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CE 516

Surface Water Hydrology Introduction Rainfall • precipitation • local and spatial averaged rainfall • abstractions interception depression storage infiltration Runoff • time of concentration models overland flow channel flow • peak runoff models rational method • continuous runoff models unit hydrographs Routing • Hydrologic reservoir routing river routing • Hydraulic St. Venant equations Design of stormwater management systems • Minor system design storm sewers inlet or grate design • Major system design (see design of open channel flow channels)

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Routing Models
Flow or flood routing models determine the spatial and temporal variations in flow rate along (or through) a basin or watercourse.

There exists two types of routing models: • Hydrologic models are lumped parameter models which assume the hydrograph at the downstream location is directly related to flow hydrograph at upstream location

• Hydraulic models are distributed parameter models which assume the channel and flow characteristics vary throughout the channel or watercourse, so the flow characteristics are solved along the channel (not just at the outlet).

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Hydrologic Routing Models
The continuity equation is the fundamental equation used for hydrologic routing

where S is the storage between the upstream and downstream I(t) is the inflow at the upstream section O(t) is the outflow at the downstream section

The storage, S, is a function of the outflow in the case of reservoirs, and is a function of the inflow and the outflow in the case of channel routing

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Reservoir Routing
The most common method of routing flow through storage reservoirs, ungated spillways, orifice-type outlets, and weir type outlets is the Storage Indication Method (modified Puls method, 1928) and is sometimes called ”level-pool routing”.

Mathematically, this says that mass must be conserved

where I(t) is the inflow into the storage (m3 /s) O(t) is the outflow from the reservoir (m3 /s) S(t) is the reservoir storage (m3 ) rearranging the continuity equation

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Solution method for reservoirs 1. Substitute known values of In , In+1 , and 2Sn /∆t − On into continuity equation. Solve for 2Sn+1 /∆t + On+1

2. Determine the discharge, On+1 , from the storage characteristics (assuming you are given S)

3. Subtract 2On+1 from 2Sn+1 /∆t + On+1 to get 2Sn+1 /∆t − On+1 note: use information from the storage reservoir to estimate 2O from 2S/∆t+O 4.Repeat 1-3 for each time step in the hydrograph

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········································································ Example: Some elevation-discharge and elevation-area data for a small reservoir with an ungated spillway are given below. Elev., ft Area, acres Outflow, ft3 /sec 0 1000 0 1 1020 525 2 1040 1490 3 1050 2730 4 1060 4200 5 1080 5880 6 1100 7660

An inflow sequence to the reservoir for part of a flood is given in a second table. Determine by routing the outflow discharge and reservoir water surface elevation at 12 a.m. on 25 April. Arrange the computations in a tabular form. Use a 12-hour routing period and assume that the reservoir water level just reaches the spillway crest (elevation 0.0) at 12 p.m. on 23 April. Date 23 April 24 April 25 April Time (hr) 12 12 12 12 p.m. a.m. p.m. a.m. Inflow (ft3 /s) 1500 1600 3100 9600

········································································ Solution: In this case, we’ve been given the outflow (O) vs. the elevation, so we need to calculate the storage (S) vs. the elevation. (see table on the next page)

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Elev. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Area (ac) 1000 1020

Ave. Area (ac)

Storage (ac-ft) 0

+O (ft /s) 0

2 ∆t S 3

1030 1040 1045 1050 1055 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 6300 20400 5210 16400 4140 12550 3085 8950 5600

2.5

x 10

4

2

2/∆ t S + Q (ft3/s)

1.5

1

0.5

0 0

1000

2000

3000

4000 Q (ft3/s)

5000

6000

7000

8000

Because we’ll later need to determine the outflow rate from the storage characteristics, lets plot O vs. 2S/∆t + O

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Recall the solution procedure 1. Substitute known values of In , In+1 , and 2Sn /∆t − On into continuity equation. Solve for 2Sn+1 /∆t + On+1

2.Determine the discharge, On+1 , from the storage characteristics (assuming you are given S)
4

2.5

x 10

2

2/∆ t S + Q (ft3/s)

1.5

1

0.5

0 0

1000

2000

3000

4000 Q (ft3/s)

5000

6000

7000

8000

3. Subtract 2On+1 from 2Sn+1 /∆t + On+1 to get 2Sn+1 /t − On+1 4.Repeat 1-3 for each time step in the hydrograph n 1 2 3 4 Date 23 April 24 April 25 April Time (hr) 12 p.m. 12 a.m. 12 p.m. 12 a.m. I (ft3 /s) 1500 1600 3100 9600
2 ∆t S

−O

2 ∆t S

+O

O

Determine the water surface elevation, E

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River Routing
Hydrologic river routing models make assumptions about how much storage a river section can hold and about the inflow and outflow out of the section ends. The Muskingum method method was developed by the Muskingum Conservancy District to route flow/floods in channels. The model linearly separates the channel flow into two volumes, prism storage and wedge storage.

Prism storage is the volume of constant cross section corresponding to uniform flow

Wedge storage is generated by passage of flow hydrograph negative wedge -recession of a storm

positive wedge - spin up of a storm

where K is a measure of the travel time through the system X is a weighting factor 0 for reservoirs X = 0.5 for full wedge > 0 & < 0.3 for natural streams (∼ 0.2) The wedge storage volume = KX(I − O)
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At any given time, the total storage in the channel is:

and at the next time step, the storage becomes

so, the change in storage over time becomes

combining with the continuity equation to eliminate S, yields the Muskingum routing expression

On+1 = C1 In+1 + C2 In + C3 On where C1 = ∆t − 2KX 2K(1 − X) + ∆t ∆t + 2KX 2K(1 − X) + ∆t 2K(1 − X) − ∆t 2K(1 − X) + ∆t

C2 =

C3 =

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Muskingum modeling specifics To avoid numerical instabilities, the time step is limited by

Determination of K 1. If measured inflow and outflow hydrographs for a channel are available, then K and X can be found by plotting XI + (1 − X)O vs. storage for several values of S. Choose the X that best collapses data on a straight line, K is the slope of the line. 2. K can be set by the time lag between the peak flow rate of the outflow and inflow. 3. K can be determined from the mannings equation as shown below

where the celerity, c, is defined with

and X is defined with

This method is acceptable for flows with no backwater, and mild slopes. Otherwise use hydraulic routing

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········································································ Example: Thirty-six hours of data for streamflows are given in the following table:

Time 6 a.m. 12 a.m. 6 p.m. 12 p.m. 6 a.m. 12 a.m. 6 p.m. I (ft3 /s) 10 30 70 50 40 32 25 The muskingum parameters have been determined to be K = 10 hr, ∆t = 6hr, and x = 0.23. The flow is steady in the reach at 6 a.m. On the first day. Determine the outflow hydrograph from this stream reach. ········································································ Solution:

Time 6 a.m. 12 a.m. 6 p.m. 12 p.m. 6 a.m.

In+1 10 30 70 50 40 32 25

C1 In+1 2 4.6 3.3 2.6 2.1 1.6

C2 In

C3 On

On+1

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Hydraulic Routing
Hydraulic Routing models are more complicated routing methods which solve both the continuity and momentum equations along a continuum. The 1-d continuity and momentum equations in open channels are:

These equations are called the Saint-Venant equations and they assume: 1.1-d flow 2. gradually varying flow 3. longitudinal axis is straight 4. channel bottom slope is constant and bed is fixed 5. friction coefficients are available These equation are generally solved with finite-difference algorithms.

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