OAISD Earth Science Power Expectations

(May 25, 2009)

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1)

Standard E2: Earth Systems
Original Language Explain why the Earth is essentially a closed system in terms of matter. (Course Theme) ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Explain why gravity causes the earth to be a closed system in terms of solids, liquids, and gases. 2) Explain the concept of closed systems.
1) Analyze how energy transfer

Content Statement E2.1: Earth Systems Overview
HSCE
E2.1A

E2.1B

Analyze the interactions between the major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) that make up the Earth. (Course Theme)

happens between the major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere) that make up the Earth. 2) Analyze how the movement of matter happens within the Major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere) that make up the Earth. 1) Using examples (natural, catastrophic, and man-made) explain how a change in one system affects other Earth systems.

E2.1C

Explain, using specific examples, how a change in one system affects other Earth systems. (Course Theme)

Content Statement E2.2: Energy in Earth Systems
HSCE E2.2A Original Language Describe the Earth's principal sources of internal and external energy (e.g., radioactive decay, gravity, solar energy). ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Describe the internal sources of energy on Earth to include radioactive decay and gravity. 2) Describe the external sources of energy on Earth to include solar energy and extraterrestrial impacts.

Content Statement E2.3: Biogeochemical Cycles
HSCE Original Language ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language
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E2.3A

Explain how carbon exists in different forms such as limestone (rock), carbon dioxide (gas), carbonic acid (water), and animals (life) within Earth systems and how those forms can be beneficial or harmful to humans.

1) Explain how carbon exists in

Earth systems as different forms {limestone (rock), carbon dioxide (gas), carbonic acid (water), animals (life)}. 2) Explain how different forms of carbon can be beneficial to humans. 3) Explain how different forms of carbon can be harmful to humans.

Content Statement E2.4: Resources and Human Impacts on Earth Systems
HSCE E2.4A Original Language Describe renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy for human consumption (electricity, fuels), compare their effects on the environment, and include overall costs and benefits. ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Describe renewable sources of energy acceptable for human consumption (electricity, fuels). 2) Describe nonrenewable sources of energy for human consumption (electricity, fuels). 3) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable sources of energy on the environment. 4) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using nonrenewable sources of energy on the environment. 5) Compare the environmental costs and benefits of using renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. 1) Explain how human activities affect the environment. 2) Explain how the affects of human activities are evident in all four Earth systems (Biosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere)

E2.4B

E2.4B Explain how the impact of human activities on the environment (e.g., deforestation, air pollution, coral reef destruction) can be understood through the analysis of interactions between the four Earth systems. Course Theme) Explain ozone depletion in the

E2.4c

1) Explain the process of ozone depletion within the stratosphere.
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stratosphere and methods to slow human activities to reduce ozone depletion.

2) Explain methods to reduce human activities that contribute to ozone depletion.

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Standard E3: The Solid Earth Content Statement E3.1: Advanced Rock Cycle
HSCE E3.1A Original Language Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another.
1) 2) 3) 4)

5)

6)

ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language Determine if a rock sample is igneous. Determine if a rock sample is metamorphic Determine if a rock sample is sedimentary. Describe the rock process that changes a rock type into an igneous rock. Describe the rock process that changes a rock type into a metamorphic rock. Describe the rock process that changes a rock type into sedimentary rock.

E3.1c

Explain how the size and shape of grains in a sedimentary rock indicate the environment of formation (including climate) and deposition.

1) Describe how the movement of sediment affects the grain size and shape of sedimentary rock. 2) Describe how the length of time sediment travels affects the grain size and shape of sedimentary rock.

E3.1d

1) Explain the effect of cooling rate Explain how the crystal sizes of on crystal size of intrusive igneous rocks indicate the rate of igneous rock. cooling and whether the rock is 2) Explain the effect of cooling rate extrusive or intrusive. on crystal size of extrusive igneous rock. 3) Explain why the cooling rate for extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks is different. Explain how the texture (foliated, 1) Explain the impact of pressure on the foliation of metamorphic nonfoliated) of metamorphic rock rock. can indicate whether it has 2) Explain the impact of heat on the experienced regional or contact foliation of metamorphic rock. metamorphism. 3) Describe the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock.
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E3.1e

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Content Statement E3.2 Interior of the Earth
HSCE E3.2A Original Language Describe the interior of the Earth (in terms of crust, mantle, and inner and outer cores) and where the magnetic field of the Earth is generated. ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Describe the composition of the crust. 2) Describe the composition of the mantle. 3) Describe the composition of the outer core. 4) Describe the composition of the inner core. 5) Describe the relative size of the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. 6) Describe the layer of Earth which is responsible for Earth’s magnetic field. 1) Describe how and why the travel speed of seismic waves is affected by density. 2) Describe how and why the travel speed of seismic waves is affected by state of matter. 3) Describe the movement of Pwaves through the Earth. 4) Describe the movement of Swaves through the Earth. 1) Describe oceanic crust in terms of density. 2) Describe oceanic crust in terms of age. 3) Describe oceanic crust in terms of composition. 4) Describe the continental crust in terms of density. 5) Describe the continental crust in terms of age. 6) Describe the continental crust in terms of composition. 7) Compare and contrast oceanic and continental crust in terms of density, age, and composition.

E3.2B

Explain how scientists infer that the Earth has interior layers with discernable properties using patterns of primary (P) and secondary (S) seismic wave arrivals.

E3.3C

Describe the differences between oceanic and continental crust (including density, age, composition).

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Content Statement E3.3 Plate Tectonics Theory
HSCE E3.3A Original Language
Explain how plate tectonics accounts for the features and processes (sea floor spreading, mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, earthquakes and volcanoes, mountain ranges) that occur on or near the Earth's surface. 1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language Using the theory of plate tectonics, explain processes that occur at convergent plate boundaries. Using the theory of plate tectonics, explain processes that occur at divergent plate boundaries. Using the theory of plate tectonics, explain processes that occur at transform plate boundaries. Describe features of the Earth that occur at convergent plate boundaries. Describe features of the Earth that occur at divergent plate boundaries Describe features of the Earth that occur at transform plate boundaries Explain the process of subduction.

E3.3B

Explain why tectonic plates move 1) Explain the process of convection in the mantle. using the concept of heat flowing 2) Explain the effect of convection through mantle convection, in the mantle. coupled with the cooling and 3) Explain how density affects the sinking of aging ocean plates motion of tectonic plates. that result from their increased density. Describe the motion history of geologic features (e.g., plates, Hawaii) using equations relating rate, time, and distance. 1) Describe the direction of tectonic plate motion over a given period of time. 2) Calculate the rate of motion of tectonic features in cm/year.

E3.3C

Content Statement E3.4 Earthquakes and Volcanoes
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HSCE E3.4A

Original Language Use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes to locate and determine the types of plate boundaries.

ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Use earthquake and volcano data to plot boundary locations on a map. 2) Use patterns of earthquake and volcanoes to determine if a boundary is convergent, divergent, or transform. 1) Describe how the size of an earthquake is measured in terms of intensity. 2) Describe how the size of an earthquake is measured in terms of magnitude. 3) Describe the scale for earthquakes used by scientists to measure intensity. 4) Describe the scale for earthquakes used by scientists to measure magnitude. 5) Describe the relative size of volcanic eruptions in terms of energy. 1) Describe the effects of catastrophic earthquake events on humans. 2) Describe the effects of catastrophic volcanic eruptions on humans. 1) Explain how the chemical composition of magma impacts plate tectonics. 2) Explain how the chemical composition of magma affects the geometry, structure, and explosivity of volcanoes.
1) Explain how volcanoes change

E3.4B

Describe how the sizes of earthquakes and volcanoes are measured or characterized.

E3.4C

Describe the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on humans.

E3.4d

Explain how the chemical composition of magmas relates to plate tectonics and affects the geometry, structure, and explosivity of volcanoes.

E3.4e

Explain how volcanoes change the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and other Earth systems. Explain why fences are offset after an earthquake, using the elastic rebound theory.

the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
1) Explain earthquakes, using the

E3.4f

elastic rebound theory.
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Standard E4: The Fluid Earth Content Statement E4.1: Hydrogeology
HSCE E4.1A Original Language Compare and contrast surface water systems (lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands) and groundwater in regard to their relative sizes as Earth's freshwater reservoirs and the dynamics of water movement (inputs and outputs, residence times, sustainability). ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Compare and contrast surface fresh water systems to ground water with regards to relative size, water movement, input and output, residence time and/or sustainability.

E4.1B

Explain the features and processes of groundwater systems and how the sustainability of North American aquifers has changed in recent history (e.g., the past 100 years) qualitatively using the concepts of recharge, residence time, inputs, and outputs.

1) Describe ground water systems using the concepts of recharge, residence times, inputs and outputs. 2) Explain how groundwater use has changed over time. 3) Reflect on the sustainability of North American groundwater use patterns.

E4.1C

Explain how water quality in both 1) Explain how land use decisions (agricultural practices, groundwater and surface urbanization, industrialization, systems is impacted by land use etc.) impact surface water decisions. quality. 2) Explain how land use decisions (agricultural practices, urbanization, industrialization, etc.) impact groundwater quality.

Content Statement E4.2 Oceans and Climate
HSCE E4.2A ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Explain how ocean surface and Describe the major causes for the deep water currents are ocean's surface and deep water influenced by prevailing winds. currents, including the prevailing 2) Explain how ocean surface and winds, the Coriolis effect, deep water currents are unequal heating of the earth, influenced by Coriolis effect. changes in water temperature
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Original Language

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and salinity in high latitudes, and basin shape.

3) Explain how ocean surface and

deep water currents are influenced by unequal heating of the earth’s surfaces. 4) Explain how ocean surface and deep water currents are influenced by changes in water temperature. 5) Explain how ocean surface and deep water currents are influenced by changes in salinity in high latitudes. 6) Explain how ocean surface and deep water currents are influenced by basin shape. 1) Explain how heat transfer from ocean currents affect global and regional climate. 2) Explain how thermohaline circulation affect global and regional climate. 3) Explain how boundary currents affect global and regional climate. 4) Explain how evaporation and precipitation affect global and regional climate. 5) Explain how climatic zones affect global and regional climate. 1) Explain the dynamics of a shift from La Nina to the El NiñoSouthern Oscillation. 2) Explain the El Niño-Southern Oscillation’s effect on continental climates. 1) Describe the effect of ocean currents on maritime climate zones. 2) Describe the effect of ocean currents on continental climate zones. 1) Explain the Coriolis Effect. 2) Explain how the Coriolis impacts oceanic circulation.

E4.2B

Explain how interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere influence global and regional climate. Include the major concepts of heat transfer by ocean currents, thermohaline circulation, boundary currents, evaporation, precipitation, climatic zones, and the ocean as a major CO2 reservoir.

E4.2c

Explain the dynamics (including ocean-atmosphere interactions) of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its effect on continental climates. Explain the differences between maritime and continental climates with regard to oceanic currents. Explain how the Coriolis effect controls oceanic circulation… related to E4.2B

E4.2e

E4.2f

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Content Statement E4.3: Severe Weather
HSCE E4.3A Original Language Describe the various conditions of formation associated with severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, waves, and drought). ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Describe how thunderstorms are formed. 2) Describe how tornadoes are formed. 3) Describe how hurricanes are formed. 4) Describe how floods are formed. 5) Describe how severe waves are formed on large bodies of water. 6) Describe how extreme drought conditions are formed. 1) Describe possible physical damage resulting from thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and/or floods. 2) Describe possible social impact to local communities from thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, or floods. 1) Describe seasonal variations in severe weather in West Michigan. 2) Describe seasonal variations in severe weather in North America. 3) Describe seasonal variations in severe weather in Northern India and Central Asia. 1) Describe conditions associated with warm and cold frontal boundaries. 2) Describe the relationship between frontal boundaries and thunderstorms. 3) Describe the relationship between frontal boundaries and Tornadoes. 4) Describe the relationship between frontal boundaries and hurricanes. 1) Explain how cloud formation is influenced by mountains, frontal
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E4.3B

Describe the damage resulting from and the social impact of thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods.

E4.3D

Describe the seasonal variations in severe weather.

E4.3E

Describe conditions associated with frontal boundaries that result in severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes).

E4.3F

Describe how mountains, frontal

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wedging (including dry lines), convection, and convergence form clouds and precipitation.

wedging, convection, or convergence. 2) Explain how precipitation formation is influenced by mountains, wedging, convection, or convergence.

Standard E5: The Earth in Space and Time Content Statement E5.1: The Earth in Space
HSCE E5.1A Original Language Describe the position and motion of our solar system in our galaxy and the overall scale, structure, and age of the universe.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language Describe the position of our solar system in our galaxy. Describe the motion of our solar system. Describe the scale (relative size) of our universe. Describe the age of our universe. Describe the structure of our universe.

E5.1b

Describe how the Big Bang theory accounts for the formation of the universe.

1) Describe the formation of the

universe using the Big Bang theory.

E5.1c

Explain how observations of the cosmic microwave background have helped determine the age of the universe.

1) Explain how cosmic microwave background radiation is observed. 2) Explain how cosmic microwave background radiation aids in determining the approximate age of the universe. 1) Explain the cosmological red shift. 2) Explain the Doppler red shift. 3) Compare and contrast the cosmological and Doppler red shift.

E5.1d

Differentiate between the cosmological and Doppler red shift.

Content Statement E5.2: The Sun
HSCE Original Language ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language
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E5.2A

Identify patterns in solar activities (sunspot cycle, solar flares, solar wind).

1) Explain the sunspot cycle. 2) Explain how solar flares take

place. 3) Explain the solar wind. 4) Identify patterns in solar activities like sunspot cycles, solar flares or solar winds. 1) Explain how solar events establish conditions suitable for auroras. 2) Explain how solar events can negatively impact radio communications. 3) Explain how solar events can negatively impact satellite communications. 4) Explain how solar events can negatively impact power grid systems.
1) Describe nuclear fusion that

E5.2B

Relate events on the Sun to phenomena such as auroras, disruption of radio and satellite communications, and power grid disturbances.

E5.2C

Describe how nuclear fusion produces energy in the Sun. Describe how nuclear fusion and other processes in stars have led to the formation of all the other chemical elements.

takes place within the Sun. 1) Describe nuclear fusion that takes place within stars. 2) Describe additional stellar processes that result in the formation of chemical elements.

E5.2D

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E5.2e

Explain how the HertzsprungRussell (H-R) diagram can be used to deduce other parameters (distance). Explain how you can infer the temperature, life span, and mass of a star from its color. Use the H-R diagram to explain the life cycles of stars. 3) Explain how to infer the temperature of a star based on its color. 4) Explain how to infer the life span of a star based on its color. 5) Explain the life cycles of stars using the H-R diagram. 6) Explain how to infer the distance from Earth using the H-R Diagram.
7) Explain the balance between

E5.2f

E5.2g

Explain how the balance between fusion and gravity controls the evolution of a star (equilibrium).

fusion and gravity within a star. 8) Explain the impact of this balance on the evolution of a star.

Content Statement E5.3: Earth History and Geologic Time
HSCE E5.3A ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language 1) Explain how the solar system Explain how the solar system formed from a nebula of dust and formed from a nebula of dust and gas in a spiral arm of the Milky gas in a spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy about 4.6 Ga (billion Way Galaxy about 4.6 Ga (billion years ago). years ago). Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. Relate major events in the history of the Earth to the geologic time scale, including formation of the Earth, formation of an oxygen atmosphere, rise of life, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) 1) Describe the process of radioactive decay. 2) Explain how radioactive elements are used to date rock samples. Original Language

E5.3B

E5.3C

1) Explain the Geologic Time Scale. 2) Identify key events within the Geologic Time Scale.

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and Permian extinctions, and Pleistocene ice age. E5.3D
Describe how index fossils can be used to determine time sequence.

1) Identify index fossils used to determine time sequence. 2) Describe how index fossils show the relative age of rocks. 1) Explain the principles of relative age-dating techniques. 2) Explain a sequence of geological events when given a diagram.

E5.3g

Identify a sequence of geologic events using relative-age dating principles.

Content Statement E5.4: Climate Change
HSCE E5.4A Original Language Explain the natural mechanism of 1) the greenhouse effect including comparisons of the major 2) greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone).
3) 4)

5) 6)

ELAR Code & OAISD Assessable Language Explain the natural warming process associated with water vapor. Explain the natural warming process associated with Carbon Dioxide. Explain the natural warming process associated with Methane. Explain the natural warming process associated with Nitrous Oxide. Explain the natural warming process associated with Ozone. Describe how individual natural warming processes contribute to the Greenhouse Effect.

E5.4B

Describe natural mechanisms that could result in significant changes in climate (e.g., major volcanic eruptions, changes in sunlight received by the earth, meteorite impacts). Analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide

1) Describe the possible impact to

natural climate patterns in the event of a major volcanic eruption, change in amount of sunlight received by Earth, or a major meteorite impact. 1) Analyze and explain the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide
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E5.4C

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levels and the average global temperature over the past 150 years. E5.4D Based on evidence of observable changes in recent history and climate change models, explain the consequences of warmer oceans (including the results of increased evaporation, shoreline and estuarine impacts, oceanic algae growth, and coral bleaching) and changing climatic zones (including the adaptive capacity of the biosphere).

levels and the average global temperature over the past 150 years. 1) Using observable evidence in recent history in combination with climate models, explain the impact of increasing ocean temperatures on evaporation rates. 2) Using observable evidence in recent history in combination with climate models, explain the impact of increasing ocean temperatures on shoreline habitat and communities. 3) Using observable evidence in recent history in combination with climate models, explain the impact of increasing ocean temperatures on estuarine habitat. 4) Using observable evidence in recent history in combination with climate models, explain the impact of increasing ocean temperatures on oceanic algae growth. 5) Using observable evidence in recent history in combination with climate models, explain the impact of increasing ocean temperatures on coral bleaching. 6) Explain the capacity of plants and animals to adapt to changes in climatic zone characteristics. 1) Compare and contrast carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons within the atmosphere in their natural abundance. 2) Compare and contrast carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons within the atmosphere in their heat trapping capacity. 3) Compare and contrast carbon
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E5.4g

Compare and contrast the heattrapping mechanisms of the major greenhouse gases resulting from emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons) as well as their abundance and heat-trapping capacity.

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dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons within the atmosphere in their mechanisms for trapping heat.

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May 25, 2009