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Author : Sid Senadheera

sid.senadheera@gmail.com

Quantum Mechanical and Gravitational Effects on a Nanoparticle
Gravitational effects on a nanoparticle has been combined with the Hamiltonian for second order perturbations in the Schrodinger wave equation in quantum mechanics. The stress energy tensor in the Einstein field equations is added as a perturbation on top of the well known Newtonian gravitational potential function. The experimental proof for the theory can be showing the masses of the particles are quantized according to De Broglie hypothesis. And the magnitude of the energy in quantization change according to the theoretically derived result in this work.

Theory : First let us look at the formation of magnetic moments in atoms. Let us consider an atom in a homogeneous magnetic field H described by a vector

potential A [where A = -1/2 (r × H)]. The Hamiltonian for the Z electrons, each having an intrinsic spin magnetic moment m = 2µB s and a momentum l, is :

Where all the terms containing the magnetic field have been grouped in H (1), that can be treated as a perturbation of H (0). The nanoparticles in this case deviated from their paths due to para-

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magnetism. Therefore the paramagnetic term is isolated E(p) excluding all other terms. The analysis of particle in a field in the Stern Gerlarch experiment can be similarly carried out.

The energy and force on a particle by a gravitational field will have a similar derivation. In this case the Newtonian gravitational potential (used as U = mgz) has a perturbation term in the energy by the Einstein’s stress energy tensor Tt,x,y,z.

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Particle in a Gravitational Field. Pages (1-6 with topics that mention [REVISED]) gives a brief introduction to Tensors, Gravitation and Stress Energy Tensor that gives the energy in a unit volume of space.
Particle Energy derived by Geodesic Deviations [REVISED] The Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einstein's equations are a set of ten equations in Einstein's theory of general relativity which describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy. First published by Albert Einstein in 1915 as a tensor equation, the EFE equate spacetime curvature (expressed by the Einstein tensor G
t,x,y,z.)

with the energy and momentum within that spacetime (expressed by the stress-energy

tensor Tt,x,y,z ).

Here we are mostly interested in the Tt,x,y,z tensor. For simplicity we are expressing this tensor in Cartesian coordinates, although it has to be expressed in spherical coordinates. In gravitation, energy is in the curvature of space-time. The relationship between the metric tensor and the Einstein tensor allows the EFE to be written as a set of non-linear partial differential equations when used in this way. The solutions of the EFE are the components of the metric tensor. The trajectories of particles and radiation (geodesics) in the resulting geometry are then calculated using the geodesic equation.

The metric tensor

can be solved by the above equation, which would result in.

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Physicists usually work in local coordinates (i.e. coordinates defined on some local patch of M). In local coordinates xμ (where μ is an index which runs from 0 to 3) the metric can be written in the form

The factors dxμ are one-form gradients of the scalar coordinate fields xμ. The metric is thus a linear combination of tensor products of one-form gradients of coordinates. The

coefficients gμν are a set of 16 real-valued functions (since the tensor g is actually a tensor field defined at all points of a space-time manifold). In order for the metric to be symmetric we must have

giving 10 independent coefficients. If we denote the symmetric tensor product by juxtaposition (so that dxμdxν = dxνdxμ) we can write the metric in the form

If the local coordinates are specified, or understood from context, the metric can be written as a 4×4 symmetric matrix with entries gμν. The nondegeneracy of gμν means that this matrix is nonsingular (i.e. has non-vanishing determinant), while the Lorentzian signature of g implies that the matrix has one negative and three positive eigenvalues.

Curvature [Revised]
The metric g completely determines the curvature of spacetime. According to the fundamental theorem of Riemannian geometry, there is a unique connection ∇ on any Lorentzian manifold that is compatible with the metric and torsion-free. This connection is called the LeviCivita connection. The Christoffel symbols of this connection are given in terms of partial derivatives of the metric in local coordinates xμ by the formula

. The curvature of spacetime is then given by the Riemann curvature tensor which is defined in terms of the Levi-Civita connection ∇. In local coordinates this tensor is given by:

The curvature is then expressible purely in terms of the metric g and its derivatives.

Einstein's equations [Revised]
One of the core ideas of general relativity is that the metric (and the associated geometry of spacetime) is determined by the matter and energy content of spacetime. Einstein's field equations:

Where :

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relate the metric (and the associated curvature tensors) to the stress-energy tensor Tμν. This tensor equation is a complicated set of nonlinear partial differential equations for the metric components. Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are very difficult to find.

Introductory Quantum Mechanics : In Three Dimensions and Four Dimensions To extend the discussion to more than one dimension is easy. The potential energy becomes U(x,y,z) and we add partial derivatives with respect to y and z. The S-E then becomes

There is a corresponding change in the TISE. The set of derivatives in ( ) above is usually denoted by a special symbol:

The normalization condition becomes

Of course, coordinate systems other than Cartesian can be used. For central force problems (such as the hydrogen atom) it is better to use spherical coordinates.

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Evidence for Quantized Gravitational States of the Neutron
Main Reference : T. J. Bowles, "Quantum effects of gravity," Nature 415 267-268 (2002). Particle confinement and the wave-like properties of matter lead, according to quantum mechanical principles, to self-interference which is the origin of energy quantization. The particle-in-a-box problem is used in introductory quantum mechanics courses to illustrate this fundamental quantum effect. Terrestrial objects are confined by the Earth's gravitational field, but the quantum effects of gravity are not observed in the macro-world because the gravitational interaction is weak. Thus, the gravitational energy levels are very closely spaced and for all practical purposes form a continuum. In spite of the lack of evidence for quantized gravitational energy levels, the "quantum bouncer" has been a favorite example in the repertoire of solvable one-dimensional problems for those who teach quantum chemistry and quantum physics. Schrödinger's equation for the quantum bouncer near the surface of the Earth is,

where the particle is confined by the impenetrable potential barrier of the Earth's surface (V = ¥) and the attractive gravitational interaction (V = mgz for z > 0).

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The energy eigenvalues for the quantum bouncer are (1,2,3),

where ai are the roots of the Airy function. The first five roots are 2.33810, 4.08794, 5.52055, 6.78670, and 7.94413. The associated eigenfunctions are,

where

Because there is no analytical expression for the eigenfunctions each one must be normalized using a numeric algorithm. Very recently an international team at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble France lead by V. Nesvizhevsky (4) published evidence for the quantized gravitational states of the neutron. To read a short summary of this experiment in Nature Magazine by Thomas Bowles (5) click here. Another summary has just been published in Physics Today. (6) To appreciate the significance of this accomplishment we calculate the neutron's ground state energy and wave function in the Earth's gravitational field using the equations above. The mass of the neutron is 1.675x10-27 kg which yields a ground-state energy of E1 = 2.254x10-31 J. This

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corresponds to a classical vertical velocity of 1.6 cm/s. Thus gravitational confinement requires a source of ultra-cold neutrons (UCNs). Furthermore, the energy of the first excited state is 3.941x10-31 J, so the energy difference between the ground state and the first excited state is equivalent to photon with a wavelength of 1.2x106 m. Clearly traditional spectroscopic methods cannot be used to establish the existence of quantized gravitational states for the neutron. The probability distributions, Y(z)2, for the ground and first excited states are shown in Figures 1 and 4. They hold the key to the experimental design that Nesvizhevsky's and his group used to establish that the neutron's gravitational states are quantized. To down-load a Mathcad file that will generate the neutron eigenstates numerically click here.

Figure 1 A schematic of the experiment that Nesvizhevsky's team used to gather evidence for quantized neutron gravitational states is shown in Figure 2. The neutron is confined by the attractive

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gravitational field and the repulsive reflecting mirror surface. Ultra-cold neutrons (UCNs) with total velocities less than 8 m/s are "lobbed" into the apparatus. In the vertical direction the neutrons are subject to the gravitational interaction with the Earth, but there are no forces in the horizontal direction. The vertical and horizontal degrees of freedom are independent of one another in the design of this experiment, because care has been taken to eliminate vibrations, and extraneous electric and magnetic fields.

Figure 2 [ Nature (Volume 415 page 267) copyright 2002 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.]

The apparatus shown in Figure 2 records neutron throughput as a function of absorber height. The data collected are shown in Figure 3. The shaded circles are the actual data points. We will not be concerned with the solid, dashed, or dotted lines in the figure. The most important feature of the data for this analysis is the sharp increase in neutron throughput at about 20 mm.

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Figure 3 [ Nature (Volume 415 page 299) copyright 2002 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.] The argument will be made that the neutron wave function shown in Figure 1 is consistent with the data presented in Figure 3. To demonstrate this we calculate the probability that the groundstate neutron will be found in the absorber for a variety of absorber heights. This requires numerical evaluation of

where az is the absorber height. These calculations are presented in the table given below. Probability Absorber in height/mm Absorber

10

0.380

15

0.089

20

0.012

25

0.001

It is clear from these calculations and Figure 1 that the probability of finding the neutron in the absorber falls off sharply at about 20 mm. This analysis, therefore, is consistent with the sharp increase in neutron throughput at this absorber height.

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Many neutron gravitational states besides the ground state are occupied and it is therefore necessary to explore the experimental implications of this fact. The first excited state is, as mentioned previously, shown in Figure 4. This wave function extends further in the z-direction than the ground state function, going to zero around 35 mm. The experimental significance of this is that the neutron throughput should show another abrupt increase in the neighborhood of 30 mm, an absorber height for which, the first excited state neutrons have a low probability of being absorbed. This phenomena should be repeated for all other occupied excited states as the absorber reaches the spatial extent of each excited state wave function.

Figure 4 With regard to this expected effect Bowles has commented (5) The data show some hint of stepped increases at the values corresponding to higher energy states, consistent with the existence of these states, but they are not yet conclusive. Nonetheless, the evidence for the existence of the first energy state is convincing and confirms that a quantum

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effect occurs in the gravitational trap. The difficulty of this measurement should not be underestimated. The researchers are measuring a quantum effect caused by gravity that requires a resolution of 10-15 eV. Interactions of the neutrons with other fields would normally obscure such a tiny effect, but the neutron's lack of electric charge and the low kinetic energy of the UCNs make such observations possible. In summary, thanks to Nesvizhevsky and his team, we now have some direct evidence for quantized gravitational states. The "quantum bouncer", previously a purely academic exercise, can now be applied to a real-life example. Literature cited: 1. P. W. Langhoff, "Schrödinger particle in a gravitational well," Am. J. Phys. 39, 954-957 (1971). 2. R. L. Gibbs, "The quantum bouncer," Am. J. Phys. 43, 25-28 (1975). 3. J. Gea-Banacloche, "A quantum bouncing ball," Am. J. Phys. 67, 776-782 (1999). 4. V. Nesvizhevsky, et al., "Quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field," Nature 415 297-299 (2002). 5. T. J. Bowles, "Quantum effects of gravity," Nature 415 267-268 (2002). 6. B. Schwartzchild, "Ultracold Neutrons Exhibit Quantum States in the Earth's Gravitational Field," Physics Today 55 (3) 20-23 (2002). 7. Experimental Evidence of particle - gravitational interaction http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/3525

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In the 4D case : The Schrodinger wave equation can be written as :

gμν is the metric tensor in spherical coordinates, usually takes the form around a massive object
e.g. Sun as Schwarzschild space-time geometry (below). The previous S-E equation, in 3D space treated space-time as uniform (with no curvature in space) and only the distance from the center of the earth to the particle was taken as the variable in the magnitude of gravitational potential energy. In the new derivation in 4D space a new variable is introduced to the gravitational potential as a perturbation. That is the amount of energy in a unit volume of space due to the curvature of space-time as below.

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Gives the path of an object (a neutron or a nanoparticle) in 4-D spacetime geometry related to the Einstein’s Stress Energy Tensor Tt,x,y,z

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First and second order corrections for energy can be written as :

Only the following two components change if the “mgz” primary energy term is kept constant.

In vacuum, curvature due to mass (or energy) :

At lower energies quantization levels should come close together. The Force on a Nanoparticle in 4-D space can be written as : {where is defined here as the 4-D gradient}

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Taking the equation that gives energy from the perturbation, derived earlier :

If

As a first approximation

Where

In Schwarzschild geometry, which is appropriate for the sun, the above equation gives the variation of energy in a (nano)particle or a neutron due to the space-time curvature.

Metric Tensor is given by...

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Experimental Predictions
(1) Under highly controlled conditions measure the masses of a random sample of nanoparticles. The sample should have a discrete distribution of energies from the derived theory. Since the energy and mass are related by De Broglie equation, the sample of particles have discrete masses as the perturbation term varies in gravitational potential energy. (2) If the masses could be deviated as a mass spectrometer, a fringe pattern should result taking into account the following equation for deflecting forces. Since the energy of the particle is quantized, the deflecting forces on them are quantized as well.

Conclusion: It can be shown using general theory of relativity [GR] and 1st and 2nd order perturbation theory in Quantum mechanics, that nanoparticles have quantized energy levels while travelling on a geodesic [from GR] that has minimum gravitational potential energy. This would prove that nanoparticles cannot come in all sizes by the De Broglie hypothesis. Their sizes are restricted by quantization. Their increase of energy is not continuous but, discrete too. This also proves that the gravitation is quantized as well, where the particle is immersed. And space-time curvature is quantized too. This is an indirect proof for quantum-gravity. Several methods have been suggested to experimentally to prove the above theory.

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The final equation from my PhD thesis is simplified to show that the shortest distance measurable in space is the “Plank Wavelength” and the corresponding energy is Plank Energy This is a correct result that can be derived from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle as well. If the theoretical work done in my thesis has any inconsistency this result cannot be obtained.

Schwarzschild Metric Tensor can be written

…….

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

……..

+ ……

To simplify consider only the “r” coordinate and “t” coordinate and the first order perturbation

=

;

d

=

d

=

When the wavelength [ Limit n  1 ] in discrete steps

=

=

For a particle [with diameter d] falling under a gravitational field, this is the Energy required to measure when

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