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# States of Matter Unit Grade: 2nd Kayla Kreier

Day 1 –Properties of Solids and Liquids
Standards: P.2.A students understand that matter has observable properties P.2.A.1 Students know matter can exist as solids and as liquids. P.2.A.3 Students know matter can be categorized by observable properties such as color, size, shape and weight. N.2.A.1 Students know how to make observations and give descriptions using numbers, and drawings. N.2.A.3 Students know observable patterns can be used to predict future events or sort items. N.2.A.4 Students know different objects are made of many different types of materials. N.2.B.2 Students know that, in science, it is helpful to work in a team and share findings with others. Objectives: The students will be able to identify and compare two states of matter and list properties for both states. Engage: 1. The teacher will have two brown paper bags at the front of the room. In one bag there will be a crayon. In the other bag will be a baggie of dish soap. 2. The students will listen to clues that describe the properties of the items to determine in each bag. 3. The students will number a paper 1-3. When the first clue is given the students must write down their prediction. Then after the second clue is given the students will write down their prediction. Predictions can change after hearing a clue or stay the same, but the students must write down three predictions (for each bag). 4. Once both sets of clues are given. Students will discuss with their team Predictions. Each team must come up with one item that they think is in each bag. 5. The students will share these ideas whole group and the teacher will chart them on a large piece of paper. 6. The teacher will not reveal what is inside the bag until the end of the lesson. Explore: 1. The students will now explore 7 items that are inside a brown paper bag on each table.  Items will be solids and liquids. 2. The will sort the items into two categories (categories will not preset; it’s up to the students). 3. Students must then justify how they sorted their items by creating a list to tell how the items are similar in each group. Describe the items. Students will then write a few sentences that state how the items in one group are different from the items in another. 4. Each table will share their ideas on their sort and justifications.

Explain: 1. The teacher will introduce the term Matter. She will explain that matter is anything that we can see, touch, smell. Everything on Earth is made up of matter! She will ask the students:  Are the objects in front of you matter?  Can you see them? Can you feel them? Can you smell them? 2. Next she will introduce two types of matter, provide definitions, and give examples for each; solids and liquid. Definition of solid: Items that do not change it shape. Most of the time we cannot see through them. Example: a crayon Definition of liquid: Can change its shape and can flow. Example: Dish soap 3. The teacher will introduce the term properties. She will announce that all the words that the students used to describe the items in their bag are called properties. Definition of properties: describe color, size, shape, and weight of an object.  Do you think solids and liquids would have the same properties? Why or why not? Revisit some of the examples the students came up with to describe their objects and have the students help compare the properties of the liquids and solids. Elaborate: 1. Have the students sort their items into a solids and liquids. 2. Students will then fold a paper into 1/8ths and cut out boxes. Students will draw pictures of the items they sorted on the boxes they cut out. Students must draw one example of their own of a solid and liquid. They will then make two columns on construction paper labeled solid and liquid. Students will paste their pictures under the appropriate column and list one or two properties for each picture. Evaluate: 1. The teacher will informally evaluate the students responses during class discussions 2. Picture word sort will be collected and evaluated.

Day 2 – Gases
Standards: P.2.A students understand that matter has observable properties. P.2.A.3 Students know matter can be categorized by observable properties such as color, size, shape and weight. N.2.A.1 Students know how to make observations and give descriptions using numbers, and drawings. N.2.A.3 Students know observable patterns can be used to predict future events or sort items. N.2.A.4 Students know different objects are made of many different types of materials.

N.2.B.2 Students know that, in science, it is helpful to work in a team and share findings with others. Objectives: The students will identify gas as the third state of matter, discover its weight, and list the properties of gas. Introduction: Before the teacher introduces the day’s topic, she will have students summarize what was discussed yesterday about the terms matter, solid, liquid, gas, and properties. Engage: 1. The teacher will have two baggies. She will fill one balloon up with by blowing air into and sealing it tightly. The other baggie be empty. She will ask the students,  Which bag to do you think is heavier and why? The empty one, the one that is now filled with air, or are they both equal in weight? 2. The students will write down their prediction and a justification. 3. The student will them tape their predictions on a chart. 4. The class will review the results on which prediction had the most support and which one had the least. Explore: 1. The teacher will pass out supplies (a straw, two balloons, and two pieces of string) to each table. 2. The students will blow up each balloon (teacher assistance might be needed to blow and tie balloons). Then a string will be tied to each end of the straw. Each balloon will be tied to a string so each side of the straw will have a balloon hanging down from it. The straw will act as a scale. Using their hands, the students will balance the balloons on a finger. Once the balloons are equally balanced the teacher will come by and pop one of the balloons. 3. The students must record their results in a science journal, and make one prediction to why those results occurred. Explain: 1. Ask students to share what they observed during the activity.  When both balloons were filled with air they were balanced. Then when we popped a balloon what happened?  Why does the straw lean to the side with the filled balloon?  What does that say about that balloon in terms of weight?  Why is the filled balloon heavier?  What can we conclude about air then? Does air have weight? 2. Revisit student predictions from the engaged activity. Compare how the bags and balloons might be similar.  If the filled balloon was heavier, would the filled bag be heavier? Why or why not? 3. Explain that today we talked about air. Ask the students,  Can we see air? Can we feel it? Can we smell air sometimes?

4. Explain that if we can see, feel, or smell something then it is matter. Today we learned about the third state of matter. Its called gas. Gases can be found in air. Give several more examples of gases: steam, fog, breathe, smoke, etc). 5. Explain that today we discovered a property of gas. We looked at its weight. We can list more properties about air.  What was the temperature of the air we used? Hot/cold/ room temperature?  Does air have a certain shape or does it change?  Can we tell what color the air is? Elaborate: 1. Have student choose one of the examples of gases that was listed. Have students list properties of that gas in their journals. Students should draw a picture too. 2. Students will write about a time when they have seen this gas before. Example: I see smoke coming out of chimneys.

Evaluate: 1. The teacher will evaluate student responses during class discussions. 2. Journals will be collected and assess for understanding of examples of gases and properties.

Day 3 – Atoms Inside Matter
Standards: P.2.A students understand that matter has observable properties P.2.A.1 Students know matter can exist as solids and as liquids. P.2.A.3 Students know matter can be categorized by observable properties such as color, size, shape and weight. N.2.A.1 Students know how to make observations and give descriptions using numbers, and drawings. N.2.A.3 Students know observable patterns can be used to predict future events or sort items. N.2.A.4 Students know different objects are made of many different types of materials. N.2.B.2 Students know that, in science, it is helpful to work in a team and share findings with others. Objectives: The students will be able to identify the different atom structures in each state of matter. Introduction: The teacher will review the concept of matter and its three states. Review the term property. The students will introduced to the Matter Rap and sing it once as a class.

Matter Rap Matter is everywhere, It solid, or a liquid, or gas in the air. It’s the milk we drink, the rain that falls, The food we eat, it’s a basketball. If you can tear it, or break it, or make it crack, It must be a solid and that is a fact. If you can drink it, and pour it, and change it’s shape, Then it must be a liquid that evaporates. If we can see it, or touch, but it can’t be poured. Then it must be a gas and nothing more. Matter Matter is everywhere, It’s a liquid or a solid or a gas in the air.

Engage: 1. The students will detectives today. The teacher will announce that detectives must look at things very closely and sometimes use something called a micro scope. The teacher will show several pictures of things under a microscope. Students will collaborate with team and try to guess what the picture is showing.

Explore: 1. Now the students will be told that a scientist as looked at our three states of matter; Solid, liquid, and gas. They used a microscope to see all the little pieces that we cannot see with just looking at something with our eye. 2. The students will be given the following three pictures (without the descriptions underneath).

3. In teams, the students must determine which picture is of a solid, liquid, and gas by using their background knowledge from the previous lessons.

4. Teams must provide evidence why they think that picture represents the state of matter. 5. Students will share their thoughts and ideas in a whole group discussion. Explain: 1. The teacher will explain that matter is made up of atoms. The atoms are so small that we cannot see them. She will explain that the little round pairs of balls in the pictures above are the atoms. 2. The atoms in a solid are tightly backed together. She will have a group of students come up to the room and bundle together and state, “These are what the atoms are doing in a solid. It is hard for atoms in a solid to move”.  How are the atoms in a solid, similar to it property? - Solids don’t charge shape, and the atoms done have room to shape their shape. 3. Have students come up and demonstrate atoms in a liquid “The atoms in a liquid are more spread out. So they have a little bit of room to move”. Have students move in place and show that they can spread their arms out.  How are the atoms in a liquid similar to the properties of liquid? 4. The teacher will have student come up and demonstrate the atoms in a gas. The students will move freely and quickly.  How are the atoms in a liquid similar to the properties of a gas?  How are the atoms in gas different from in a solid? Elaborate: 1. The student will draw in their journals three boxes. 2. In box #1, they will draw the atoms in a solid. They will label the atoms and describe how the atoms are moving. 3. In box #2, they will draw the atoms of a liquid. They will label the atoms and describe how the atoms are moving. 4. In box #3, they will draw the atoms of a gas. They will label the atoms and describe how the atoms are moving. Evaluate: 1. The students will play an atom game and the teacher will evaluate the students’ responses during the game. - The students will stand up. When the teacher announces a state of matter the students will act like an atom in that state. Solid = stand still Liquid = walk in place Gas= run in place

Day 4 – Mixing Matter
Standards: P.2.A students understand that matter has observable properties P.2.A.1 Students know matter can exist as solids and as liquids. P.2.A.3 Students know matter can be categorized by observable properties such as color, size, shape and weight. N.2.A.1 Students know how to make observations and give descriptions using numbers, and drawings. N.2.A.3 Students know observable patterns can be used to predict future events or sort items. N.2.A.4 Students know different objects are made of many different types of materials. N.2.B.2 Students know that, in science, it is helpful to work in a team and share findings with others. Objective: The students will observe what happens when states of matter are mixed, and become familiar with the terms dissolve and evaporate. Introduction: The students will sing the Matter Rap song to review the states of matter. The teacher will also have three students demonstrate the atoms in each state of matter. Engage: 1. The students will gather around the rug and listen to the teacher read to the book Solid, Liquid, Gas? By Sally Hewitt. 2. Students will be asked questions throughout the book about the states of matter that are shown in the pictures.  What state of matter is this ball?  What could be properties of this water?  Show me how the atoms are moving in this fog? Explore: 1. The teacher will announce that today we are going to be scientist and we are going to see what happens when we mix states of matter. 2. Each table will get two plastic cups with water and two baggies. One baggie will have sand and the other salt. 3. The teacher will ask,  What state of matter is the water?  What state of matter is the sand?  What state of matter is the salt?

4. The students will make predictions, in their journals, about what will happen when we mix the sand and water, and when we mix the salt and water. 5. Then in groups, the students will begin to mix the two states of matter, and record their observations. 6. The students will share their observations with the class. 7. The teacher will ask the students,  What techniques did you use to mix the two matters?  Did you stir? At what speed to did you stir? Did you just dump the solid into the liquid?  Did you use several methods?  Which method mixed the two best? Explain: 1. The teacher will explain that the salt disappeared into the water and made it cloudy. The scientific term for this is dissolved. We can no longer see the salt. 2. The sand did not dissolve though?  Why do you think the sand didn’t dissolve but the salt did? 3. The teacher will then put both cups outside for a week and the students will observe what happens. 4. After the week, the teacher will show the students that the water evaporated by the suns heat but the solid did not. The salt, that was once dissolved, is still in the cup.  Why do you think the salt didn’t evaporate? 5. The teacher will explain that the sun heated up the water and turned it into a gas. When a liquid evaporates it turns into a gas and goes into the air. Elaborate: 1. The students will write a paragraph about in their writing journals about what happened in the second half of the experiment. They should incorporate the new terms dissolved and evaporate. Evaluate: 1. The teacher will assess the students writing journals. 2. The teacher will evaluate student understanding by their responses to the questions during the class discussion.

Day 5 – Changing From One State to Another
Standards: P.2.A students understand that matter has observable properties P.2.A.1 Students know matter can exist as solids and as liquids.

P.2.A.3 Students know matter can be categorized by observable properties such as color, size, shape and weight. N.2.A.1 Students know how to make observations and give descriptions using numbers, and drawings. N.2.A.3 Students know observable patterns can be used to predict future events or sort items. N.2.A.4 Students know different objects are made of many different types of materials. N.2.B.2 Students know that, in science, it is helpful to work in a team and share findings with others.

Objective: The students will be able to observe how states of matter can change from one form to another by changing the temperature. Introduction: The students will sing the Matter Rap to review the concepts of the states of matter. Engage: 1. Each student will have be given a gold ticket. Each ticket has a picture of matter, a word, or , another concept (picture of atoms) that we have discussed throughout the week. Each student will be responsible for place their ticket into one of the three baskets labeled SOLID, LIQUID, GAS. 2. Once the students have sorted their tickets the teacher will ask them if they would want to try and do something that no other 2nd grade class has ever been able to do. Today in class, we are going to try and change matter that is in this solid basket into matter that is in the liquid basket. Do you think that is possible? Explore: 1. The students will gather around the experiment table with their writing journals. 2. The teacher will pull out a wax candle and announce to the students that this is their first challenge. She will ask,  What state of matter is this candle in? 3. With a partner have students think of a way that we might be able to change the candle into a liquid? 4. Have students draw the candle in their journals. 5. Teacher will take out a lighter and light the candle. 6. Have students observe and log the results in their journals?  What is happening to solid?  What is making it change? 7. Next the teacher will use ice and an electric wok to turn the ice into water, and then boil the water to make steam. 8. The student will observe and note the results in their journals.  What are the atoms like in this ice cube?  What are the atoms like now that it’s changing into a liquid?

  Explain:

What is making the ice change from a solid to a liquid? What do you predict will happen after the ice changes into a liquid?

1. The teacher will explain that temperature is a way that we can change the state of matter.  How did we use temperature to change to candle? (the fire made it hot) 2. The teacher will reiterate that we use temperature to melt things. Melting solids is a way to change it from a liquid to a solid. The teacher will ask,  Do you think we could change a liquid to a solid? For example we had ice which was a solid. Then we turned into a liquid and made it water. How do you think we can make the water go back to a liquid? 3. Explain that when the water got hot enough it turned the liquid into a gas. The steam that we see is gas. Remember that the gas is moving up, and we call that evaporation. The gas is evaporating into the air. Elaborate: 1. Have the student complete the observation worksheet. The students will draw pictures of all three steps of the ice experiment (step one = ice, step two = water, step three= stream). 2. Then the students must draw how the atoms were moving in each step. Then the students must write at least two sentences about how temperature helped us change the state of matter (ex. The ice got hot and melted into water. Then the water got hot and was a gas) Evaluate: 1. The students will play several rounds of quiz quiz, trade trade and review all of the concepts that were discussed throughout the unit. Sample questions include:  Name three solids.  How is a liquid different than a solid?  What does evaporate mean?  Move like the atoms in gas.  Name properties of your desk? 2. Student journals will be assessed to show understanding on how states of matter can be changed.