Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute

Mechanical Section

CHAPTER 1

Powertrains System
1.1 Brief Overview In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or drivetrain refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water or air. This includes the engine, transmission, driveshafts, differentials, and the final drive. Sometimes ‘powertrain’ is used to refer to simply the engine and transmission, including the other components only if they are integral to the transmission. A motor vehicle's driveline consists of the parts of the drivetrain excluding the engine and transmission. It is the portion of a vehicle, after the transmission, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, or four-wheel drive. Other definition of powertrain is an assembly of gears and associated parts by which power is transmitted from an engine to a driving axle. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary has defined powertrain as the intervening mechanism by which power is transmitted from an engine to a propeller or axle that it drives. In a wider sense, the power train includes all of its components to transform chemical, physical or nuclear energy and deliver it to the interface to the outer world for propulsion purposes. The manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is a key factor in the competitive position of companies in the automotive and other vehicle industrial sectors. Global economic and environmental factors have led to the requirement to engineer and produce powertrain system that are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, and longer in life expectancy. In turns these trends have led to designs that involve higher internal pressures, are subject to greater instantaneous forces, and are more complex in their design and mechanical operation. Figure 1.1 shows powertrains for automobile.

Chapter 1: Powertrain System

Automotive Powertrain

1

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was invented during the Western Zhou Dynasty.  Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 2 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.  1827 .Rudolph Ackermann of Germany invents a four-wheel steering system for carriages.  1876 .  1913 .Packard introduces the hypoid differential.  1832 .Packard introduces the spiral-gear differential.The Antikythera mechanism. which cuts gear noise. was once believed to employ a differential gear. which some later writers mistakenly report as a differential.novapdf.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1. invention later used on automobiles by Karl Benz.2 History of Powertrains There is no historical evidence recorded on the development and invention of powertrain.com) .  1897 . However.James Starley of Coventry invents chain-drive differential for use on bicycles.  1810 .modern automotive differential patented by watchmaker Onésiphore Pecqueur (1792-1852) of the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers in France for use on a steam car. there are many claims to the invention of the differential gear which is one of the main components in powertrain system.100 BC .Richard Roberts of England patents 'gear of compensation'.  1720 .  150 BC . This has since been disproved. 1050 BC-771 BC: The Book of Song claimed the South Pointing Chariot.  1926 .First use of differential on an Australian steam car by David Shearer. a differential for road locomotives.Joseph Williamson uses a differential gear in a clock. which uses a differential gear. which enables the propeller shaft and its hump in the interior of the car to be lowered. discovered on an ancient shipwreck near the Greek island of Antikythera.1: Power trains for automobile 1.

it can spin one as fast as it wants to without affecting the other. and are separated by pushing down on the clutch pedal.com) .3. But if we move them together when one is spinning. The clutch also engages this power to start up the machine.novapdf. the other will begin to turn and then both shafts will turn as one unit.3.2 shows a clutch as two disks. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 3 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. hence it basic functions and operation requires the explanation on those components which involve in the powertrain operation.2: How the clutch works In an actual disc clutch as shown in Figure 1. To do these jobs. the disc are forced together by strong springs.3 Basic Functions and Operation Mechanical Section Engine power is transmitted to the drive wheels or output shaft of a machine by the powertrain. It does four basic jobs: 1) Connects and disconnects power 2) Selects speed ratios 3) Provides the mean of reversing 4) Equalizes power to the drive wheels for turning Powertrain involves a group of components to generate power. allowing the engine to run while the machine is standing still. Figure 1. Figure 1.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute 1. As long as the disks are not touching. This is the principal of the disc clutch as used on many machines. each on a shaft.1 How a powertrain works The first part of a powertrain is the clutch. Some machines have automatic drives in which the clutch is eliminated. five basic parts are needed:  Clutch – to connect and disconnect power  Transmision – to select speeds and direction  Differential – to equalize power for turning  Final Drives – to reduce speed and increase torque to axle  Drive Wheels – to propel the machine 1. Its job to disconnect the engine from the power train.

but this means half revolutions for the larger gear. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 4 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. The transmission gives the increased turning force and also allows the engine to accelerate.3: Disc clutch in operation The transmission allows the changing of the speed to the drive wheels in relation to the engine. In automobiles.4. It is suppose that a small gear which has 12 teeth driving a larger gear with 24 teeth as shown in Figure 1. When the first gear has made one complete revolution. it has gone around the equivalent of 12 teeth. The latter is important because the engine does not develop very much power at low rpms.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1.com) .novapdf. The transmission is a system of gears. The second one has gone around the same distance -12 teeth. This allows slower speeds when starting up the machine. When the car has picked up speed ratio between the engine and the wheels. and faster speed to match various loads and conditions. and eventually is shifted into direct drive. more turning force is needed on the rear axle to start moving than the need for cruising along a good highway.

This reduces the speed and increases the turning force. The smaller gears always turn at a faster rate. Figure 1. This is the principal of the transmission – several combinations of gears are arranged so that the drivers can select the speed they want to use at any moment. However. the second pair of gears is disconnected and drive through two other gears.5: Transmission in low or first gear For second gear.novapdf. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 5 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. the second gear and its shaft always turn at half the speed of the first gear and its shaft. a small gear on the input shaft drives a large gear on another shaft as shown in Figure 1. Then a small gear on the second shaft drives a large gear on the drive shaft which goes to the driving axle.4: How the transmission selects a speed As a result. giving a higher gear ratio for starting up or heavy pulling.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1. This reduces the speed and increases the turning still more. Figure 1. the same pair of gears as in low can be used.5. For low or first gear.com) .6 shows the transmission in second gear.

However it also uses an extra gear called reverse idler as shown in Figure 1.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1. If the driver never turned a corner.novapdf.com) . For higher gears.7: Transmission in reverse gear In the rear axle it has two sets of gears. In fact. All the gears are mounted in a metal case filled with oil to lubricate the gears and bearings.7 which causes the drive shaft to turn in the opposite direction. so there is less overall speed reduction than in first gear. Figure 1. the gear ratio is cut further by using other gear combinations. giving about the same ratio and using the same four gears.8. that is all the gearing that would need at the rear axle.6: Transmission in second gear These gears are arranged so that the larger one drives the smaller. The various speeds are selected by moving a shift lever in the driver’s compartment. But when the Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 6 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. high gear for an automobile is normally a direct drive with no reduction (a 1 to 1 ratio). Reverse gear is very much like first. The first – the ring gear and pinion – simply transmits the power around the corner to the axles as shown in Figure 1. This allows the propeller shaft to drive the axles which are at right angle to it.

The four bevel pinions and the two bevel gears are carried around by the ring gear and all gears as one unit.com) . only one wheel is free to rotate as shown in Figure 1.novapdf. When the vehicle is moving straight ahead. Figure 1. Figure 1. Engine power comes in on the pinion gear and rotates the ring gear. Each axle receives the same rotation and so each wheel turns at the same speed.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section driver turns a corner. the outside wheel has to travel farther than the inside wheel and has to turn faster.9: Differential Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 7 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. both wheels are free to rotate.9. When the vehicle turns a sharp corner.8: Ring Gear and Pinion Gear for Rear Axle The differential allows each wheel to travel at a different speed and still propel its own load.

As a result. It transmits engine power from the transmission or transaxle (if front-wheel drive) to the rear axle assembly or drive wheels. the wheel with the least resistance turns more revolutions. propeller shaft.2 Driveshaft A driveshaft.10 shows a typical driveshaft. the other turns slower by the same amount.one with the ring gear and another as the bevel pinions ‘walk around’ the other bevel gear. A typical driveshaft is a hollow steel tube. carrying the bevel pinions around with it.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Again. the left-hand bevel gear makes two revolutions. or Cardan shaft is a mechanical device for transferring power from the engine or motor to the point where useful work is applied.novapdf. the right-hand axle is held stationary and so the bevel pinions are forced to rotate on their own axles and ‘walk around’ the righthand bevel gear.10: Typical driveshaft. Since the bevel pinions are in constant mesh with both bevel gears. As one wheel turns faster. However. the left-hand bevel gear is forced to rotate because it is subjected to the turning force of the ring gear which is transmitted through the bevel pinions. 1. A center support bearing is also called a steady bearing or hanger bearing. Figure 1. engine power comes in on the pinion gear and rotates the ring gear. when the drive wheels have unequal resistance applied to them. The driveshaft transfers engine torque from the transmission to the differential. as shown in Figure 1. Driveshaft is the term used by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to describe the shaft between the transmission and the rear axle assembly on a rear-wheel drive vehicle. During one revolution of the ring gear. Figure 1.11. U-joints are attached to both ends of the driveshaft. a center support bearing must be used. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 8 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. The front U-joint is attached to a splined yoke that slips over the output shaft of the transmission. The details on differential and other important components in a powertrain will be discussed below. driving shaft.com) . Beyond about 65 inches (165 cm).3.

Figure 1. A simple U-joints can be made from two Y-shaped yokes connected by a cross member called a cross or spinder. U-joints allow the wheels and the rear axle to move up and down and remain flexible and still transfer power to the drive wheels. The four arms of the cross member are called trunions.novapdf. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 9 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.12 shows a line drawing of a simple U-joint with all part names identified. Universal joints (U-joints) are used at both ends of a driveshaft.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1. Figure 1.12: A simple universal joint (U-joint).com) .11: A center support bearing is used on many vehicles with long drive shafts.

this is found in every automobile. Cardan driv eshaft with univ ersal joints Figure 1. it receives one input and provides two outputs.13: Cardan driveshaft with universal joints.14) To allow the drive wheels to rotate at different speed (see Figure 1. In the other. a longer driveshaft is also required to send power the length of the vehicle. Figure 1.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Most U-joints are called cross yoke or Cardan universal joints.novapdf. These two purposes of a differential can be summarized as follows:   To change direction of engine torque (see Figure 1.3. 1. rear-drive vehicles. without imposing too great an additional inertia by virtue of the weight of the shaft. The differential also changes the direction of engine torque 90º from the rotation of the driveshaft lengthwise with the vehicle. allowing each output to spin at a different speed. less commonly encountered. transmission.15) Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 10 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. In frontengined. Most engines or motors deliver power as torque through rotary motion: this is extracted from the linear motion of pistons in a reciprocating engine. Driveshafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress.13 shows Cardan driveshaft with universal joints (U-joints). Most automobiles today use rigid driveshafts to deliver power from transmission to the wheels. or transaxle to the wheels. From the point of delivery. which represents the difference between input force and the load. it combines two inputs to create an output that is the sum (or difference) of the inputs. It is also known as a variety of gearbox. They thus need to be strong enough to bear the stress. In one of these.com) .3 Differential The differential is a device that splits the engine torque two ways. almost always used in one of two ways. the components of power transmission form the drivetrain. The Cardan joint takes its name from a sixteenth century Italian mathematician who worked with objects that moved freely in any direction. A pair of short driveshafts is commonly used to send power from a central differential.

usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed. The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels with equal force. When cornering. especially when turning corners.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1.com) . resulting in the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging.novapdf.15: The difference between the travel distances of the drive wheels is controlled by the differential. while allowing them to rotate at different speeds. Figure 1. the inner wheel travels a shorter distance than the outer wheel. This results in difficult and unpredictable handling. damage to Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 11 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. A vehicle’s wheels rotate at different speeds. In vehicles without a differential. such as karts.14: The differential assembly changes the direction of engine torque and increases the torque to the drive wheels.

and also in many all-wheel-drive Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 12 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. This difference in rotational speed cause the pinion gears to ‘walk around’ the slower side gear. rear-wheel drive (RWD) and all-wheel drive (AWD). See Figure 1. 1.20 show the differential in there different kind of cars which are front-wheel drive (FWD).com) . Figure 1. Figure 1.18. The differential is found on all modern cars and trucks.19 and 1.17. the torque forces cause the side gear and pinion mate gears to subtract torque from one side and add torque to the opposite side.16 shows a cut model of a differential gear in a car.novapdf. By splitting the engine torque to the drive wheels when the vehicle is turning a corner. the inner wheel slows and the outer wheel increases in speed to compensate.16: Differential gear in a car A differential is a mechanical addition and subtraction assembly.17: When the vehicle turns a corner.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section tires and roads. Differential gear in a car (cut model) Figure 1. Figure 1. and strain on (or possible failure of) the entire drivetrain.

18: The differential in FWD Figure 1.19: The differential in RWD Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 13 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section (full-time four-wheel-drive) vehicles. because the front wheels travel a different distance through a turn than the rear wheels. and they need one between the front and the back wheels as well.novapdf. These all-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each set of drive wheels.com) . Figure 1.

The inner ends of the axles are splinted to fit into the side gears.3.20: The differential in AWD 1.4 Axles Axles are an integral structural component of a wheeled vehicle. the axles must bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo.com) . As the side gears are turned. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 14 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. Each drive axle is connected to the side gears in the differential.21: Train wheels are affixed to a straight axle. axles may serve one or more of the following purposes depending on the design of the vehicle. such that both wheels rotate in unison. The axles maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. Since for most vehicles the wheels are the only part touching the ground. In addition to the structural purpose.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1.21 shows train wheels that are affixed to a straight axle. Figure 1. A separate axle shaft is used for each driving wheel. They are solid steel shafts that transfer the torque from the differential to the driving wheels. Figure 1. the axles to which they are splinted turn at the same speed.novapdf. as well as acceleration and braking forces.

Drive Mechanical Section One or more axles may be an integral part of the drivetrain. The vehicle is maneuvered by controlling the direction of the front wheels' rotational axis relative to the body and rear wheels. 1.5 Transaxle A transaxle.Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute The function of the axles can be divided as follows: i. ii. The input shaft is attached to the clutch.Braking Conversely a vehicle may be slowed by applying force to brake the rotation of the axle. Transaxles are near universal in all automobile configurations that have the engine placed at the same end of the car as the driven wheels: the front wheel drive. It is made up of a transmission and differential housed in a single unit. is a component that combines the functionality of the transmission. which is transferred to the wheel(s) to accelerate the vehicle. A mechanical system (typically a motor) exerts a rotational force on the axle. which transfers engine torque from the engine flywheel to the input shaft when the clutch is engaged.3. the differential and the drive axle into one integrated assembly. but engine braking may still be effected via the axle.novapdf.Steering The front axle of most automobiles is a steering axle. and a differential assembly all in one case. rearengined and mid-engined arrangements. The differential gearing provides the final gear reduction and splits the power flow between the left and right drive axles. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 15 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. Most transaxles use speed gears and synchronizers on both the input and output shafts. Manually shifted transaxle includes an input shaft. The gearsets in the transaxle provide the required gear ratios and direct the power flow into the differential. as shown in Figure 1. in the automotive field.com) . iii.22. Consumer vehicles' brakes are part of the wheel assembly and therefore exert friction on the wheels directly.

Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1. Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 16 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.24 shows a transaxle used in front-wheel drive vehicles.22: Five-speed transaxle The differential assembly. See Figure 1.23. attaches to the output shaft and splits the torque to both front drive axles.23: Cutaway of a typical manual transaxle showing all of its internal parts including the final drive assembly.com) . also called a final drive assembly.novapdf. It is made up of a transmission and differential housed in a single unit. Figure 1. Figure 1.

24: A cutaway of an automatic transaxle Chapter 1: Powertrain System Automotive Powertrain 17 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.com) .Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Malaysian Spanish Institute Mechanical Section Figure 1.novapdf.