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<Glossary> allusion(암시) a brief, often implicit and a direct reference within a literary text to something outside the text

, whether another text(e.g.,the Bible,a myth,another literary work,a painting,or a piece of music) or any imaginary or historical person, place, or thing. Many of the footnotes in this book explain allusions found in literary selections. concrete poetry(구상시-글자를 그림처럼 배열한 시) poetry in which the words on the page are arranged to look like an object;also called shaped verse. George Herbert`s "Easter Wings," for example, is arranged to look like two pairs of wings. connotation(함축) what is suggested by a word, apart from what is literally means or how it is defined in the dictionary. See also denotation. denotation(지시-명시적의미) a word`s direct and literal meaning, as opposed to its connotation. diction(용어선택-시적용어) choice of words. Diction is often described as either informal or colloquial if it resembles everyday speech, or as formal if it iinstead lofty, impersonal, and dignified. Tone is determined largely through diction. dramatic monologue(시적 독백) a type of subgenre of poetry in which a speaker adresses a silent auditor or auditors in a specific situation and setting that is revealed entirely through the speaker`s words; this kind of poem`s primary aim is the revelation of the speaker`s personality, views, and values. For example, T.S Eliot`s "The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock" consists of a middle-aged man`s words to the unidentified person who is about to accompany him to an evening social event; most of Robert Browning`s best-known poems, such as "My Las Duchess",are dramatic monologues. elegy(비가/애가) (1)since the Renaissance, usually a formal lament on the death of a particular person, but focusing mainly on the speaker`s efforts to come to terms with his or her grief; (2)more broadly, and lyric in sorrowful mood that takes death as its primary subject. An example is W.H.Auden`s "In Memory of W.B.Yeats." enjambment(뜻-구문이 다음행/구로 이어지는것) in poetry, the technique of running over from one line to the next without stop, as in the following lines by William Wordsworth:"My heart leaps up when I behold/A rainbow in the sky". The lines themselves would be described as enjambed.

epic(서사시) a long poem that celebrates, in fa continuous narrative, the achievements of mighty heroes and heroines, usually in founding a nation or developing a culture, and uses elevated language and a grand, high style. Other epic conventions include a beginning in medias res, an invocation of the muse, a journey to the underworld, battle scenes, and a scene in which the hero arms himself for battle. Examples include Beowulf and Homer`s Iliad. A mock epic is a form of satire in which epic language and conventions are used to depict characters, actions, and settings utterly unlike those in conventional epics, usually (though not always) with the purpose of ridiculing the social milieu or types of people portrayed in the poem. A famous example is Alexander pope`s The Rape of the Lock. epigraph(비문) a quotation appearing at the beginning of a literary work or of one section of such a work; not to be confused with epigram. figure of speech(비유적 표현) any wor or phrase that reates a "figure" in the mind of the reader by effecting an obvious change in the usual meaning or order of words, by comparing or identifying one thing with another; also called tropes. Metaphor, simile, metonymy, overstatement, oxymoron, and understatement are common figures of speech. hyperbole(과장법) see overstatement. (see also understatement.) image/imagery broadly defined, imagery is any sensory detail or evocation in a work; more narrowly, the use of figurative language to evoke a feeling, to call to mind an idea, or to describe an object. Imagery may be described as auditory, tactile, visual, or olfactory depending on which sense it primarily appeals to-hearing, touch, vision, or smell. An image is a particular instance of imagery. Lyric(서정시) originally, a poem meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre; now, any relatively short poem in which the speaker expresses his or her thoughtys and feelings in the first person rather than recounting a narrative or portraying a dramatic situation. ode a lyric poem characterized by a serious topic and formal tone but without a prescribed formal pattern. Examples include Keats`s odes and Shelley`s "Ode to the West Wind." quatrain(4행시)

a four-line unit of verse, whether an entire poem, a stanza, or a group of four lines linked by a pattern of rhyme (as in an English or Shakespearean sonnet). rhyme(운율) repetition or correspondence of the terminal sounds of words("How now, brown cow?"). The most common type, end rhyme, occurs when the last words in two or more lines of a poem rhyme with each other. Internal rhyme occurs when a word within a line of poetry rymes with another word in the same or adjacent lines, as in "The Dew drew quivering and chill"(Dickinson). An eye rhyme or sight rhyme involves words that don`t actually rhyme but look like they do because of their similar spelling ("cough" and "bough"). Off, Half,Near,or slant rhyme is rhyme that is slightly "off" or only approximate, usually because words` final consonant sounds correspond, but not the vowels that proceed them("phases" and "houses"). When two syllables rhyme and the last is unstressed or unaccented, they create a feminine rhyme("ocean" and "motion"); masculine rhyme involves only a single stressed or accented syllable ("cat" and "hat"). See also rhyme scheme. sestet(sonnet의 마지막 6행) six lines of verse linked by a pattern of rhyme, as in the las six lines of the Italian, or Petrarhan, sonnet. See also octave. setting(배경) the time and place of the action in a work of fiction, poetry, or drama. The spatial setting is the place or places in which action unfolds, the temporal setting is the time.(temporal setting is thus the same as plot time.) It is sometimes also helpful to distinguish between general setting-the general time and place in which all the action unfolds-and particular settings-the times and places in which individual episodes or scenes take place. The film version of Gone with the Wind, for example, is generally set in Civil War-era Georgia, while its opening scene takes place on the porch of Tara, Scarlett O`Hara`s family home, before the war begins. simile(직유) a figure of speech involving a direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another, usually using the words like or as to draw the connection, as in "My love is like a red, red rose." An analogy is an extended simile. See also metaphor. sonnet a fixed verse form consisting of fourteen lines usually in iambic pentameter. An Italian sonnet consists of eight rhyme-linked (an octave) plus six rhyme-linked (a sestet), often with either an abbaabba cdecde or abbacddc defdef rhyme scheme. This type of sonnet is also called the Petrarchan sonnet in honor of the Italian poet Petrach(1304-74). An english or Shakespearean sonnet instead consists of three quatrains(four-line units) and a couplet and often rhymes abab cdcd efef gg. stanza(4행 이상의 각운이 있는 시구)

a section of a poem, marked by extra line spacing before and mater, that often has single pattern of meter and/or rhyme. Conventional stanza types include ballad stanza, Spenserian stanza, ottava rima, and terza rima. See also verse paragraph. symbol a person, place, thing or event that figuratively represents or stands for something else. Often the thing or idea represented is abstract and general, and the symbol is more concrete and particular. A traditional symbol is one that recurs frequently in (and beyond) literature and is thus immediately recognizable to those who belong to a given culture. In western literature and culture, for example, the rose and snake traditionally symbolize love and evil, respectively. Other symbols such as the scarlett letter in Nathaniel Hawthorne`s The scarlet Letter instead accrue their complex meanings only within a particular literary work; these are sometimes called invented symbols. tone the attitude a literary work takes toward its subject, especially the way this attitude is reveealed through diction. understatement(절제된 표현) language that makes it point by self-consciously downplaying its real emphasis, as in "Final exams aren`t exactly a walk in the park"; litotes is one form of understatement. See also overstatement.