietary) routing protocol. o A stub area is an area with a single path in to and out of the area. Routers on the edge of areas (called Area Border Routers (ABR)) share summarized information between areas. you can force a specific router ID by defining a loopback interface and assigning it an IP address. If a loopback interface is not defined. Its address is always 0. It contains networks not held within another area. OSPF uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. Can require additional processing power (and therefore increased system requirements). LSAs contain small bits of information about routes. The router ID is: • • The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. each router is assigned a router ID (RID). Shares routing information through Link State Advertisements (LSAs). Routers within an area share information about the area. Maintains a logical topographical map of the network in addition to maintaining routes to various networks. 69 . It sends the subnet mask in the routing update and supports route summarization and VLSM. the highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. As part of the OSPF process.0.0. Instead. but they cannot be pinged because they won't appear in an OSPF routing table. and distributes routing information between areas. Uses link costs as a metric for determining best routes. Mechanisms such as holddown timers. You can think of the backbone as the "master" or "root" area. o The backbone is a specialized area connected to all other areas. Converges faster than a distance vector protocol.0. (Unadvertised links save on IP space. Good design can minimize this impact.
Process IDs do not need to match between routers (in other words. n. Use the following commands to configure OSPF on each router: 70 . m. two routers configured with different process IDs might still share OSPF information).m. and then identifying the networks that will participate in OSPF routing. The area number must match between routers. Configuration is as simple as defining the OSPF process using the router ospf command. with only a few variations from the RIP and IGRP configuration steps you have previously use.m is a wildcard mask (not the normal subnet mask). Note: Although similar. Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network n. Identifies networks that participate in OSPF routing. number is the area number in the OSPF topology. The wildcard mask identifies the subnet address.m.m. the process ID number is not the same thing as the AS number used in IGRP/EIGRP routing. classless network.n.m.n.n. The following table lists the commands and details for configuring OSPF. The process ID identifies a separate routing process on the router.n.OSPF Command List OSPF is fairly simple.n is the network address. This can be a subnetted.n m.m area number Example The following graphic shows a sample network with two OSPF areas. Command Purpose Use to enter configuration mode for OSPF.
During normal operation EIGRP transmits only hello packets across the network.1. Mechanisms such as holddown timers.255 area 1 network 10.1.15. wildcard mask. OSPF uses areas to identify sharing of routes.0. It supports route summarization and VLSM.0. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like RIP and IGRP. When change occurs.Rout Configuration er router ospf 1 network 10.255.255 area 1 network 10.0 0.1 0. and the OSPF area of the subnet.1. 71 .126.96.36.199.0. Instead.0 0. Uses bandwidth and delay for the route metric (similar to IGRP).16.0.255). split horizon. manual route summarization can also be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the routing table size. Supports automatic classful route summarization at major network boundaries (this is the default in EIGRP).32. The network command identifies the subnet.0. Maintains partial network topology information in addition to routes.0.32. Is not susceptible to routing loops.1.0.255 area 1 Notice the following in the configuration: • • • The process ID on each router does not match. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. Minimizes network bandwidth usage for routing updates.0 0.1.15.0 0. and then partial routing updates thereafter. EIGRP uses built-in loop avoidance techniques.0 area 1 network 10. not the process ID. EIGRP: • • • • • • • • • • Sends the subnet mask in the routing update. or you can use the IP address of the router interface with a mask of 0.15. You can use the subnet address with the appropriate wildcard mask (as in 10.255 area 1 router ospf 2 network 10.0 area 1 SFO LAX router ospf 1 PHX network 10. Unlike IGRP and RIP.16.0. A subnet can only be in one area.16. or poison reverse are not needed.2. only routing table changes are propagated in EIGRP not the entire table.0. Exchanges the full routing table at startup.0.1 0.255 area 0 network 10. EIGRP Facts Enhanced IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary balanced hybrid routing protocol that combines the best features of distance vector and link state routing.188.8.131.52 0. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers.0.0 0.0.0. Keeps multiple paths to a single network.
Supports multiple protocols. The following table lists the applicable commands. 72 . Router(config)#router eigrp 2 Router(config-network)#network 192. Identifies a network that participates in the routing process.n.n Function Defines an EIGRP process.• • • • Requires less processing and memory than link state protocols.3.0 Router(config-network)#network 192.168. Lists the IP address of the connected router. In this manner. In some cases. EIGRP will query neighbor routers to discover an alternate route. EIGRP Command List You configure EIGRP just the same as you would configure IGRP. The number must match between routers for information to be shared.168. convergence can be almost instantaneous because an EIGRP router stores backup routes for destinations. View neighboring routers from which EIGRP routes can be learned.n. EIGRP can exchange routes for IP. If no appropriate route or backup exists in the routing table. Converges more quickly than distance vector protocols.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. AppleTalk and IPX/SPX networks. Example The following commands enable EIGRP on a router and defines three networks that participate in the routing process. Command Router(config)#router eigrp number Router(config-router)#network n. EIGRP can quickly adapt to alternate routes when changes occur.2.0 Use the following commands to manage and monitor EIGRP. View the interfaces that are running EIGRP and the number of connected routers.1. Uses the DUAL link-state algorithm for calculating routes.168. Command show ip route show eigrp neighbors show eigrp interfaces Features View EIGRP-learned routes.
split horizon. Hold down timers.Routing Protocol Comparison The following table compares various features of the routing protocols you will need to know for this course. also sends triggered updates of changed routes Hold down timers. poison poison reverse reverse Low No No No Full network topology Can be high Yes Yes No Partial network topology Lower than OSPF No No Memory and CPU Low requirements Uses areas in network No design Uses wildcards to define No participating networks Routing Administrative Distances 73 . Characteristic Routing method Public standard Metric VLSM support Classless routing Route summarization Sends mask in updates Convergence time Discovers neighbors before sending routing information RIP Distance vector Yes Hop count IGRP Distance vector No OSPF Link state Yes EIGRP Balanced hybrid No Bandwidth and delay Yes Bandwidth and delay Link cost Version 2 only No Slow (faster than RIP) No Yes Slow No Fast Yes Fast Yes Sends full routing table at Yes each update Loop avoidance Yes. split horizon.
If a router has learned of two routes to a single network through different routing protocols (such as RIP and OSPF). the router will choose the route that has the best cost as defined by the routing metric (for EIGRP the link with the highest bandwidth and least delay will be used). The following table shows the default administrative values for a Cisco router. Routers can learn about routes to other networks using multiple routing protocols. If a router has learned of two routes through the same protocol (for example two routes through EIGRP). 2. the router uses the following criteria for choosing between multiple routes: 1. WAN Structure 74 . A smaller number indicates a more trusted route. In addition. there might be multiple paths between any two points. The router uses these values to select the source of information to use when multiple routes to a destination exist.The administrative distance is a number assigned to a source of routing information (such as a static route or a specific routing protocol). it will choose the route with the lowest administrative distance (OSPF in this example). When making routing decisions. Route Source Administrative Distance Connected interface 0 Static route 1 EIGRP summary route 5 EIGRP internal route 90 IGRP 100 OSPF 110 RIP 120 EIGRP external route 170 Note: You can modify how routes are selected by modifying the administrative distance associated with a source.
In a narrow sense. Local loop Typically. and the nearest point of (CO) presence for the WAN provider. both the devices premises the subscriber owns and the ones leased from the WAN provider. The point where the telephone company's telephone wiring connects to the subscriber's wiring. it is UTP. Fiber optic cable to the demarc is rare. and can include all computers. or other media. Broadly. DTEs are any equipment at the customer's site. Component Description Devices physically located on the subscriber's premises. CPE is sometimes used synonymously with DTE. It provides WAN-cloud entry and exit 75 . The DTE resides on the subscriber's premises. Central office The switching facility closest to the subscriber. The demarc can also be called the network interface or Demarcation point point of presence.A typical WAN structure includes the following components. but it can also be one or a combination of UTP. telephone. DTEs are usually routers. the DTE is the device that communicates with the DCE at the other end. The phone company is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc. and other equipment. but computers equipment (DTE) and multiplexers can also act as DTEs. The demarc media is owned and maintained by the telephone company. Cable that extends from the demarc to the central telephone office. A device on the network side of a WAN link that sends and receives data. modem. CPE includes the Consumer telephone wire. and marks the point of entry Data terminal between the LAN and the WAN. (demarc) Typically. the customer is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc. fiber optic. The equipment (CPE) wiring typically includes UTP cable with RJ-11 or RJ-45 connectors.
In a strict sense. This is the default encapsulation method for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. This term is both a generic name for Data Link protocols and the name of a specific protocol within a WAN protocol suite or service.25 networks. and central offices that make up the network of telephone lines. The hierarchy of trunks. Data Link layer protocols control some or all of the following functions: • • • • Error checking and correction Link establishment Frame-field composition Point-to-point flow control Data Link layer protocols also describe the encapsulation method or the frame format. WAN encapsulation methods are typically called HDLC (high-level data link control). • • • Cisco HDLC for synchronous. and arrives at its destination. travels through the line. Few people thoroughly understand where data goes as it is switched through the "cloud. and different networks with common connection points WAN cloud may overlap. Thus. It is represented as a cloud because the physical structure varies. Long-distance carriers are usually owned and operated by companies such as AT&T or MCI. PSEs are the intermediary exchange (PSE) points in the WAN cloud. a DCE is any device that terminating supplies clocking signals to DTEs. LAPD is a Layer 2 ISDN protocol that manages flow and signaling. and acts as a switching point to forward data to other central offices. Depending on the WAN service and connection method. A CO provides services such as switching incoming telephone signals to outgoing trunk lines." What is important is that data goes in. point-to-point connections with other Cisco routers (Cisco HDLC does not communicate with other vendors' implementations of HDLC).points for incoming and outgoing calls. It also provides reliable DC power to the local loop to establish an electric circuit. COs use long-distance. you will select one of the following encapsulation methods. LAPD in combination with another protocol for the B channels in ISDN networks. switches. LAPB for X. carriers to provide connections to almost anywhere in the world. 76 . a modem or CSU/DSU at the equipment (DCE) customer site is often classified as a DCE. or toll. except that each device plays a different role. WAN Encapsulation Facts WAN Physical layer protocols specify the hardware and bit signaling methods. DCEs may be devices similar to DTEs (such as routers). A device that communicates with both DTEs and the WAN cloud. Packet-switching A switch on a carrier's packet-switched network. DCEs are typically routers at the service provider that relay messages between the Data circuitcustomer and the WAN cloud.
Examples of control protocols include: 77 . and ISDN networks. and ISDN. It supports multiple Network layer protocols. Each Network layer protocol has a corresponding control protocol packet. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number. LCPs are exchanged to detect and correct errors or to control the use of multiple links (multilink). load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links. IPX. packet size. PPP is non-proprietary. and compression settings. Throughout the session. LCPs are responsible for tearing down the link. LCP packets are exchanged periodically to do the following: • Link Control Protocol (LCP) • • During link establishment.• • PPP for dial-up LAN access. It supports multilink connections. and numerous others. Protocol Description The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP. and tearing down the PPP link. the link is looped. AppleTalk. Optional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3way authentication). maintaining. LCPs are used to agree upon encapsulation. It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. circuit-switched WAN networks. PPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link. or AppleTalk). so it works in implementations that use products from multiple vendors. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. LCPs also indicate whether authentication should be used. PPP Facts The following list represents some of the key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): • • • • • • It can be used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial. including IP. Network Control Protocol (NCP) A single Link Control Protocol runs for each physical connection. Note: Routers on each side of a WAN link must use the same encapsulation method to be able to communicate. Cisco/IETF for Frame Relay networks. IPX. When the session is terminated. It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors. synchronous serial (dial up).
Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp To . LCPs are exchanged to open the link and agree upon link settings such as encapsulation. LCPs might also be exchanged during this phase to maintain the link. For example. PPP establishes communication in three phases. NCP phase. LCPs might continue to be exchanged. routers might exchange IPCP and CDPCP packets to agree upon using IP and CDP for Network-layer communications. To configure PPP on the router. and whether authentication will be used. one for each Networklayer protocol supported on the link. the first method will be pap tried first Router(config-if)#ppp compression Set compression options Router(config-if)#ppp chap|pap password Set the password used with CHAP <password> or PAP for an unknown host Router(config)#username <hostname> password <password> Set the username and password for the local router 78 . During this phase. During this phase. PPP Command List PPP configuration is often done in connection with configuring other services. You must set the encapsulation method to PPP before you can configure authentication or compression. configure username/password combinations. If authentication is used. . packet size. .• • • • IP Control Protocol (IPCP) CDP Control Protocol (CDPCP) IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP) AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) A single PPP link can run multiple control protocols. Authenticate phase (optional). Use . LCP phase. Select CHAP and/or PAP as the authentication method (optional). NCPs are exchanged to agree on upper-layer protocols to use. . authentication-specific packets are exchanged to configure authentication parameters and authenticate the devices. PPP options are configured in interface mode for a specific interface. 3. 1. 2. . 3. 2. Set PPP encapsulation on the interface. you complete the following tasks: 1. Set the encapsulation type to PPP Set the authentication method(s) Router(config-if)#ppp authentication <chap| When multiple methods are pap> Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap specified.
You should be familiar with the following concepts about how Frame Relay networks send data. T-1. When network traffic is low. As network traffic increases. Sending routers send data immediately without establishing a session. you will likely be able to send data faster than the CIR. Corrupted packets are simply dropped without notification. use the service password-encryption command from the global configuration mode. digital lines. Packets travel through the Frame Relay cloud without acknowledgments. Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. you are assigned a level of service called a Committed Information Rate (CIR). Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs. and the effective rate may drop. T-3). It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets. When you sign up for Frame Relay service. Frame Relay switches begin dropping packets when congestion occurs. Have a variable packet size (called a frame) . Frame relay networks simulate an "always on" connection with PVCs. The CIR is the maximum guaranteed data transmission rate you will receive on the Frame Relay network. • • • • • • • • Routers connect to a Frame Relay switch either directly or through a CSU/DSU.Router(config)#bandwidth <value> Set a bandwidth value for an interface View encapsulation and PPP information on an interface Router#show interface To hide the CHAP password from view in the configuration file. Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K. SFO(config)#hostname LAX password cisco5 SFO(config)#int s0 SFO(config-if)#encap ppp SFO(config-if)#ppp auth pap Frame Relay Facts Frame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality.54 Mbps. Example The following commands configure the SFO router to use PPP and enable it to connect to the LAX router using PAP authentication. priority is given to data coming from customers with a higher CIR. you are guaranteed to have at least the amount of bandwidth specified by the CIR. Can provide data transfer up to 1. Frame-relay networks: • • • • • • Provide error detection but not error recovery. Error correction is performed by sending and receiving devices. 79 . Frame Relay switches perform error checking but not correction. In any case.
The Frame Relay network is made up of multiple switches for moving packets. Frame Relay Protocols Most Frame Relay installations involve connecting to a Frame Relay network through a T-1 line. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. through LMI these numbers can be globally significant (i. but not for the entire WAN. Frame Relay switches send Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) messages to slow data transfer rates. The DLCI represents the connection between two frame relay devices. The router connects to a CSU/DSU. Make DLCIs globally significant for the entire network. you have the following options: 80 . which is connected to the Frame Relay network. Packets are discarded based on information in the Discard Eligible (DE) bit. Enable dynamic DLCI assignment through multicasting support. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. You should be aware of the following Frame Relay protocols: Protocol Characteristics Like an Ethernet MAC address. and Q933a. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. Cisco routers support three LMI types: Cisco.e.• • • Congestion is the most common cause of packet loss on a Frame Relay network. Each DLCI is unique for the local network. DLCIs identify each virtual circuit. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. Although DLCI numbers are only locally significant. the same DLCI number can be used multiple times in the entire network to identify different devices. • • Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) • The DLCI ranges between 16 and 1007. ANSI. Gather status information about other routers and connections on the network. In other words. LMI can: • • • • • Local Management Interface (LMI) Maintain the link between the router and the switch. the same number is used throughout the entire network to identify a specific link). The Frame Relay service provider assigns the DLCI when the virtual circuit is set up. LMI is responsible for managing the connection and reporting connection status. Local Management Interface (LMI) is a set of management protocol extensions that automates many Frame Relay management tasks.
The administrator identifies the address of each destination device. IPX. Multipoint. assign a DLCI to the subinterface Configure the LMI settings (optional). complete the following tasks: • • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface by setting the encapsulation type Assign a Network layer address to the interface (such as an IP address) Configure dynamic (inverse ARP) or static (mapped) addresses For a point-to-point subinterface. 81 . Router(configif)#frame-relay Turn on inverse ARP (it is on by default) inverse-arp Router(configif)#frame-relay map Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Note: Add the broadcast parameter to the command to configure the router to forward broadcast traffic over the link. Although more work. . Because Frame Relay supports multiple upper-layer protocols (such as IP. The router uses the inverse ARP protocol to dynamically discover destination addresses associated with a specific DLCI. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. and associates each address with a DLCI.• • Point-to-Point. For multipoint connections. Note: You must set the encapsulation method on the interface before you can issue any other Frame Relay commands. Frame Relay Command List When configuring a router for Frame Relay. With a point-to-point connection. • • Dynamically associate DLCIs with inverse ARP. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. results are less prone to errors than when using inverse ARP. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. the DLCI number acts like a Data Link or physical device address. By default. . the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. Cisco is the default frame relay encapsulation. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. To . . . you will need to associate logical. To configure Frame Relay on an interface. Use . You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. Network layer destination addresses with the DLCI number used to reach that address. you have the following configuration options. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. and DECnet). Set the encapsulation method Router(config-if)#encap You can following this command by various keywords to frame-relay set a specific frame relay encapsulation protocol. Manually map addresses to DLCIs. This is the default.
Multipoint. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. Clear the dynamic entries from the frame-relay map cache.Router#show frame map Router#clear framerelay-inarp Router#show frame pvc Router#frame lmi-type <LMI type> Display the contents of the frame-relay map cache (showing IP address to DLCI number mappings).1. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device.1. using subinterfaces lets you subdivide a single physical interface into several separate virtual channels. Instead of adding physical interfaces. They make it possible to support multiple connections and/or networks through a single physical port.1. With subinterfaces. Show DLCI statistics and information. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#no frame inverse Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. and map IP address 10. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. Using subinterfaces in this manner overcomes the split horizon problem that can occur when sending updates out the same interface. Configure LMI on the Cisco router Examples The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 1 using IETF as the encapsulation method and dynamic addressing. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. 82 . the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. disable inverse ARP. A subinterface is a virtual interface that you configure on a Cisco router's physical interface. Using subinterfaces also lets you send routing updates out the same physical interface on which they were received. you can expand your router's capability without adding modules containing physical interfaces.55 25 Subinterfaces Facts Cisco uses the term interface to describe the physical component that connects the router to a network. you have the following options: • • Point-to-Point.55 to DLCI 25. With a point-to-point connection.1. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 0 using Cisco as the encapsulation method.
you will need to assign a Network layer address to the subinterface. specifying either point-to-point or multipoint For a point-to-point connection or a multipoint connection using inverse ARP. . All simulations use the same network layout as shown. . and configure it with a static IP mapping of device 199. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s0. Use .16.155 to DLCI 111. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s1. complete the following tasks: • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface and set the encapsulation method Create the subinterface.X <type> Router(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci Router(config-subif)#frame-relay map To . The subinterface is configured to use inverse ARP.12. assign the DLCI number to the subinterface For a multipoint connection using static assignments.103 mult Router(config-subif)#frame map ip 199.155 111 Frame Relay Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot Frame Relay.12. 83 . . Do not assign an IP address to the main interface.55 point Router(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 44 The following commands create a multipoint subinterface on the second serial interface. . map DLCIs to protocol addresses In addition.Frame Relay Subinterface Command List To configure Frame Relay on a subinterface. Create the subinterface Assign the DLCI to the interface Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Examples The following commands create a point-to-point subinterface on the first serial interface and assign it to DLCI 44.16. Router(config-if)#int sX.
do not set an IP address on the main interface. Use inverse arp to dynamically discover DLCI numbers. you must manually assign a DLCI to the subinterface. For a point-to-point subinterface. keep in mind the following tips: • • • • • All routers at all locations must be configured to use the same frame relay encapsulation method. you can use the default Frame Relay encapsulation type (cisco). • • • • • • • • ping sh frame map sh frame pvc sh int/sh ip int sh run no ip sh frame-relay sh frame-relay traffic Frame Relay Troubleshooting Tips As you troubleshoot Frame Relay. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. When configuring subinterfaces. 84 . use the ietf encapsulation type. Frame Relay routers must know the DLCI number that is used to reach remote routers. When using all Cisco routers. Instead. Each scenario has some misconfiguration that prevents communication. set IP addresses on each subinterface. When using routers of multiple vendors. Use static mappings to associate DLCI numbers with IP addresses manually.The scenario description for each exercise identifies whether the routers should be configured using inverse-arp or static mappings.
. The physical cable of an ISDN connection is divided into logical channels. ISDN Facts Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards covering the Physical. video. show run show frame pvc show int show run show frame lmi show int show frame pvc show int show frame traffic show frame map Note: Output for the show interfaces command shows an entry for DLCI followed by a number. Monitoring Frame Relay If you want to view . Channels are classified as one of two types: • • B channels are used to carry data. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. and Network layers. Data Link. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. . digital transmission of both voice and data (including graphics.• By default. When you order ISDN service. This information is not the DLCI number associated with the interface. D channels are used to carry control and signaling information. you have the choice between the following services. . It supports the majority of upper-level protocols and encapsulation protocols. Service Basic Rate B channels D channel Characteristics Two 64 Kbps One 16 Uses existing phone lines (but may not be available 85 . ISDN uses T-carrier technology to quickly and efficiently send digital data streams. and so on) over existing telephone lines. It allows fast. . DLCI numbers Frame Relay encapsulation method LMI information and traffic statistics Interface configuration (DCE or DTE) Global traffic statistics Addresses and associated DLCIs Use .
The total data transfer rate is 128 Kbps (data is sent only on the two B channels). but you will need to memorize them for the certification exam. such as call setup. The protocol groupings and descriptions follow a lettering standard. terminology. E for Existing networks I for Identifying concepts Q for Quality switching signals 86 . flow control. • • • Faster data transfer rates (128 Kbps) than dial-up modems (56 Kbps maximum) Faster call establishment (dial-up) than modems Lower cost than other WAN solutions (users pay a monthly fee plus connection charges) ISDN Protocol Standards ISDN standards are grouped according to function. such as international addressing Standards for ISDN concepts.ISDN (BRI) Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) Kbps Twenty-three One 64 64 Kbps Kbps where existing copper wires don't support it) The connection is "demand-dial" (established only when data needs to be sent) Uses an entire T-1 line Sometimes called 23B+D The connection is "always on" Note: The total bandwidth of an ISDN BRI line is 144 Kbps (two B channels and one D channel). you will probably not need to know these standards. and services. such as network services Standards for switching and signaling. Use the following to help remember the classifications. and error correction In practice. Protocol Designation E I Q Standard Standards for ISDN on the existing phone network. ISDN BRI is a relatively low-cost WAN service that is ideal for the following situations: • • Home office or telecommuters who need a relatively fast connection Businesses that need to periodically send data between sites (bursty traffic patterns) ISDN BRI offers the following benefits over dial-up modems and other WAN connection options.
An NT2 (Network Switching Equipment) connects with an NT1. although it does not convert digital signals to analog signals. A TE1 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 1) is an ISDN-compatible device such TE1 as a router. ISDN Device Function Designation An NT1 (Network Terminator) is the connection point between the local loop and ISDN network. where different protocols and devices connect with each other. the term is usually used to describes TA a device that converts non-ISDN signals to ISDN signals. Outside of North America. and/or split the signal into data and voice transmissions. The ISDN standard defines several reference points. a TA (Terminal Adapter) is any device that generates traffic on an ISDN line. A Cisco router might be classified as an NT1. NT1 functionality is the responsibility of the service provider. computer.ISDN Components and Reference Points ISDN devices are classified based on whether they are ISDN-capable and the role they can play on the network. Generically speaking. S Interface between the NT2 and an ISDN device (TE1 or TA). Reference Designation Interface Type R Interface between a TA and non-ISDN equipment (TE2). or ISDN telephone. In North NT1 America. T Interface between an NT2 and the NT1. it converts ISDN signals to non-ISDN signals. A TE2 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 2) is a non-ISDN-compatible device TE2 such as a computer without an ISDN adapter. Rather. The TA is often called an ISDN modem. NT2s are optional. It identifies proper connections with the following interface designations. It lets you NT2 connect multiple devices. 87 . the customer is responsible for the NT1. More specifically.
To remember the reference points. you might have the following options (depending on the configuration of the router): • • • Connect a router with an S/T interface to either an NT1 or an NT2 (but not directly to the local loop). The following are common SPID assignments. Your ISDN router will be connected to an ISDN switch at the WAN service provider. The TA can then connect to the NT1 or NT2. Network layer address (similar to a telephone number that that allows each channel to make and receive calls).e. Each ISDN device is assigned one TEI. pay attention to the interface type (R. each device can have one or more SPIDs. T. Do not connect the U interface to an NT1 or an NT2. Be sure to connect the correct device to the correct interface. • • • Service Protocol Identifier (SPID) One SPID is assigned to the entire device Each B channel has its own SPID Each B channel can have more than one assigned SPID The WAN service provide assigns the SPIDs for you to configure on the router. U). then follow a packet from a non-ISDN device to the local loop. ISDN has its own Network and Data Link layer addressing. Label the wire between each device with the corresponding letter.U Interface between the NT1 and the local loop (ISDN wall connection). S. Note: Because they are electrically the same. Depending on the specific ISDN implementation. T. the S and T interfaces are often identified as an S/T interface. TEIs are dynamically assigned to the router by the ISDN switch when the connection is made. S. ISDN uses the following addresses: Address Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) Characteristics Data Link layer address (similar to an Ethernet MAC address). Connect a router with a U interface directly to the local loop. For example. place the letters in order (R. Your router must be configured to communicate with the switch type used by your WAN service 88 . For this reason. Connect a router with a serial interface (i. ISDN Addressing ISDN is a Network layer protocol that operates over a specific hardware interface configuration. or U) of each device. an R reference point) to a TA. When connecting devices on an ISDN network. to connect a router to an ISDN network.
3. In North America. The receiving device answers and the link is established. TEIs are dynamically assigned to identify the router. the most common types are: • • • AT&T 5ESS Northern DMS-100 National ISDN-1 ISDN Communication Facts The following process is used to initialize an ISDN router. it operates on the D channel of an ISDN connection and is used for: • • • • Initializing Layer 2 and Layer 3 communications. Assigning TEIs. Terminating the link. the D channel is used to tear down the link. Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel (LAPD) is the Data Link encapsulation protocol used on an ISDN network. 2. As its name implies. The B channel is used to transmit data. The router uses the D channel to perform Data Link (layer 2) initialization. Maintaining the session. 1. the following process is used. The sending device requests a connection through the D channel. 2. It uses its preconfigured SPIDs (if required) to set up the B channels. The exact commands you will use depend on the equipment used at the central office. 4. 89 .provider. ISDN Command List To configure an ISDN connection. The router uses the D channel to perform Network (layer 3) initialization. The D channel is used for session maintenance. 1. After the transmission is over. you need to complete the following configuration processes: • • • Configure the ISDN switch type Assign SPIDs (if required) Configure encapsulation Use the following commands to configure an ISDN connection. Cisco routers support over 10 switch types. When a router needs to communicate with another ISDN device.
isdn spid2 show isdn status show isdn active show isdn history show interface bri0. View the status of the ISDN connection. Identify SPIDs for an interface.2 and below. Show active ISDN phone calls. For IOS 11. An ISDN connection consists of multiple logical B channels on a single physical connection.3 and above. encapsulation method. bri0:1. Example The following commands set the switch type. . To use multiple channels at the same time. . Identifies the utilization percentage that must exist for the additional channels to be used.Use . enable multilink PPP (MLP). this is a global configuration command. Set the ISDN switch type to match that used by the service provider. use this command in interface mode or global configuration mode. . . Switch to ISDN interface configuration mode. Enables multilink on the interface. For IOS 11. Show all past and current ISDN phone calls. and assigns two SPIDs for an ISDN interface: Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-5ess Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866201 8358662 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664 About ISDN Simulations The following commands have been enabled in the simulations for configuring and testing an ISDN connection: • • • • • • • interface bri0 isdn switch-type isdn spid1. Router(config)#interface bri0 Router(config)#isdn switchtype <type> Router(config-if)#isdn spid<#> <number> <number> Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router#show isdn status Router#show isdn active Router#show isdn history Router(config-if)#ppp multilink Router(config)#dialer loadthreshold To . bri0:2 90 . Set the encapsulation method for the interface (PPP is the most common). Use only if SPID numbers are not dynamically assigned.
0 and above. you can set the switch type globally or on an interface basis. differs depending on the IOS version: o For IOS versions 11. but if it is removed from the interface. DDR Facts 91 . On a live system.x method of setting the switch type. Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up. o For IOS versions 11. the switch type must be defined for the interface.You should be aware of the following conditions regarding configuring ISDN connections on a live system: • • • As best practice. the connection cannot be made. Spoofing allows the router to place entries in the routing table for dial-ondemand interfaces. How the switch type is set. keep in mind the following: • • • • • Each BRI interface represents a single connection to an ISDN network. the router can still make a connection if the switch type is defined globally. even if one is not defined for the interface. etc. Setting it globally automatically adds it to the interface. When you remove the shutdown for a BRI interface. the interface status changes to spoofing. In addition. o For IOS versions 12. This product simulates the IOS version 12. BRI interfaces are up only when a call is successfully placed to another router. or take several minutes to change. you can only set the switch type globally. Verify that the configuration settings are correct before bringing the interface up.2 and below. The two B channels for the first BRI interface are identified as BRI0:1 and BRI0:2. If you misconfigure the interface and connect to the ISDN switch. and what is required. BRI Interface Facts As you work with ISDN BRI interfaces. It is possible to have one channel active and the other channel inactive. o For IOS versions 11. Normally. these statuses may not update.3 and above. BRI1. the switch at the service provider may report excessive errors and disable itself. BRI interfaces are identified as BRI0. Channels are up when a call is initiated that uses that specific channel. On a Cisco router. The status reported with the show isdn status command in the simulations updates automatically and immediately after making configuration changes. you should set the ISDN switch type and SPIDs with the interface shut down.3 up to (but not including) 12. You will then need to contact your service provider to reset the switch. routes that correspond to an interface are not placed in the routing table until the interface status is up. you may need to use the clear interface bri0 command or restart the router on a live system before some configuration changes take place. Each physical BRI interface has three separate channels (1 D channel and 2 B channels).0.
both interesting and non-interesting. to identify a single number to dial for all connections.A dial-on-demand link is one that is non-persistent (not always on). The link between two devices is established when one device calls another and the answering device answers the request. to identify a specific destination and the corresponding number to dial. The link is brought up (or dialed) when traffic needs to cross the link. Non-interesting traffic that needs to be sent will not keep the link up if the time limit has expired. If a DDR link is down. a maximum of one per protocol Dialer Group Applies a dialer list to an interface Maximum of one group per interface Dialer interfaces (such as ISDN BRI) are non-persistent and might be used to connect to multiple devices. all traffic. the connection is terminated. Identify the host called by the router using one of the following commands in interface mode: • • dialer string. Use access lists to identify the type of traffic that will bring the link up (called interesting traffic). If a DDR link is up. Non-interesting traffic is ignored (never sent). only interesting traffic will bring it up. This process is much like placing a telephone call. The list of interesting traffic only defines which traffic brings the link up. 92 . will be sent over the link. When the link is idle. or identifies an access list Contains multiple entries. The DDR link will be brought down if no interesting traffic has crossed the link in a specified period of time. Keep in mind the following points about dial-on-demand routing (DDR): • • • • Access lists define interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). dialer map. Interesting traffic is identified and applied to an interface using the following three items: Access List Contains multiple entries that define interesting traffic Each list applies only to one protocol in type Access lists are optional Dialer List Identifies all traffic of a specific protocol. not which traffic can cross the link once it is established.
Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link.0. . The link will be brought up for HTTP or FTP traffic.0. Use this command if the <number> router contacts only one other router. and configures a static route to the remote device. Identify the number to dial to contact the Router(config-if)#dialer map ip destination router. . Router(config-if)#dialer-group Apply the dialer-list to an interface. <#> Router(config-if)#dialer string Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. defines a called device. Examples The following commands define all IP traffic as interesting traffic for BRI0 and identifies two numbers of a single destination router to dial when traffic must be sent.0.0. Router(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip permit Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 7 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5551111 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5552222 The following commands create an access list and dialer list. . Use this command if the <address> <number> router contacts multiple routers over the same physical interface. Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. . This allows Router(config)#ip route hosts on the local network to access hosts on the remote network(s).1 eq 80 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. Configure access list statements that define Router(config)#access-list interesting traffic Router(config)#dialer-list <#> Identify the traffic type or access list that protocol <type> permit/deny defines interesting traffic. apply it to an interface. such as: o Configuring the ISDN connection o Configuring IP addresses for applicable interfaces Define interesting traffic Apply the interesting traffic definition to the dial-on-demand interface Configure the numbers to call when interesting traffic is received Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link Configure the DDR timers (optional) Use .DDR Command List Configuring dial-on-demand routing involves completing the following general steps: • • • • • • Configure the interface to connect to the network. To .1 eq 21 Router(config)#dialer-list 9 protocol ip list 101 93 .
Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 9 Router(config-if)#dialer map ip 184.108.40.206 name LAX 5552345 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 bri0 220.127.116.11
Note: You can also configure serial or asynchronous interfaces to support dial-on-demand routing. To enable DDR on a serial interface, use the following command:
Dialer Profiles In a typical ISDN BRI connection, the router has a single BRI interface that is used to connect to all other sites. If your router has multiple BRI (or PRI) interfaces, or if you want to use different B channels to reach multiple sites, you have the following choices:
Use dialer lists to configure specific interfaces to connect with specific sites. For example, if you have two interfaces and four sites, one interface could connect to half of the sites, and the other interface could connect to the other half. Use dialer profiles to pool all physical interfaces into a single logical interface. In this way, traffic to any of the four sites could be sent out either of the two interfaces.
Configuring dialer profiles is beyond the scope of this course, but involves the following general process.
• • • • •
Create access list statements to define interesting traffic. Create a dialer-list statement pointing to the access list. Create a special dialer interface. This is a logical interface that groups multiple physical interfaces. Configure the dialer interface as you would a physical interface with dialergroup commands and dialer map statements. Associate a dialer pool number with the logical dialer interface. Assign each physical interface to the dialer pool.
DDR Timers DDR timers identify the amount of time that passes without interesting traffic before the link is brought down. You do this by setting one or both of the following timeouts: Timer Idletimeout Description The idle-timeout identifies when the DDR link will be brought down. If no interesting traffic has crossed the link during the specified time interval, the DDR
link is closed. The fast-idle timer is a special timer that allows the DDR link to be brought down before the idle-timeout timer has expired. It identifies an alternate timer that is used if: Fast-idle
• • • •
The physical interface connects to multiple sites (phone numbers) The interface has an existing link to one site Packets are ready to be sent to a different site There is no interesting traffic currently being sent
Use the following commands to configure the DDR timers: Use . . . To . . . Router(configSet the amount of time that elapses without interesting if)#dialer idle-timeout traffic before the DDR link is disconnected. Set the amount of time that must elapse before the DDR Router(configlink can be disconnected early if a call to another if)#dialer fast-idle destination is received.
ISDN Configuration Process When configuring ISDN DDR links, remember to complete the following processes: 1. Configure the interface for the link. o Configure the ISDN switch type (for the router or the interface. o Configure SPIDs if necessary. o Configure encapsulation. o Assign IP addresses and remove the shutdown from the link. 2. Identify devices to call (dial). 3. Define the interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). 4. Set link timeouts to bring the link down.
DDR Show Commands You should be familiar with the information shown for each of the following commands as they relate to DDR routing.
Use... show isdn active To view... Details of active calls such as:
The number dialed 95
• • • • • • • •
The device called Time left until disconnect ISDN switch type ISDN status by layer (layers 1-3) Number of active calls Number of available ISDN channels Idle and fast idle timer settings for an interface Reason for the connection (source and destination addresses) Number and hostname dialed Time connected Time left until disconnect
show isdn status
show dialer int bri
• • •
ISDN Troubleshooting Tips As you work with ISDN connections, use the show isdn status command to check the status of the ISDN interfaces. Here you can examine the status of each of the three OSI model layers. The following table describes the possible meaning of each layer status. Status Information Actions to Take There is no physical connection to the ISDN network. Layer 1 Status = NOT Activated Check the physical connection or remove the shutdown from the interface. A physical connection exists, but communication to the ISDN network is not taking place. (TEI and Layer 1 Status = ACTIVE SPID messages will show if SPIDs are Layer 2 Status = NOT Activated configured.) TEI Not Assigned Verify the ISDN switch type configuration on the spid1 NOT sent router. Note: SPIDs will not be sent or validated until Layer 2 communications have been established. A single TEI is assigned and Layer 2 is active. The router is communicating with the ISDN network over the D channel. SPID statuses do not Layer 2 State = show. MULTIPLE_STATE_ESTABLISHED Either the router does not require SPIDs, or SPIDs are not yet assigned. Validate the SPID configuration. SPID status = spid1 configured, spid1 sent, An incorrect SPID number was configured. spid1 NOT valid Reverify the SPID configuration. Note: SPID2 will not be sent and cannot be
• show isdn status 97 . Layer 3 will not show active until a call has been placed to open communication. ISDN Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot ISDN configuration. one or more routers have been misconfigured. The problem may be with either router. Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem. but you cannot communicate through the ISDN link. If you can successfully ping the remote ISDN router from the local ISDN router. SPIDs have been validated and EIDs assigned. but devices on either network cannot communicate over the link.spid1 valid Endpoint ID Info shown Layer 3 shows 0 active calls validated until SPID1 has been configured correctly. Problems with the communication are limited to those configuration settings taught in this section. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. In each case. For each scenario. verify that interesting traffic is properly defined to bring the link up. If Layer 1 and Layer 2 statuses are active. check to make sure that static routes have been defined on each router. check the following: • • If the ISDN status shows active but a ping between the two routers fails. Check to make sure the dialer group command has been used for the interface to associate the list with the interface. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. begin by verifying the problem.
you should be able to diagnose the problem using the output from the show isdn status command. 98 .• • • • • • ping show show show show show interface bri0 interface bri0:1 interface bri0:2 ip route run Tip: For most troubleshooting activities.
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