There are two types of economics of scale


Internal Economics of scale External economics of scale

Internal economics of scale: Internal economies of scale arise because of the growth in the scale of production within a firm. Five main types of internal economies of scale can be defined.

1. Technical economies. They are found mostly in plants and arise mostly because neither the capital cost nor the running cost of plants increase in proportion to their size. The main idea is to spread the fixed costs over as large output as possible, so AFC decreases.

2. Managerial or administrative economies arise because the same people can usually manage with bigger output, so average administrative cost decreases when production increases. Large firms can employ specialists, which leads to the increase in efficiency.

3. Financial economies arise because e.g. the interest rate for getting a loan is higher for smaller firm that for larger one. This is because large firms have large assets and bank trusts them more. It is also relatively easier for large firms to raise their share-capital by issuing shares.

4. Marketing economies. They are available both in purchases of raw material and in selling of the product. A large firm may have a bulk discount when purchasing raw materials. In terms of promotion, to large firms the average cost is smaller, because the prices of advertisements are the same for all firms.

5. Social economies. They may be developed into two groups: those which build up the goodwill of the community and so attract customer (sponsorship), and those that develop the loyalty of the firm's employers (Christmas bonuses).

3. many people come to look for job there. when one part . advertise the industry generally. just like economies of scale.6. Usually the communication expenses (maintenance of roads) can be shared. is largely the responsibility of the state. The activities of the essential services sector multiply. So they occur if an equal percentage increase in inputs leads to a less than equal change in output. They are the firm's ability to bear losses. providing more advantages to firms in the industrialized area. There are three main types of external economies. the unit cost may begin to rise again. Diseconomies of scale can be divided into external and internal economies. They are derived from the concentration of the industry in one place and differ between industries. If there is a great concentration in specific place.g. it has enough capital to overcome it External economies of scale arise when there is a growth in the size of the industry and are available for many firms in it. The provision of roads. 1. As firm expands its activities beyond a certain size. called the optimum size. e. As industrialization increases the provision of these items increases giving further advantages to firms in the area. other parts of the company can support it. If the company sustains a loss. 2. Economies related to society. If one part of the company has a loss. which can e. Internal diseconomies of scale include technical diseconomies. Economies related to a particular industry. which include the further cost of enormously big plants and their relatively big loss. They might involve cheaper training facilities if many firms want to train their employers or marketing economies when several firms want the same kind of raw material. schools etc. Risk bearing economics: Risk-bearing economies. Economies related to industrialization.g. thus raising the revenue of all the firms included. It is also called the diminishing returns. They can be realized through trade associations which are producers' unions.

division of labor. The average cost of production begins to rise. account. The lack of proper communication between top management and the supervisory staff and little feed back from subordinate staff causes diseconomies of scale and results in the average cost to go up. Administrative diseconomies are also existing. This will lead to the increase in the price of land. (iii) Lack of proper communication. External diseconomies of scale arise mostly as a result of the overcrowding of industrial areas. The misuse of delegation of authority. marketing personnel. As a firm becomes large scale producer. it faces difficulty in coordinating the various departments of production. increased specialization and larger plant size etc. . The lack of coordination in the production. Diseconomies of Scale: The extensive use of machinery.. the management loses control over the productive activities.. Factors of Diseconomies: The main factors causing diseconomies of scale and eventually leading to higher per units cost are as follows: (i) Lack of co-ordination.fails. the redtapisim bring diseconomies and lead to higher average cost of production. The average cost of production begins to rise. As the firm goes beyond the optimum size. As the size of plant increases. (ii) Loose control. the efficiency of the firm begins to decline. also the obeying of commands may take very long time. lowers efficiency of the factors of production. labour and services. planning. etc. An obvious example is the congestion costs resulting from high traffic densities. It is relatively expensive to inform staff in big firms. no doubt entail lower cost per unit of output but the fall in cost per unit is up to a certain limit.

(iv) Lack of identification. there is no close liaison between the top management and the thousands of workers employed in the firm. In a large organizational structure. . The lack of identification of interest with the firm results in the per unit cost to go up.