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B. Methods/Techniques III. Perception of Customers A. Celebrity vs. Non-celebrity endorsers 1.

actors, models, media men prof, doctors B. Biases against celebrities 1. Positive 2. Negative Methods/Techniques An assessment of current market situation indicated that celebrity endorsement and advertising strategies if correctly blended in terms of marrying the strengths of the brands with the celebrity’s quality indeed justify the high cost associated with this form of advertising. However, advertising needs to be aware of the complex processing underlying celebrity processing endorsement by gaining clarity on described concepts of celebrity source creditability and attractiveness, matchup hypothesis, multiple product endorsement, etc. (page 36, journal, Dr. Puja Khatri) Perception of Customers The findings of the study revealed that customers prefer female celebrities over male celebrities. The preference for celebrities was more for sensory products than cerebral products. Customers want celebrities to entertain them as well as give information pertaining to the products in the advertisements. The factors that customers perceived to be important in selecting the celebrities for retail brands were proficiency, reliability, pleasantness, elegance, distinctiveness, approachability and non-controversial. (The IUP Journal of Brand Management, Vol. VI, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 7-25, September & December 2009, Varsha Jain, Mari Sudha, Aarzoo Daswani) Celebrity vs. Non-Celebrity endorsers …the results from this study do not support the view that using celebrity advertising is more believable or effective than non-celebrity advertising for the brands tested in this study. Consumers generally feel that celebrities are more attractive than non-celebrities, something that may draw initial attention to the advertisement. Beyond that, the celebrities do not seem to make the advertising any more effective or believable. Further, purchase intentions did not vary between the executions for any of the brands tested. (Mohan K. Menon) Biases against celebrities The correspondence bias is the tendency to assume that a person’s behavior is a true reflection of their beliefs or opinions, and thus, their underlying dispositions when in fact, their behavior could be explained entirely by situational factors (Jones 1979; 1986; Gilbert and Malone 1995). In other words, people make strong inferences from behavior and fail to adjust sufficiently for situational constraints. The correspondence bias is one type of inferential bias that arises when a person has to make a judgment, such as a prediction, causal attribution, or an attitude formation. Inferential biases result from the limited amount of cognitive capacity (i.e., limited attention and memory) people have to process information (Bettman 1979; Kahneman 1973) The results of the present experiment indicate that consumers are quite willing to make strong dispositional inferences on the basis of weak data Even when a celebrity’s behavior is highly constrained (e g , $6 million dollar contract), and is therefore uninformative, consumers assume that the celebrity, nevertheless, has a very favorable attitude toward the endorsed brand Moreover, as inferences about the celebrity’s brand attitude became more favorable, consumers’ attitudes toward the ad, the brand, and the endorser increased in favorability. Results show how people ascribe positive attitudes and preferences for a product to the celebrity endorser, and because of the correspondence bias, they do this even when they know that the celebrity has been paid millions of dollars to promote the product. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that contemporary consumers are aware that celebrities are often given large endorsement fees, and it appears this knowledge may not diminish the effectiveness of the ads. (Maria L. Cronley, Frank R. Kardes, Perilou Goddard, David C. Houghton)

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