Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

The Effect of Contact Between Strawbale Wall Composition and Glass Cement Plaster.
S D Olayemi and A A Adedeji Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria Abstract The response of the contact between plaster and strawbale wall composition for the wall optimal design has been observed and simulated in this work using SAP2000. In the laboratory, glass cement plastered strawbale wall has shown adequate resistance against vertical loading when the mix ratio was varied to 1:2:2 (cement:glass:sand). The results have shown that the cement plastered wall has much more stresses under load than the wall plastered with only glass for both single course and double courses (i.e. maximum stress for only cement plastered strawbale wall is 2.82N/mm2 and that of glass only is 2.20N/mm2 for single coarse). Also obtained is the maximum predicted stress of 3.38N/mm2 obtained from SAP2000 using the value obtained from the observed maximum stress of 2.96 for the plastered strawbale wall. Although the predicted and the observed values are close, the predicted values is higher than the observed value which indicates that the stress stability, in general, of the plastered strawbale wall are satisfactory. Keywords; Strawbale, wall prism, glass, plaster

1.

Introduction

Straw is a flexible (non-rigid) material that is sustainable, plentiful and non-expensive as a building material which requires people to work with somewhat differently than if it was rigid. Straws are originated from leftovers stem of harvested grain that are of different types depending on the type of grain they are derived from e.g. from rice, wheat, maize, millet, elephant grass, e.t.c. It is important to recognize that straws are dry plant material or stack in the field after a plant has matured, been harvested for seed (Jones, 1999). These straws are baled together and compressed to bear loading when being used as post and beam system or structural bale system. According to Lerner (2003), in strawbale wall, the relatively strong, stiff plaster plays a significant role as it works together with the ductile strawbale come to function as a stress skin panel. Plastering materials used for strawbale structures are of different types like earth/laterite plaster, lime plaster, cement plaster, e.t.c. These plastering materials make the wall strong and prevent the strawbale from fire when plastered on both interior and exterior part, creating a wall system that is strong, resilient and very attractive. Some of the properties of straw are: Sustainability, Sound insulation,

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

Thermal insulation, Pest resistance, Fire resistance, Structural sound, Durability, Simplicity. The final strength of these wall systems depends both on plasters and strawbale . Plasters serve many functions in a wall system. They are:     Protect the underlying surface Permit or prevent the migration of vapor or liquid moisture Prevent the migration of air currents Can carry structural loads.

Benefits of plastered walls also include sound proofing not present with regular dry wall. Glass as an aggregate blend is one of the most durable materials known because it has basically zero water absorption with current emphasis. Durability of high performance is only natural to rely on extremely durable ingredient. Glass serve as a potential environmental benefits, serve as recycling purpose, it is economical, conserve energy and material resources. The effect of contact between the strawbale structures and plastering materials and addition of glass cement as an aggregates blend is to obtain the response of such structure to compressive loadings. This project will also show the effectiveness of contact between strawbale and plaster composition in different mix ratio. The objectives of this paper to determine the effects of contact between strawbale and glass-cement plaster composition involve the assessment of their material properties by experimental tests and the analyzes of the composite wall for its stresses using finite element method (FEM). 2. Plaster/Render and Stucco

Plaster starts as a dry matrix that is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting, and can manipulated with metal tools or even sandpaper. These characteristics make plaster suitable for a finishing rather than a load-bearing material. However, the term mortar implies a plastic mixture of a cementing materials, fine aggregates and water regardless of plaster while the mixture is known as stucco/render when used on the exterior surface. In load-bearing straw bale systems, the relatively strong, stiff plaster plays a significant role as it works together with the strawbale to function as a stress skin panel, resisting compressive, in-plane and out-of plane loading. the plaster can act as a shear wall, resisting in-plane lateral loads. 3 Glass Cement

Waste glass is one of the most solid pollutants from industrial and civilian uses, which are contaminated by some hazard substance, so it is very important to reuse these wastes for reducing the pollution created from accumulation of several tons of these materials.

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

Different percentages of glass grains with similar grain sizes is used instead of sand as fine aggregate in preparation of plasters made from ordinary Portland cement. The characteristics of prepared mortars and cement glass bond will be investigated by determination of compressive strength and bulk density. Glass that has been reduced to a fine aggregate size fraction less than 4.75mm in size exhibits properties similar to that of fine aggregate or sandy material with relative high stability, due to the angular nature of crushed glass particles. Glass-cement plaster is a mixture of suitable plaster sand, broken glass, Portland cement and water which is normally applied to walls interiors and exteriors to achieve a smooth surface. 4. Loadings on Strawbale Wall It is important to note that un-plastered walls can carry a very small load before compressing beyond acceptability or buckling. Plastered walls, on the other hand, increase drastically in strength, especially if they are detailed to carry vertical loads through the skin or plaster. Strawbale can bear load either flat or on edge. 5. Methodology 5.1 Production Of Strawbale Block Specimens

Selection of materials and dimension: This experimental programme covered the model of strawbale block units (sizes: 160mm x85mmx90mm). In constructing the strawbale wall, materials needed for the construction has to be selected such as portland cement(OPC), getting fine aggregates which is clean, natural, hard sand (free from chalk and clay) of 100% passing through sieve no 5mm was employed in the mix, water and powder glass. A steel mould of 160x85x90mm was fabricated for moulding the strawbale block units. Also maize stem was gotten and cut into 5cm sizes and glasses was crushed to powder form and then sieve with 4mm sieve. Particle size distribution: Commercially available clean, natural hard sand (free from chalk and clay) of 100% passing sieve no 5mm and which complies with BS882:1201 is employed in the mix. The sand was well graded to conform to the limit given in the table 1 of BS882:1201 for the maximum size aggregate to the strawbale mix. The grading test results are shown in table 3.1 for the determination of the distribution for the number of different sized particles present. Maximum sieve (BS410:1976) size of 5mm was employed for the production of the block specimens. Table.1 Grading of sand for strawbale block.
Sieve size (mm) Weight of sieve (g) Sieve +retained (g) Retained weight (g) Percentage retained (%) Cummulative % passing 5.0 1535 100 4.0 654 586 22.5 2.3 97.7 2.0 555 668 114 11.4 86.3 1.0 531 673 142 14.2 72.1 0.5 503 713 211 21.1 51.0 0.4 485 565 81 8.1 42.9 0.25 480 661 181 18.1 24.8 0.125 459 635 176 17.6 7.2 0.063 444 540 60 6.1 1.1

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

Weight of the pan =267g weight of sample = 500g Weight of pan + sample = 767g; Time of shaking = 20 minutes. Batching, Mixing, Moulding, and Curing of Blocks: In moulding the block, after cement and aggregates have been acquired, then following the mix ratio of 1:6 (cement to fine aggregates) for moulding the block, thorough mixing was done for the cement and sand, this was poured into the mould say to one third of the mould, then using maize stem as our bale which has been cut into moderate sizes of 5cm was arranged into the mould and then fill up the mould which is then compacted. After the block has been moulded it was allowed to cure for twenty eight days of which the first three days of curing was very important until sufficient strength is gained for 28 days. After curing has been done, some of the block was joined together as double coarse using mortar ratio of 1:3, and some left as a single block. Plastering of the constructed strawbale: The materials used for plastering include cement, fine sand and powdered glass. In this project, during plastering the mix ratio was varied in other to look for the ratio that can blend with the strawbale wall. The crushed glass was varied with the plaster sand in certain proportion as the proportion of cement remain constant. These are the mix ratio used for the plastering 1:0:4, 1:1:3, 1:2:2, 1:3:1, 1:4:0 of cement to sand to crushed glass respectively. This mix ratio was used to plaster on both the single and double layer. After plastering has been done, it was allowed to set and dry before testing. Compressive strength test: Compressive strength test was conducted for plastered strawbale wall, using the same block specimens of size (170mm x 95mm ). A vertical load was applied to each wall specimen, by means of a compressive strength test machine, which was sufficiently stiff in flexure to ensure that the top and bottom of the panel were restrained against rotation. The magnitude of the axial load applied to the panel was read off the pressure gauge. The appropriate value of the wall characteristic strength was obtained using gross sectional area of the wall.

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

(a) One block (b) Two-block prism Figure 1 Set-up of experimental test for compression Table 3.2 Results of compressive strength of plastered strawbale wall for single and double coarse.

The compressive strength results were calculated using equation (1). σv = W/A From the above equation, σv is the vertical stress, W = applied load and A =cross sectional are 5.2 Documentation Compressive strength (N/mm2) = crushing load (N) / plan area (mm2) Specim Plaster Plane Crushing load Compressive en ratio area (N) Strength (Cement (N/mm2) :sand:gl (mm2) Single Double Single Double ass) coarse coarse coarse coarse 1 2 3 4 5 Unplast ered 1:0:4 1:1:3 1:2:2 1:3:1 1:4:0 ___ 16150 16150 16150 16150 16150 13600 35530 42313 47804 36660 45543 29648 34722 39083 45543 36014 43120 27880 2.20 2.62 2.96 2.27 2.82 2.18 2.15 2.42 2.82 2.23 2.67 2.05 (1)

Where; area = length x breadth Length (plastered) = 170mm, breadth (plastered) = 95mm Length (unplastered) = 160mm, breadth (unplastered) = 85mm. From the table above; Laboratory investigations carried out to assess the potential of the crushed recycled glass as natural sand replacement using ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% shows that with the incorporation of 50% (i.e ratio 1:2:2) of crushed glass as a natural sand replacement, the compressive strength have marginally increased. 5.3 Stresses analysis using SAP2000

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

The figure below shows the maximum stresses for the glass-cement plastered strawbale wall using SAP2000.

Figure 2 applied load on strawbale wall

Figure 3 Deflected shape of the glass cement strawbale wall.

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

Figure 4 Maximum stress of a glass cement plastered strawbale wall

6.

Discussion of Results

In the laboratory for strength analysis of a strawbale wall when plastered with glass cement as an aggregate blend, it shows that the mix proportion of 50%(1:2:2) has the maximum shear strength. That is, the laboratory investigation carried out to access the potential of the crushed recycled glass as natural sand replacement using ratios of 25%, 50%, and 75% shows that the incorporation of 50% of crushed glass as a natural sand replacement, the compressive and flexural strength have marginally increased, while the indirect tensile strength marginally decreased. For the height of the strawbale wall = 80mm and thickness, t = 95mm, and plaster thickness of 5mm, the predicted maximum stresses is 3.38N/mm2 using SAP2000 and that of the maximum observed stresses in the laboratory is 2.96N/mm2 which shows that they are so close and that the predicted value is greater than that of the observed value. Also it is noted that the stresses at the face of contact between lass cement plaster and strawbale wall, from the compression zone, the values of the stresses keep on reducing to the tension zone (3.38N/mm2 to 0.78N/mm2) respectively. This implies that the stress stability of the plastered strawbale wall are okay. The maximum stresses calculated using SAP 2000 is shown in the table 4.1 below for both glass-cement plastered and cement plastered strawbale wall.

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Proceedings of CIVIL2011@UNILORIN 3 rd Annual Conference of Civil Engineering

6 - 8 July, 2011

Table 4.1: Differences between the predicted and observed s tresses for both plaster composition. Wall composition Maximum predicted Maximum observed stress using Sap2000 stress in the laboratory Glass cement plastered 3.38N/mm2 2.96N/mm2 strawbale wall 7. Conclusion And Recommendation

Glass-cement plastered strawbale wall has shown an adequate resistance against vertical loading, as shown by the results obtained between predicted and observed maximum stresses. (i.e. maximum stress for glass-cement plastered strawbale wall is 3.38N/mm2 for predicted using SAP2000 and 2.96N/mm2 as observed in the laboratory). Laboratory investigations carried out to assess the potential of crushed recycled glass as natural sand replacement using ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% shows that with the incorporation of 50% (1:2:2) of crushed glass as a natural sand replacement in plastering, the compressive strength have marginally increased. Also it is noted that the stresses at the face of contact between lass cement plaster and strawbale wall, from the compression zone, the values of the stresses keep on reducing to the tension zone (3.38N/mm2 to 0.78N/mm2) respectively. This implies that the stress stability of the plastered strawbale wall are okay. From this experiment, it could be recommended that 50% of crushed glass as a natural sand aggregates blends be introduced in plastering for wall design. References Adedeji, A. A. (2002), “Thermal effects on the bearing capacity of earth wall in optimal design”, Association for the Advancement of Modelling and Simulation Techniques in Enterprises (AMSE), France, Modelling B-2002, 71(3), 17 – 28. Adedeji, A. A. (2004), “Finite Element Method”, CVE 567 Lecture Notes, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Amazon nails (2001), “Information guide to straw-bale building”, Nebraska, 1-82. Asonibare, P.O. (2007), “Detailing of straw-bale wall as an infill panel”, B.Eng. Project submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, 1-82. Bruce King, (2003), “Load-bearing straw bale structures a summary of testing and experience to date”, Ecological Building Network (EBNet), www.ecobuildnetwork.org/strawbale. Bruce King (2006), “Design of Straw Bale Buildings”,Green Building Press San Rafael, CA. Ecological Building Network, “The Straw Bale Testing Program”, www.ecobuildnetwork.org/strawbale.

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Glass Feedstock Evaluation Project. Clean Washington Center, 1993 Glass Feedstock Evaluation Project (1994) Evaluation of Glass a a Construction Aggregate, Report No. GL-93-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, clean Washington Center. Nehemiah. S, (2003), “Thermal performance of a strawbale wall system and ecological building network”, www.ecobuildnetwork, 1-7. Ritz, W. (1909), “Über eine Neue Metode zur Lösung gewisserVariationsprobleme der Matematischen Physik // J. Reine Angew”, Math., 1909, Vol. 135, 1-61. SAP7-A (1981), “Structural analysis program for static and dynamic problems user's manual”, Univ. of Southern California, Southern California. Vardy, S., MacDougall, C., 2006, “Compressive Testing and Analysis of Plastered Straw Bales”, Journal of Green Building, 1(1),63-79. Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Cheung, Y. K. (1967), “Finite Elements in thesSolution of Field Problems Engineer”, Vol. 220, 1965, 507–510.

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