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You are on page 1of 12

E.E. Hart

⇑

, S.J. Cox, K. Djidjeli

CED Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 September 2010

Received in revised form 14 January 2011

Accepted 6 March 2011

Available online 12 March 2011

Keywords:

Photonic crystal

Meshless methods

Compactly supported radial basis functions

a b s t r a c t

Meshless methods based on compact radial basis functions (RBFs) are proposed for model-

ling photonic crystals (PhCs). When modelling two-dimensional PhCs two generalised

eigenvalue problems are formed, one for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and the other

for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Conventionally, the Band Diagrams for two-

dimensional PhCs are calculated by either the plane wave expansion method (PWEM) or

the ﬁnite element method (FEM). Here, the eigenvalue equations for the two-dimensional

PhCs are solved using RBFs based meshless methods. For the TM mode a meshless local

strong form method (RBF collocation) is used, while for the tricker TE mode a meshless

local weak form method (RBF Galerkin) is used (so that the discontinuity of the dielectric

function ðxÞ can naturally be modelled). The results obtained from the meshless methods

are found to be in good agreement with the standard PWEM. Thus, the meshless methods

are proved to be a promising scheme for predicting photonic band gaps.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodically-structured electromagnetic media, which generally possess photonic band gaps

i.e. ranges of frequency in which light cannot propagate through the structure. Photonic band gap (PBG) materials have at-

tracted considerable attention recently due to a variety of important expected applications, such as, high efﬁciency lasers,

optical circuits and optical communications [1]. Accurate computations of PBG materials are thus necessary for the devel-

opment of optical ﬁbres and optoelectronic devices [2–4]. By combining the fundamental laws of electromagnetism and

mathematics it is possible to create methods of numerical analysis for modelling PhCs. The traditional method used for mod-

elling photonic crystals is the plane wave expansion method (PWEM) [5–7] as it is simple to implement and provides good

results. However, in spite of successful computations, there are many problems with Fourier-based methods. Firstly, in PhCs,

it is much more common that the underlying medium is discontinuous, so in this case Gibbs-type phenomena (from Fourier-

type expansions) may lead to slow convergence of the truncated ﬁeld [8]. Secondly, many precautions should be taken in

order to ensure that the calculated spectra are correct. For example, it was found that the discontinuous nature of the dielec-

tric function severely limits the accuracy of PWEM [8]. Thirdly, there is ﬁeld localisation due to the complexity of geometry.

In addition, the method creates large dense matrices so it is slow to converge, thus computationally expensive. The ﬁnite

element method (FEM) has been used to model novel PhCs [9], but as it relies on elements that are connected by nodes

in a predeﬁned way its applications are limited. It requires a complex mesh that is computationally expensive and often re-

quires re-meshing in order to achieve the required accuracy. Recently, meshless methods have been suggested as an alter-

native due to their capability of solving partial differential equations (PDEs) using a set of nodes (that have no pre-speciﬁed

connectivity between each other) within the domain of interest. A key feature of meshless methods is that they do not

0021-9991/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.010

⇑

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: eeh102@soton.ac.uk (E.E. Hart).

Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Computational Physics

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ j cp

require a grid or mesh, and it is computationally easy to add or remove points from a pre-existing set of nodes. This is not the

case for mesh-based methods; where the addition or removal of a point/element would lead to remeshing and hence addi-

tion computational complexity. The emergence of meshless methods in engineering/electromagnetics is in its early stages,

but its suitability for a variety of problems (particularly for ﬂuid/structural problems) has been demonstrated [10–12].

Meshless methods can be categorised according to their formulation procedures, which fall into three groups: weak-form,

strong-form or collocation and a combination of weak-form and strong-form [11].

A number of meshless methods have been proposed to date. Smooth Particle Hydronamics (SPH) [13,14], the diffuse ele-

ment method (DEM) [15], the element free Galerkin (EFG) method [16], the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) [17],

the boundary node method (BNM) [18], the meshless local Petrov–Galerkin (MLPG) method [19], the point interpolation

methods (PIM) [20] and the meshfree weak-strong (MWS) form method [21]. In recent years, another group of meshless

methods which are based on so-called RBFs, have become attractive for solving PDEs [12,22–24]. Initially, RBFs were devel-

oped for multivariable data and function interpolation, especially for higher dimension problems. Using RBFs as a meshless

collocation method to solve PDEs possesses some advantages: it is a truly meshless method, it is space dimension indepen-

dent, and in the context of scattered data interpolation it is known that some RBFs have spectral convergence orders. More-

over, the use of RBFs for problems with a discontinuity are found to reduce the complications of Gibbs phenomenon

compared to the use of the Fourier basis [25,26].

The most commonly used globally supported RBFs (GSRBF) in the literature for solving PDEs are multiquadratics (MQ),

inverse multiquadractis (IMQ), thin plate splines (TPS) and Gaussian [27]. MQ, IMQ and Gaussian RBFs include a shape

parameter, whose numerical value can be varied to control the domain of inﬂuence of the basis function (for example, in

the case of the Gaussian RBF, increasing the value of the shape parameter leads to ﬂatter basis functions). However, these

global RBFs produce dense matrices, which tend to become poorly conditioned, as the number of collocation points in-

creases. There are currently several ways to overcome the disadvantages of using GSRBFs for solving PDEs, such as domain

decompression, preconditioning and ﬁne tuning the shape parameters of MQs [27–29]. Compactly supported RBFs (CSRBFs)

provide a promising approach, and were introduced by Wu [30], Wendland [31] and Buhmann [32]. The CSRBFs have a do-

main of inﬂuence that extends over a ﬁnite region of the domain as opposed to the GSRBFs whose inﬂuence extends over the

entire domain. The CSRBFs kernels contain a support size parameter by which we can adjust the sparsity of the matrix, thus

making it well-conditioned [33].

This paper proposes new meshless methods for solving Maxwell’s equations for PhC modelling with periodic boundary

conditions. These methods are naturally suited to handle discontinuous media, using local RBF approximations which con-

form to the material interfaces; and are found to reduce the Gibbs phenomenon. This paper builds on the work of [24] where

an eigenvalue problem with a periodic domain is solved using a meshless method with CSRBFs. In this work, numerical re-

sults are presented for two well known crystal structures in the literature and compared to the results from the PWEM.

This paper is organised as follows: Section 2 presents the equations used in modelling PhCs. In Section 3 a basic idea of

RBFs is given. In Section 4 the RBF meshless methods are formulated. Results are presented in Section 5 for comparison with

the PWEM before conclusions are drawn in Section 6.

2. Two-dimensional photonic crystals

By making the standard assumptions Maxwell’s equations can be rewritten in terms of the magnetic ﬁeld as [34]:

rÂ

1

ðrÞ

rÂHðrÞ

_ _

¼

x

c

_ _

2

HðrÞ: ð1Þ

A two-dimensional PhC is periodic in the xy-plane and homogenous in the z-direction. When looking at light propagation in

only the xy-plane, mirror reﬂection symmetry in the z-direction allows separation into two distinct polarisations: trans-

verse-electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM). Eqs. (2) and (3) show the TE mode and TM mode respectively:

ÀrÁ

1

ðxÞ

rw ¼ kw; ð2Þ

À

1

ðxÞ

Dw ¼ kw; ð3Þ

where ðxÞ is the dielectric constant, w is the scalar ﬁeld intensity and k is the spectral parameter:

k ¼

x

c

_ _

2

; ð4Þ

where c is the speed of light and x is the frequency. The PhC is modelled as inﬁnite, by imposing periodic boundary condi-

tions on the unit cell, then the Bloch–Floquet theory can be applied [35]. Consequently the wave function can be represented

as:

w ¼ e

ıkÁx

Á uðxÞ; ð5Þ

where k ¼

k

1

k

2

_ _

is the quasimomentum vector and x ¼

x

y

_ _

.

E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4911

3. Radial basis functions

The use of RBFs to solve PDEs can be viewed as a generalisation of the multivariate interpolation problem. For scattered

data ðx

i

; f

i

Þ 2 R

dþ1

; 1 6 i 6 N, the approximation FðxÞ to a function f ðxÞ can be written as:

FðxÞ ¼

N

j¼1

n

j

/ðkx Àx

j

kÞ; ð6Þ

where kx Àx

j

k is the Euclidean distance between points x and x

j

; N is the total number of points, /ðk:kÞ is a RBF with centre x

j

and x is a point in R

d

. The unknown coefﬁcients a

j

, j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; N can be determined by setting Fðx

i

Þ ¼ f

i

; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; N. This

yields the system of linear equations:

An ¼ F; ð7Þ

where A ¼ ½/ðkx

i

Àx

j

kÞ is an N ÂN matrix, n ¼ ½n

j

and F ¼ ½Fðx

i

Þ are N Â1 matrices. Clearly, there exists a unique solution if

andonly if Ais non-singular. Micchelli [36] gave conditions on/whichguarantee the non-singularity of A. These conditions are

quite general andcanbe checkedfor many RBFs. Inparticular, there conditions are satisﬁedfor the choices of /giveninTable 1.

The RBFs introduced in the table are GSRBFs. One of the most popular classes of CSRBFs is the one introduced by Wu [30]

and Wendland [31]. Theses CSRBF are strictly positive deﬁnite in R

d

for all d less or equal to some ﬁxed value d

0

. The basic

deﬁnition of the CSRBF /

l;j

ðrÞ have the form:

/

l;j

ðrÞ ¼ ð1 ÀrÞ

n

þ

pðrÞ; for j P1 ð8Þ

with the following conditions:

ð1 ÀrÞ

n

þ

¼

ð1 ÀrÞ

n

if 0 6 r < 1;

0 if r P1;

_

ð9Þ

where l ¼

d

2

_ ¸

þj þ1 is a dimension number, 2j is the smoothness of the function and pðrÞ is a prescribed polynomial. Table

2 list some of the Wu and Wendland CSRBFs when d ¼ 3. Note that unlike GSRBFs, the inﬂuence of CSRBFs is local in [0, 1]

and the inﬂuence vanishes in ½1; 1Þ. Also, we can scale the basis function with compact support on ½0; d by replacing r with

r

d

where d is referred to as the support parameter of the CSRBF.

4. Meshless RBF methods

4.1. Meshless local strong form method

For the TM mode, substituting Eq. (5) into (3) gives:

ÀðrþıkÞ Á ðrþıkÞu ¼ ðxÞku: ð10Þ

Representing u ¼

n

j¼1

n

j

/

j

where /

j

is a CSRBF and /

j

ðx

i

Þ /ðjjx

i

Àx

j

jjÞ gives rise to a generalised eigenvalue problem of the

form:

AðkÞn ¼ kBn; ð11Þ

where n are the eigenvectors of each eigensystem corresponding to the nodal ﬁeld values of allowable modes of propagation

through the PhC and k are the respective eigenvalues that correspond to the frequencies of the mode [37]. The A and B matri-

ces are:

A

ij

¼ ÀðrþıkÞ Á ðrþıkÞ/

j

ðx

i

Þ; ð12Þ

B

ij

¼ ðxÞ/

j

ðx

i

Þ: ð13Þ

By expanding the equation that makes up the matrix A

ij

it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices:

E

ij

¼ r

2

/

j

ðx

i

Þ; ð14Þ

F

ij

¼ r/

j

ðx

i

Þ; ð15Þ

H

ij

¼ /

j

ðx

i

Þ: ð16Þ

Table 1

Global radial basis functions.

/ðrÞ ¼ e

À

r

2

c

Gaussian

/ðrÞ ¼ ðc

2

þr

2

Þ

1=2

Multiquadratic (MQ)

/ðrÞ ¼ ðc

2

þr

2

Þ

À1=2

Inverse multiquadratic (IMQ)

4912 E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921

Hence for the TM mode:

A

ij

¼ ÀE

ij

À2kı Á F

ij

þk

2

H

ij

: ð17Þ

The domain of the system can be seen in Fig. 1. The domain is made periodic by imposing the conditions:

uðx; 0Þ ¼ uðx; bÞ ð18Þ

and

uð0; yÞ ¼ uða; yÞ; ð19Þ

where a and b are the length of the edges of the domain.

For the TE mode, substituting Eq. (5) into (2) leads to:

ÀðrþıkÞ Á

1

ðxÞ

ðrþıkÞu ¼ ku: ð20Þ

Expanding the left of Eq. (20) gives:

ÀrÁ

1

ðxÞ

ru

_ _

ÀırÁ

1

ðxÞ

ku

_ _

Àık Á

1

ðxÞ

ru

_ _

þk Á

1

ðxÞ

ku

_ _

¼ ku: ð21Þ

As the dielectric constant ðxÞ is discontinuous for PhCs (having different dielectric constants at the interface) the mesh-

less local strong form method (MLSFM) could not be applied to Eq. (21). Thus, an alternative method based on the meshless

weak form method (which is naturally suited to handle discontinuous media) is applied to the TE mode. This method is de-

scribed in the next section.

4.2. Meshless local weak form method

The solution to the differential Eq. (20), given the periodic boundary conditions, is found using Galerkin’s method and the

meshless RBF method. The Galerkin method calculates a discretised approximation to the true solution of the boundary va-

lue problem, which gives the following integral for TE:

_

1

ðxÞ

ðrþıkÞu Á ðrþıkÞvdx ¼ k

_

uvdx: ð22Þ

Representing u ¼

n

j¼1

n

j

/

j

and v ¼

n

l¼1

n

l

/

l

(where / is a CSRBF) gives rise to a generalised eigenvalue problem of the form:

CðkÞn ¼ kDn; ð23Þ

Table 2

Wu and Wendland CSRBFs.

/ðrÞ ¼ ð1 ÀrÞ

5

þ

ð8 þ40r þ48r

2

þ25r

3

þ5r

4

Þ

Wu-C2

/ðrÞ ¼ ð1 ÀrÞ

6

þ

ð6 þ36r þ82r

2

þ72r

3

þ30r

4

þ5r

5

Þ

Wu-C4

/ðrÞ ¼ ð1 ÀrÞ

4

þ

ð1 þ4rÞ

Wendland-C2

/ðrÞ ¼ ð1 ÀrÞ

6

þ

ð3 þ18r þ35r

2

Þ

Wendland-C4

Fig. 1. Domain of the periodic system.

E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4913

where the C and D matrices are for the TE mode:

C

jl

¼

_

1

ðxÞ

ðrþıkÞ/

j

Á ðrþıkÞ/

l

dx; ð24Þ

D

jl

¼

_

/

j

/

l

dx: ð25Þ

By expanding the integral that makes up the matrix C

jl

it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices:

S

jl

¼

_

1

ðxÞ

r/

j

Á r/

l

dx; ð26Þ

P

jl

¼

_

1

ðxÞ

k/

j

Á r/

l

dx; ð27Þ

Q

jl

¼

_

1

ðxÞ

k/

l

Á r/

j

dx; ð28Þ

T

jl

¼

_

1

ðxÞ

/

j

Á /

l

dx: ð29Þ

Hence for the TE mode polarisation:

C

jl

¼ S

jl

þıðP

jl

þQ

jl

Þ þk

2

T

jl

: ð30Þ

This approach can also be applied to the TM mode. The solution to the differential Eq. (10) using Galerkin’s method and the

meshless RBF method gives the following integral for TM:

_

ðrþıkÞu Á ðrþıkÞvdx ¼ k

_

ðxÞuvdx; ð31Þ

which is another generalised eigenvalue problem with C and D matrices deﬁned as:

C

jl

¼

_

ðrþıkÞ/

j

Á ðrþıkÞ/

l

dx; ð32Þ

D

jl

¼

_

ðxÞ/

j

Á /

l

dx: ð33Þ

By expanding the integral that makes up the matrix C

jl

it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices:

S

1

jl

¼

_

r/

j

Á r/

l

dx; ð34Þ

P

1

jl

¼

_

k/

j

Á r/

l

dx; ð35Þ

Q

1

jl

¼

_

k/

l

Á r/

j

dx; ð36Þ

T

1

jl

¼

_

/

j

Á /

l

dx: ð37Þ

Hence for the TM mode polarisation:

C

jl

¼ S

1

jl

þıðP

1

jl

þQ

1

jl

Þ þk

2

T

1

jl

: ð38Þ

Although it is possible to solve TM using the Meshless Local Weak Form Method (MLWFM), the MLSFM is preferred as it

requires less computation time.

When a unit cell is discretised by a set of nodes, the nodes can be located exactly on the interface. Unfortunately in this

situation, it is not clear which dielectric constant should be assigned to the interface nodes, as the two materials have dif-

ferent dielectric constants (ðxÞ discontinous). Using the RBF based meshless method will avoid this problem, as it employs a

set of integration points (Gaussian points), apart from the set of nodes, to calculate the integrals in Eqs. (25)–(29) and (33)–

(37). These integration points will be located in either one of the materials, but not on the interface, and thus a given value of

dielectric constant can be easily assigned to them. This will make the numerical implementation easy, and not requiring

additional methods, such as, for example averaging or smoothing the dielectric function. In the next section we describe

the Gauss quadrature approach for the MLWFM.

4.2.1. Gauss quadrature for the MLWFM

The numerical integration in the MLWFM is solved using Gauss quadrature. In two dimensions the integration over a

quadrilateral with a 6 x 6 b and c 6 y 6 d is given by:

_

b

a

_

d

c

f ðx; yÞdxdy ¼

_

1

À1

_

1

À1

f ðxðfÞ; yðgÞÞjJjdfdg; ð39Þ

4914 E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921

where jJj is the Jacobian Matrix, and f is given by

1

ðxÞ

r/

j

Á r/

l

for Eq. (26),

1

ðxÞ

k/

j

Á r/

l

for Eq. (27),

1

ðxÞ

k/

l

Á r/

j

for Eq. (28) and

1

ðxÞ

/

j

Á /

l

for Eq. (29) respectively (for the TE mode). Substituting x ¼

bÀa

2

_ _

f þ

bþa

2

_ _

, and y ¼

dÀc

2

_ _

g þ

dþc

2

_ _

into Eq. (39) leads

to:

_

b

a

_

d

c

f ðx; yÞdxdy ¼

b Àa

2

_ _

d Àc

2

_ __

1

À1

_

1

À1

f

b Àa

2

f þ

b þa

2

;

d Àc

2

g þ

d þc

2

_ _

dfdg: ð40Þ

Fig. 2 shows a quadrilateral with centre f ¼ 0; g ¼ 0 and 4 Gauss points. Evaluating the integral in Eq. (40) using Gauss

quadrature leads to:

b Àa

2

_ _

d Àc

2

_ __

1

À1

_

1

À1

f

b Àa

2

f þ

b þa

2

;

d Àc

2

g þ

d þc

2

_ _

dfdg

¼

b Àa

2

_ _

d Àc

2

_ _

nx

i¼1

nx

j¼1

W

ix

Á W

jy

Á f

b Àa

2

f

i

þ

b þa

2

;

d Àc

2

g

j

þ

d þc

2

_ _

: ð41Þ

When for 4 Gauss points: n

x

¼ n

y

¼ 2; W

ix

¼ W

jy

¼ 1 and f

1

¼ g

1

¼

ﬃﬃ

3

p

3

; f

2

¼ g

2

¼ À

ﬃﬃ

3

p

3

.

A set of uniformnodes is created that cover the unit cell. For two-dimensions there should be between 3 and 9 times more

gauss points than there are nodes [11]. Then a set of background cells is generated that covers the unit cell and each back-

ground cell has 4 gauss points and its own local support domain with radius r. Therefore for the ﬁrst background cell with

Gauss points 1–4, if nodes 6 and 7 were both in the support domain, Eq. (34) can be written as:

S

1

67

¼ /

6

ðGp

1

Þ Á /

7

ðGp

1

Þ þ/

6

ðGp

2

Þ Á /

7

ðGp

2

Þ þ/

6

ðGp

3

Þ Á /

7

ðGp

3

Þ þ/

6

ðGp

4

Þ Á /

7

ðGp

4

Þ; ð42Þ

where / is a CSRBF. However nodes 6 and 7 will also be included in other support domains so the values for each S

1

67

must be

summed together to assemble the global S

1

matrix. A similar approach is used to assemble the other global matrices.

5. Results

The results from the new algorithms can be validated by comparison with other theoretical results presented in the lit-

erature. The computational experiments in this section were carried out using MATLAB. A uniform point layout was used for

Fig. 2. Gauss point layout for the 4 point rule.

Fig. 3. A section of the two-dimensional PhC structure for a square array of rods with radius ¼ 0:2a, the black dashed line highlights the unit cell used.

E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4915

all of the experiments as in was found in a previous study to have a slightly better convergence rate than a random or sobol

point layout of equal size [24]. The same study also found that the Wu’s C2 and C4 CSRBFs have a better convergence rate

than Wendland’s C2 and C4 CSRBFs, which is why they are used in this work. In this section, the Band Diagrams for two dif-

ferent crystals structures are calculated, ﬁrst for a square array of cylindrical rods in air and then for a square array of con-

nected veins in air. The PWEM data was obtained using the MIT Photonic-Bands package (MPB) [38].

Fig. 3 shows a section of the crystal structure for a square array of rods with radius ¼ 0:2a (a is the lattice constant), the

black dashed line highlights the unit cell used. Fig. 4(a) shows a Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLSFM

using Wu’s C2 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes, for square array of alumina ( ¼ 8:9) rods with radius ¼ 0:2a in

air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. Fig. 4(b) shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C4 CSRBF and uniform

grid of 60 by 60 nodes, for the same square array of dielectric columns. Both ﬁgures are in good agreement with the standard

PWEM ﬁgure, it can be seen from Table 3 that the average relative error is 1%. The relative error E ¼ ðE

p

ÀE

m

Þ=E

p

was cal-

culated for all the eigenvalues in the ﬁrst four bands, where E

p

is the value of the eigenvalue from the PWEM (number of

plane waves is 2048 and mesh size is set to 128) and E

m

is the value of the eigenvalue from the meshless method. In

Fig. 4, star markers are for the MLSFM results and open circles for PWEM. Both ﬁgures show the correct band gap between

mode 1 and mode 2.

Fig. 5(a) shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLWFM using Wu’s C4 function, a uniform grid of 30

by 30 nodes and 36 by 36 background cells each with 4 Gauss points (5184 gauss points). The ﬁgure shows the PBG between

modes 1 and 2 and is in good agreement with the PWEM(with an average relative error of 0.1% – Table 3). Fig. 5(b) shows the

Band Diagram for the TE mode. This ﬁgure shows that unlike the MLSFM the MLWFM can also produce the correct ﬁgure for

TE mode which is in good agreement with the PWEM (with an average relative error of 1%). Fig. 5(c) shows the TE and TM

modes and correctly has no complete PBG. Table 4 shows the eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands, calculated at each of the

corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C, X and M), using the meshless methods and the PWEM, for the square array of

alumina rods. The results for the meshless methods and the PWEM show good agreement.

Convergence rates for the averaged eigenvalues of TM and TE modes are given in Fig. 6 for the relative error

E ¼ ðE

r

ÀE

m

Þ=E

r

, in which E

r

is the high resolution solution to the meshless method and E

m

is the result at the current res-

olution. The order of accuracy for the MLSFM and MLWFM are Oðh

2

Þ and Oðh

4

Þ for the TM and TE modes, respectively (the

order is found by expressing the error EðhÞ % Ch

p

in dependence of h or n ¼ 1=h with loglog). The results of the TE modes

show better accuracy over the TM modes. This may be due to using weak form meshless methods which are found to have

usually better accuracy than the strong form [11]. In comparison with the FEM [37], similar results (linear trends) were ob-

tained using the MLSFM for the TM mode but for the TE mode the MLWFM has better convergence rates.

Fig. 4. Various band diagram showing the TM modes for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ. PWEM results are

denoted by open circles and MLSFM results by star markers.

Table 3

The average relative error of the Meshless methods compared to MPB (PWEM).

Average Relative Error

TM-MLSFM TM-MLWFM TE-MLWFM

C2 C4 C4 C4

Rods 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.01

Veins 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01

4916 E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921

Table 4

Eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands (calculated at each of the corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C, X, M)) for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ

with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ; using meshless methods and the PWEM.

Band No: 1 2 3 4

C TM-MLSFM C2 0 0.583050 0.635560 0.637934

TM-MLSFM C4 0 0.582480 0.635130 0.636200

TM-MLWFM C4 0 0.582353 0.629054 0.629054

PWEM 0 0.582310 0.627800 0.627800

X TM-MLSFM C2 0.275894 0.443988 0.643476 0.777156

TM-MLSFM C4 0.277114 0.445875 0.643433 0.776309

TM-MLWFM C4 0.275117 0.443014 0.637289 0.773058

PWEM 0.274706 0.442519 0.635953 0.772230

M TM-MLSFM C2 0.323557 0.552335 0.554360 0.689682

TM-MLSFM C4 0.325103 0.554545 0.555431 0.694813

TM-MLWFM C4 0.322850 0.549939 0.549940 0.693245

PWEM 0.322395 0.548831 0.548831 0.693589

C TE-MLWFM C4 0 0.647549 0.832420 0.832420

PWEM 0 0.627827 0.823526 0.823526

X TE-MLWFM C4 0.417970 0.466823 0.714904 0.868447

PWEM 0.417558 0.461679 0.701203 0.854968

M TE-MLWFM C4 0.563892 0.602208 0.602209 0.681982

PWEM 0.548855 0.601888 0.601888 0.681155

Fig. 5. Various band diagram showing the modes for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ. PWEM results are denoted by

open circles and MLSFM results by star markers. The dashed lines represent the TM mode and the solid line the TE mode.

E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4917

Fig. 7 shows a section of the crystal structure for a square array of dielectric veins with thickness ¼ 0:165a, the white

dashed line highlights the unit cell used. Fig. 8(a) shows a Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLSFM using

Wu’s C2 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes, for a square array of alumina ð ¼ 8:9Þ veins in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. Fig. 8(b)

Fig. 6. Convergence rates of the averaged eigenvalues for the TM (MLSFM) and TE (MLWFM) modes. The dashed line represents the TM mode and the solid

line the TE mode.

Fig. 7. A section of the two-dimensional PhC structure for a square array of dielectric veins with thickness ¼ 0:165a, the white dashed line highlights the

unit cell used.

Fig. 8. Various band diagram showing the TM modes for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. PWEM results

are denoted by open circles and MLSFM results by star markers.

4918 E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921

Fig. 9. Various band diagram showing the modes for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. PWEM results are

demoted by open circles and the MLWFM results by star markers. The dashed lines represent the TM mode and the solid line the TE mode.

Table 5

Eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands (calculated at each of the corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C, X, M)) for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ

with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1Þ; using meshless methods and the PWEM.

Band No: 1 2 3 4

C TM-MLSFM C2 0 0.452676 0.498638 0.529626

TM-MLSFM C4 0 0.452586 0.498543 0.529519

TM-MLWFM C4 0 0.435746 0.484633 0.508652

PWEM 0 0.439363 0.487806 0.513489

X TM-MLSFM C2 0.236703 0.308276 0.486806 0.535565

TM-MLSFM C4 0.238450 0.310206 0.487308 0.535991

TM-MLWFM C4 0.230579 0.299361 0.470726 0.515386

PWEM 0.231376 0.300945 0.474696 0.51991

M TM-MLSFM C2 0.305745 0.360987 0.361283 0.645264

TM-MLSFM C4 0.307888 0.363437 0.363437 0.645350

TM-MLWFM C4 0.297665 0.349016 0.350020 0.618693

PWEM 0.299445 0.352086 0.352086 0.629336

C TE-MLWFM C4 0 0.616463 0.618431 0.693236

PWEM 0 0.618249 0.618249 0.694420

X TE-MLWFM C4 0.255452 0.439252 0.704695 0.718234

PWEM 0.249566 0.438048 0.708642 0.716878

M TE-MLWFM C4 0.368238 0.529366 0.533327 0.540246

PWEM 0.361152 0.530968 0.530968 0.539335

E.E. Hart et al. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4919

shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C4 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes,

for the same square array of dielectric veins. Both ﬁgures are in good agreement with the standard PWEM ﬁgure and cor-

rectly show no PBG (average relative error of 3%).

Fig. 9(a) shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode, produced by the MLWFM using Wu’s C4 function, a uniform grid of 30

by 30 nodes and 36 by 36 background cells each with 4 Gauss points (5184 gauss points). The ﬁgure shows no PBGs and is in

good agreement with the PWEM (average realtive error of 1%). Fig. 9(b) shows the Band Diagram for the TE mode. The ﬁgure

correctly shows PBG between modes 1 and 2. Fig. 9(c) shows the TE and TM modes and correctly has no complete PBG (aver-

age relative error of 1%). Table 5 shows the eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands, calculated at each of the corners of the irre-

ducible Brillouin zone (C, X and M), using the meshless methods and the PWEM, for the square array of dielectric veins. The

results for the meshless methods and the PWEM show good agreement.

6. Conclusion

In this paper a new algorithm based on a meshless compact RBF method was presented for use in PhC modelling. The

MLSFM is able to obtain accurate TM mode bands that are in good agreement with the standard PWEM. The MLWFM is able

to obtain accurate results for both the TM and TE modes that are in agreement with the standard PWEM. The RBF based

meshless methods are shown to be a promising alternative scheme for predicting extended photonic band gaps. Future work

is planned to extend the proposed meshless methods to three-dimensional PhC modelling.

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Microsoft Institute for High Performance Computing, Southampton. The authors are very

grateful to the referees for providing valuable comments and suggestions which are incorporated into this paper.

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in the case of the Gaussian RBF.26]. by imposing periodic boundary conditions on the unit cell. In recent years. Moreover.E. In Section 4 the RBF meshless methods are formulated. whose numerical value can be varied to control the domain of inﬂuence of the basis function (for example. However. is the quasimomentum vector and x ¼ y ð5Þ . w is the scalar ﬁeld intensity and k is the spectral parameter: k¼ x2 c . the diffuse element method (DEM) [15]. Hart et al. When looking at light propagation in only the xy-plane. such as domain decompression. and in the context of scattered data interpolation it is known that some RBFs have spectral convergence orders. the meshless local Petrov–Galerkin (MLPG) method [19]. but its suitability for a variety of problems (particularly for ﬂuid/structural problems) has been demonstrated [10–12]. Smooth Particle Hydronamics (SPH) [13. The PhC is modelled as inﬁnite. which fall into three groups: weak-form. have become attractive for solving PDEs [12. The CSRBFs kernels contain a support size parameter by which we can adjust the sparsity of the matrix. which tend to become poorly conditioned. it is space dimension independent. This paper is organised as follows: Section 2 presents the equations used in modelling PhCs. The emergence of meshless methods in engineering/electromagnetics is in its early stages. Results are presented in Section 5 for comparison with the PWEM before conclusions are drawn in Section 6. Consequently the wave function can be represented as: w ¼ eıkÁx Á uðxÞ. these global RBFs produce dense matrices. RBFs were developed for multivariable data and function interpolation. and were introduced by Wu [30]. ð2Þ ð3Þ ðxÞ Dw ¼ kw. Using RBFs as a meshless collocation method to solve PDEs possesses some advantages: it is a truly meshless method. then the Bloch–Floquet theory can be applied [35]. especially for higher dimension problems. Initially. Compactly supported RBFs (CSRBFs) provide a promising approach.14]. The CSRBFs have a domain of inﬂuence that extends over a ﬁnite region of the domain as opposed to the GSRBFs whose inﬂuence extends over the entire domain. ð4Þ where c is the speed of light and x is the frequency. There are currently several ways to overcome the disadvantages of using GSRBFs for solving PDEs. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4911 require a grid or mesh. MQ. 2. the point interpolation methods (PIM) [20] and the meshfree weak-strong (MWS) form method [21]. IMQ and Gaussian RBFs include a shape parameter. (2) and (3) show the TE mode and TM mode respectively: ÀrÁ À 1 1 ðxÞ rw ¼ kw. In this work. the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) [17]. preconditioning and ﬁne tuning the shape parameters of MQs [27–29]. thin plate splines (TPS) and Gaussian [27]. the boundary node method (BNM) [18]. This is not the case for mesh-based methods. In Section 3 a basic idea of RBFs is given. Meshless methods can be categorised according to their formulation procedures. strong-form or collocation and a combination of weak-form and strong-form [11]. inverse multiquadractis (IMQ). the element free Galerkin (EFG) method [16]. Wendland [31] and Buhmann [32]. and are found to reduce the Gibbs phenomenon. numerical results are presented for two well known crystal structures in the literature and compared to the results from the PWEM. The most commonly used globally supported RBFs (GSRBF) in the literature for solving PDEs are multiquadratics (MQ). Eqs. where k ¼ k1 k2 x . thus making it well-conditioned [33]. increasing the value of the shape parameter leads to ﬂatter basis functions). where the addition or removal of a point/element would lead to remeshing and hence addition computational complexity.22–24]. and it is computationally easy to add or remove points from a pre-existing set of nodes. using local RBF approximations which conform to the material interfaces. another group of meshless methods which are based on so-called RBFs. as the number of collocation points increases. where ðxÞ is the dielectric constant. This paper proposes new meshless methods for solving Maxwell’s equations for PhC modelling with periodic boundary conditions. the use of RBFs for problems with a discontinuity are found to reduce the complications of Gibbs phenomenon compared to the use of the Fourier basis [25. mirror reﬂection symmetry in the z-direction allows separation into two distinct polarisations: transverse-electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM). This paper builds on the work of [24] where an eigenvalue problem with a periodic domain is solved using a meshless method with CSRBFs.E. Two-dimensional photonic crystals By making the standard assumptions Maxwell’s equations can be rewritten in terms of the magnetic ﬁeld as [34]: rÂ 2 1 x r Â HðrÞ ¼ HðrÞ: ðrÞ c ð1Þ A two-dimensional PhC is periodic in the xy-plane and homogenous in the z-direction. These methods are naturally suited to handle discontinuous media. A number of meshless methods have been proposed to date.

the approximation FðxÞ to a function f ðxÞ can be written as: FðxÞ ¼ N X j¼1 nj /ðkx À xj kÞ. This yields the system of linear equations: An ¼ F. j ¼ 1. there conditions are satisﬁed for the choices of / given in Table 1. . . 2. if r P 1. N. Hij ¼ /j ðxi Þ: ð14Þ ð15Þ ð16Þ Table 1 Global radial basis functions. . / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 3. we can scale the basis function with compact support on ½0. i ¼ 1. ð6Þ where kx À xj k is the Euclidean distance between points x and xj . Note that unlike GSRBFs. N can be determined by setting Fðxi Þ ¼ fi . 2j is the smoothness of the function and pðrÞ is a prescribed polynomial. The A and B matrices are: Aij ¼ Àðr þ ıkÞ Á ðr þ ıkÞ/j ðxi Þ.j ðrÞ have the form: /l.E. 1Þ. ð11Þ where n are the eigenvectors of each eigensystem corresponding to the nodal ﬁeld values of allowable modes of propagation through the PhC and k are the respective eigenvalues that correspond to the frequencies of the mode [37]. Bij ¼ ðxÞ/j ðxi Þ: ð12Þ ð13Þ By expanding the equation that makes up the matrix Aij it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices: Eij ¼ r2 /j ðxi Þ. (5) into (3) gives: Àðr þ ıkÞ Á ðr þ ıkÞu ¼ ðxÞku: Representing u ¼ form: Pn j¼1 nj /j ð10Þ where /j is a CSRBF and /j ðxi Þ /ðjjxi À xj jjÞ gives rise to a generalised eigenvalue problem of the AðkÞn ¼ kBn. Radial basis functions The use of RBFs to solve PDEs can be viewed as a generalisation of the multivariate interpolation problem.j ðrÞ ¼ ð1 À rÞn pðrÞ. . For scattered data ðxi . Micchelli [36] gave conditions on / which guarantee the non-singularity of A.1. Also. /ðrÞ ¼ eÀ c 2 r2 Gaussian 2 1=2 /ðrÞ ¼ ðc þ r Þ Multiquadratic (MQ) Inverse multiquadratic (IMQ) /ðrÞ ¼ ðc2 þ r 2 ÞÀ1=2 . 1] r and the inﬂuence vanishes in ½1. d by replacing r with d where d is referred to as the support parameter of the CSRBF. . 4. Hart et al. /ðk:kÞ is a RBF with centre xj and x is a point in Rd . F ij ¼ r/j ðxi Þ. These conditions are quite general and can be checked for many RBFs. substituting Eq. 2. there exists a unique solution if and only if A is non-singular. N is the total number of points. The basic deﬁnition of the CSRBF /l. ð9Þ ÂdÃ where l ¼ 2 þ j þ 1 is a dimension number.4912 E. Meshless local strong form method For the TM mode. Table 2 list some of the Wu and Wendland CSRBFs when d ¼ 3. In particular. Meshless RBF methods 4. One of the most popular classes of CSRBFs is the one introduced by Wu [30] and Wendland [31]. . ð7Þ where A ¼ ½/ðkxi À xj kÞ is an N Â N matrix. Theses CSRBF are strictly positive deﬁnite in Rd for all d less or equal to some ﬁxed value d0 . The unknown coefﬁcients aj . the inﬂuence of CSRBFs is local in [0. n ¼ ½nj and F ¼ ½Fðxi Þ are N Â 1 matrices. . fi Þ 2 Rdþ1 . Clearly. . The RBFs introduced in the table are GSRBFs. 1 6 i 6 N. þ ( ð1 À rÞn þ ¼ for jP1 ð8Þ with the following conditions: ð1 À rÞn 0 if 0 6 r < 1.

E. The Galerkin method calculates a discretised approximation to the true solution of the boundary value problem. (20). Domain of the periodic system. /ðrÞ ¼ ð1 À rÞ5 ð8 þ 40r þ 48r 2 þ 25r 3 þ 5r 4 Þ þ /ðrÞ ¼ ð1 À rÞ6 ð6 þ 36r þ 82r 2 þ 72r 3 þ 30r 4 þ 5r 5 Þ þ /ðrÞ ¼ ð1 À rÞ4 ð1 þ 4rÞ þ /ðrÞ ¼ ð1 À rÞ6 ð3 þ 18r þ 35r 2 Þ þ Wu-C2 Wu-C4 Wendland-C2 Wendland-C4 4913 Fig. (21). (5) into (2) leads to: ð19Þ Àðr þ ıkÞ Á 1 ðxÞ ðr þ ıkÞu ¼ ku: ð20Þ Expanding the left of Eq. 0Þ ¼ uðx. an alternative method based on the meshless weak form method (which is naturally suited to handle discontinuous media) is applied to the TE mode. 1. (20) gives: Àr Á 1 1 1 1 ru À ır Á ku À ık Á ru þ k Á ku ¼ ku: ðxÞ ðxÞ ðxÞ ðxÞ ð21Þ As the dielectric constant ðxÞ is discontinuous for PhCs (having different dielectric constants at the interface) the meshless local strong form method (MLSFM) could not be applied to Eq. 4. is found using Galerkin’s method and the meshless RBF method. For the TE mode. yÞ ¼ uða. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 Table 2 Wu and Wendland CSRBFs. where a and b are the length of the edges of the domain. Meshless local weak form method The solution to the differential Eq. ð23Þ . bÞ and ð18Þ uð0. Thus. given the periodic boundary conditions.2. Hence for the TM mode: Aij ¼ ÀEij À 2kı Á F ij þ k2 Hij : The domain of the system can be seen in Fig.E. substituting Eq. which gives the following integral for TE: Z 1 ðr þ ıkÞu Á ðr þ ıkÞv dx ¼ k ðxÞ Pn j¼1 nj /j Z uv dx: ð22Þ Representing u ¼ and v ¼ Pn l¼1 nl /l (where / is a CSRBF) gives rise to a generalised eigenvalue problem of the form: CðkÞn ¼ kDn. Hart et al. The domain is made periodic by imposing the conditions: ð17Þ uðx. yÞ. This method is described in the next section. 1.

such as. The solution to the differential Eq. Hart et al. as the two materials have different dielectric constants (ðxÞ discontinous). yðgÞÞjJjdfdg. but not on the interface. ð39Þ À1 À1 . (10) using Galerkin’s method and the meshless RBF method gives the following integral for TM: Z ðr þ ıkÞu Á ðr þ ıkÞv dx ¼ k Z Z Z ðxÞuv dx. k/j Á r/l dx. In the next section we describe the Gauss quadrature approach for the MLWFM. ð31Þ which is another generalised eigenvalue problem with C and D matrices deﬁned as: C jl ¼ Djl ¼ ðr þ ıkÞ/j Á ðr þ ıkÞ/l dx.1. ð26Þ ð27Þ ð28Þ ð29Þ ðxÞ 1 1 Q jl ¼ T jl ¼ ðxÞ ðxÞ /j Á /l dx: Hence for the TE mode polarisation: C jl ¼ Sjl þ ıðPjl þ Q jl Þ þ k2 T jl : ð30Þ This approach can also be applied to the TM mode. and thus a given value of dielectric constant can be easily assigned to them. This will make the numerical implementation easy. /j Á /l dx: ð34Þ ð35Þ ð36Þ ð37Þ Z Z Z Q1 ¼ jl T1 ¼ jl Hence for the TM mode polarisation: C jl ¼ S1 þ ıðP1 þ Q 1 Þ þ k2 T 1 : jl jl jl jl ð38Þ Although it is possible to solve TM using the Meshless Local Weak Form Method (MLWFM). Using the RBF based meshless method will avoid this problem. ð24Þ ð25Þ /j /l dx: By expanding the integral that makes up the matrix C jl it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices: Sjl ¼ Pjl ¼ Z Z Z Z 1 ðxÞ 1 r/j Á r/l dx.E. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 where the C and D matrices are for the TE mode: C jl ¼ Djl ¼ Z Z 1 ðxÞ ðr þ ıkÞ/j Á ðr þ ıkÞ/l dx. and not requiring additional methods.2. the MLSFM is preferred as it requires less computation time. to calculate the integrals in Eqs. as it employs a set of integration points (Gaussian points). Unfortunately in this situation.4914 E. it is not clear which dielectric constant should be assigned to the interface nodes. Gauss quadrature for the MLWFM The numerical integration in the MLWFM is solved using Gauss quadrature. for example averaging or smoothing the dielectric function. ð32Þ ð33Þ ðxÞ/j Á /l dx: By expanding the integral that makes up the matrix C jl it is possible to construct the following eigensystem matrices: S1 ¼ jl P1 ¼ jl Z r/j Á r/l dx. k/l Á r/j dx. In two dimensions the integration over a quadrilateral with a 6 x 6 b and c 6 y 6 d is given by: Z a b Z c d f ðx. (25)–(29) and (33)– (37). apart from the set of nodes. k/j Á r/l dx. When a unit cell is discretised by a set of nodes. These integration points will be located in either one of the materials. yÞdxdy ¼ Z 1 Z 1 f ðxðfÞ. k/l Á r/j dx. 4. the nodes can be located exactly on the interface.

A similar approach is used to assemble the other global matrices. Substituting x ¼ 2 f þ 2 . The computational experiments in this section were carried out using MATLAB. the black dashed line highlights the unit cell used. (27). However nodes 6 and 7 will also be included in other support domains so the values for each must be summed together to assemble the global S1 matrix. (28) and ÀbÀaÁ ÀbþaÁ ÀdÀcÁ ÀdþcÁ 1 ðxÞ /j Á /l for Eq. A uniform point layout was used for Fig. 2 shows a quadrilateral with centre f ¼ 0. and y ¼ 2 g þ 2 into Eq. 2. . W ix ¼ W jy ¼ 1 and f1 ¼ g1 ¼ 33 . 5. ðxÞ k/j Á r/l for Eq. if nodes 6 and 7 were both in the support domain. A set of uniform nodes is created that cover the unit cell. For two-dimensions there should be between 3 and 9 times more gauss points than there are nodes [11]. 67 S1 67 ð42Þ where / is a CSRBF. f gþ 2 2 2 2 2 2 À1 À1 nx nx bÀa dÀc X X bÀa bþa dÀc dþc fi þ . Then a set of background cells is generated that covers the unit cell and each background cell has 4 gauss points and its own local support domain with radius r. Hart et al.E. : ¼ W ix Á W jy Á f gj þ 2 2 2 2 2 2 i¼1 j¼1 ð41Þ pﬃﬃ pﬃﬃ When for 4 Gauss points: nx ¼ ny ¼ 2.E. (40) using Gauss quadrature leads to: Z 1 Z 1 bÀa dÀc bÀa bþa dÀc dþc dfdg fþ . and f is given by ðxÞ r/j Á r/l for Eq. (29) respectively (for the TE mode). (26). / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4915 Fig. 1 1 1 where jJj is the Jacobian Matrix. f2 ¼ g2 ¼ À 33. Gauss point layout for the 4 point rule. g ¼ 0 and 4 Gauss points. Results The results from the new algorithms can be validated by comparison with other theoretical results presented in the literature. (39) leads to: Z a b Z c d f ðx. Therefore for the ﬁrst background cell with Gauss points 1–4. 3. Eq. A section of the two-dimensional PhC structure for a square array of rods with radius ¼ 0:2a. Evaluating the integral in Eq. f gþ 2 2 2 2 2 2 À1 À1 ð40Þ Fig. ðxÞ k/l Á r/j for Eq. yÞdxdy ¼ Z 1 Z 1 bÀa dÀc bÀa bþa dÀc dþc dfdg: fþ . (34) can be written as: S1 ¼ /6 ðGp1 Þ Á /7 ðGp1 Þ þ /6 ðGp2 Þ Á /7 ðGp2 Þ þ /6 ðGp3 Þ Á /7 ðGp3 Þ þ /6 ðGp4 Þ Á /7 ðGp4 Þ.

01 0. for the square array of alumina rods. 5(a) shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode.01 0. which is why they are used in this work. 4(a) shows a Band Diagram of the TM mode. In Fig. 5(b) shows the Band Diagram for the TE mode. X and M). calculated at each of the corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C. This may be due to using weak form meshless methods which are found to have usually better accuracy than the strong form [11]. Fig.4916 E. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 Fig. Table 4 shows the eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands. Fig. PWEM results are denoted by open circles and MLSFM results by star markers. star markers are for the MLSFM results and open circles for PWEM. Table 3 The average relative error of the Meshless methods compared to MPB (PWEM). The PWEM data was obtained using the MIT Photonic-Bands package (MPB) [38]. In this section. 6 for the relative error E ¼ ðEr À Em Þ=Er . Fig. The results for the meshless methods and the PWEM show good agreement. The order of accuracy for the MLSFM and MLWFM are Oðh Þ and Oðh Þ for the TM and TE modes. in which Er is the high resolution solution to the meshless method and Em is the result at the current res2 4 olution. produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C2 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes.001 0. the Band Diagrams for two different crystals structures are calculated. for the same square array of dielectric columns.03 C4 0. Various band diagram showing the TM modes for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ. a uniform grid of 30 by 30 nodes and 36 by 36 background cells each with 4 Gauss points (5184 gauss points). 4(b) shows the Band Diagram of the TM mode. similar results (linear trends) were obtained using the MLSFM for the TM mode but for the TE mode the MLWFM has better convergence rates. The same study also found that the Wu’s C2 and C4 CSRBFs have a better convergence rate than Wendland’s C2 and C4 CSRBFs. Both ﬁgures show the correct band gap between mode 1 and mode 2. The results of the TE modes show better accuracy over the TM modes. 4. The ﬁgure shows the PBG between modes 1 and 2 and is in good agreement with the PWEM (with an average relative error of 0.01 TE-MLWFM C4 0. . The relative error E ¼ ðEp À Em Þ=Ep was calculated for all the eigenvalues in the ﬁrst four bands.01 all of the experiments as in was found in a previous study to have a slightly better convergence rate than a random or sobol point layout of equal size [24]. Hart et al.01 0. 4. using the meshless methods and the PWEM. ﬁrst for a square array of cylindrical rods in air and then for a square array of connected veins in air. produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C4 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes.1% – Table 3). This ﬁgure shows that unlike the MLSFM the MLWFM can also produce the correct ﬁgure for TE mode which is in good agreement with the PWEM (with an average relative error of 1%). produced by the MLWFM using Wu’s C4 function. respectively (the p order is found by expressing the error EðhÞ % Ch in dependence of h or n ¼ 1=h with loglog). the black dashed line highlights the unit cell used. In comparison with the FEM [37]. 5(c) shows the TE and TM modes and correctly has no complete PBG. Fig. it can be seen from Table 3 that the average relative error is 1%. Convergence rates for the averaged eigenvalues of TM and TE modes are given in Fig. Average Relative Error TM-MLSFM C2 Rods Veins 0. Both ﬁgures are in good agreement with the standard PWEM ﬁgure.E. 3 shows a section of the crystal structure for a square array of rods with radius ¼ 0:2a (a is the lattice constant). Fig. where Ep is the value of the eigenvalue from the PWEM (number of plane waves is 2048 and mesh size is set to 128) and Em is the value of the eigenvalue from the meshless method. Fig.03 TM-MLWFM C4 0. for square array of alumina ( ¼ 8:9) rods with radius ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ.

275894 0.602209 0. M)) for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ.554545 0.443014 0.443988 0.714904 0.681155 C TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM X M C X M .637289 0. Various band diagram showing the modes for a square array of dielectric columns ð ¼ 8:9Þ with r ¼ 0:2a in air ð ¼ 1Þ.602208 0.701203 0.549940 0.629054 0. X.854968 0.563892 0.627800 0.832420 0.635130 0.832420 0. 5.417970 0.466823 0.322395 0 0 0.772230 0.629054 0.601888 3 0. PWEM results are denoted by open circles and MLSFM results by star markers.554360 0.275117 0. The dashed lines represent the TM mode and the solid line the TE mode.552335 0.548855 2 0.627800 0.323557 0.635560 0.461679 0.777156 0.823526 0.636200 0. Hart et al.823526 0.E.555431 0.689682 0.773058 0.582353 0. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4917 Fig.E.325103 0.601888 4 0.445875 0.548831 0.548831 0.637934 0.643433 0.693589 0.582480 0.868447 0.322850 0. using meshless methods and the PWEM.693245 0.647549 0.442519 0.635953 0.681982 0.417558 0.583050 0.643476 0. Band No: 1 0 0 0 0 0.776309 0.582310 0.277114 0.274706 0.694813 0.627827 0.549939 0. Table 4 Eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands (calculated at each of the corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C.

Fig.4918 E. Fig. The dashed line represents the TM mode and the solid line the TE mode. the white dashed line highlights the unit cell used. 8. 8(b) . produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C2 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes. for a square array of alumina ð ¼ 8:9Þ veins in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. the white dashed line highlights the unit cell used. 7 shows a section of the crystal structure for a square array of dielectric veins with thickness ¼ 0:165a. 6. Hart et al. Various band diagram showing the TM modes for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. PWEM results are denoted by open circles and MLSFM results by star markers. Fig. Fig.E. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 Fig. 7. 8(a) shows a Band Diagram of the TM mode. A section of the two-dimensional PhC structure for a square array of dielectric veins with thickness ¼ 0:165a. Fig. Convergence rates of the averaged eigenvalues for the TM (MLSFM) and TE (MLWFM) modes.

361152 2 0.51991 0.305745 0.645350 0.508652 0. X.694420 0.452586 0.452676 0. Band No: 1 0 0 0 0 0.693236 0.539335 C TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TM-MLSFM C2 TM-MLSFM C4 TM-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM TE-MLWFM C4 PWEM X M C X M .616463 0.487806 0.439363 0.308276 0.438048 0.618431 0.484633 0.368238 0.299445 0 0 0.439252 0.530968 4 0.540246 0. The dashed lines represent the TM mode and the solid line the TE mode.470726 0.363437 0.535565 0.E.529366 0.530968 3 0. Table 5 Eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands (calculated at each of the corners of the irreducible Brillouin zone (C.716878 0.486806 0.299361 0.435746 0. using meshless methods and the PWEM.352086 0.238450 0.718234 0.515386 0.498638 0.474696 0.249566 0.513489 0.300945 0.350020 0.307888 0. M)) for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1Þ.297665 0.361283 0.533327 0.618249 0.352086 0. PWEM results are demoted by open circles and the MLWFM results by star markers.349016 0. 9.E.487308 0.529519 0.363437 0.255452 0.498543 0.629336 0.529626 0.360987 0.236703 0.230579 0.618693 0.618249 0.708642 0.645264 0.231376 0.704695 0. Hart et al.310206 0. Various band diagram showing the modes for a square array of dielectric veins ð ¼ 8:9Þ with thickness ¼ 0:165a in air ð ¼ 1:0Þ. / Journal of Computational Physics 230 (2011) 4910–4921 4919 Fig.535991 0.

Y.J. Y.R. J. [15] B. [2] D. Liu. Jun.K. Kansa. [10] J. The ﬁgure shows no PBGs and is in good agreement with the PWEM (average realtive error of 1%). Parker. Boundary mode method for potential problems. Villeneuve. E. Postsdam.J. Charlton. Tan. [24] E. R. Dordrecht. Journal of Modern Optics 41 (1994) 241–256 [6] P. M. S. Jung. Physics World 13 (8) (2000) 29–34. Villeneuve. A new meshless method local Petrov–Galerkin (mlpg) approach in computational mechanics. The Gibbs Phenomenon for Radial Basis Functions.R. Hon. V. Currents Sciences 92 (10) (2007) 1361–1365. Piche.R. Kansa. Flyer.J. Gingold.). using the meshless methods and the PWEM. [7] P. D. Fig. Progress in Quantum Electronics 18 (1994) 153–200. A compact RBF-FD based meshless method for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. Southampton. [28] L. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Microsoft Institute for High Performance Computing. Physical Review B 45 (24) (1992) 13962–13972. Photonic band gaps of transverse-electric modes in two-dimensionally periodic media. Y. Journal of Computers and Mathematics with Applications 19 (8–9) (1990) 147–161. S. Liu. Journal of Computers and Mathematics with Applications 19 (8–9) (1990) 127–145. J.P. The authors are very grateful to the referees for providing valuable comments and suggestions which are incorporated into this paper. [9] B. Table 5 shows the eigenvalues for the ﬁrst four bands.W. produced by the MLSFM using Wu’s C4 CSRBF and uniform grid of 60 by 60 nodes. M. K. Jerri (Ed.C. Photonic bandgaps: what is the best numerical representation of periodic structures?. Solving an eigenvalue problem with a periodic domain using radial basis functions. Djidjeli. X and M). Kansa. [23] E.B. Gu. Fig.S. NY. Y. [4] M.T. A gridless Euler/Navier–Stokes solution algorithm for complex-aircraft applications. in: A. Piche. P.O. Photonic band gaps in periodic dielectric structures.F. Bezboruah. [20] G. Cassagne. L. surface approximations and partial derivatives estimates. Villeneuve.S. Journal of the Optical Society of American A 8 (1991) 1296–1305. Springer. 2002. Liu. . Gu. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 33 (2009) 258–262. Liu. Mukherjee.X. The Astronmical Journal 82 (1977) 1013–1024. 2005. Conclusion In this paper a new algorithm based on a meshless compact RBF method was presented for use in PhC modelling.J. Gu. Y. Fig. Reproducing kernel particle methods. M. Thomas. Application of ﬁnite element methods to photonic crystal modelling. [27] E. P. a uniform grid of 30 by 30 nodes and 36 by 36 background cells each with 4 Gauss points (5184 gauss points).J. [16] T. Gu. M. S.A. Applied Numerical Mathematics 57 (2007) 213–229. Touzot. N. Journal of Computational Mechanics 10 (1992) 307–318.T. Liu. The RBF based meshless methods are shown to be a promising alternative scheme for predicting extended photonic band gaps. 9(c) shows the TE and TM modes and correctly has no complete PBG (average relative error of 1%).J. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 246 (1) (2001) 29–46. The MLWFM is able to obtain accurate results for both the TM and TE modes that are in agreement with the standard PWEM. Hiett. [19] G. in: IEE. Gu. Kuchment.4920 E. for 2-d solids. The results for the meshless methods and the PWEM show good agreement. Y. [5] P. A numerical approach to the testing of the ﬁssion hypothesis. Both ﬁgures are in good agreement with the standard PWEM ﬁgure and correctly show no PBG (average relative error of 3%). Circumventing the ill-conditioned problem with multiquadratic radial basis functions.T. Y. References [1] G. [25] J.T. Multiquadratic-a scattered data approximation scheme with applications to computational ﬂuid dynamics-i.B. [14] R.R. [11] G. K. [18] Y. Y. scalar case. [21] G. 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