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Fastener Handout

Introduction: Engineering Design Representation Threads Effect of thread angle on strength: Standardization of Threads: Descriptions of the Thread Series: Class fit: Specification of Metric Threads: Local Notes (callouts) Counterbore specification: Countersink specification: Writing notes for threaded holes: Threaded Mechanical Fasteners Clamping Force: Cap Screws: Machine Screws: Set Screws: Appendix A Fastener Head Dimension Tables Appendix B Recommended Fastener Torques Appendix C Bolt Grade Markings and Strength Chart Appendix D Letter and Number Decimal Equivalents 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 9 9 10 13 14 14 15 15 21 28 29 31

Introduction: Engineering Design Representation Despite advances, 2D mechanical drawings are still the most popular format for design documentation. Automated extraction techniques allow mechanical drawings to be developed directly from 3D geometric models, simplifying the process. However, some elements of design representation not easily conveyed through the model database and therefore not as easily extracted to 2D drawings. Many of these elements are notational in nature. Some examples include thread specifications, surface finishes, surface quality, and dimension tolerances. This handout will focus on the standards of annotation for fasteners, and hole callouts (local notes). Annotation standardization is provided by the ASME Y14 series of standards. These standards call for the expanded use of symbology in annotation. This is due to the international understandability of symbols. The table at right shows the current standard symbols commonly used in mechanical drawings along with the out-dated “abbreviation” form. We will discuss this topic further when covering Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance.

Threads Screw threads serve three basic functions in mechanical systems; 1) to provide a clamping force 2) to restrict or control motion, and 3) to transmit power. Geometrically, a screw thread is a helical incline plane. A helix is the curve defined by moving a point with uniform angular and linear velocity around an axis. The distance the point moves linear (parallel to the axis) in one revolution is referred to as pitch or lead. The term internal threads refers to threads cut into the sidewall of an existing hole. External threads refers to threads cut or rolled into the external cylindrical surface of a fastener or stud. The size most commonly associated with screw threads is the nominal diameter. Nominal diameter is a more of a label than a size. For example, a bolt and nut may be described as being ½” diameter. But neither the external threads of the bolt nor the internal threads of the nut are exactly .500 in diameter. In fact, the bolt diameter is a little smaller and the nut diameter a little larger. But it is easier to specify the components by a single size designation since the bolt and nut are mating components.

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Fig. 1 Thread Profile (External)

Crest

– the peak of the thread for external threads, the valley of the thread for internal threads Major Diameter - The largest diameter of the thread Minor Diameter - The smallest diameter of the thread Pitch Diameter – nominally the mean of the major and minor diameters Thread Angle – The included angle between two adjacent thread walls. Effect of thread angle on strength: The lower the value of the thread angle, the greater the load carrying capability of the thread. The force of mating threads is normal to the surface of the thread. This is shown in the figure as F. The components of the force F transverse and parallel to the axis are shown as Ft and Fa. The component of force typically responsible for failure is that applied transverse to the axis of the thread. It is this load that can cause cracking in internal threads, especially under cyclic loads. Internal threads are more susceptible since they are typically cut and cutting operations in metals produce surface irregularities that can contribute to crack growth. External threads are typically rolled

Fig. 2 Thread Forces

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onto a fastener and therefore lack the surface flaws of cut threads. Metric thread specification is given through ISO standards. This is the Unified thread series and consists of specifications for Unified Coarse (UNC) Unified Fine (UNF) and Unified Extra Fine (UNEF) threads.S. Thread form: Thread form is a classification based upon the cross-sectional profile of the thread. Standardization of Threads: (Standard Inch Units) To facilitate their use. Extra-Fine (EF). The figure at right shows fine and coarse thread fasteners. Metric threads are also standardized. Fine (F). The standard thread form for inch unit threads in U. Thread information is available in tabular form from many sources including Mechanical Drawing texts and Machine Design handbooks. Fig. 4 Threads per Inch Fig. 3 Course. As the thread angle decreases. Fine Threads Descriptions of the Thread Series: Unified Coarse. A short discussion of each thread series is given below. The number of threads/inch for a thread series is given by standard and may be found in thread tables. the United States. UNC is the most commonly used thread on general-purpose fasteners. Great Britain and Canada established the current system for standard inch dimension threads. This thread form is characterized by a 60 degree thread angle and a flat crest and rounded root. This is why square and buttress threads are usually used for power transfer applications. owing to their sloppy fit. the component Ft gets smaller. UNC threads are normally easier to remove when corroded. Thread series: Thread series is a standard based upon the number of threads/inch for a specific nominal diameter. is the Unified (UN) thread form. Coarse threads are deeper than fine threads and are easier to assemble without cross threading. The Tap Chart shown later in this document gives the number of threads/inch based upon threads series and nominal diameter. In 1948. screw threads have been standardized. Standards for standard inch units are: Coarse (C). Threads per Inch: Literally a measure of the number of crests per unit of length measured along the axis of the thread. A UNC fastener can be procured with a class 3 (tighter) fit if needed (fit classes covered below). The designation is based upon the number of threads per unit length. 4 .

UNF thread has a larger minor diameter than UNC thread. The fine threads have tighter manufacturing tolerances than UNC threads. Used in semi-permanent assemblies. It is based upon the difference in the values of the respective pitch diameters. Can be started by hand. Most common fit in use. Tight fit. Used in permanent assemblies. These differences are in the thousandths of an inch. For the Unified thread form.Unified Fine. locking nuts. Common for set screws. but requires assistance (tools) to advance threads. etc. which gives UNF fasteners slightly higher load-carrying (in shear) and better torquelocking capabilities than UNC fasteners of the same material and outside diameter. Used in cases where frequent assembly/disassembly required. Class 2: Class 3: An additional designation is made for external (A) versus internal (B) threads and is included as a postscript to the numerical designation. Typically require use of locking devices such as lock washers. Unified national extra fine. Threads may be assembled partly by hand. Class 1 fits are common for bolts and nuts. 5 . the classes of fit are: Class 1: Loose fit. and the smaller lead angle allows for finer tension adjustment. Threads may be assembled easily by hand. UNEF is a thread finer than UNF and is common to the aerospace field. Class fit: Class fit is a specification of how tightly mating external and internal threads will mesh. UNF threads are frequently used in cases where thread engagement is minimized due to thinner wall thickness. jam nuts. This thread is particularly advantageous for tapped holes in hard materials as well as for tapped holes in thin materials where engagement is at a minimum. Standard fit.

The MJ series is one of the most common of the special application threads.4H5H M8 x 1.20UNF . which is 6H/6g. The 6H/6g fit is the standard ISO tolerance class for general use. LH . General purpose fit 6g (external) Close fit 5g6g (external) 6H (internal) 6H (internal) If thread fit designation (e.g.375 . it specifies a "medium" fit.4h5h Metric thread series: There exist multiple metric thread series used for special applications.500 .g.Standard inch unit thread specification examples . The class fit is specified by tolerance grade (numeral) and by tolerance position (letter)..g.5-6H/6g.24UNEF . "-6g") is omitted (e.2A.5). Metric thread specifications always begin with thread series designation (for example M or MJ).. followed by the fastener’s nominal diameter and thread pitch (both in units of millimeters) separated by the symbol "x"..4h6h LH M10 x 1.25 .2B Specification of Metric Threads: Metric threads are defined in the standards document ISO 965-1.4375 . Metric thread specification examples MJ6 x 1 . The standard is the M series. M10 x 1. 6 . M10 x 1.5 .13UNC – 1A . M Series: Standard metric thread profile MJ Series: Modified series in which crest and root radii are specified Metric thread fits: A fit between metric threads is indicated by internal thread class fit followed by external thread tolerance class separated by a slash. e.

M external threads are compatible with both M and MJ internal threads. English unit class fit 3B/3A is approximately equivalent to ISO class fit 4H5H/4h6h. The pedal on one side of the bicycle uses right-hand threads and the other uses left-hand.5") is omitted. " x 1.5. thereby having higher fatigue strength (due to reduced stress concentrations).5-6g means metric fastener thread series M. it specifies coarse pitch threads.g. but requires the truncated crest height of the MJ internal thread to prevent interference at the external MJ thread root. Default metric fastener thread pitch. external thread class fit 6g. Left-handed threads advance when rotated counter clockwise. the "g" would be uppercase. Metric fastener thread series M is the common thread profile. specifies M10 x 1. This prevents 7 .5 mm. The pedals of a bicycle are attached to the crank arm using screw threads. thread pitch 1. If metric thread pitch designation (e. Left Hand Threads: Unless otherwise specified. For example. A common example is the bicycle. Metric fastener thread series compatibility. fastener nominal size (nominal major diameter) 10 mm.English unit internal and external thread class fit 2B/2A is essentially equivalent to ISO thread class fit 6H/6g. by default.. Left-handed threads are often used in situations where rotation loads would cause right-hand threads to loosen during service. Thread series MJ designates the external thread has an increased root radius (shallower root relative to external M thread profile). M10 x 1. screw threads are assumed to be right-handed. The standard metric fastener thread series for general purpose threaded components is the M thread profile and the coarse pitch thread series. M10 or M10-6g. This means that the direction of the thread helix is such that a clockwise rotation of the thread will cause it to advance along its axis. If referring to internal thread tolerance.

The note should be written in the order of operations performed.the motion of pedals and crank from unscrewing the pedal and having it fall off during use. counterboring and countersinking are secondary machining operations used to create cylindrical and conical (respectively) enlargements of a hole. 8 . are included on a drawing to specify information for a specific feature of a component or assembly. The feature being referenced is indicated through the use of a leader line. When a callout is made to a hole feature. Local Notes Local notes. 5 Callout Examples Fig. (e. also referred to as callouts. This is accomplished by appending “LH” to the end of the specification. Fig. the leader line should reference the circular view of hole with line pointing toward the center of the circle. 7 Counterbored and Countersunk Holes The two examples of callouts below reference counterbored and countersunk holes. In case you have forgotten. usually for the purpose of recessing a fastener head. The leader line points to the feature in question and terminates at the note. 6 Common Callout Symbols Fig. One common example of a local note is the specification of the size dimension of a hole feature. Left-hand threads must be indicated in the thread specification. drill then thread) and the leader arrowhead should touch the representation of the last operation performed.g.

8 Counterbore and Countersink Callouts Counterbore specification: Include the diameter of the counterbore.In the examples shown at right the pilot hole is specified first then the counterbore or countersink is specified. or equivalent) Examples of metric notes for counterbored. 9 Metric Notes for Counterbored. The depth of a machined hole is categorized as Countersunk and Spotfaced Holes. Rather only the feature sizes (and tolerances. Appendix A for this information ) Include the depth of the counterbore. Therefore the “depth” of the hole is based upon the distance between the two 9 . Operation specifications such as “DRILL” or “BORE” are no longer included in notes and callouts. if applicable) are included. Fig. Appendix A for this information ) Countersink specification: Include the angle of countersink and either. being either thru or blind. Notice that no specification of operation is given for the pilot hole. A thru hole begins at the penetrating surface and terminates at another surface. which is based upon head profile height. countersunk and spot-faced holes are given at right. ( Refer to Head Dimension Tables. 1) depth of countersink or 2) diameter of maximum opening (based upon fastener head diameter plus 1/64 typ. which is based upon fastener head diameter with a clearance value added. Fig. ( Refer to Head Dimension Tables.

being very hard (and therefore brittle) will break.surfaces. Rather. 1) the diameter (and depth if blind) of the pilot hole drilled prior to thread creation. it is not necessary to write a callout to each hole in the pattern. 2) the specification of the internal threads for the hole. This means a gap will exist between the crest of the external 10 . The depth value refers to the cylindrical (useable) portion of the hole (see Figure 10). Again a depth is given if the hole is blind. If no depth is specified. The tip angle in not included in the value of hole depth.375 Fig. Typically the thread height for internal threads is approximately 75% of the mating external threads (it may be as low as 50% for materials such as steel). The proper form for these notes is given below and in the figure at right. Fig. the preferred procedure is to write the note to one hole. 10 Hole Depth When multiple occurrences of the same hole specification exist in a single component. If the pilot hole diameter is too small. and then include within that note a reference to the total number of identical features in the pattern. 11 Multiple Occurances Writing notes for threaded holes: The note for a threaded hole is a specification of all information required for the creation of the hole. It should be apparent that in order to cut metal. the thru hole requires no specification of depth in the note. Because of this. This includes. This depth specification must be included in the note for a blind hole. 4 x φ. In practice. the thread height will be too small and load carrying capability of threads will be compromised. the diameter of the pilot hole must be smaller than the major diameter of the threads. The word “THRU” should not be included with the note. too much material will have to be cut and the thread cutting tool (tap). a hole is by default a thru feature. This is demonstrated in the notes for the countersunk and counterbored holes shown in Figures 8 and 9. This difference in diameters is very important. the diameter of the pilot hole will set the minor diameter of the internal threads. The creation of the internal threads is a metal cutting process referred to as “tapping”. A blind hole is machined to a specified depth. If the pilot hole diameter is too large.

3750 .3125 .2500 .4459 .3762 .9188 .2443 .4375 .8028 .7977 .5000 .2764 .5135 . The diameter of the pilot hole is specific for each thread series and form.5625 .8750 .5869 .5625 .7500 .7547 .6823 .7387 .8286 .4500 .1887 .4723 .4050 .000 Drill size #7 #3 F I 5/16 Q U 25/64 27/64 29/64 31/64 33/64 17/32 37/64 21/32 11/16 49/64 13/16 7/8 15/16 11 .3750 .5568 .3299 .5266 .3073 .5000 .3911 .8978 .5024 . Typically this value is referred to in the table as the “tap drill diameter”.7500 .000 1.3125 .8466 . This unique diameter is determined by referencing the thread series and form within a standard table.2674 .3602 .6417 . (although in the table below it is given as “Drill Size”) The following table also provides the values of Threads per Inch for specific nominal diameters and thread series.4675 .4375 .2983 .6273 .2113 .4943 .5660 .2062 .3239 .7874 .5084 . For this reason. Tap Chart .6250 .6733 .5264 .2175 .3499 . threads may not be considered a seal in and of themselves. threads threads (inches) (inches) .8750 1.4387 .UNC/UNF Threads Basic effective dia (inches) .2614 .1959 . of int.3834 .4167 .3479 .thread and the root of the internal.9098 NF/NC Tap size UNF/UNC 1/4-20 1/4-28 5/16-18 5/16-24 3/8-16 3/8-24 7/16-14 7/16-20 1/2-13 1/2-20 9/16-12 9/16-18 5/8-11 5/8-18 3/4-10 3/4-16 7/8-9 7/8-14 1-8 1-14 UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF Threads per inch 20 28 18 24 16 24 14 20 13 20 12 18 11 18 10 16 9 14 8 14 Basic major dia (inches) .6250 .2500 .7094 .6650 .2524 .9459 Basic Basic minor minor dia dia of ext.2854 .3344 .4603 .2268 .4056 .8647 .5649 .

and numbers. 12 . use the following. see Appendix D The note for the threaded hole is then written in order of operation. That is. the specification of the pilot hole.Notice that in the table shown above. letters. When including these diameters in the annotation. then the specification of the threads being cut. 12 Machining a Threaded Hole Examples of notes for threaded holes. Diameter from table a fraction: Diameter from table a letter: Diameter from table a number: write as exact decimal equivalent or fraction write letter and give decimal equivalent* as reference (in parentheses) write number and give decimal equivalent* as reference * these values may be obtained from Number and Letter Drill Size decimal equivalence tables. These are all drill sizes. the tap drill diameter is given in fractions. just designated in different ways. and depth (if required) Fig.

This will give you the ability to write accurate specification of desired fastener and to associate a given specification with the respective fastener. These six basic types are listed below along with the standard abbreviation for each. Hexagonal head (HEX HD) Fillister head (FIL HD Flat head (FLAT HD) Oval head (OVAL HD) Round head (RND HD) Hexagonal socket head (SOC HD) Fig. We will only consider six basic head types. one should be able to both create and read complete mechanical fastener specifications. See Appendix C for hex head cap screw grades. Examples of fastener specification for the various fastener types are given later in this document. 13 Common Head Types 13 . Some are very specialized such as castellated and tamper proof heads. There exist many different head types for mechanical fasteners. The specification of a fastener includes the following: A Complete Thread Specification Head type Fastener type Fastener length It also may include a specification of material and grade (strength).Threaded Mechanical Fasteners In order to fully understand engineering prints and to provide adequate information when ordering components.

15 Bolt and Nut . They are the Cap Screw (CAP SCR). Machine Screw (MACH SCR). some additional rotation of the fastener can be made. The rotational force is referred to as “seating torque” and the tensile force is referred to as “pre-load”. the minimum thread length equals 2 * DIA + 0.Note: The fillister. A cap screw specified with a nut is referred to as a bolt. 14 Force on Fastener Head Cap Screws (CAP SCR) Cap screws tend toward larger diameters. An alternative assembly would be to pass the fastener through two clearance holes and use a nut for clamping. The minimum thread length is a function fastener nominal diameter. Fig. the minimum length of thread equals 2 * DIA + 0. When the head of the fastener make contact with surface of the component being attached. When these methods are used. the fastener is inserted into the internally threaded component (either the threaded hole or the nut) and advanced by rotating the fastener. Mechanical Fasteners: There are three basic types of mechanical fastener. Other drive types (such as hex socket) are also available. However.25. There are however. oval and round head types are commonly available with slot or Phillips drive. the head can advance no further. (Fig. 15) Clamping force is applied through contact between the bottom face of head and the contact between the internal and external threads. The threaded end of a cap screw is chamfered. difference between cap and machine screws. Both are available with the same type of head. 14 Fig. Since the threads will advance during this rotation but the head cannot a tensile load is generated in the shank of the fastener.50. This tensile load is proportional to the force used to rotate the fastener. For socket head cap screws. For most cap screws. Cap screws and machine screws are very similar. the fastener is inserted through a clearance hole in one component and onto a threaded hole in another (see Fig 14 ). Clamping Force: When a cap or machine screw is used to attach to components to one another. flat. but less common. usually by means of some fashion or tool (a wrench for example). They are both used in conjunction with internally threaded holes for the purpose of clamping components together. and the Set Screw (SET SCR).

4375 – 20UNF –2A HEX HD. then min.Machine Screws (MACH SCR) Machine screws are only available in smaller diameters. The threaded end of the fastener not chamfered but rather simply sheared. set screws are headless fasteners and therefore threaded for their entire length. With the exception of the antiquated square head. The available point types for set screws are the Cone. Lacking heads.75 if fastener length < 2.. 16 Examples of Set Screw Usage Cone Cup Flat Dog Oval Fig. The minimum thread length is a function of fastener length as follows: if fastener length > 2. pulleys.50 long cap screw with a hexagonal head and using 7/16 nominal diameter Unified fine threads of a standard fit. thread length = 1. 17 Set Screw Point Types 15 . Most set screws use Class 3 fit threads. Flat. then min. In addition. The point is used to provide various amounts of holding power when used. 1. and Dog (full or half) points. They are commonly used in conjunction with collars. thread length = fastener length Examples of Cap and Machine Screw Fastener Descriptions The following example is the specification for a 1. CAP SCR Set Screws (SET SCR) The function of set screws is to restrict or control motion.50 X . Oval. set screws have a specified point type. Profiles of these point type are shown in figure 17. Holding power concerns will be discussed below. set screws are categorized by drive type (similar to head type) and point style. Cup. or gears on shafts. Fig. This is to provide resistance to the set screw “backing out” of its threaded hole during service.

Axial holding power is assumed to be equal to the torsional holding power. does little to prevent the 0. Axial holding power is the same. Relative hardness: Hardness becomes a significant factor when the difference between setscrew point and shafting is less than 10 Rockwell C scale points. An important consideration in setscrew selection is the holding power provided by the contact between the setscrew point and attachment surface (typically a cylindrical shaft). but its usefulness may be limited. it requires the greatest installation torque because of its deeper penetration. Failure of the set screw in these cases is relative motion of . relative movement usually considered as a criterion of failure. cast iron. and pulley sheaves mounted to shafts. Most set screws are class 3A fit.01-in.5 times the major diameter of the setscrew for threading in brass. set screws are used to prevent the rotational and axial movement of parts such as collars.01 inch between components. yields the smallest increase in holding power. provided there is sufficient engagement to prevent thread stripping during tightening. Oval point. Seating torque: Torsional holding power is almost directly proportional to the seating torque of cup. Thread type: A negligible difference exists in the performance of coarse and fine threads of the same class of fit. Point style: Setscrew point penetration contributes as much as 15% to the total holding power.75 to 1 times the diameter for use in steel and other materials of comparable hardness. Some additional resistance to rotation is contributed by penetration of the set screw point into the attachment surface. flat. Oval-point and flat-point setscrews do not penetrate the surface and hence have less holding power.Set Screw Holding Power: In many applications. Lack of point penetration reduces holding power. 16 . Cup-point set screws cut into the shaft material. the minimum recommended length of engagement is 1 to 1. and aluminum. couplings. however. Flatted shafting: About 6% more torsional holding power can be expected when a screw seats on a flat surface. and 0. Holding power is generally specified as the tangential force in pounds. In general. the set screw should have a material hardness at least 10 points higher on the Rockwell scale than that of the attachment material. Manufacturers' data or data supplied by standard machine design texts will give more reliable results. In cases where point penetration is desired. which has the smallest contact area. Be aware that the lengths of engagement specified are for full threads engaged. This rule of thumb often gives satisfactory results. and oval-point setscrews. Flatting. When the cone-point setscrew is used. Length of thread engagement: The length of thread engagement does not have a noticeable effect on axial and torsional holding power. Cone-point setscrews also penetrate the attachment surface and may be used with a spotting hole to enhance this penetration. Set screw selection often begins with the common axiom stating that set screw diameter should be equal to approximately one-half shaft diameter. not overall screw length.

The key. Torque force: The compressive force developed at the point depends on lubrication. In this combination. CUP PT. Under high reversing or alternating loads. Number of setscrews: Two setscrews give more holding power than one. 1. and material. a poorly fitted key will cause the screw to back out and lose its clamping force. Less torque can be transmitted through a slot drive than a socket drive. Holding power is approximately doubled when the second screw is installed in an axial line with the first but is only about 30% greater when the screws are diametrically opposed. displacement of 60° is recommended as the best compromise between maximum holding power and minimum metal between tapped holes. Setscrews and keyways: When a setscrew is used in combination with a key. This displacement gives 1. a cup point. Unified fine threads and a class 3 fit. finish. Examples of Set Screw Fastener Descriptions The following example is the specification for a 1. The key should be tight fitting so that no motion is transmitted to the screw. SET SCR 17 .250 – 28UNF – 3A SOC HD. the screw diameter should be equal to the width of the key. The type of drive affects the seating torque that can be attained because it determines how much torque can be transmitted to the screw.Drive type: Most set screws use socket (either hex or fluted) drive or a slot drive.75 times the holding power of one screw. a 1/4 nominal diameter. but not necessarily twice as much. Therefore.00 long set screw with a hexagonal socket drive.00 X . holding power of the slotted screw is about 45% less. the setscrew holds the parts in an axial direction only. keyseat and keyway assembly carries the torsional load on the parts. Where design dictates that the two screws be installed on the same circumferential line.

8125 .2500) 5/16 (0. More complete tables may be found in Mechanical Design Handbooks and Mechanical drawing texts.3125) 3/8 (0.3125 1.0625 2.5000) F (across flats) .5000 1.5000 .5000) 9/16 (0.1250) 1 1/4 (1.5625 .7500) 7/8 (0.3750) 7/16 (0.8750) 1 (1.Appendix A Fastener Head Dimension Tables The following tables given the head dimensions for various types of machine and cap screws.4375 .6875 .8750 2.4375) 1/2 (0.2500) 1 3/8 (1.3750) 1 1/2 (1.5625) 5/8 (0.6250) 3/4 (0. Nominal Diameter 1/4 (0.1250 1.2500 G (across points) H (head height) 5/32 13/64 15/64 9/32 5/16 23/64 25/64 15/32 35/64 39/64 11/16 25/32 27/32 15/16 R (fillet radius) 18 .6875 1. They are helpful in specifying counterbore and countersink sizes for callouts.7500 .0000) 1 1/8 (1.9375 1.

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com Round Head Machine Screws Slotted Phillips Head Dimensions for Round Head Machine Screws .040 .211 .069 .287 .813 .091 .035 .018 .256 .309 .295 .182 .153 .147 .031 .132 .211 .067 .100 .443 .064 .068 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 21 .216 .078 .031 .260 .107 .053 .178 .125 .105 .027 .149 .590 .408 .075 .387 .086 .109 .053 .154 .031 .037 .334 .766 H Height of Head Max .058 .109 .048 .077 .067 .047 .030 .081 .236 .160 .187 .023 .094 .237 .159 .217 .034 .557 .416 .6.236 .103 .054 .smithfast.403 .091 .096 .175 .019 .198 .048 .040 .ANSI B18.359 .141 .120 .065 .162 .268 .017 .051 .074 .058 .035 .045 .101 .083 .027 .139 .087 .708 .072 .050 .096 .063 .082 .072 .155 .332 J Slot Width T Slot Depth M G N Phillips Driver Diameter Depth Width Size Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Dimensions of Recess .355 Min .193 .073 .256 .068 .117 .075 .044 .084 .084 .472 .056 .060 .187 .118 .146 .059 .064 .169 .162 .255 .165 .032 .027 .106 .099 .Machine Screws Head Dimensions Head Dimension Tables Courtesy of Smith Fastener www.240 .308 .039 .043 .119 .374 .382 .228 .137 .095 .123 .062 .670 .249 .039 .3 A Nominal Size Head Diameter Max Min 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 .087 .195 .

094 .170 .060 .518 .091 .077 .205 .259 .156 .237 .322 .389 .389 .122 .100 .060 .016 .035 .313 .187 .071 .078 .031 .045 .3 A H O J T M G N Head Height Dimensions of Recess Phillips Nominal Head Slot Width Slot Depth Driver Diameter Side Height Total Height Size Diameter Depth Width Size Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min 0 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4 5/16 3/8 .023 .054 .059 .087 .053 .054 .095 .357 .083 .270 .065 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 0 22 .050 .031 .108 .292 .281 .096 .208 .111 .061 .088 .143 .031 .166 .023 .017 .025 .132 .067 .112 .107 .148 .036 .070 .180 .130 .207 .043 .161 .622 .027 .153 .156 .096 .015 .030 .166 .054 .334 .067 .133 .083 .113 .038 .047 .164 .088 .253 .013 .ANSI B18.067 .315 .035 .091 .079 .074 .130 .104 .414 .110 .155 .039 .102 .194 .233 .133 .043 .069 .028 .030 .211 .118 .081 .203 .078 .233 .145 .355 .054 .141 .490 .045 .048 .186 .064 .083 .134 .250 .062 .590 .027 .178 .068 .246 .161 .039 .120 .019 .055 .099 .226 .086 .199 .6.109 .056 .Fillister Head Machine Screws Head Dimensions for Fillister Head Machine Screws .025 .124 .109 .035 .140 .019 .262 .040 .042 .075 .043 .048 .084 .094 .124 .037 .072 .064 .182 .309 .268 .034 .039 .169 .295 .376 .066 .205 .183 .137 .

062 .597 .061 .019 .024 .096 .100 . 23 .191 .333 .112 .023 .023 .048 .267 .069 .110 .124 .075 .237 .477 .106 .083 .Flat Head Machine Screws Head Dimensions for 82° Flat Head Machine Screws .1998 A Nominal Size H Height J Width T Depth M R N F Protrusion Above Gaging Diameter G Gaging Diameter Phillips Driver Size Head Dimensions * Diameter Slot Dimensions Recess Dimensions Dia Depth Width Ref .029 .050 .065 .653 .019 .029 .212 .065 .196 .070 .276 .418 Max .060 .234 .062 .137 .144 .074 .081 .084 .081 .060 .027 .035 .160 .238 .043 .191 .018 .045 .069 Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Ref 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 .167 .014 .019 .165 .312 .027 .116 .098 .017 .094 .038 .029 .039 .039 .075 .015 .030 .018 .739 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 * Edge of head may be rounded or flat.081 Min .556 .065 .027 .060 .051 .064 .148 .120 .043 .070 .035 .031 .386 .124 .765 .412 .042 .016 .187 .100 .012 .016 .ANSI B18.088 .153 .047 .285 .050 .182 .035 .162 .059 .067 .172 .036 .023 .220 .043 .815 .265 Ref .022 .072 .215 .362 .144 .049 .045 .034 .070 .205 .198 .168 .200 .101 .045 .717 .032 .380 .055 .096 .057 .539 .032 .034 .313 .106 .442 .186 .031 .026 .055 .103 .036 .033 .017 .131 .262 .039 .015 .035 .358 .132 .056 .020 .030 .025 .039 .026 .023 .3 .223 .046 .091 .112 .058 .0345 .424 .053 .122 .018 .230 .670 .031 .054 .027 .040 .016 .017 .094 .015 .034 .078 .029 .362 .067 .039 .020 .021 .026 .028 .6.035 .148 .262 .010 .084 .

088 .054 .072 .027 .216 .136 .084 .086 .106 .125 .037 .129 .036 .073 .043 .312 .030 .152 .056 .031 .264 .100 .597 .092 .095 .3 A Nominal Size H O J Width T Depth M Dia R Depth N Width F G Head Height Head Diameter Side Total Max Min Max .065 .141 .765 .035 .174 .202 .102 .075 .043 .057 .163 .212 .015 .106 .271 Ref .031 .104 .091 .362 .070 .215 .116 .6.200 .045 .416 .014 .245 .039 .068 .739 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 24 .313 .120 .059 .071 Phillips Protrusion Above Gaging Gaging Driver Size Diameter Diameter Max Max Min Max Min Rew .690 .226 .380 .049 .717 .477 .031 .815 .384 .068 .556 .072 .186 .140 .152 .210 .081 .653 .074 .058 .064 .094 .176 .107 .059 .284 .075 .050 .060 .094 .033 .060 .092 .424 .132 .347 .153 .195 .128 .019 .670 .069 .118 .035 .066 .067 .262 .072 .035 .144 .039 .028 .048 .039 .048 .068 .067 .019 .430 Max Min .112 .101 .053 .052 .056 .170 .167 .081 .172 .345 .096 .539 .019 .176 .080 .ANSI B18.096 .117 .030 .137 .064 .232 .078 .038 .047 .191 .039 .044 .715 .412 .220 .206 .285 .148 .055 .103 .160 .080 .237 .Oval Head Machine Screws Head Dimensions for Oval Head Machine Screws .187 .257 .018 .051 .031 .043 .171 .223 .333 .267 .130 .075 .026 .182 .045 .035 .362 .040 .172 .038 .025 .191 .223 .023 .075 .124 .139 .053 .117 .290 .112 .084 .238 .404 .155 .060 .113 .116 .070 .031 .023 .230 .212 .084 .091 .760 .016 .354 Slot Dimensions Recess Dimensions Ref .162 .083 .067 .442 .150 .196 .

057 .562 .480 .035 .052 .085 Min Max .154 .072 .039 .409 .025 .015 .820 H Head Height Max .060 .250 .181 .244 .096 .055 .064 .489 .015 .045 .375 .676 .1998 A Nominal Size Width Across Flats Max 2 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 .322 .053 .295 .093 .244 .056 .202 .063 .168 - 25 .624 .049 .202 .094 - Min Max .348 .030 .081 .083 .172 .058 .ANSI B18.384 .367 .6.019 .033 .260 .077 .188 .243 .025 .120 .190 .111 .139 .010 .019 .022 .080 .031 .250 .031 .048 .050 .037 .067 .240 .312 .011 .120 .230 .054 .305 .131 - Min Max .Hex Head Machine Screws Head Dimensions Hex Head and Hex Washer Head Machine Screws .720 .105 .030 .340 .125 .3 .614 .208 .520 .074 .040 U Washer Thickness J Slot Width T Slot Depth Min .155 .043 .545 .016 .735 W Width Across Corners Min .039 .100 .367 F Washer Diameter Max .039 .340 .031 .225 .398 .025 .110 .551 .103 .960 .080 .075 .780 1.302 .042 .049 .050 .305 .312 .414 .272 .500 .050 .270 .019 .328 .060 .040 .181 .134 .035 .050 .166 .750 Min .272 .188 .400 Min .432 .134 .070 .084 .

00 24.70 0.64 2.5 0.0 1.0 2.00 12.00 10.82 7.00 10.82 5.00 Max 3.00 17.60 24.50 18.70 36.5 3.80 30.00 6.67 23.57 5.57 4.30 13.78 11.57 6.50 3.73 15.00 8.00 5.48 8.00 8.20 1.00 17.86 3.00 6.3 7.50 8.14 2.5 1.48 10.00 5.2 & BS 4168 Socket Head Cap Screws (Metric) Nominal Thread.00 8.00 20.3 16. Hex Socket Size Body diameter and Head height Head Dia Soc. length Size M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 Pitch 0.25 1.0 2.00 6.67 Max Min 5.50 5.64 3.8 1.00 29.00 19.00 4.90 26 .00 9.00 15.00 4.82 4.00 35.38 12.78 9.70 10.00 12.00 23.00 Min 2.73 19.00 14.Metric Cap Screws Notes: All linear dimensions in millimeters The dimensions are generally in accordance with BS EN ISO 4762 BS 3643.75 2.00 16.

05 1.0 1.2 13.32 Head Height A_max A_Min H 6.0 10.96 20.0 Max Cone Dia A1 6.5 3.16 Head Dia Soc.86 2.72 8.16 2.5 1.85 3. length K 1.00 23.48 10.2 24.86 8.00 29.6 40.8 40.0 6.5 0.00 35.0 5.00 15.72 16.5 Hex Socket Size J 2.00 5.1 12.00 7.70 0.75 2.60 4.82 1.4 26.88 33.73 4.25 1.49 1.75 3.00 9.89 5.67 7.67 6.0 2.35 4.0 8.0 10.44 32.44 17.67 8.78 3.8 1.0 4.49 27 .Flat Head Cap Screws (Metric) Nominal size D M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 Thread Pitch 0.96 11.78 2.92 22.00 11.61 10.00 19.0 2.

7 21.8 18.6 25.4 1/4 17 19 24 27 11 11.-lbs.2 #8* 22.2 4.4 16.8 31.9 #10* 8 10 12 14 6.3 #4* 9.3 10.7 5/16 31 35 44 49 20 22 18 20 16 18 3/8 49 55 70 78 31 33 29 31 26 27 7/16 75 85 105 120 43 45 40 42 35 37 1/2 110 120 155 170 57 63 53 58 47 51 9/16 150 170 284 323 93 104 86 96 76 85 5/8 270 295 510 568 128 124 104 102 118 115 3/4 395 435 813 902 194 193 178 178 159 158 7/8 590 660 905 1030 287 289 265 240 235 212 1 * Sizes from 4 to 10 are in in.2 29.8 5.9 9.9 #6* 19.6 8. 28 .7 7.3 5.9 7.1 6.com) Recommended Torque Size Grade 5 Grade 8 18-8 S/S Bronze Brass Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine 5.3 7.Appendix B Recommended Fastener Torques (from www.boltdepot. Sizes from 1/4 up are in Ft. -lbs.9 8.8 10.3 18.8 4.

000 80.000 130.000 57. Most stainless is nonmagnetic Medium Carbon Alloy Steel.000 Steel alloy 1/4 thru 5/8 with 17-19% 18-8 Chromium 3/4 thru 1 Stainless and 8-13% Nickel Above 1 Metric 80.000 1/4 thru 1 85.000 74.000 100.000 – 90.000 92.000 100.000 – 70.000 Grade 8 6 Radial Lines Stainless markings vary.000 29 .000 Grade 2 Low or Medium Carbon Steel No Markings Medium Carbon Steel.Appendix C Bolt Grade Markings and Strength Chart (Table from www.000 – 125.000 81.000 45.000 150.com) Mechanical Properties Head Markings Grade or Class Material Nominal Size Range (Inches) Minimum Minimum Proof Load Yield Tensile (psi) Strength Strength (psi) (psi) American 1/4 thru 3/4 Over 3/4 thru 1-1/2 55.000 105.000 60.000 Grade 5 3 Radial Lines Over 1 thru 1-1/2 74. Quenched and Tempered 33. 1/4 thru 1Quenched 1/2 and Tempered 120.000 36.000 120.boltdepot.000 – 90.

000 – 70.8. for exact values. and 5. Yield Strength: The maximum load at which a material exhibits a specific permanent deformation Proof Load: An axial tensile load which the product must withstand without evidence of any permanent set.8 times tensile ultimate strength or 0.000 100. Quenched Class 10.000 – 90.000 120. 30 .6.000 Tensile Strength: The maximum load in tension (pulling apart) which a material can withstand before breaking or fracturing. Most stainless is nonmagnetic Steel alloy 1/4 thru 5/8 with 17-19% A-2 Chromium 3/4 thru 1 Stainless and 8-13% Nickel Above 1 80.) Many anchor bolts (L.8. 4. Quenched and Tempered All Sizes thru 1-1/2 85.000 150.000 – 90.000 80.8 means nominal (minimum) tensile ultimate strength 500 MPa and nominal (minimum) tensile yield strength 0.9 and Tempered 10.000 45. Consult Table 10.000 100.000 Alloy Steel.8 8.000 Stainless markings vary.000 130. such as ISO classes 4. ISO metric fastener material strength property classes (grades).000 92.8 Medium Carbon Steel. J. fastener material ISO property class 5.000 – 125. the actual tensile ultimate strength may be approximately 20 MPa higher than nominal tensile ultimate strength indicated via the nominal property class code.Class 8. (In a few cases. and U bolts. ISO metric fastener material property classes (grades) should be used.8(500) = 400 MPa. below. For example. and threaded rod) are made from low carbon steel grades.9 All Sizes thru 1-1/2 120.

0330 0.0595 0.0995 0.1540 0.1520 0.2040 0.1160 0.Appendix D Letter and Number Decimal Equivalents NUMBER DRILL SIZES No. in Decimals 0.1850 0.1200 0.0760 0.1695 0.0350 0. in Decimals 0. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Size of No.1990 0.0240 0.1440 0.0280 0.0890 0.0200 0.2010 0.0210 0.0250 0.1910 0.2210 0.1015 0.1660 0.0390 0.1730 0.0980 No.0145 0.1130 0.0960 0.0135 31 .2090 0.0520 0.0670 0.0180 0.0430 0.0260 0.1110 0.0785 0.1065 0.1360 0.0360 0.1960 0.0400 No.1495 0.0420 0.1820 0.0730 0.0310 0.0635 0.0860 0.0160 0.2280 0.0370 0.1935 0.1040 0.0935 0.1890 0.0380 0.2130 0.0320 0.0465 0. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Size of No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Size of No.0550 0.0700 0.2055 0.1800 0.02925 0.1770 0.0810 0.1285 0.0225 0. in Decimals 0.1405 0.0410 0.1470 0. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Size of No.1590 0.0820 0.1610 No.1100 0.1570 0. in Decimals 0.

397 0.272 0.332 0.339 0.386 0.234 0.302 0.281 0.242 0.348 0.246 0.377 0.358 0.266 0.238 0.257 0.261 0.277 0.295 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0.250 0.404 0.368 0.323 0.LETTER DRILL SIZE A B C D E F G H I J K L M 0.413 32 .316 0.290 0.