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Ptolemaic Egypt Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.[1][2] The era of Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the most well documented time periods of the Hellenistic Era; a wealth of papyri written by Greeks and Egyptians of the time have been discovered in Egypt.[3] 332 BC Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon, and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV of Macedon, who had not been born at the time of his father's death. Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy, one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322 BC-301 BC). In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.

All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name "Ptolemy", while princesses and queens preferred the names Cleopatra and Berenice. Ptolemy II instituted a new practice of brother-sister marriage when he married his full sister, Arsinoe II. They became, in effect, co-rulers, and both took the epithet Philadelphus ("Brother-Loving" and "Sister-Loving"). The notion that this was based on Egyptian precedent has been popular in the literature but has no historical basis.[9] This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities, just as they had been in Greece. The Egyptians were rarely admitted to

in 747. The Ayyubids were overthrown by their bodyguards. and that it was to be governed by a prefect selected by the Emperor from the Equestrian and not a governor from the Senatorial order. and under the next sultan. in which most Egyptians were not in any case interested. the Ummayads were overthrown. their status was above ordinary slaves. two chambers were created. into which Egypt was divided. and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but. called . Egypt came under the rule of Ayyubids that lasted until 1252. Mamluks were considered to be "true lords". who ruled under the suzerainty of Abbasid Caliphs until 1517. when Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. The register by which a great portion of the land was a fief of the Mamluks was left unchanged. Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Righteous Caliphs.[12] ROMAN EGYPT Main article: Aegyptus (Roman province) In 30 BC. By the time of the fall of the Ayyubids. the writing paper of the time period. MAMLUK EGYPT The Mamluk Sultanate was a regime composed of mamluks who ruled Egypt from the mid-13th century to the early 16th century. allowing the Mamluks to quickly return to positions of great influence. following the death of Cleopatra VII.[11] Two of the most valuable resources for the Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt were grain and papyrus.the higher levels of Greek culture.[2] While Mamluks were purchased. the Roman Empire declared that Egypt was a province (Aegyptus). The Mameluke emirs were to be retained in office as heads of 12 sanjaks. known as the Mamluks. utilized for labor. Suleiman I. OTTOMAN EGYPT he history of early Ottoman Egypt is a competition for power between the Mamlukes and the representatives of the Ottoman Sultan. who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. MUSLIM EGYPT During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD. to prevent interference by the Roman Senate. with social status above freeborn Egyptian Muslims. In 1174. The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. most Mamluks were Arabs and Kipchak Turks.

a situation that conflicted with its position as an autonomous vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. most scholars have agreed that Modern history of Egypt starts with Muhammad Ali's rule and his launching of Egypt's modernization project that involved building a new army and suggesting a new map for Egypt. ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt. The country became a British protectorate in 1914 and achieved independence in 1922. by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981. fiefs. the Khedivate of Egypt becomes part of the British sphere of influence in the region. Some scholars[1] date it as far back as 1517 with the Ottomans’ defeat of the Mamlūks in 1516–17. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades. Sakura04992 .the Greater Divan and Lesser Divan. and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. to those Suleiman added a seventh. land for the maintenance of the army. Egyptian lands were divided into four classes: the sultan's domain. MUHAMMAD ALI DYNASTY The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Pasha dynasty (1805-1953) spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt. Six regiments were constituted by the conqueror Selim for the protection of Egypt. of Circassians. MODERN EGYPT The definition of modern history has varied in accordance to different definitions of Modernity. known as the Republic of Egypt. the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage. following the 1952 Egyptian revolution. However. the first survey of Egypt under the Ottomans was made. [2] In 1882. In 1527. to aid the pasha by their deliberations. in which both the army and the ecclesiastical authorities were represented. by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970. and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt. this new survey did not come into use until 1605. Gamal Abdel Nasser established a one party state. and lands settled on religious foundations. the official copy of the former registers having perished by fire.