DISEASE SPECIFIC INFORMATION DISEASE Anemia: a blood condition in which there are too few red blood cells

or the red blood cells are deficient in hemoglobin, resulting in poor health. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Anemia usually is grouped into 3 etiologic categories: decreased red blood cell (RBC) production, increased RBC destruction, and blood loss. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS (SIGNS & SYMPTOMS)

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Fatigue decreased energy weakness shortness of breath lightheadedness palpitations (feeling of the heart racing or beating irregularly)

• looking pale COMMON TREATMENT Anemia treatment depends on the cause:

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Iron deficiency anemia. This form of anemia is treated with changes in your diet and iron supplements. If the underlying cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and stopped. This may involve surgery. Vitamin deficiency anemias. Folic acid deficiency anemia is treated with folic acid supplements. If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from the food you eat, you may receive vitamin B-12 injections. Anemia of chronic disease. There's no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone normally produced by your kidneys, may help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue.

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Aplastic anemia. Treatment for this anemia may include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You may need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow is diseased and can't make healthy blood cells. Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. Treatment of these various diseases can range from simple medication to chemotherapy to bone marrow transplantation. Hemolytic anemias. Managing hemolytic anemias includes avoiding suspect medications, treating related infections and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which may be attacking your red blood cells. Short courses of treatment with steroids or immune suppressant medications can help suppress your immune system's attack on your red blood cells. Depending on the severity of your anemia, a blood transfusion or plasmapheresis may be necessary. Plasmapheresis is a type of blood-filtering procedure.

Sickle cell anemia. Treatment for this anemia may include the administration of oxygen, pain-relieving drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors may also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics. A bone marrow transplant may be an effective treatment in some circumstances. A cancer drug called hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) also is used to treat sickle cell anemia.

• Increase adequate fluids. MO: Mosby / Elsevier. Rational: to assist in the dilution of respiratory secretions to facilitate the spending and prevent stasis of body fluids such as respiratory and kidney. • Provide skin care. • Monitor body temperature. St. Note: the formation of pus may not exist when granulocytes depressed. Rational: indicators of local infection. Reference: Swearingen. Rational: propilaktik may be used to reduce colonization or for the treatment of local infection process. Pamela L. Rational: to limit exposure to the bacteria / infection. by care givers and patients. Rational: to improve the ventilation of all lung segments. Rational: reducing the risk of damage to the skin / tissue and infection. Note the chills and tachycardia with or without fever. Louis.DIAGNOSTICS   CBC. perianal and oral carefully. • Give a topical antiseptic. • Observe erythema / wound fluid. Provide insulation if possible. Note: patients with severe anemia / aplastic can be risky due to the normal flora of the skin. Physical Exam COMMON NURSING INTERVENTIONS • Increase of good hand washing. systemic antibiotics (collaboration). • Motivation changes in position / ambulation frequently. Rational: the process of inflammation / infection require evaluation / treatment. identify the specific pathogen and affect treatment options. Manual of Medical-surgical Nursing Care: Nursing Interventions and Collaborative Management. • Take specimens for culture / sensitivity as indicated (collaboration) Rational: differentiate an infection. . • Monitor / limit visitors. when the immune response is disrupted. Protection of insulation required in aplastic anemia. and help mobilize secretions to prevent pneumonia. coughing and breathing exercises that deep. 2007. Rational: reducing the risk of colonization / infection of bacteria. • Maintain strict aseptic technique in the procedure / treatment of injuries. Rational: to prevent cross-contamination / bacterial colonization.

Louis. high glucose level in the bloodstream can lead to severe complications. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS (SIGNS & SYMPTOMS) Type 1 Diabetes • • • • • Frequent urination Unusual thirst Extreme hunger Unusual weight loss Extreme fatigue and Irritability Type 2 Diabetes* • • • • • Any of the type 1 symptoms Frequent infections Blurred vision Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet • Recurring skin. which is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas.DISEASE SPECIFIC INFORMATION DISEASE Diabetes mellitus (DM) or simply diabetes. 2007. Over a period of time. However. such as eye disorders. gum. due to abnormal insulin metabolism. is a chronic health condition in which the body either fails to produce sufficient amount of insulin or responds abnormally to insulin. Manual of Medical-surgical Nursing Care: Nursing Interventions and Collaborative Management. Pamela L. or bladder infections COMMON TREATMENT • • • insulin exercise diet DIAGNOSTICS   Bedside glucose Hemoglobin A1C COMMON NURSING INTERVENTIONS • Monitor Blood glucose levels • Teach about medication. . PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus (all types) is related to the hormone insulin. resulting in an elevated level of blood glucose or hyperglycemia. in a diabetic person. MO: Mosby / Elsevier. the body cells and tissues do not make use of glucose from the blood. cardiovascular diseases. disease • Monitor for S&S of DKA • Administer insulin per protocol/sliding scale Reference: Swearingen. This hormone is responsible for maintaining glucose level in the blood. kidney damage and nerve problems. monitoring. St. It allows the body cells to use glucose as a main energy source.