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Western Protective Relaying Conference

Wind Plant Collector Substation Protection
Mr. John J. Kumm, P.E. POWER Engineers, Inc.

POWER Engineers, Inc.

Wind Generation Resources

POWER Engineers, Inc.

. Inc. Introduction & Outline • • • • • Background & Objectives Utility Interface Transmission Line Protection Transmission-Voltage Bus Protection Collector Substation Transformer Protection • Collector-Voltage Bus Protection • Collector Protection • Capacitor Bank Protection POWER Engineers.Renewable Portfolio Standard: 20% by 2030 POWER Engineers. Inc.

Inc. . Background & Objectives • Wind plants now have planned build-outs to 1. Speed. Selectivity.The Wind Plant Intertie Switchyard Collector Substation Collector System POWER Engineers. Inc.000 MW. Economics all apply POWER Engineers. Simplicity. interconnect voltages to 345 kV • Plants represent a large investment and appreciable production resource • Protection objectives of Dependability. Security.

Typical Collector Substation Topology POWER Engineers. Inc. Inc. Wind Turbine Generator Types • Type A – Simple Induction Machine • Type B – Wound Rotor Induction with Variable Resistance • Type C – Doubly-fed Induction • Type D – Full Converter Interface Type A Plant Feeders generator PF control capacitor s Slip power as heat loss Type B Plant Feeders generator PF control capacitor s Type C Plant Feeders generator Type D ac to dc dc to ac Plant Feeders generator ac to dc dc to ac ac to dc full power partial power POWER Engineers. .

. breaker failure transfer trip. & data requirements as early as possible • Consider protection signaling. Inc.Utility Interface • Utility requirements for protection & control vary with location. Inc. high-speed protection schemes are typical and increasingly likely with increasing line voltage and/or decreasing line length POWER Engineers. Transmission Line Protection • WTGs may not provide large or enduring currents for line faults • Frequently. voltage level • Determine protection scheme. the wind park is served by a new OPGW-equipped line • Dual. communication. remote metering & control POWER Engineers. control.

Three-Terminal Line Protection • DCB over fiber with channel-loss monitoring is preferred • Several modern line-current differential relays support three-terminal applications. Inc. a time-stepped backup scheme should be provided for when communications are out • Many lines are initially—or are likely to become—three-terminal lines. use weak-infeed logic at the wind plant terminal • DCB and line-current differential schemes are only impacted in sensitivity • In all cases. Inc.Transmission Line Protection • In POTT schemes. consult with your vendor(s) • POTT performs acceptably but needs weak-infeed logic to improve dependability • Inter-tie utility will have the final word POWER Engineers. . POWER Engineers.

high-impedance bus differential will typically serve POWER Engineers. . this protection needn’t be exotic. Inc. Inc.Transmission-Voltage Bus Protection • Frequently not required as a result of station topology and placement of instrument transformers to protect the bus in the line or transformer zones • When required. Collector Sub Transformer Protection • Transformer top ratings from 100 MVA to 230 MVA • Usually the key single wind plant asset • Dual differential is typically desired and employed POWER Engineers.

particularly in indoor switchgear installations • Smaller installations may or may not include a bus main breaker • Fast bus fault clearing is desirable POWER Engineers.Collector Sub Transformer Protection • Ground faults near the neutral of grounded wye windings may not draw significant phase current • Consider restricted earth fault protection for improved sensitivity to low-winding ground faults • Monitor non-electrical trips (sudden pressure. temperature) using the transformer relay for SOE & reporting POWER Engineers.5 kV buses may have very high fault duties (>40 kA) • Bus faults yield high arc flash hazard. . Collector-Voltage Bus Protection • 34. Inc. Inc.

Inc. match the CT ratio and C-rating of CTs employed in high-impedance schemes. The C-rating should be at least C200 • Backup bus time-overcurrent should be employed in the bus main-breaker protection set. .Collector-Voltage Bus Protection • High-speed bus protection through highimpedance differential or zone-interlock protection is usually employed • Particularly in switchgear applications. Collector Protection (Phase Faults) • Coordinate with WTG step-up transformer fuses • Coordination with other WTG protection is not a concern • Cold-load pickup is not a concern. or in the transformer relay POWER Engineers. but transformer inrush may be POWER Engineers. Inc.

POWER Engineers.Collector Protection (Phase Faults) • Directional supervision may permit more sensitive pickup settings • Fault duties may not offer discrimination needed to employ an instantaneous element POWER Engineers. Inc. Collector Protection (Phase Faults) • Skinny laterals near the substation can cause challenges • High available fault duties make it difficult to protect lateral cable and coordinate with WTG fuse. Inc. .

Inc.Collector Protection (Phase Faults) POWER Engineers. Collector Protection (Ground Faults) • Ground fault protection can be made more sensitive than distribution feeder protection. . Inc. no single-phase laterals and little natural unbalance • Be aware of cable neutral I2t rating • Account for the effects of the WTGs and their step-up transformers POWER Engineers.

Inc. Inc. .Collector Protection (Ground Faults) POWER Engineers. Collector Protection (Ground Faults) POWER Engineers.

. Inc. Inc.99 Guide for Shunt Capacitor Bank Protection POWER Engineers.Capacitor Bank Protection • Overcurrent-based protection detects catastrophic faults • Coordinate phase overcurrent elements with capacitor fuses and trip the capacitor breaker • Capacitor breaker must be rated for this duty POWER Engineers. Capacitor Bank Protection • Voltage-balance-based protection detects non-catastrophic capacitor fuse operations • Alarm/Trip before voltage on remaining healthy capacitors exceeds 110% of rating • Refer to IEEE C37.

. Key Points • Confirm transformer and collectorvoltage bus protection speed and adequacy • Examine collector cable and neutral fault withstand capabilities when coordinating collector elements POWER Engineers. Inc. Inc.Key Points • Negotiate transmission protection. and data exchange requirements early in the project • Consider transmission relay selection and performance for three-terminal lines • Analyze protection scheme for gaps due to single-point failures POWER Engineers. signaling.