Chapter 18: Social Psychology Social Thinking Key Words Attribution Theory Fundamental Attribution Error Attitudes Attributing Behavior

to Persons or Situations o Attribution Theory - The theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone’s behavior. o Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact or the situation or the person’s disposition. o The Napolitan and Goethals experiment which was done to illustrate the phenomenon by placing collage students in a room with a girl who would either act friendly or unfriendly. Some were told she would be spermatic others were told she was only acting. They then took data based on the experiences of the college students. o The fundamental attribution error is irresistible o Example of the attribution error is how many judge a teacher on the first day o When explaining our own behavior we are sensitive of how it may change. However when we describe others its often a form of the fundamental attribution error because we judge them based on one situation o o When the unexpected happens we analyze why people act as they do 9/11- Crazed or unremarkable people responding to life events

The Effects of Attribution o o o Attributions made in everyday life have important consequences. Whether it be to the person or the situation. Managers also show signs of Fundamental attribution error when observing a employee they would evaluate poor performance to personal traits such as lack of motivation. *Our attributions to individuals dispositions or situations have real consequences*

Attitudes and Actions o Attitudes- Beliefs and feelings that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events. o If we feel somone is mean we automatically have harsh feeling towards that person.

Summary The beginning of the chapter mainly talks about how people judge on another. They assume just because you are quiet and a good student, you have no friends and stay home and study all the time. This phenomenon is known as the fundamental attribution error. Also spoken about in the beginning of the chapter was the experiment done by David Napolitan and George Goethals, which involved studying college students and how they are affected by personalities of others. Then talked about was the affects of attribution which then lead into attitudes.


Attitudes are described as something that causes one to respond in a particular way to objects. You start with a small task and slowly begin to up the standards. 2 . The men at first took it as a joke but two days after. we usually are true to ourselves Do Our Attitudes Affect Our Actions o Attitudes follow behavior o Foot-in-the-door-phenomenon. (Ex: Pretend to love someone and one day you will) Role Playing Affects Attitude o o o You enter a new role when you enter college.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Do Our Attributes Guide or Actions? o Key Words Foot-in-door-phenomenon Attitudes o o o o o Many assume that changing someone’s attitude can affect change the persons behavior as well.When we are conscious of what we believe. Next they begin to describe how role playing affects attitudes. o The foot-in-the-door-phenomenon works for charity’s and store sales helping to make them more popular. Many psychologists were startled by the outcome and began many follow up researches. Summary The chapter then proceeds on to talk about attitudes. and actions effect attitude. o To get people to agree to do something big start small and build o Saying become believing (ex: teens that announce and say they will save sex for marriage often do. This expresses the action of building. Each new test revealed that attitudes will guide our actions if Outside influences on what we say and do are minimal. The attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior.People readily profess general attitudes that contradict their behavior. and events. or begin a new job and you try to follow the social prescription. We are keenly aware of our attitude. o Evil acts shape the self as do acts of good will. people. marry. Different attitudes can lead to different things this phenomenon is described as the foot-in-door-phenomenon. this point was proven by a study made by Wicker.The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.Powerful situations can manipulate what we say. Example: When you first get married you may feel as if you are playing a game of “house” Test by Phillip Zimbardo displays this phenomenon by giving a bunch of men clothing and gear as if they were in an army. They continue on with describing how both attidues effect actions. the simulation became real.

o Example: When a smart person gives an answer many others would follow him despite the fact they know its wrong. people began to mock the terrible actions by committing suicide as well as homicide. To relief this tension we use the cognitive dissonance theory. If unloving we could act more loving and change are ways. From talking about attitudes it then goes into talking about how one act in different scenarios when theor actions are affected by a group of people.Adjusting ones behavior to coincide with a group standard. Attitude follows behavior Example. the realization that attitude and actions aren’t the same.Can be found in conformity. o Willing to call white black by going along with the group Conditions That Strengthen Conformity o One is made to feel incompetent o The group has at least three people o One admires the groups status and attractiveness o One has made no prior commitment to any response o Others in the group observe one’s behavior o One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards. *Changing our behavior can change how we think or feel* o o Social Influence. or body language. Same with if you are unhappy. It tells how you often try your hardest to make sure your not the white sheep in the field of black sheep 3 . compliance. This explains why many feel happy around the happy people and depressed around the depressed. Conformity and Obedience o o o o Behavior is contagious “We are natural mimics” In mimicking everything it makes us feel how we is whether it be posture. it discusses attitudes and how they are changed and altered. and group behavior. Sometimes the effect of conformity can be serious. Group Pressure and Conformity o Conformity.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Why Do Our Actions Affect Our Attitudes? Key Words Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance theory Conformity o o o o When we are aware our actions and attitudes don’t coincide we experience tension called cognitive dissonance. Eventually you would begin to believe in the phony words just so you don’t feel bad. voice tone. such as after the shooting at the Columbine high school. After explaining in full detail what attitudes are it begins to talk about how attitudes affect you. therefore one will change. if you were to spend money to help produce a paper that goes against your views you would begin to regret it. Summary In this section of the chapter.

Improved performance of tasks in the presences of others. occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered. Key Words o The Normative Social Influence. People perform less well when observers or others working on the same task are present. Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies o o o Strong Social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty. and without any particular hostility on their part. “Ordinary people. In the experiment the disobedient were the minorities. you are likely to even better in front of an audience.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Reasons For Conforming o To avoid rejection and gain social approval. Obedience played a huge factor in the Holocaust. 4 .The influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or to avoid disproval.” Social Loafing o Views on social influence as bad or good depend on ones values.* The effect of crowding goes along with social facilitation when you have a large crowd it brings in other emotions o Social Loafing o o Social Loafing-The tendency for people in a group to give less effort when pooling their efforts to obtaining a common goal People do this because they feel less accountable and worry less about what others think Summary Continuing through the chapter. After it begins to discuss a phenomenon called social loafing another psychological phenomenon. simply doing their jobs. what you normally find difficult may seem all but impossible when you are being watched. it continues to talk about conformity and fit in. *What you do well. Social Facilitation o “Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than they love truth. can become agents of a terrible destructive process” Greater evils grow out of people’s compliance with lesser evils Individual Behavior In The Presence of Others o o o Social Facilitation. especially a friendly audience. The Normative Social Influence o We are sensitive to social norms o Informational Social Influence.Influence resulting from one’s Informational Social Influence willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. Obedience o o o Higher obedience level when the authority level was supported by a prestigious institution and there were no role models for defiance.

power of the individual When feeling pressured.The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations Often occurs when group participations make people feel aroused and anonymous Explains why those in the KKK were so hostile. o o o Deindividuation.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Deindividuation Key Words Deindividuation Group Think Social Control Personal Control Effects of Group Interaction o o o Make easy tasks easier. Similarly to a mascot no one knows who you are so you can act crazy. we tend to do the opposite of what is expected. It talks about the pros and cons of being in a group. The 9/11 terrorist were not born terrorist but after years of talking about it and having the same strong views it began to grow on them The internet strengthens the polarization effect Group Think o Group Think.The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternative The Power of Individuals o o o o o o Social Control. they sometimes have feelings toward the minority hidden The Powers of the social influence are enormous but so are the powers of the committed individual. 5 . Group Polarization o o o o The enhancement of a groups prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group Could have beneficial effects like when a low prejudice group of kids talk about racial who get more prejudiced. or motivate them to exert themselves Enhance humor or fuel mob violence. Social history is often made by minority that sways the majority (Example: Rosa Parks) Although many follow the majority publically. Summary The book continues to talk about how groups do affect how the individual act. or hard tasks harder Tempt people to free-ride on the efforts of others. no one would be able to point you out walking down the street because your face is not scene. One pro to being in a group is that it may change the way you look at certain things and make you more excepting.power of the situation Personal Control. making you more prejudice. however it could be bad if you join a group that puts down other people or races.

“Prejudgment” usually refers to a negative attitude one may have to a certain group. Outgroup. Prejudices are schemas that influence how we notice and interpret events. Through this phenomenon comes high school cliques all who display favoritism to their own and everyone who isn’t conformed to their styles are “weird” Summary The book then begins to talk about the negative attitudes people have to different people (Stereotype and Prejudice) and how these are affected. someone can use the higher crime rate to justify continuing the discrimination that helped to create the ghetto Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgoup o o o o o o o Due to our ancestral need to belong. doing nothing wrong but “driving black” Woman are often viewed as less important than men 2/3 of Americans said they would rather have a boy then a girl Social Inequalities o o o People who own land and money would often view the slaves as lazy as having the very traits that justified enslaving them Being a victim of discrimination can cause self-blame or anger If the circumstances of a ghetto life breed high crime rate. How Prejudiced Are People? o o o o o People deny certain races jobs and pay certain people less Others don’t feel comfortable dating people of different races New Jersey doctor gets pulled over.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Prejudice Key Words Prejudice Stereotype Ingroup Outgroup Ingroup Bias o o o o o Prejudice. When a white man shoved a black man around one called it “horsing around” yet when a black man pushed around a white man he called it “violence” Our preconceived ideas about people bias our impressions of their behavior.A generalized statement about a group of people sometimes true yet often times over generalized.“Them” People who are viewed as being different from you with different identities Ingroup Bias.The tendency for one to favor their own group. Stereotype. over 100 times in a four year span. we are a group-bound species Through social identities we associate ourselves with certain groups and contrast ourselves with others The social definition of who you are also implies what you aren’t Ingroup. Then it begins to talk about how groups of people can affect your decisions on the matter (Ingroup Bias) 6 .“Us” People who share common identities. Prejudgments color perceptions.

Biases our perceptions of diversity If we could see ourselves from a penguins prospective we would look as they look to us. and from the minds natural workings o o Prejudice doesn’t spring from society but from the passion of one’s’ heart “Fear and anger create aggression. 7 .The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.Any verbal or physical behavior intended to hurt or destroy Behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience Summary The book goes onto talk about how being prejudice can lead toward categorization which is the placing of individuals into specific groups based on how they act. the passions of the heart. and aggression against citizens of different ethnicity or race creates racism. Bystanders also feed into this phenomenon assuming the world is just and therefore “people get what they deserve” Just World Phenomenon. o Categorization o o o Vivid Cases o o We often judge the frequency of events by instances that readily come to mind Violent cases are readily available to our memory and therefore influence our judgments of a group In categorizing people into groups it is often through stereotyping.The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. and in time new forms of terrorism.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Scapegoating Key Words Scapegoat Theory Just World Phenomenon Aggression Cognitive Roots of Prejudice o Prejudice springs from society. all the same The Just-World Phenomenon o o o o People often justify prejudice by blaming its victims. Goes along with the idea that good is rewarded and evil is punished This also makes it difficult for the rich to see their own wealth and notice the poor’s misfortune Aggression o o o The most destructive force in a social relationship is aggression Aggression. After it then talks about aggression and how it comes about. Scapegoat Theory.

The frontal lobe is for inhibiting the aggression. In the end you learn that aggression is linked to attitude in many ways. neutral and biochemical.Chapter 18: Social Psychology The Biology of Aggression Key Words Frustration –Aggression Principle Genetic Influences o o Studies suggest that genes influence aggression One genetic marker for aggression is the Y Chromosome o o Stimuli that create our aggressive behavior operate through our biological system Three biological factors that will effect aggression are genetic. Biochemical Influences o o o o o Hormones and alcohol are key substances in the blood that can effect aggression. 8 . Drugs that reduce testosterone levels also subdue their aggressive tendencies Testosterone heightens dominance and aggressiveness Alcohol usually releases inhibitions therefore releasing aggression People who are drunk commit 4 in 10 violent crimes and 3 in 4 acts of spousal abuse The Psychology of Aggression o o Frustration-Aggression Principle. thus showing the kid that aggression is a way to solve a problem Summary The book elaborates on aggression. It speaks of how aggression is caused by many factors whether it be genetic influenced or chemically influenced.the blocking of an attempt to reach a goal. making aggression more likely if the system is damaged. or disconnected.creates anger which could then create aggression Organisms often respond with a “flight or fight” such as after 9/11 Americans became ready to fight Learning to Express and Inhibit o o o Our actions will be aggressive in situations that we are taught to respond with aggression Aggression can be learned through direct reward and observation from a parent or other role model Parents with delinquent children often discipline with beatings. inactive.The principle that frustration. Neural Influence o o o Animal and Human brains have neural systems that produce aggression The brain has one central section that controls aggression and many other parts of the brain assist such as the frontal lobe.

Pornography. become caught in mutually destructive behavior Social trap’s challenge us to find ways of reconciling our right to pursue our personal well-being with the responsibility of the well-being of all. by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest. emotions and behaviors “Expressing anger brings more anger.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Sexual Aggression and the Media Key Words Conflict Social Trapp o o o o o o Sexual aggression is usually linked with alcohol The rise of this kind of aggression rose alongside the rise of the home movie business making it easier to watch “slasher movies” and other Xrated movies People are beginning to wonder if sexual images being sent is a cause of aggression Studies show repeatedly watching porn makes ones partner seem less attractive Pornography that shows the use of violence for pleasure makes one feel that violence is one way to make themselves happy Watching violent pornography increases bad behavior towards women TV Violence. Practicing violence brings more violence” Social Traps o o o Social Trap. 9 . People often do which is why it came to be. Summary Next the book talks about Sexual aggression and how it comes to be.A situation in which the conflicting parties. or ideas The two main types of conflicts are social traps and distorted perceptions Video games cause a social script which is how to act in certain life situations. goals. Many people are seen having violent sex. Many studies have shown that the leading cause is internet porn. and want to mock it. Test have shown a raise of hostility in kids who have played Mortal Kombat Other test show that video games can raise aggression levels Playing video games increases aggressive thoughts. and Society o o Asking what causes violence is like asking what causes cancer Shows that depict violence for children may influence a child to handle everyday life like that Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence o o o o o Conflict o o Conflict. Then they talk of another leading cause of violence which is videogames.A perceived incompatibility of actions.

It first talks about attractiveness and things that attract people. or are you beautiful because I love you?” Come to love someone and watch beauty grow 10 . and the buildup of forces on their side is simply self defense. Self-fulfilling prophesy. attitudes. but much often breeds Mere Exposure Effect – The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them For ancestors the phenomenon was adaptive The three ingredients are Proximity.Geographical nearness Proximity provides opportunities for aggression. and Compassionate Love Physical Attractiveness o o o o o Similarity o o Friends and couples are likely to share same beliefs. The enemies perceptions often form mirror images.Perceptions confirm themselves by influencing the other country to react in ways that seem to justify them. We may begin to think the other person likes us therefore you begin to like them more Summary Next topic discussed in the book is love.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Enemy Perceptions Key Words Self-fulfilling Prophesy Proximity Mere exposure Effect o o o o Psychologists have noticed that those in conflict have a tendency to form diabolical images of one another. and interest We like someone who likes us. as the enemies change so do their perceptions The self serving bias leads each party to accept credit for good deeds and to shuck the blame for the bad deeds Like war today based on the fundamental attribution error lead each side to believe all actions from the other side our evil. Physical attractiveness for people is far more important than anything else Studies show that attractive characters are more popular in movies than those who aren’t that attractive Most people’s views on physical attraction vary from location to location Attractiveness also depends on how we feel about a person “Do I love you because you’re beautiful.It talks about how physical appearance is a plus as well as similarity. Physical Attractiveness. o The Psychology of Attraction o Proximity o o o o Proximity. it also proves the saying “opposites attract” to be a myth.

The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present The best odds of our helping someone occur when  We have just observed someone else being helpful  We are not in a hurry  The victim appears to deserve and need help  The victim is in some way similar to us  We are in a small town or rural area  We are feeling guilty  We are focused on others and not preoccupied  We are in a good mood Happy people are helpful people By cheering people up whether it be with money. 11 . the other does the same and intimacy grows Altruism o Altruism.A deep affectionate attachment. or anything that makes them happy. if a man did.Both partners receive in proportion to what they give Self-Disclosure. and often produces children One key to an enduring relationship is equity Equity. It also bridges into helping and how people feel when they do and why the offer to help.Reveling intimate asepses from one’s self to another As one person reveals a little. recognition.An aroused state of intense positive interest in another. usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Emotions have two ingredients physical arousal and cognitive appraisal Arousal can enhance an emotion Compassionate Love o o o o o Compassionate Love.unselfish regard for the well-fare of other Bystander Intervention o o o o o People help others only is the situation enables them to notice and interpret the situation and assume responsibility for helping The presence of other bystanders turns people away from helping Gender effects how the process works studies show when women dropped something it would be picked up by someone. the will be eager to help o o Summary The book continues talking about love and the two types of love compassionate and passionate. people would look and not pick it up Bystander – Effect.Chapter 18: Social Psychology Passionate Love Key Words Passionate Love Compassionate Love Altruism Equity Self-Disclosure Bystander Effect o o o Passionate Love.

touch. if they participate on a team. or word of apology) can make wonders Communication helps avoid confrontations Summary To conclude that chapter the book talks about the psychology of helping and why we help.That we should help those who need it even though the costs outweigh the benefits Superordinate Goals Peacemaking o Cooperation. when communication has been nonexistent.The expectation that we should return help. can help the individual feel more excepted. Communication o Conciliation o o GRIT. 12 .Theory that our social behavior is an exchange process. and Conciliation.Shared goals that that override differences among people and require cooperation Those who are of a different race. A strategy designed to decrease international tensions Even during intense personal conflict. what inspires us. communication.Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction. Cooperation. the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Social Exchange Theory o Social expectations also influence helping.Chapter 18: Social Psychology The Psychology of Helping o Self-interest underlines all human interactions Key Words o Social Exchange Theory. a small conciliatory gesture (smile. they prescribe how we behave Reciprocity Norm o Reciprocity Norm. It continues to talk about the goals of peacemaking and what three ingredients lead to peacemaking (Communication. and conciliation can take bad attitudes and change them into attitudes that promote peace Cooperation o o o Friendly contact between ethnic minorities has led to less prejudice Superordinate Goals. not harm to those whom have give us help in the past Social Responsibility o Social Responsibility Norm.

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f  J ¾ .f½  nf9¾n–  f–– ¾¾°f°  .

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f½  nf9¾n– 9f¾¾°f    J ¾ 9f¾¾°f   .

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¯¯°nf° 4 .

¯¯°nf° ½¾f n°€°f°¾ .

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¯¯°nf° .

½ f° f° .

°nf°    .