RENAISSANCE TEST STUDY GUIDE 2011-12

* Major points of Christianity, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation are covered on the test. Many of the questions come directly from our class slides. * 50 Multiple Choice questions; 100 test points (many questions = “which answer is NOT true” format).

-------------------------------------------------- Review Questions------------------------------------------------------* What does “Renaissance” mean? - A “rebirth” of Classical (ancient Greek and Roman) interests, art, learning. * How did the Black Plague impact the Catholic Church in Europe? - People questioned why the plague happened in a religious sense, many Church workers died helping the sick/dead, corruption increased because the Church still had its land/wealth, and many new clergymen joined the Church and took advantage of this situation. * In the 1400s, what type of place was Italy (politically speaking)? - Fractal; lots of competing independent states on the Italian Peninsula.
* What is the Pope's role in the Catholic Church?

- Leader of all Catholic Christians to be obeyed, final say in Church matters, power of Excommunication. * What city was the center of the Italian Renaissance in the mid/late 1400s, and then which city was the center of the Italian Renaissance in the early/mid 1500s? - Florence, then Rome. * What was the significance of the Medici family? - Very wealthy city that informally ran Florence…commissioned art, influenced culture. * Why is Girolamo Savonarola important? - Denounced Florence’s corruption and eventually took power and made it very strict. He was eventually killed as a heretic but by then Rome had become the center of the Renaissance. * What is the significance of Humanism? - Interest in human potential, human achievement, the Classical world. * What subjects did Humanists emphasize in teaching and learning? - Liberal Studies and “Humanities” (literature, history, philosophy). Science not emphasized. * What was a woman’s ideal role as a result of the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation? - Second to father and husband, job is to produce and raise children, education increased a bit. * What is a "Renaissance Man?" - A man that is talented in many fields.

RENAISSANCE TEST STUDY GUIDE 2011-12
* Why was Leonardo Da Vinci important? - One of the great artists, inventors, scientists, etc. of all-time. * Describe the power struggle between kings and the Church in Medieval and then Renaissance Europe? - Kings’ power increased by the end of the Renaissance; Church’s power decreased by end of Renaissance. * What is the importance of the printing press? - Now books could be mass produced and affordable to public. Increased education and spread of ideas, increased distribution of Bibles, books, etc. * What is important about the Italian Wars from 1494-1549? - France vs. Hapsburg Empire mostly for greed, land. Spain/Habsburg largely defeated France, and it showed that the Italian states were second-rate powers. * Why did the Hapsburg royal family had such a protruding (sticking-out) lower jaw? - Generations of in-breeding…larger likelihood of acquiring bad genetic traits. * Why was Giotto such a famous painter? - His art had more emotion, was more realistic, and was more 3-D. Basically the first Renaissance painter. * Why were Donatello and Michelangelo's "David" sculptures significant? - First free-standing nudes since antiquity, reflects interest in the Classical world, impressive works of art. * What was the importance of Northern European Renaissance painting? - Very realistic, oils, less Church influence than in Italy. * Why was Leonardo’s "Mona Lisa" important? - Leonardo personally prized this piece, theory of how it could be his image in her face (and more), priceless art. * What is the Catholic Church's official stance on artwork and images of Jesus? - Okay as long as it was educational and inspiring. In theory, the 2 nd Commandment may contradict this. * Why is Christianity’s doctrine enticing to so many people? - Heaven is a paradise in the afterlife, anyone can join, people are equal in the eyes of God, access to God through prayer, forgiveness for sins, meek shall inherit the Earth, no requirement to combine Church and State, etc. * What were some problems associated with the Catholic Church in Medieval Europe? - East/West Schism, Great (Western) Schism, corruption in Church, very demanding on people, Crusades = controversial, etc. * What is a heretic? - A Christian of the wrong type of Christianity. For example, Catholics believe you have to be Catholic etc.

RENAISSANCE TEST STUDY GUIDE 2011-12
* What is the importance of Excommunication? - Pope can throw someone out of the Church, technically sending that person’s soul to Hell. * What are the top 3 denominations of Christianity today (by number of people in each denomination)? - Catholics, Protestants, Eastern Orthodox. * Why did Martin Luther and others dislike the idea of indulgences? - Did not like how you could buy your way into Heaven. * What did Martin Luther do for a living before he wrote the 95 Theses? - He was a monk. * Why are the 95 Theses important? - Luther boldly questioned the practices of the Church. * What were Martin Luther’s beliefs about the Church? - Salvation possible through faith alone, clergy/Church not necessary for interpretation of Bible, Church teachings should only be based from the Bible, only 2 sacraments instead of 7 are necessary. * Which country was Charles V's main rival? - France. *What did Martin Luther have to do with the German Peasant's War from 1524-1525? - People applied his teachings to other aspects of life, like the abolition of serfdom once and for all. Luther denounced the peasants and supported Charles V. * Why did Charles V help set up the Peace of Augsburg in 1555? - Charles would rather not have a civil war on his hands because France and the Ottoman Turks were rivals enough; Charles realized that the Protestant Reformation’s momentum might never be completely suppressed. * What is the problem of succession about? - The idea that the next king will be the son of the current king. If this gets complicated, then problems can arise (i.e. England!) * Why did Henry VIII want to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon? - He feared that his brother actually did consummate the wedding with Catherine (thus being under a curse), he was not confident she could produce a male heir, he was a cheat and had lost interest with Catherine, and he became infatuated with Anne Boleyn. * What action did Henry VIII do when the Church refused to annul his marriage? - He created the Church of England with himself as the head and took the Church’s lands in England (The Parliament approved of all this).

RENAISSANCE TEST STUDY GUIDE 2011-12
* What can we learn from the study of Henry VIII's wives? - Women had a horrible double-standard, divorce was not acceptable, men had lots of power over women, etc. * What was Queen Mary I like as the ruler of England? - Wanted to restore Catholicism/killed hundreds of Protestants, political marriage to Philip II, never got pregnant. * Why was Elizabeth I nicknamed, "The Virgin Queen"? - Never married to maintain Europe’s balance of power, did not want to anger either the Catholics or Protestants. * In Henry VIII through Elizabeth I’s time, what is England like in relation to the rest of Europe? - Not one of the top powers, but an up and coming power, especially with its powerful navy. * What was a major difference between Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli? - Zwingli wanted to cut loose from the Church entirely – Luther just wanted to make some reforms. * What are the principles of Calvinism? - Predestination, “The Elect,” people are sinners at birth. * What sort of place was Geneva, Switzerland when John Calvin was running it? - Very strict rules, attracted many from around Europe and ideology spread, Calvin ran it like an autocrat. * What are some things that Anabaptists believe? - Pacifists, total separation of Church and State, shared property, later influenced Amish, Mennonites, Quakers, etc. * What was the overall Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation by the mid-1500s? - “Catholic Reformation” intended to stop corruption, win back Protestants. * What did the Church conclude at the Council of Trent? - Lots, but stricter rules for clergy, reaffirmed Papal authority, seminary school required for new clergymen. * What are Jesuits and why are they important? - Obedient to Pope, believed in education in all subjects, spread Christianity all around the world as missionaries. * What was the point of the Church-sponsored Inquisitions? - To find heretics and make them confess and/or punish them. Also demonstrates power of the Church. * What was the Church's official stance on torture in the Inquisitions? - Torture was okay if it was used to get a confession out of someone. * Overall, what happens between Catholics and Protestants after the Reformation to the mid-1600s? - “Iron Century;” lots of fighting largely for religious reasons…religious wars mainly end after 1648 in Europe.