‫ﺳﺎده ﺗﺮﻳﻦ، ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻫﺘﺮﻳﻦ و ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ﮔﺮد آوري : ﻣﻬﻨﺪس ﻣﺤﺒﻮب اﺧﺪر‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺋﻴﺰ 58‬

:‫ﺗﮑﻪ هﺎﺋﯽ از ﺳﺨﻦ ﯾﺎ ﻋﺒﺎراﺗﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮ‬

‫ﺳﺎل اوﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺸﻐﻮل ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﯼ و ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁورﯼ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺟﻤـﻼت ﮐـﺎرﺑﺮدﯼ ﺑـﺮاﯼ دﺳـﺘﻴﺎر ﺁﻣـﻮزش اﻧﮕﻠﻴـﺴﯽ ﺑـﻮدم ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﯾﺘﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﻮردم ﮐﻪ دارﯼ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ اﯼ از ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ، ﮐﻮﺗﺎهﺘﺮﯾﻦ و ﭘﺮﮐﺎرﺑﺮدﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﯽ در ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮهﺎﯼ روزﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﺎرﺑﺮان ﻣﺒﺘﺪﯼ ﺑﻮد. اﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﯼ ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺑﻮدﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻓﮑﺮ ﮐﺮدم ﺑﻪ درد ﮐﺴﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺧﻮرد. اﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪهﺎ ﺑﻪ اﯾﻦ ﺑﺎور‬ ‫رﺳﻴﺪم ﮐﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﯾﻦ روش ﺑﻨﺎء ﺳﺎزﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر اوﻟﻴﻪ زﺑﺎن در ذهﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از اﯾﻨﮕﻮﻧـﻪ ﺟﻤـﻼت ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ. و دوﺑـﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ در ذهﻨﻢ ﺗﺪاﻋﯽ ﺷﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﺑﺎد ﺁوردﻩ را ﺑﺎد ﺑﺮدﻩ ﺑﻮد و ﺳﻪ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﯼ ﻣﺪاوم ﺑﺮاﯼ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻦ اﯾﻦ ﺳﺎﯾﺖ‬ESLGOLD ‫ﺳﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﯽ ﺛﻤﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ اﯾﻨﮑﻪ ﻣﺎهﻬـﺎ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺑﻄـﻮر ﮐـﺎﻣﻼ اﺗﻔـﺎﻗﯽ دوﺑـﺎرﻩ ﭘﻴـﺪاﯾﺶ ﮐـﺮدم و از ﻟﻴﻨﮑﻬـﺎﯼ ﭘـﻴﭻ در ﭘـﻴﭽﺶ ﺟﻤﻼﺗـﺶ را‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮاج ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺑﻌﺪ از وﯾﺮاﯾﺶ ﺁﻧﺮا ﺑﺼﻮرت ﯾﮏ ﮐﺘﺎب ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻴﮑـﯽ در ﺁوردم. اﯾـﻦ ﮐﺘـﺎب ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺰودﯼ از اﯾـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﯾﺖ ﺑﺼﻮرت راﯾﮕﺎن ﻗﺎﺑﻞ درﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺑﻮد ﺣﺎوﯼ ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت دﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺣﺪود ٠٨ ﻣﻮﺿـﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ اﯾﻦ ﺗﮑﻪ هﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﮐﻤﮏ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﯾـﮏ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﮐﻠـﯽ اوﻟﻴـﻪ ﺑـﺮاﯼ ﺣـﺮف زدن در ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻬـﺎﯼ‬ .‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ در ذهﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﮕﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬

Phrases for Conversation - Low Beginning Greetings Introducing self Introducing people Identifying people, things Classroom questions Asking for information Giving information Simple sentences Simple questions Numbers and counting Talking about family Talking about favorite things Talking about here and now Phrases for Conversation - High Beginning Introducing others Encouraging words Buying and selling American numbers and prices Making suggestions Making plans for the weekend Asking for favors Asking for repetition Requesting Inviting Offering Talking about abilities Expressing possibility

Phrases for Conversation - Low Beginning Describing people Telling time Talking about past actions Talking about the future Talking about life events Talking about feelings/health Expressing likes and dislikes Simple shopping Short questions and answers Closing a conversation Expressing thanks Situation: At the store Describing a picture Phrases for Conversation - High Beginning Talking about locations Asking for directions Giving directions Asking about place/location Talking about travel Descriptions Like / would like / look like / be like Comparing things Questions and expressions with time Count and non-count nouns in context Using measure words Narrating

Phrases for Conversation - Low Intermediate Conversation starters Rejoinders Giving opinions Agreeing/disagreeing Asking for details Asking permission

Phrases for Conversation - Low Intermediate Sequencing Speaking hypothetically Discussing Sensitive Topics Accepting and Refusing Expressions for Description Indirect Requests

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Asking for and Giving Advice Phrases for Conversation - High Intermediate Supporting opinions Exploring options Contrasting Classifying Discussion techniques Elaborating Clarifying Phrases for Conversation - Advanced Commenting Phrases for Conversation - High Intermediate Interrupting Giving instructions Simple presentations Checking for Understanding Conceding to Make a Point Analyzing Problems

Phrases for Conversation - Advanced Paraphrasing

Greetings
1. Hi. Hello. 2. Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. 3. How are you? How are you doing? How ya doing? (Informal) 4. Fine. How about you? 5. Okay. Thanks.

Introducing Yourself
1. I'm John. I'm Jackie. 2. I'm John Kennedy. I'm Jackie O'Neill. 3. (It's) nice to meet you. (It's) nice meeting you. (It's) good to meet you. 4. Nice to meet you too. (Use first name in informal situations) (Use full name in business and formal situations)

Introducing Other People
1. This is my friend, Jack. Hi Jack. I'm Linda. my brother, Bob. my sister, Cindy. my father, Mr. Harris. my mother, Mrs. Harris. my teacher, Ms. Watson. my student, Carrie. my friend, Mary Jones. my boss, Mr. Ritter. my co-worker, Penny Pitcher. 2. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you too.

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Identifying People, Things
1. This is Minnie Rivers. That is Mr. Lewis. 2. Minnie is a writer. Mr. Lewis is a barber. Gail is an artist. He is a photographer. She is a secretary. He's a dentist. She's a doctor. 3. I am a computer programmer. I'm a businessman. I'm a businesswoman. I'm not a mechanic. 4. We are writers. They are engineers. You are a student. You are students. 5. This is an apple. This is a banana. That is an orange. That is not a tomato. It is a telephone. It's a horse. It's not an airplane.

Classroom Questions
What's your name? What is this? What is that? How do you say it in English? How do you spell it? Please say it again. Please speak more slowly. I don't understand. I'm sorry. My name is Robert. You can call me Bob That's a pencil It's a desk. Eraser. E-R-A-S-E-R. All right. Okay. Listen carefully. Let me explain. That's okay.

Asking for Information
1. What is this? 2. What is that? 3. What's this? 4. What's that? 5. What are these? 6. What are those? 7. Where is Mr. King? 8. Where is Ms. Knight? 9. Where's Johnny? 10. When's the movie? 11. When's lunch? 12. How is the food? This is a table. That is a chair. It's a pen. It's an apple. These are pencils. Those are books. He is over there. She's (right) here. He's in the house. It's at 9:00. Lunch is at noon. It's delicious.

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Giving Information
1. Jeremy is from Ohio. 2. Kelly is a saleswoman. 3. He's a university student. 4. Ronda lives in Texas. 5. I work at a restaurant. 6. I live in Florida. 8. Where are you from? 9. What is your occupation? Oh really? What part of Ohio? Is that right? What company? Oh. What university? Really? What city (in Texas)? Oh really? Which restaurant? Oh yeah? Where in Florida? I'm from Delaware. I'm a police officer. Columbus. Microsoft. Harvard. Dallas. Angelo Meroni's Orlando.

Simple Sentences
1. I work in a post office. 2. Greg works in a bank. 3. They live in Washington. 4. I eat breakfast at 8:00 a.m. 5. She goes to work at 9:00 a.m. 6. Eddy plays basketball every Friday. 7. Penny starts class at 10:00. 8. I don't drink beer. Are you a letter carrier? Is he a teller? Are they senators? What do you eat? Where does she work? Where does he play? When does she finish? Why (not)? No, I'm a postal clerk. Yes, he is. No, they aren't. (I eat) eggs, bacon, and toast. In the cafeteria. At the gym. At 11:00. I don't like it.

Simple Questions
Very Simple Yes/No Questions Are you from Canada? Is he a doctor? Is this free? Do you like apples? Does she live in New Orleans? More examples of Yes/No Questions Is she going to the dance? Are they flying home? Are you coming to the party? Examples of simple Wh- questions What do you do (as an occupation)? What do you do on the weekends? Where are you from? Where do you live? How do you say that in English? How do you spell your name? How do you know Mr. Amos? Yes, I am. No, he isn't. Yes, it is. Yes, I do. No, she doesn't Yes, she is. No, they're taking the bus. No, I have other plans. I'm a computer programmer. I usually stay home and watch television. I'm from Ontario, California. I live in Arizona. I live at the Chateau Apartments. I don't know. S-I-M-O-N. He's my teacher.

Numbers and Counting
1. How many fingers do you have? 2. You have eight fingers? 3. How many brothers does Ryan have? 4. How many students in your class? 5. How old is your sister? 6. How many hours do you work every day? I have eight fingers. Eight fingers and two thumbs. He has four (brothers). Thirty-five, including me. She is seventeen. From nine to five. Eight hours.

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7. How many people are in the group? 8. How many cookies are left? 9. How many toothpicks are in the box?

About seventy. Five or six. More than a hundred.

Talking about Family
Introducing your family This is my mother/mom. This is my father/dad. (These are my parents) This is my wife. This is my husband. There are five people in my family. (My mother, my father, my older brother, my older sister, me, my younger brother.) I have two brothers. One is older. One brother is older (than me). One is younger. I have one sister. I'm number three. Asking about family How many brothers and sisters do you have? What number are you? He's the oldest (of five children). She's the youngest. Cindy doesn't have any brothers or sisters. Jared is an only child. How many children do you have? We have two. One son and one daughter. Do you have any kids? No, I'm not married.

Talking about Favorite Things
1. What is your favorite color? 2. What's your favorite kind of music? 3. Favorite sport? 4. Do you have a lucky number? 5. What kind of food do you like best? 6. How about movies? 7. Who is your favorite movie star? 8. What city do you like most? Purple. I like pop music. Kung fu. Yes. It's eight. I like Cantonese food. Action. Jackie Chan. Hong Kong, of course!

Talking about Here and Now
1. What is Ms. Chan doing? 2. What is he doing? 3. What are you doing? 4. Who is singing that song? 5. Who is washing the dishes? 6. Where are you going now? She is writing a letter. He's playing hockey. I'm reading a book. Frank (is). The children are. I'm going to the library. Oh. That's nice. That's interesting. Is it interesting? Oh. It sounds good. That's great. Okay. Have fun.

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Describing People
Personality and Appearance 1.Tell me about your father. What kind of person is he? 2. What does he look like? 3. What does your mother look like? 4. How about your little sister? Clothing 5. What is your brother wearing? 6. What kind of shoes does he have (on)? 7. Is Susan wearing a dress? 8. Anything else? Description Well, he's very friendly, smart and funny. He's young, short and handsome. He has straight black hair and green eyes. She's tall, thin and beautiful. She has blonde hair and wears glasses. She has curly red hair and a cute smile. Everybody likes her. He's wearing light brown pants and an orange t-shirt. Sneakers, and he's wearing white socks. No. She's wearing a blue skirt and a yellow blouse. Yes. She's wearing boots and carrying a purse.

Telling Time
7:00 12:00 3:10 7:14 9:15 1:21 11:05 2:09 6:30 4:50 10:45 8:35 It's seven o'clock. It's twelve o'clock. It's three ten. It's seven fourteen. It's nine fifteen. It's one twenty-one It's eleven oh five. It's two oh nine. It's six thirty. It's four fifty. It's ten forty-five. It's eight thirty-five. It's seven p.m. / a.m. It's noon / midnight. It's ten (minutes) after three. It's fourteen after seven. It's (a) quarter after nine. It's twenty-one minutes past one. It's five after eleven. It's nine minutes past two. It's half past six. It's ten minutes to five. It's quarter to eleven. It's twenty-five minutes to nine.

Talking about Past Actions
1. What did you do last Friday? 2. Where did you go? 3. When did you get back? 4. Where did you stay? 5. What did Sally have for lunch? 6. What did he eat last night? 7. How was the weather? I went to a baseball game. I went to Detroit. I got back on Saturday night. I stayed with my parents. She had soup and sandwiches. He ate Chinese food. It was wonderful.

Talking about the Future
1. What will you do tomorrow? 2. When will you finish? 3. What will we do in class today? 4. Where will they put the table? 5. When will Joe leave for New York? 6. How will he get there? I'll help my mom with the housework. In the afternoon. We'll play some word games. They'll put it next to the window. He'll leave right after dinner. He'll take the bus.

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Talking about Life Events
1. When is your birthday? 2. What year? 3. Were you born and raised here? 4. Did Sam grow up here? 5. Where did Lisa go to school? 6. Which university did Rick go to? 7. When will she graduate? 8. When did they get married? 9. When was your son born? 10. What day is your wedding anniversary? 11. When did they move to Pittsburgh? 12. When did his grandfather pass away/(die)? December 29(th) That's personal. No. I wasn't. Yes, he did. In California. Princeton. Next April. They got married in June. Two months ago. It's July 17th Last September. Five years ago.

Talking about Feelings/Health Issues
How's the weather today? How do you feel? How are you feeling? Is everything okay? What's wrong? What's the matter? Are you all right? What happened? It's really cold. I'm fine. Not too good. I feel sick. I have a headache. My leg hurts. I cut my hand. He broke his arm. Let's stay inside. That's good. Sorry to hear that. That's too bad. Here's some aspirin Let me help you. That looks serious. Call 911!

Expressing Likes and Dislikes
1. I like fruit. 2. Helen likes sports. 3. Ms. Cramer doesn't like coffee. 4. Tony does not like action movies. 5. Does Terry like swimming? 6. Does Phil like soft drinks? 7. Does Sheila like salad? 8. Do you like Chinese food? What kind? What kind of sports? Really? Does she like tea? Oh. What kind does he like? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't. No, she does not. Yes, I do. No, I don't. A little. Oranges and bananas. Football and tennis. Yes, she does. (He likes) drama.

Simple Shopping
1. Where are the pencils? 2. How much is this mirror? 3. How much does this cost? 4. How much are these? 5. Do you have any tshirts? 6. That comes to $26.59. 7. That will be $17.48. They're on the second shelf. It's $19.95. That one is $5.00. They're $4.00 each. What size? Medium or Large? Here's $30.00. Here's $17.50. Keep the change. Okay, thanks. Okay. I'll take it. How about this one? That's too expensive. Large. Your change is $3.41 Thanks.

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Short Questions and Answers
Are you a doctor? Is he from Colombia? Is it time to go? Is she married? Are they here yet? Do you live in Oklahoma? Does she drink coffee? Does it fly? Do you need some help? Can I have this? Should we go? Could you help me? Yes, I am. No, I'm a nurse. Yes, he is No, he isn't. No, he's from Venezuela. Yes, it is. No, it isn't. Not yet. Yes, she is. No, she isn't. I don't know. Yes, they are. No, they aren't. Yes, I do. No, I don't. No, I live in Texas. Yes, she does. No, she doesn't. No, she drinks tea. Yes, it does. No, I don't think so. Yes, I do. No, I'm fine. Yes, you can. No, you can't. Yeah. Okay. No, not yet. Sure. No, sorry.

Closing a Conversation
Before closing It's been nice talking to you. Nice talking to you too. (I'm sorry, but) I have to go now. Closing Good-bye Bye. See you later. See ya Catch you later

(informal) (informal)

Expressing Thanks
Thanks Thank you I appreciate it. Thanks for the tour. Thanks for your time. Thank you for the nice gift. I appreciate your kindness.

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Situation: At the Store
When you enter the store/start a conversation with the clerk: What a clerk might say: What a customer might say: May I help you? Excuse me. Do you work here? Can I help you? Can I ask you something? Can I help you find something? What can I do for you? What a customer might respond: Yes. I'm looking for ________________. Do you have any ___________ (s)? Can you tell me where the ___________is/are? When you check out/leave the store: Clerk: Did you find everything you needed? Did you find what you were looking for? Did you find everything okay? Will that be all (for today)? Is that everything? (Will there be) anything else? Customer: That's all for today. That's it. Thanks.

Describing a Picture
What do you see in the picture? There is a There's a There are some There're some Is there a . . . ? Are there (some) . . . ? Locations On the right/left Near the window Actions The man is _______ ing The woman is __________ing Clothing What is the man/woman wearing? She/He is wearing a some Opinions What do you think I think Tell a Story Yesterday, Ms. Jones . . . Use PAST tense By the door In the box On the chair Under the table

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Introducing Others
Paul, this is John. John, this is Paul. 1. Have you met Paul? 2. Have you two met each other? No, I haven't. No, we haven't. Yes, we have. Paul, this is John. John, this is Paul. Anne, this is Marie. Marie, Anne.

Encouraging Words
Expressing Goodwill . . .when someone is arriving Welcome Welcome back! Come in. It's good to meet you. (first time only) It's good to see you again. (after the first time) . . . when someone is leaving It's been nice talking with you. Have a good/nice day. Have a nice weekend. Have a nice trip. Have fun. Keep in touch.

Encouragement Good luck! Good luck on your test. You can do it! Do your best. Do the best you can. Work hard. Keep up the good work. Reassurance Take it easy. Don't worry. That's okay. It's going to be all right. Everything will be fine. No problem. Responses to good news Wow! That's great! That's wonderful. That's really good news. I'm glad/happy to hear that. Congratulations! Good for you!

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Good job! Responses to bad news That's too bad. That's really sad. That's terrible! (for really bad news) I'm sorry to hear that. (for sad news)

Buying and Selling
1. May I help you? 2. What can I do for you? 3. Is there something I can help you with? Yes, I'd like to buy these razors. I'm looking for the cameras. No, I'm just browsing. Thanks anyway. How much is this? Okay, that'll be $6.85 with tax. They're in Aisle Two. Ok. It's $4.95.

American Numbers and Prices
Remember that in English, we divide prices at the decimal point. For example: $4.59 four dollars (and) fifty-nine cents four / fifty nine (Time is also divided in a similar way: 12:47 is said “twelve / forty-seven”) Americans often say large numbers in “phrases” of two digits. For example: 267 two hundred sixty-seven 4381 two / sixty seven four thousand three hundred eighty-one forty-three / eighty-one Some people also use two-digit phrasing with telephone numbers: 5658347 five-six-five // eighty-three / forty-seven (long way) (short way)

(long way) (short way)

Practice the following prices (both long and short ways) with a partner: That will be____(price)______ That comes to ____(price)____ $59.65 $1.79* $27.95 $6.75 $14.40 $77.17 *Also: a dollar seventy-nine **Also: twenty-nine (dollars) even

$29.00** $82.03 $70.50

$425.78 $781.34 $211.54

$231.49 $690.42 $380.18

$3,657.88 $9,405.31 $1,550.15

Making Suggestions
1. I think you should buy the blue one. 2. I don't think you should sell your car. 3. Let's go bowling tonight. That's a good idea. Thanks for the advice, but I really need the money.

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4. Why don't we go skiing on Saturday? 5. Why don't you come with me to China?

Sorry, I can't. I'm meeting a friend for dinner. Sounds like a good idea. Where do you want to go? Thanks, but I've already been there.

Making Plans for the Weekend
What are you doing this Saturday? Do you want to go see a movie? What's playing at the Century Fox? Should we go see it? How about "Run of the Mill?" Why don't we go to a concert instead? Not much. That sounds good. "Candlelight in the Window." I'd rather not. I don't like horror movies. No. I heard that's really boring. Great idea!

Asking for Favors
1. Can you help me with my math? 2. Could you bring me some coffee? 3. Would you open the car door for me? 4. Could I ask you a favor? Sure. What's the problem? I'd be glad to. How do you like it? No problem. It looks like your hands are full. It depends. What is it?

Asking for Repetition
What did you say your name was? Did you say Andersen or Henderson? Is "Cathy" spelled with a C or a K? And what was your address again? Sorry, I didn't catch the last part. I can't hear you very well. It's Cathy Henderson. Henderson, with an H. It's C as in Cadillac. 72 West Sunshine Blvd., Suite 501. Do you want me to repeat it? Maybe you should turn down the radio.

Requesting
1. Give me a paper towel. 2. Please mail this letter for me. 3. Would you please turn down that music? 4. Will you type my term paper for me? 5. Would you give me a ride home? Here you are. Okay. I'll stop by the post office on my way home. Sorry. Is it bothering you? Sure. When do you need it? Sorry. I'm not going in that direction.

Inviting
1. Do you want to dance? 2. Would you like to go hiking this weekend? 3. How about going swimming on Friday? 4. How would you like to play golf tomorrow? No thanks. I'm kind of tired right now Sure, I'd love to. What time should we meet? Ah. Can I get back to you on that? Sounds like a great idea. Where do you want to go?

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Offering
1. Here. Have a cookie. 2. Would you like some pie? 3. How about a glass of wine? 4. What will you have (to drink)? 5. Would you like some more cake? 6. Can I get you some milk or something? Thanks. No thank you. It looks delicious though. Thanks, but I don't drink (alcohol). Orange juice will be fine. Sure. It's really good. Did you bake it yourself ? Well, a glass of water would be okay.

Talking about Abilities
1. Can you play the piano? 2. How about the guitar? 3. Can Billy ride a bike? 4. Does Abby speak Mandarin? 5. Do you sing? 6. Is Connie good at dancing? 7. Do you know how to use a computer? Yes, but not very well. (I can play) a little. No, he can't. He's too young. Yes, she speaks very well. Not really. I have no talent in that area. Yes, she's a great dancer. Of course!

Speaking Situations: Expressing Possibility
1. We can stay here for the evening. 2. I may be in California next Monday. 3. She might not make it to the wedding. 4. We could go (and) see a movie. Or we could go out for ice cream. I'd rather not. It's only a few more hours (of driving). Well, let me know what you decide. That's too bad. I hope she feels better soon. That would be fun.

Talking about Locations
1. Where are the magazines? 2. Where is the remote control? 3. Where did you put the keys? 4. Where's the spider? 5. Where's Fluffy? 6. Where's Troy's toy truck? 7. Where did you find the book? They're in the living room, on the coffee table. It's probably on the sofa, between the pillows. I think they're in the bedroom, in the top drawer. It's in the bathroom, next to the bathtub. He's probably hiding under the rocking chair. It's outside by the big brick bridge. It was on top of the refrigerator.

Asking for Directions
1. Excuse me. Is there a grocery store around here? 2. Can you tell me how to get to Phoenix? 3. Where's Tanner's Leather Shop? 4. How do you get to the bank? Yeah. There's one right across the street. Sorry. I don't live around here. It's on the corner of Holly and Vine. Next to the library. Go straight down this street for two blocks. Turn left when you get to Maple Street. Stay on Maple for half a block. It's on the left hand side.

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Giving Directions
1. Excuse me. Is there a grocery store around here? 2. Can you tell me how to get to Phoenix? 3. Where's Tanner's Leather Shop? 4. How do you get to the bank? Yeah. There's one right across the street. Sorry. I don't live around here. It's on the corner of Holly and Vine. Next to the library. Go straight down this street for two blocks. Turn left when you get to Maple Street. Stay on Maple for half a block. It's on the left hand side.

Asking about Place/Location
Where is the bank? It's on Main Street.

It's next to the post office. It's between the bakery and the barber shop. It's on the corner of Ninth Street and Pine (Street).
Where's Lagoon? It's in Davis County, near Kaysville. It's on I-15, between Farmington and Kaysville. It's ten miles north of Salt Lake City.

Talking about Travel
1. How do you get to work? 2. How long does it take? 3. How often do you ride the bus? 4. Do you ever walk to work? 5. Are you going anywhere this summer? 6. How are you going to get there? 7. Why don't you fly? I usually drive my car. It takes half an hour. Once in a while. No, that would take forever. Probably to Jacksonville. By train. Airplane tickets are too expensive.

Directions
How do you get to the sporting goods store? (on foot) First, go down State Street until you get to 4th South. Then, turn left. Then, go down 4th South for three blocks. It's on the right side of the street next to Wendy's. (by car) Take State Street to 4th South. At 4th South, turn left. Stay on 4th South for about three blocks. The sporting goods store will be on the right, next to Wendy's. How do you get to (your house in) Lehi? Take I-15 south about 20 miles. After you cross the mountain, watch for the signs to Lehi. Take the first Lehi exit. When you get off the freeway, make a right turn at the stop sign. Follow the road (15th East) for five blocks. Make a left turn on Royal Drive.

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Continue on Royal Drive until you see the big oak tree. My house is on the left hand side. It's a two-story, red brick house with a large front yard. You can't miss it!

Descriptions 1. What does Martha look like? 2. What else can you tell me? 3. What is George like? 4. Tell me about your new apartment. 5. What did you think of the Himalayas?

She's tall, dark and beautiful. Well, she has long, black hair and blue eyes. She's kind of chubby and wears glasses. He's funny, cute and really rich. He reminds me of that guy on the Morning Show. Well, it's pretty small. It only has two rooms and a bathroom. But it's comfortable enough for me. Well, the view was gorgeous. Of course, it took two days to get there, and the weather was freezing!

Like / Would like / Look like / Be like
Would like vs. (Do) like What kind of food do you like? I like ice cream, bananas, soda pop I like Chinese food. What kind of food would you like? I would like Italian food. What kind of friend(s) do you like? I like someone who is easygoing. I like a person who has talent. I like people who are kind. What kind of person would you like to marry? I would like someone who has a lot of money. I like a man/woman/person who is friendly. (Facts, personal preferences) (If you could choose)

Be like vs. Look like What does John like? (What are his personal preferences?) He likes horror movies, basketball, chocolate ice cream... What does John look like? (Physical description) He is tall, dark and handsome. He has black hair and wears glasses. What is John like? (Description of personality) He is a nice guy. He is very kind and friendly.

Comparing Things
1. Which sofa should we buy? 2. I need a new watch. 3. Which runner are you cheering for? 4. I like the blue sweater. This one is larger, but it is also more expensive. The Classie is nicer than the Timebox. That one is less affordable though. Sammy. He's the fastest. But Timmy is the most handsome. I think the red one is better. but the green one is the best.

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5. How much sugar should I add?

Only a little. That's too much!

Questions and Expressions with Time
Specific times Question When do you… (present tense) <BR When did you… I (past tense) (past tense) When will you…. When are you going to When do you plan to What time do you… (past) (future) Extended Time How long do you… did you will you How long does it take you to… It takes (me) Ongoing Action How long have you…. I have … Frequency How often do you… <BR I (present tense) often, usually always, never once in a while for five days for two hours since yesterday I (usually) I (past) I (future) from 9:00 to 11:00 for three hours ten minutes six days I will… I am going to I plan to (same as above) Answer I usually/always… Words/phrases in the evening at 9:00 on Mondays before dinner after I eat lunch when I get home last night before class while I was eating tomorrow next Tuesday in a few days at 7:30 around 4:00

Count and Non-count Nouns in Context
Non-count Nouns Count Nouns

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I'd like to buy some ____________. How much do you need? Let's see. Five ____s* should be enough. All right. Five____s of ________. Anything else? No, that will be all for today.

I'd like to buy some _______________s. How many do you need? Let's see. Five (of them) should be enough. All right. Five __________s. Anything else? No, that will be all for today.

*Use measure words with non-count nouns. For example: Three bottles of milk. Two cans of soda pop. A pound of ground beef.

Measure words can also be used for count nouns. For example: Four boxes of crackers. A package of cookies. Six pounds of apples. Or: Six apples Seven donuts

Using Measure Words
This can be used to practice Count and Non-count nouns in context. When talking about non-count items (such as sugar, water, toothpaste, etc.), it is common to use measure words to indicate how much of the substance you are referring to. Below are a few examples of measure words used in English. Personal items Food Liquid A bar of soap A bowl of rice A teaspoon of medicine A tube of toothpaste A dish of spaghetti A tablespoon of vinegar A container of shampoo A pound of meat/cheese A glass of water A stick of deodorant A piece of cake/pie A cup of coffee A bottle of perfume/cologne A can of soup A pint of blood A roll of toilet paper A box of cereal A quart of milk A ball of cotton A bag of flour A half gallon of juice Sewing items A carton of ice cream A gallon of punch A spool of thread A jar of peanut butter A tank of gas A skein of yarn A loaf of bread A jug of lemonade A yard/meter of ribbon A slice of bread/pizza A bottle of wine A (square) foot/meter of fabric/cloth A package of pasta A keg of beer Stationery A dash of salt A shot of vodka A piece of paper A cube of ice A drop of rain A pad of paper A pack of gum A roll of tape A head of lettuce/cabbage A stick/piece of chalk An ear of corn A bottle/tube of glue A kernel of corn A jar of paste A grain of wheat/salt A pair of scissors A stalk of celery A spear of asparagus A clove of garlic

Narrating
1. Tell us about your trip. It was the most horrible five days of my life.

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2. What happened to your ankle?

3. What did you do last summer?

First, we missed our flight; then we had to wait four hours for our luggage. The food on the plane was terrible, and there was no shower in the hotel. Well, my best friend and I went skiing over the weekend. I wanted to try something exciting, so I took the most difficult trail. I hit a bump and fell. Then I slid 500 meters before I could stop. We went scuba diving in Malaysia. It was my first time, so I learned a lot. We took a boat out to a tiny island, found the perfect spot, and swam for hours among the fishes.

Conversation Starters
General greetings and inquiries How's it going? (This means “How are you?” not “Where are you How's going?”) everything? How's life? Asking about present activities What's up? (What are you doing now?) What's happening?

Asking and telling about recent events What's new? Guess what? (What interesting has happened since I last saw you?) (I want to tell you something. Ask me about it.) (The appropriate response to this is “What?”) A: Guess what? B: What? A: I just got a new job. B: Congratulations!

Bringing up a serious topic Can I talk to you for a minute? Do you have a minute? Got a minute?

Rejoinders
Rejoinders are quick responses to show that you are interested or paying attention. (Oh) Really? That's interesting. Is that right? Note how rejoinders are used in the following situations. 1. I just got a new job. Oh really? That's great! 2. I lost my wallet yesterday. Oh really? That's too bad. Rejoinders may also take the form of follow-up questions. Note how they are used in the following situations.

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1. I just bought a new car. 2. Johnny is in the hospital. 3. I'm going to Hawaii.

You did? He is? You are?

Asking for Opinions
What do you think? What's your opinion? What are your ideas? Do you have any thoughts on that? How do you feel about that? Giving Opinions I think we should get a new car. I don't think we need one. I believe (that) smoking should be outlawed. I don't believe (that) it should be illegal. In my opinion, Gone with the Breeze is the best movie ever made. I feel that it's the right thing to do. I don't feel that it's such a good idea.

Agreeing and Disagreeing
Agreeing I agree. So do I. Me too. Me neither. I don't either. You're right. That's right. Good idea. I think that's a good idea.

(Agreeing about a negative idea.) (Agreeing about a negative idea.)

Disagreeing I disagree. I don't think so. (No.) That's not right. Yes, but... (I'm sorry, but) I don't agree.

Asking for Details
Wh- Questions can be used to ask for more information: What did you do over the weekend? Where did you go for Spring Break? How was your trip? When did you get back? What kind of things did you see? Who did you go with? How many people were there? Whose car did you drive?

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When asking for details about a particular item you are considering buying, you can say Could you give me some information about this computer? Can you give me more details about that CD player? Could you tell me about this bookcase? What can you tell me about these blenders?

Asking Permission
Modals are commonly used for asking permission Can I ask you a question? May I have a piece of cake? Could I get you to turn off the lights Some other common phrases are Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your lawn mower? Giving Permission Sure. Go ahead. No problem.

Asking for and Giving Advice
Asking for Advice What do you think I should do? What do you suggest? What would you do (in this situation)? Giving Advice I think you should get a lawyer. Maybe you should try someplace else. Why don't you call the company? If I were you, I would tell her.

Sequencing
First, Second, Third, Last, First of all, Then, Next, Finally, To begin with, Then, Later, In the end,

Speaking Hypothetically
What would you do if . . . Suppose . . . Imagine . . . Present Hypothetical

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If I were rich, I would buy a bigger house. If I had a bigger house, I would invite my friends over. Past Hypothetical If Jack had been there, he could have prevented the incident. If I had seen that movie, I would have cried. Formal Hypothetical Should you have any questions, feel free to contact me. Had I been there, I might have been able to help.

Discussing Sensitive Topics
Bringing up a sensitive topic Can I talk to you for a minute? Can I ask you something? Do you mind if I ask you something? I need to talk to you for a minute. I have to tell you something. There's something I need to tell you. There's something I think you should know. We need to talk. Prefacing a negative subject I don't mean to be rude, but . . . I hate to tell you this, but . . . I don't know how to tell you this, but . . . You might not like what I have to say, but . . . I wish I didn't have to tell you this, but . . . This may be unpleasant, but . . . This may seem blunt, but . . .

Accepting and Refusing
Accepting and refusing politely may depend on what you are asked. For example Would you like some cake? Yes, please. No, thank you Sure. Thanks I'd better not. Okay. Thank you No, but thanks for offering. Would you like to go see a movie? Okay. Sounds good. Sure. I'd love to. Yeah. Good idea How about some more pie? All right. Thanks Looks good. Thanks Don't mind if I do. How about going skiing this weekend? Great. What time? Sounds like fun. Sorry. I'm busy this weekend. I don't think I can. No, thanks. I'm really full. Thanks anyway. Looks delicious, but I'll have to pass. No, I'd rather not. I'm sorry, but I can't. No, but thanks for inviting me.

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All right. When and where?

How about some other time?

Expressions for Description
Sentences: It is . . . This is something . . . It's something that you . . . You can (verb) it. You can (verb) with it. You can use it to (verb). It is used for V + ing. You need it for V + ing. You need/use it when . . . If you want/need to (verb), then you can . . . Questions: Is it . . . ? What do you do with it? What is it made of? What is it used for? What's the difference between A and B?

Indirect Requests and Information Exchange
Tell someone to do something Please tell Crissy to clean up her room. Could you tell Bob to call me? Tell him not to do that. Tell someone some information Can you tell them (that) the party starts at nine? Please tell Mr. Hopkins (that) I will be late. Ask someone to do something Please ask Teresa to give me a call. Could you ask Russell to be here at five? Ask someone for some information (Yes or No) Ask Paula if she is coming to the party. Could you ask them if they did the homework? Please ask her whether she finished the assignment. Ask someone for some information (Open ended) Ask Randy what he is doing. Please ask her when she will be here. Would you ask him what he wants? Will you ask them how much it costs?

Supporting Opinions
Giving your opinion I think that . . . I don't think that . . . In my opinion . . . Asking for support or details

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Why do you think that? Could you elaborate? Could you give (me) an example? Can you illustrate that? What evidence do you have? Could you explain it in more detail? Could you provide some details? Supporting your opinions Let me illustrate, For example, For instance, To give you an example, Let me give you an example, To elaborate, First, (second), etc.

Exploring Options
Asking for input What do you think (about . . . )? How do you feel (about . . . )? Any ideas? What are the alternatives? Exploring Options Let's look at Option 1. What (do you think) about Plan B? How about the third alternative? Let's consider Bob's proposal. Moving on Let's move on to Option 2. What about Plan C? Let's look at the fourth choice. How about Mary's idea? Should we move on to the next point? Before we move on, we need to consider . . .

Contrasting
On the other hand, However, Yes, but . . . You may be right, but . . . I may be wrong, but . . . Correct me if I'm wrong, but . . . On the contrary, (Be careful with this one. It appears to be a direct negation of what was just stated, but can actually be an emphatic reaffirmation of one's own opinion. For example: It's not hot. On the contrary, it's cold.—“Not hot” and “cold” mean the same thing.)

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Classifying
There are five kinds of . . . There are two types of . . . There are three categories of . . . We can divide (this) into three parts: 1) 2) 3) This can be broken down into four sections. They are: A) B) C) D)

Discussion Techniques
Opening a discussion To begin with, We need to discuss . . . determine find out Let's start by (V ing) We'll start by (V ing) The problem here is . . . issue question The important thing (here) is . . . The main thing we need to discuss is . . . Let's look at . . . It looks like . . . It appears that . . . Asking for input What do you think? How about you? How do you feel about that? Any ideas on that? Responding (That sounds like a) good idea. Sounds good. The problem with that is . . . That raises the issue of . . . brings up

Elaborating
Asking for Elaboration Could you elaborate (on that)? Could you tell me a little more about it? Could you give (me) some details? Could you fill me in on that? Could you expound on that? What else can you tell us (about that)? Is there anything else you can tell us? Is there more to it?

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Elaborating To elaborate, To give you more information, Let me explain. Let me elaborate. Let me tell you a little more (about it). Let me give you some details. What's more,

Clarifying
Clarifying your own ideas In other words, What I mean is . . . What I'm trying to say is . . . What I wanted to say was . . . To clarify, Asking for Clarification What do you mean (by that)? What are you trying to say? What was that again? Could you clarify that? Clarifying another's ideas You mean . . . What you mean is . . . What you're saying is . . . (I think) what she means is . . . What he's trying to say is . . . If I understand you, (you're saying that . . . ) If I'm hearing you correctly, So, you think (that) . . . So, your idea is . . .

Interrupting
Interrupting politely Excuse me, Pardon me, Sorry to interrupt, May I interrupt (for a minute)? Can I add something here? I don't mean to intrude, but . . . Could I inject something here? Do you mind if I jump in here? Getting back to the topic Anyway, Now, where was I? Where were we? What were you saying? You were saying . . . To get back to . . .

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Giving Instructions
Asking for Instructions How do you (do this)? How do I . . . ? What is the best way to . . . ? How do I go about it? What do you suggest? How do you suggest I proceed? What is the first step? Giving Instructions Sequencing First, (you) . . . Then, (you) . . . Next, (you) . . . Lastly, (you) . . . Starting out Before you begin, (you should . . .) The first thing you do is . . . . I would start by . . . The best place to begin is . . . To begin with, Continuing After that, The next step is to . . . The next thing you do is . . . Once you've done that, then . . . When you finish that, then . . . Finishing The last step is . . . The last thing you do is . . . In the end, When you've finished, When you've completed all the steps,

Simple Presentations
Introduction (Good morning, afternoon, evening) I'm happy to be here. I'm glad to have this opportunity to . . . Today, I'd like to talk (to you) about . . . My topic today is . . . The focus of my remarks is . . . I'd like to share some thoughts on (topic) Main points Let me start by . . . First, let me tell you about . . . I've divided my topic into (three) parts: (They are . . .) Giving examples For example, For instance,

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Let me illustrate, To illustrate, Conclusion In conclusion, To conclude, To summarize, To sum up,

Checking for Understanding
(Do you) know what I mean? Do you know what I'm saying? Do you understand? Are you following me? Are you with me (so far)? Have you got it? Any questions? Got it? Showing Understanding I see. I understand. I get it./I got it. Gotcha. (Informal) Expressing Lack of Understanding I don't get it. (I'm sorry.) I don't understand. What do you mean? I'm not following you. I don't quite follow you. I'm not sure I get what you mean. What was that again?

Conceding to Make a Point
That may be true, but . . . I may be wrong, but . . . You might be right, but . . . You have a good point, but . . . You could say that, but . . . Correct me if I'm wrong, but . . . I don't mean to be rude, but . . . I hate to bring this up, but . . . I don't mean to be negative, but . . . This may sound strange, but . . .

Analyzing Problems
Focusing on the main problem/issue What is the main problem? What is the real issue (here)? (I think) the major problem is . . . Our primary concern is . . .

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The crux of the matter is . . . (As I see it), the most important thing is . . . The main problem we need to solve is . . . We really need to take care of . . . It all comes down to this: Asking for input What should we do about it? What needs to be done? What do you think we should do? What are we going to do about it? Do you have any suggestions? Any ideas? Making Recommendations I recommend that . . . I suggest that . . . I would like to propose that . . . Why don't we . . .

Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing involves restating someone else's ideas in your own words. There are several phrases that can be used to introduce paraphrasing: So . . . (rephrase the other person's ideas) In other words . . . (paraphrase) I understand. (You're saying that . . .) Oh. I see. (You want to say that . . . ) I get it. (You mean . . .) So, what you mean is . . . Let me see if I understand you correctly. . . What I think you're saying is . . . If I'm hearing you correctly . . .

Commenting
If you would like to make a comment or insert a remark in an ongoing conversation, it is polite to acknowledge what someone has just said before stating your own ideas. Some phrases for doing this are: That's interesting. I think that... Interesting point. I would add... Hmmm. I hadn't thought of that before. Questions can also be a useful way of bringing new ideas into a conversation: What do you think about . . . Have you considered . . . What about . . . Sometimes a more direct approach is appropriate: Can I add something here? (Do you) mind if I interject something here?

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