Description of Activity: In this lesson the teacher uses a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation to introduce students to the organization technique

for the five-paragraph essay known as "The Bing, the Bang, and the Bongo." The presentation, designed for beginning writers, focuses on the introduction, organization, summary, and transitions used to create a well-developed essay. The students will practice this technique by completing an essay template and will conclude by composing an original essay on a chosen topic. Objectives:

   

To provide students with a method of organizing ideas into clear, well-developed essays To use transitional words to link ideas smoothly between paragraphs To create a well-developed, five-paragraph essay using "The Bing, the Bang, and the Bongo" method of development To use Microsoft Word or another word-processing program to provide practice in the use of technology skills

EXAMPLE….. I am forty years old, rather tall and I have blue eyes and short black hair. I wear casual clothes as I teach students in a relaxed atmosphere. I enjoy my job because I get to meet and help so many different people from all over the world. During my spare time, I like playing tennis which I play at least three times a week. I also love listening to classical music and I must admit that I spend a lot of money on buying new CDs! I live in a pretty seaside town on the Italian coast. I enjoy eating great Italian food and laughing with the likable people who live here.

my bedroom became my only library.Exampl. I felt like I was a fish in a new pond with nothing to do and no where else to go. I didn‟t have enough money to be competing with materials. knowing I was new in this country. it motivated me to go further in establishing the goals that I desired in life. My house was my only playground and entertainment place. I did not have anybody to talk to and look up to when I needed. I was new to the environment and my language barriers keep me a distance from communicating and socializing with others. and disrespect given from other people had forced me to be silent and lonely in public. I was not able to associate or interact within the environment. . Every time I tried to express an assignment or any kind of activity through dictation. it became a joke to the classroom.. pressure. especially in the school. All the stress. People made fun of the way I talked and the way I dressed. Paragraph by narration My Unforgettable Experience by Hieu Vu The first year that I set my feet in this country was very difficult and unforgettable. Every time I thought about these incidents. I accomplished my communication and socialization. Finally. but I will never forget who I was once before. My loneliness and my anger pushed me to study hard and to commit myself to be more successful and to be above those who had put me down.

they begin with a topic sentence and this sentence is followed by specific supporting details. These jobs. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. but it is similar to one that may appear on a specific adminstration of the TOEFL): In recent decades. if the topic sentence introduces an effect. such as sports stadiums. people established places of leisure. Here is an example: In recent decades.") For example. For many people. Other topics will ask you to discuss the results or effects of some cause. the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs. and culture. "Basic Paragraph Structure. with their promise of a better material life. cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. Be sure to give specific details and reasons in your explanation. there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. That is. Here is an example of a writing topic asking for causes of a particular phenomenon (Note: this is not an actual TOEFL topic. the supporting sentences all describe causes. and museums. First. Cause/effect paragraphs generally follow basic paragraph format. these facilities made . (Click here if you wish to review Lesson 1. theaters. as the cities grew. attracted many people from rural areas. Second.Cause and Effect:: Cause and Effect Paragraphs Cause & Effect Conjunctions | Go to the Exercises Sometimes. assigned topics on the written portion of the TOEFL ask you to explain the reasons or causes of something. Explain the causes of this phenomenon. entertainment. which tended to be located in cities. cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. Finally.

In the chart below are the main ideas of the above paragraph. There are several reasons for this. (Cities have grown very large.] (Cities have grown very large. and therefore drew them away from rural communities. and culture made city life appear more interesting. Better schools attracted families to move to the city. Cause and Effect Conjunctions Here are some common conjunctions that can be used to express cause and effect: since because as a result therefore because of + noun phrase due to + noun phrase .city life appear more interesting than life on the farm.) CAUSES (Supporting Sentences) Factory jobs attracted people. to help you understand the relationships better: EFFECT (Topic Sentence) Cities have grown very large.) Notice also how the topic sentence is followed by the "focusing" or "prediction" sentence. Notice how each supporting sentence is a cause that explains the effect mentioned in the topic sentence. Places of leisure. Such sentences help the reader anticipate the organization of the paragraph or essay. entertainment. [There are several reasons for this.

The conjunction because is placed in the correct position here.consequently for this reason so There are two things you must be careful of when using these conjunctions. it does not make sense because a person's opening or closing a window does not influence the weather. you must order the cause and the effect corerctly. you should be careful when using commas. the conjunction because is correctly placed before the part of the sentence that expresses the cause. (Note that the first letter of the conjunction is now capitalized. Sally closed the window. in this sentence: ??The weather outside was cold because Sally closed the window. and the EFFECT is Sally's closing the window. Sally closed the window. in the sentence Sally closed the window because the weather outside was cold. and for this reason are usually followed by a comma. even though the subordinate clause because the room was cold is now at the beginning of the sentence. as in these examples: The weather was cold. in the sentence Because the weather outside was cold. which is right before the cause. consequently. as a result.) However. First. even though it is grammatical. Second. therefore. . Similarly. For example. the CAUSE is the fact that the room was cold. Conjunctions such as therefore.

As a result. These are attached directly at the beginning of CAUSE-sentence without a comma. Sally put on her coat. Sally put on her scarf. This conjunction has a comma before it. The comma here is placed at the end of the subordinate clause. as in this sentence: The weather was warm. Consequently. Because the weather outside was cold. as in the example above. Sally closed the window. However. The adverbial clause conjunctions since and because are exceptions. the schools were closed. A blizzard hit the town.The weather was cold. The coordinating conjunction so is also different from the ones above. so may not be used at the beginning of a sentence (although you will often see it in informal writing): . so Jim turned on the air conditioner. in formal academic writing. The weather was cold. Therefore.

Comparison and Contrast… Paragraph 1  Many Americans feel that there is little difference between the American and British forms of English. In soccer. To complain classes. and pronunciation can be so different that an American listener may not understand a British speaker even though they're technically usComplaining vs. However. a comparative analysis of the harmonic and melodic procedures of both these great musicians will reveal many startling similarities. our reality-TVobsessed media. is popular only in the United States and Canada. about something is to express dissatisfaction to someone whom you hold responsible for an unsatisfactory state of affairs. making it the most widely played sport in the world. sometimes called association football or soccer. In football. They do love to moan though. American football. idiom. The British are powerfully embarrassed by complaining. Soccer has little body contact between players. in which players make maximum use of body contact to block a running ball carrier and his teammates. uses an elongated round ball. In fact. a way of venting resentment without taking responsibility for effecting change. to moan is to express the same thing to someone other than the person responsible. American Football "Although European football is the parent of American football. These are just a few of the features that distinguish association and American football. Soccer is played by 11 players with a round ball. on the other hand. Since rock music is "Visitors to Britain are rarely able to grasp--sometimes composed within this tradition. requires special headgear and padding." (John Lanchester. a source of entertainment in its own right. "Party Games. Football. but there is a profound curriculum of western music survey philosophical and practical difference. and so on. and therefore requires no special protective equipment. Football. is played in more than 80 countries. The background music of British life is a running aria of moaning about pretty much everything-our weather. also played by 11 players in somewhat different positions on the field. June 7. Matthews should be included in the The two activities seem similar. I will argue after decades of residency--the vital distinction its that classic rock groups like Dave inhabitants make between complaining and moaning." . Moaning. some features of the language like vocabulary. our permanently underperforming national sports teams. our politics. the ball is passed from hand to hand across the opponent's goal. and experience an almost physical recoil from people who do it in public. This comparison will indicate that the music of rock groups like Dave Matthews derives from the Western tradition of music. the two games show several major differences. Moaning Paragraph 2 People who listen to and study Beethoven often don't appreciate great rock groups like the Dave Matthews Band. European football. 2010)  European Football vs. the ball is advanced toward the goal by kicking it or by butting it with the head." The New Yorker. is also an important psychic comfort blanket. while the Americans and British share the same grammar and sentence structure. on the other hand.

for all their many shortcomings. 1995) ing the same language. When the till person announces the bill. I took a place in a line behind eight other shoppers. the food hall was busy and there were long queues at the tills. and then when the till lady says. love. and then--mark this--pocket their change as they walk away instead of deciding that now is the time to search for the car keys and reorganize six months' worth of receipts. They were all women and they all did the same mystifying thing: They acted surprised when it came time to pay. They go 'Oh!' and start rooting in a flustered fashion in their handbag for their purse or checkbook. "Men. they immediately hand over an approximately correct amount of money. they suddenly look as if they've never done this sort of thing before.(student paragraph. like washing large pieces of oily machinery in the kitchen sink or forgetting that a painted door stays wet for more than thirty seconds. "Football and Soccer")  A "Sexist Interlude" by Bill Bryson: Women vs. as if no one had told them that this might happen." (Bill Bryson. They spend their time in line doing a wallet inventory and sorting through their coins. William Morrow. Men at the Checkout Counter "Although the store had only just opened. Women will stand there watching their items being rung up. are generally pretty good when it comes to paying. Notes From a Small Island. This is something that has been puzzling me for years. say. 'That's four pounds twenty. a problem with the till roll. . keep their hands extended for the change however long it takes or however foolish they may begin to look if there is.' or whatever.

and wise men use them. Nay. for they are cymini sectores [splitters of hairs]. Abeunt studia in mores [Studies pass into and influence manners]. Reading maketh a full man. if his wit be called away never so little. poets witty. And therefore. About. and writing an exact man. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences. the mathematics subtle. but to weigh and consider. and the plots and marshalling of affairs. for they teach not their own use. but that is a wisdom without them. is in the judgment and disposition of business. some books are to be read only in parts. is affectation. one by one. Bowling is good for the stone and reins. others to be swallowed. nor to believe and take for granted. conference a ready man. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt. Some books also may be read by deputy. come best from those that are learned. to use them too much for ornament. Histories make men wise. and for ability. Read not to contradict and confute. flashy things. riding for the head. by study. let him study the lawyers‟ cases. For expert men can execute. he had need have a great memory. and perhaps judge of particulars. and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants. Some books are to be tasted.Clarification:: Of Studies. but that would be only in the less important arguments. like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. and the meaner sort of books. that is. for ornament. for ornament. that need pruning. and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another. others to be read. there is no stond or impediment in the wit but may be wrought out by fit studies. and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large. natural philosophy deep. won by observation. let him study the mathematics. is the humor of a scholar. and extracts made of them by others. and some few to be read wholly. simple men admire them. to seem to know that he doth not. moral grave. To spend too much time in studies is sloth. Crafty men condemn studies. and above them. to make judgment wholly by their rules. let him study the Schoolmen. So if a man‟s wit be wandering. conference a ready man. and writing an exact man" By Richard Nordquist. but the general counsels. except they be bounded in by experience. and some few to be chewed and digested. nor to find talk and discourse. if he confer little. logic and rhetoric able to contend. . Their chief use for delight is in privateness and Guide Filed In: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Of Studies by Francis Bacon Studies serve for delight. and for ability. and the like. They perfect nature. gentle walking for the stomach. but not curiously. shooting for the lungs and breast. for in demonstrations. if a man write little. he had need have much cunning. else distilled books are like common distilled waters. he had need have a present wit: and if he read little. is in discourse. by Francis Bacon "Reading maketh a full man. If he be not apt to beat over matters. he must begin again. and with diligence and attention.

boneless chicken breasts. at last Checklist This is a checklist to help you when writing a Process Paragraph * Narrow the topic. two cans of Cream of Chicken . next later. as. then. Think of who you are writing to * Make a topic sentence that clearly states what your process result will be * Free write or brainstorm some ideas that might help with the process * Drop unnecessary information that are not necessary in the process * Make a outline with the steps of how you will write it. the sciences. initially. while. or mechanics  Here are some examples of a process paragraph: My Most Favorite Dish.Paragraph ny Process:: process paragraph Page historylast edited by PBworks 5 years ago Two Types of Process Paragraph  Process writing is useful when writing on history. begin by Continuing the Process second. two cans of Cream of Mushroom soup. business. Before you get started you will need the following things: two or more skinless. and many other areas How to: This gives the reader steps or directions on how he or she can do something. psychology. before. meanwhile Ending a Process finally. third step. Explanation: This tells the reader how a particular event occurred or how something works. punctuation. after(ward). when. You Can Make It Too Today we are going to be making chicken primavera. as soon as. upon. * Write a draft of the process and use transition expressions to indicate order * Revise * Proofread to make sure that you have no errors in grammar or spelling. until. during. Transitional Expressions: Begining a Process (at)first.

Then make sure to be sensitive of his or her feelings and answer any questions that he or she may . butter. first. and finally one very large sized frying pan. add your two cans of Cream of Mushroom soup and your two cans of Cream of Chicken soup. and then add your chicken. When your chicken is done all the way through then we make the sauce. This recipe will feed between 8-10 people in one sitting. and delicious for you as it was for me. or they will all be stuck together. I hope that this meal was as quick. You want to make sure that the chicken is browned on all sides. This writer was very successful in creating a how-to paragraph as explained in our text and has explained how to do what was stated in the topic sentence.soup. You don‟t want the sauce to boil or else it will take longer to thicken up even if the amount of milk was small. Always start on high heat and then once the ingredients are added the heat will get turned down. First try to distance yourself by suddenly becoming busier than usual. While finishing cooking the noodles turn the heat down on the sauce so that all it is going to do is warm up. vegetable oil. easy. The more milk that is added the thinner the sauce will be. If you need to make more than that. and then while you have that going. all you need to do now is dish up your plate of chicken primavera and enjoy. Right there in the same pan that you cooked you chicken in. if the water is boiling. It only takes about 3-5 minutes for the sauce to warm all the way through. then you can start boiling you noodles. start dicing you chicken breast into about 1 inch cubes. Once the noodles are done then you can strain the water off of them. milk. and if you were to cut a cube in half that the middle is white. After dumping the soup into the pan. It depends on how thick or thin you like your sauces. you will then need to guess on the amount of milk that you put into the sauce. let that melt a little bit. This particular paragraph would be easy for anyone trying to make chicken primavera for the first time. Any time while you are cooking you chicken.Then gently let him or her know that you do not want to be together anymore. spaghetti noodles (or any noodle of you choice). and after. The next step is to calmly tell the other person that how you are feeling. Make sure to keep stirring the noodles through out their cooking process. and the less milk that is added will give you a nicer creamier sauce. ~© Jessica Johnson 2005~ This is a great example of a process paragraph for the author is very thorough within all of the steps. just double the recipe and follow the same instructions. She gives great process steps such as before. First you want to start the water and about 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil boiling for the noodles (they take the longest). After you get all of your chicken cut up you want to start heating up your pan. This is definitely a recipe that gets your mouth watering! ~© 2005 Jessica Johnson~ Ways to make Breaking up Easier Breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend can be easier said than done. but here are five steps that may help the breaking up process. this will keep the noodles from sticking together until they can be served. Finally. Add about 1 tablespoon of butter to the drained noodles and stir them really good to get that butter mixed in. Once your frying pan is hot put 1 tablespoon of butter into the frying pan. Something that could be considered for the next revision would be not to use the word „you‟.

Friends should always listen to what the other has to say. an individual has to spend time working on her friendships. After everything is said and done. or they will eventually fade. After they meet and start talking a few times. When two people first meet. For example. After being a friend to a person for a long period of time. and then should give advice only when asked for it. That is how a friendship begins. one might get tired of hearing repeated problems everyday. ~© Denise Rafferty~ . After they call each other “friends”. ~© Sara Bedwell~ How To Be A Good Friend To be a good friend. calling each other. so a friend should be able to accept their differences. everyone has differences. so they don‟t scare the other away. so each has to do her own part. Finally. the friendship has to be made through the effort of more than just one person.have. go out with friends and meet new people. Friendships shouldn‟t take a lot of money but they do take a lot of time and care. if the person starts to cry. No matter how much friends are alike. they both need to be sure they are acting in good manor. and spending more time with each other. take some alone time for your self because everyone has feelings to sort out after a break up. use kind words to help comfort him or her. they will start getting to know each other. but a good friend will always be there for her friend no matter what. With these five steps it will make the breaking up process smooth for both parties.

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