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Algae
Algae Products Specials Algae are a diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms. Like plants, most algae use the energy of sunlight to make their own food, a process called photosynthesis. However, algae lack the roots, leaves, and other structures typical of true plants. Algae are the most important photosynthesizing organisms on Earth. They capture more of the sun's energy and produce more oxygen (a by product of photosynthesis) than all plants combined. Algae form the foundation of most aquatic food webs, which support an abundance of animals. Algae vary greatly in size and grow in many diverse habitats. Microscopic algae, called phytoplankton, float or swim in lakes and oceans. Phytoplankton are so small that 1000 individuals could fit on the head of a pin. The largest forms of algae are seaweeds that stretch 100 m (300 ft) from the ocean bottom to the water's surface. Although most algae grow in fresh water or seawater, they also grow on soil, trees, and animals, and even under or inside porous rocks, such as sandstone and limestone. Algae tolerate a wide range of temperatures and can be found growing in hot springs, on snow banks, or deep within polar ice. Algae also form mutually beneficial partnerships with other organisms. For example, algae live with fungi to form lichens--plant-like or branching growths that form on boulders, cliffs, and tree trunks. Algae called zooxanthellae live inside the cells of reef-building coral. In both cases, the algae provide oxygen and complex nutrients to their partner, and in return they receive protection and simple nutrients. This arrangement enables both partners to survive in conditions that they could not endure alone. The earliest life-forms on this planet are thought to be early ancestors of cyanobacteria, a type of algae formerly called blue-green algae. Fossilized cyanobacteria have been found in rocks more than 3 billion years old. These early algae formed when there was no oxygen in the atmosphere, and scientists theorize that as the algae photosynthesized, they released oxygen as a by product, which eventually accumulated in the atmosphere. Algae were probably the first organisms

capable of photosynthesis and, until the appearance of plants on earth, the only photosynthesizers for billions of years. Physical Characteristics With the exception of the cyanobacteria, algae are eukaryotes--that is, the insides of their cells are organized into separate membrane-wrapped organelles, including a nucleus and mitochondria. An important organelle found in eukaryotic algae is the chloroplast, which contains the light-absorbing pigments responsible for capturing the energy in sunlight during photosynthesis. In most algae the primary pigment is chlorophyll, the same green pigment used in plants. Many algae also contain secondary pigments, including the carotenoids, which are brown or yellow, and the phycobilins, which are red or blue. Secondary pigments give algae their colorful hues. The cyanobacteria are prokaryotes--that is, relatively simple unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. As their modern name implies, the cyanobacteria have many characteristics that resemble bacteria. Like plants, most algae have rigid cell walls composed largely of cellulose. An exception is the diatom, whose cell wall is composed primarily of silica, which provides rigidity and also produces elaborately sculpted patterns of grooves that serve as identifying features. Many eukaryotic algae have whiplike appendages called flagella attached to their cell walls. By beating flagella in a rotary movement, these algae are able to move through water with considerable speed. A few algae that are devoid of rigid cell walls are able to protrude one part of the body ahead of the other to crawl on solid surfaces in an amoeba-like fashion. Algae come in a variety of shapes and forms. The simplest form is the single, self-sufficient cell, such as Euglena, dependent only on sunlight and carbon dioxide and minerals from the water. Numerous one-celled algae may clump together to form a colony. Although these cells are attached to one another, each cell within a colony continues to function independently. Still other algae are multicellular organisms. In the simplest multicellular algae, the cells are joined end to end, forming filaments, both branched and unbranched. More complex structures may be shaped like a small disc, tube, club, or even a tree. The most complex algae have highly specialized cells. Some seaweeds, for instance, have a variety of specialized tissues, including a rootlike holdfast, a stipe, which resembles a plant stalk, and a leaf-like blade. While most algae create their own food through photosynthesis, some are unable to photosynthesize. These algae ingest food from external sources by absorbing simple nutrients through the cell membrane. To absorb more complex nutrients, algae that lack rigid walls are able to engulf food particles and digest

The mature alga is a single haploid cell--that is. During asexual reproduction the cell undergoes mitosis. they are known as zoospores. Instead of forming into spores. . such as lack of nutrients or moisture. called gametes. which produces both asexually and sexually. exchange genetic material. and then break apart. genetic material from two individuals is combined. In sexual reproduction. If these spores move about using flagella. The spores develop into mature haploid cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. a type of cell division that produces genetically identical offspring. Many algae incorporate both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Some of the algae known as dinoflagellates extend a feeding tube. Most multicellular algae undergo a more complex form of sexual reproduction involving the union of special reproductive cells. Some algae are parasites. such as copepods and annelids. known as a zygote. Four daughter cells are created that emerge from the enclosing parent cell as spores. Some multicellular algae. The simplest form of sexual reproduction in algae is conjugation. unbranched filaments join via conjugation tubes. Many algae produce special cells called spores that are capable of growing into new individuals. This is well demonstrated in the life cycle of the alga Chlamydomonas. and parasitic dinoflagellates live in the intestines of some marine animals. in which fragments of the parent develop into new individuals. the haploid daughter cells form gametes that have two different mating strains. Opposite mating strains fuse in a process known as isogamy to form a diploid zygote. called a peduncle. Some parasitic red algae live off other red algae. and many use both. The simplest form of asexual reproduction is binary fission. In asexual reproduction an individual reproduces without combining its genetic material with that from another individual. in Spirogyra. Some reproduce asexually. through which genetic material is exchanged between cells. to form a single cell. special buds detach from multicellular algae and develop into new individuals. Certain environmental conditions. it contains only one set of chromosomes. These two strains are structurally similar and are called plus and minus strains. commonly found in Sphacelaria. others use sexual reproduction. Other dinoflagellates use special harpoonlike structures to snare their food.them. in which a unicellular organism simply divides into two new individuals. in which two similar organisms fuse. In a similar process called budding. Reproduction Algae reproduce in astoundingly diverse ways. reproduce asexually through fragmentation. to suck in food. including Sargassum. may trigger the haploid daughter cells to undergo sexual reproduction. For example. two long. living in or on another organism from which they get their food.

Types of Algae The most common classification system distributes algae in more than one kingdom. the zygote undergoes meiosis. The two mature forms of the algae. in turn. Not all algae that undergo alternation of generations have haploid and diploid forms that look alike. This article uses a classification scheme proposed in 1997 that divides algae. The cyanobacteria. The sporophyte undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores that. undergoes mitosis to produce haploid gametes. Most algae are classified in the Kingdom Protista. are identical in appearance. Green algae may also be found inside . In the life cycle of the seaweed Laminaria. Some multicellular green algae. The Laminaria sporophyte appears as long. This cell division produces four genetically unique haploid cells that eventually grow into mature cells. in which it takes two generations--one that reproduces sexually and one that reproduces asexually--to complete the life cycle. the gametophyte and the sporophyte are distinct in appearance. such as Ulva. or isomorphic. This classification system continues to be intensely debated as new research increases our understanding of the way that these organisms are related. alternating between diploid and haploid individuals. bladelike structures that grow on rocks just below the water in intertidal zones. Green algae range in shape from unicellular plankton that grow in lakes and oceans to colonial filaments of pond scum to leaflike seaweeds that grow along rocky and sandy intertidal areas. which consists of prokaryotic organisms. are classified with the bacteria in the Kingdom Prokaryotae. follow a distinct pattern of reproduction called alternation of generations. form gametophytes. of which the 5 largest are discussed in this article. Several green algal species are symbiotic. with branched filaments. called a gametophyte. These gametes unite to form a diploid zygote. a type of cell division that reduces the genetic content of a cell by half.which contains two sets of chromosomes. which develops into the diploid form called a sporophyte. The haploid form. which are similar in composition to the chloroplasts found in land plants. forming lichens with fungi or living with corals. including the cyanobacteria. along with other eukaryotic organisms that lack true specialized tissues. Some green algae also live on tree trunks and soil. The gametophyte is short. Green Algae Green algae form the phylum Chlorophyta and are named for their green chloroplasts. into 11 different phyla. After a period of dormancy. however. or heteromorphic.

In some species. producing haploid spores that germinate into gametophytes. called coralline algae. phycoerythrin. known for its spiral-shaped chloroplasts. and seaweed shapes. A diploid sporophyte produces diploid spores that germinate into another diploid sporophyte that looks completely different from the first one. Red algae found in deep water may be almost black due to a high concentration of phycoerythrin. and in permanent snow banks. Many types of seaweed are red algae. Most red algae are multicellular and come in a variety of shapes. and the desmids. recognized by their characteristic shape--two symmetrical halves. Red algae use diverse strategies to reproduce. which are shaped like a blade of grass. Their red color is due to a red pigment. including fragmentation and spore production.freshwater sponges. in some species. One unusual strategy. joined by a small bridge. Most green algae reproduce both sexually and asexually. Coralline algae are important members of coral reefs. is common among the multicellular green algae. Alternation of generations. Meiosis occurs in the second sporophyte. where the algae alternates between gametophyte and sporophyte generations. Surprisingly. The green algae known as Stoneworts often grow several feet in length. Brown Algae. Golden-Brown Algae. Some familiar green algae include the genus Spirogyra. where a secondary pigment masks the chlorophyll and turns the snow a reddish color. More than 500 genera and 8000 species of green algae have been identified. producing new material and cementing together other organisms. red algae have no flagella. the gametophytes look nearly identical to the second sporophyte. the cell walls become hardened with calcium carbonate. red algae species adapt to varied water depths by having different proportions of pigments. and Diatoms . giving the sponges a bright green color. Found in warm coastal waters and in water as deep as 260 m (850 ft). involves the alternation among three generations. Unlike most other eukaryotic algae. which is well suited to absorb the blue light that penetrates deeper into water than the other colors of light. At moderate depths red algae appear red. Red Algae Red algae form the phylum Rhodophyta with approximately 500 genera and 6000 species. while in shallow water they may appear green because a smaller proportion of phycoerythrin is unable to mask the green of chlorophyll. although some species are found in fresh water or damp soil. including filaments. found in many species including those in the genus Polysiphonia. typically found growing along the coast and attaching firmly to the seafloor using a rootlike holdfast. Almost all red algae live in marine habitats. Their name comes from calcium crusts that make them feel like stone.

with organisms ranging in size from a fraction of a millimeter to more than 100 m (300 ft) long. also known as the yellow-brown algae. The new diatom that grew from the lid is the same size as the parent diatom. When favorable conditions return. In shallow ponds that dry up in summer or freeze completely in winter. giving them a golden or golden-brown appearance. include about 200 genera and 1000 species that receive their characteristic coloring from the carotenoid pigment fucoxanthin. with the lid slightly larger and fitting over the base. During asexual cell division. This diatomaceous earth is mined and quarried for use in filters and bleaching agents. its silica cell wall remains intact. The golden-brown algae. while the other has two rows of stiff hairs running down opposite sides of the flagellum. Diatoms are best known for their glasslike cell wall made of silica. Flagellated cells in this phylum have two types of flagella: One is smooth. The cells are either unicellular or form colonial chains of round cells. A diatom consists of two overlapping halves that fit together like a shoebox or a petri dish. Like so many other algae.Golden-brown algae. These algae are mostly unicellular or colonial. growing attached to the seafloor. full-sized silica coverings. . while the multicellular and colonial forms reproduce either through fragmentation or through spore production. Brown algae include over 260 genera and 1500 species. Upon fertilization. Over time these shells have accumulated to form layers of soft rock in some geologic formations. Sexual reproduction occurs when the succeeding generations shrink to a critical size. Algae in this phylum typically have an eyespot that can detect light. brown algae. diatoms are found floating in freshwater and seawater. swimming or floating in lakes and oceans as phytoplankton. goldenbrown algae survive by forming protective cysts that can withstand the harsh conditions. while the diatom that grew from the smaller base is slightly smaller than its parent. and diatoms form the large and complex phylum Heterokontophyta. the algae emerge from the cysts. the zygotes absorb water to swell and then secrete new. These smallest diatoms form gametes that shed their glass walls. as an abrasive powder for cleaning and polishing metals. the two glass walls separate and serve as the lids for two new glass bases. and for insect pest control (the broken cell walls of silica tear the insect gut). the unicellular algae tend to reproduce through fission. When an organism dies. or growing on soil. The cell wall has ornate ridge patterns. A very large class with more than 250 genera and 8000 species. Heterokontophyta have carotenoid secondary pigments that tend to mask the green of the primary chlorophyll pigment.

shellfish. known as blooms. suffocating fish. they may range from tiny filaments to the largest and most complex algae. or wings. using special harpoonlike structures called trichocysts to capture other organisms to eat. Flagella beat within these grooves. where they can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera fish poisoning. and human disease in estuaries of the southeastern U. forms huge floating masses in the middle of the Sargasso Sea. Cyanobacteria . causing the dinoflagellates to spin like tops as they move through the water. Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates of the phylum Dinoflagellata are mostly unicellular organisms that may be covered with stiff cellulose plates that resemble armored helmets. the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida has caused fish. receive protection and some nutrients. A narrow groove encircles the armor. One type. attached to rocks either along the shoreline or underneath the ocean surface. Sargassum. These dinoflagellates share the food they photosynthesize with their host. Under favorable environmental conditions. Recently. with leaflike blades and stems that can be up to 100 m (300 ft) long. Some dinoflagellates release toxins. such as horns. The brown or olive color is due to the pigment fucoxanthin. Most of the 130 genera and 2000 species in this phylum are planktonic and live in saltwater. some dinoflagellate species experience population explosions. During the night when photosynthesis halts.S. although there are many freshwater planktonic representatives as well. The life cycles of brown algae vary considerably. but most demonstrate alternation of generations. and a second groove runs perpendicular to the first groove. such a high concentration of individuals can deplete the oxygen in the water. such as the kelps. forming red tides. Most brown algae grow in marine waters near the coast. their concentration can be high enough to turn the seawater red. Many species have unusual ornamentation. but most are carnivores. Many dinoflagellate species lack chloroplasts and are dependent on other species for their food. several of the photosynthetic species live inside the tissues of invertebrate animals. In contrast. Dinoflagellate blooms can be quite destructive. Some are parasites.Multicellular algae. spines. If the species involved in the bloom have red pigments. some of which kill fish. while other toxins are passed up the food chain to humans. such as corals and giant clams. and in return.

sushi. or chloroplasts. occurring in typical aquatic and terrestrial habitats as well as in such extreme sites as hot springs with temperatures as high as 71° C (160° F) and crevices of desert rocks. or fragmentation. China. serve as thickening agents in ice cream and shampoo. Cyanobacteria color varies from blue-green to red or purple and is determined by the proportions of two secondary pigments. spore production. mitochondria. Cyanobacteria may be both beneficial and harmful to humans: Some act as natural fertilizers in some habitats. pressed into sheets. In certain conditions. Cyanobacteria are distinguished from bacteria by the presence of internal membranes. trace elements. and this phylum contains about 150 genera and 2000 species worldwide. Although most lack flagella and are nonmotile. and the gelatinous forms glide along their slimy mucus. Even if the cyanobacteria do not produce toxins. Mild cyanobacteria toxins in lakes and oceans cause a rash known as swimmer's itch. is the most popular food product. The high iodine . which may produce toxins that make seafood poisonous to humans. and vitamins. whereas others produce toxins. and condiments. called thylakoids. cyanobacteria do not have organelles such as nuclei. especially rice paddies. sauces. colonies. Like other bacteria. mostly in Japan. While higher plants have two kinds of chlorophyll. Cyanobacteria are found nearly everywhere. and Korea. (nori). cyanobacteria contain only chlorophyll a. Algae provide food for people and livestock. filaments. After harvesting. filamentous forms such as Oscillatoria rotate in a screwlike manner. nori is dried. cyanobacteria may form dense blooms. More than 150 species of algae are commercially important food sources. Red algae Porphyra.Unlike other algae. Algae Uses Human ingenuity has found many uses for algae. blooms can cause water to have an unpleasant taste and odor. and over $2 billion of seaweed is consumed annually by humans. that contain chlorophyll and other structures involved in photosynthesis. and used in soups. which tend to mask the green chlorophyll present in the thylakoids. forming singular cells. the cyanobacteria are prokaryotes--single-celled organisms with characteristics that cause biologists to debate whether they are really algae or bacteria. Algae are nutritious because of their high protein content and high concentrations of minerals. or gelatinous masses. while powerful neuromuscular toxins released by other cyanobacteria can kill fish living in the water or the animals that drink the water. Cyanobacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission. called a and b. Cyanobacteria make up the phylum Cyanophyta. and are used as drugs to ward off diseases. c-phycocyanin (blue) and cphycoerythrin (red).

a form that can then be used by plants as a nutrient. algae have been surveyed for anticancer compounds. and cell cultures are commonly grown on agar gels. and they wash down to the sea. Bacteria. Agar is also used in the food industry to stabilize pie fillings and preserve canned meat and fish. Different species of red algae provide agar and carrageenan. For example. through pollution. they are often among the first organisms to respond to changes. textile. Algal blooms may deplete oxygen concentrations in water and smother fish and plant life. Carrageenan is also used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in products such as puddings. for their purported powers to cure or prevent illnesses as varied as cough. as their presence in the lungs can indicate a person died due to drowning. Farmers in tropical countries grow cyanobacteria in their flooded rice paddies to provide more nitrogen to the rice. Cyanobacteria species that are high in protein. Seaweeds are a critical source of three chemical extracts used extensively in the food. Diatoms also have been used in forensic medicine. as their high concentrations of potassium and trace elements improve crop production. In coastal areas of North America and Europe. seaweeds are fed to farm animals as a food supplement. and paint. which is used to stabilize emulsions and suspensions. gout. with several cyanobacteria appearing to contain promising candidates. syrups. and diarrhea. where the wild . are grown commercially in ponds and used mostly as a health food and cattle dietary supplement. minerals are leached and depleted from our land fields. Some species of cyanobacteria can turn atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. such as Spirulina. Recently. As our air and water become more acidified. Seaweeds also are applied to soils as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. hypertension. Seaweeds are an excellent source of trace minerals in our diet. Brown algae yield alginic acid. and cosmetic industries. Through seaweeds. as well as prevent light exposure. increasing productivity as much as tenfold. the earth's sea-blood strengthens our own sea-blood. fungi.content of many edible algae contribute to low rates of goiter in countries where people frequently eat algae. and shampoos. Algae can also serve as indicators of environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. gallstones. which are used for the preparation of various gels used in scientific research. pharmaceutical. goiter. it is found in products such as syrup. depletion of the diatom community in the Florida Everglades provided strong evidence of phosphorus-related changes in this unique ecosystem. Algae have been used for centuries. Because algae grow quickly and are sensitive to changing environmental conditions. especially in Asian countries. ice cream.

and they are the oldest family of plants on earth. but they belong to groups that are usually autotrophs. we say algal. This means that there are no protective layers of cells surrounding reproductive structures. although as a group with a very mixed evolutionary history. are notoriously difficult to define. An average family of seaweed eaters will consume 3+ pounds = 30 wet pounds = one bushel of wet plants. as well as various other photosynthetic pigments. They generally do not have vascular tissue. This is a very concentrated food. we take these minerals back into our bodies. share a number of features. and which even have a type of vascular tissue. Chlorella and Spirogyra are algae. and they help us maintain an alkaline condition in our bloodstream. Chlorella is an alga. The singular form is alga so we say. Most algae are photoautotrophic. Seaweeds have admirable qualities: they are flexible. Algae are constructed fairly simply. The algae do. An alkaline bloodstream is resistant to fatigue and stress. as for example algal cells. Even this distinction breaks down in the case of the female reproductive structures of the more advanced red algae. strictly speaking. they are prolific. which is a healthy condition. Algae. however. and they do not show the high level of organ differentiation of the familiar. In common with all plants. often unicellular. The seashore algae are large. Algae show a broad range of . water and carbon dioxide. None of the algae have reached even the level of organization in reproductive structures shown by the archegoniate plants. which allow them to be treated as a group. most algae contain Chlorophyll-A. Algae have naked reproductive structures. slippery. and either float freely in the water coloring it green. which are recognizable as belonging to a group known as algae. Anyone who has walked on the slippery rocks of the seashore will be aware of organisms. not all algae belong to the plant kingdom. These plants link us to the primitive vitality of the sea. more complex plants. This is true even though. When used as an adjective. while the swimming pool algae are small. When we eat seaweeds. such as the mosses & liverworts. A few algae are not photoautotrophic. the name "algae" is given to a group of organisms of mixed affinity. which means that they can make their own food materials through photosynthesis by using sunlight. A very different form of alga will be familiar to swimming pool owners. The word itself has no taxonomic significance whatsoever. or coat the sides of the pool with a green or brownish film. and firmly attached to the rocks. Biologically.seaweeds incorporate them. they are tenacious. for example. The word algae is plural so we say. It might be argued however that this distinction doesn't apply to the more advanced brown algae which do have a certain degree of organ differentiation. for example. as a group.

to the simplest of branched filaments. Algae may occur as epiphytes on higher plants. In some areas of the Namib Desert in Namibia. colonies. and the ecosystems of which they are part are referred to as benthos. intertidal algae are even scoured by sea ice. Algae may be found as free-floating phytoplankton. which is most developed in the large kelps. even though they are in total darkness for a considerable part of the year. blooms of snow algae may paint the snow beds red in spring. The prokaryotic algae range only from unicells and colonies. In the sea they may occur below the range of tidal exposure--in the subtidal zone. which live attached to the bottom of a water body. They range in complexity from tiny. and even in saltpans. and the Richtersveld in South Africa. large rivers.complexity. even if it is just moisture which might be present for a very short time. The Cyanobacteria (sometimes called Cyanophyta or blue-green algae) and a relatively recently discovered algal division called the Prochlorophyta are both prokaryotic divisions. simple and more complex filaments. such as lakes and oceans. are called benthic algae. The eukaryotic algae include unicells. Since Quartz is quite . which form the base of food webs in large water bodies. Algae are found in snow too. In some parts of the world. where they may be beaten by waves. while all other algae are eukaryotes. and even waterfalls. All major bodies of water have algae in abundance. where they can be quite productive and support a whole associated food web. as well as the very complex parenchymatous form. or on other algae. Algae even occur in the driest deserts. as might be expected in a group of organisms with such a mixed background. microscopic forms. Algae include both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Small. and are probably responsible for producing much of the oxygen that we breathe. to the saline water of the sea. There are also algae that thrive in the heated water of hot springs. In some parts of the world. one often finds many quartz stones scattered about on the ground. small streams. Some algae can even grow on the seabed. attached to rocks and other substrata at the bottom of bodies of water such as the sea. such as Laminaria. microscopic algae that drift about in bodies of water. yet they persist in living in this environment. Algae occur in fresh water. are called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are important in freshwater and marine food webs. which live. Algae occur in virtually any habitat on earth as long as long as water is found there at some time. There are also algae. to very complex forms such as the kelps. as well as in the harsh intertidal environment of the seashore. Those algae. including lakes. beneath a thick blanket of Arctic or Antarctic sea ice. Some forms of algae are even able to grow in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice.

Others fall under the kingdom Protista. More recently. the symbiotic organisms that we call lichens. however. as well as helping the coral with the construction of its limestone skeleton. A small amount of moisture may be retained in the soil under the quartz stones. Many phycologists. which live in the tissues of the coral. This fascinating group of organisms forms the basis for the science of phycology--the study of algae. Such a special symbiotic relationship. it has been recognized that algae fall into several kingdoms. It produces skin lesions. algae were treated as belonging to the plant kingdom under a two-kingdom system in which all living things were considered either plants or animals. for there are many algae that colonize new bodies of water by simply drifting about through the air. for example. is called endosymbiosis. remember to put the stone back into position again so that the algae and other organisms that live there won't dry out and suffer damage or die. you have to be very ill already to get it. although recognizing that the prokaryotic algae (the blue-green algae) belong with the bacteria. Algae are also found in the air. mainly in patients whose immune systems have been damaged by other serious diseases. although like this specimen. the stones permit a considerable amount of light to pass through. so there is sufficient light for photosynthesis to take place underneath the stones. but this kingdom should probably be divided into more than one. And of course there are the algae that enter into symbiosis with other organisms. which causes disease in humans.translucent. Historically. If you do this. share with it the organic products of their photosynthesis. Prokaryotic algae belong to the kingdom Monera together with the bacteria. The zooxanthellae. It has even been suggested that the red algae should have a kingdom of their own. Even the chloroplast of land plants had its origin as a blue-green alga that lived within the cells of the ancestral organism. The stony corals. are only able to build up these massive and beautiful structures because they have formed a symbiotic partnership with tiny singlecelled algae called zooxanthellae. still treat the algae as though they were part of the plant kingdom. They are dealt with together because of historical beliefs and for the sake of convenience. Thus it is easy to see that the "algae" constitute an artificial grouping of organisms. which construct coral reefs in warm tropical seas. are plants. where one organism lives inside the cells of another. Some. You can see these algae as a green coloration if you gently turn the stone over. so unicellular algae are able to grow underneath them. . such as the green algae. There is even a unicellular green alga called Prototheca.

This is mostly so because university structures do not yet reflect the new systems of classification. and most are attached. they anchor themselves to solid objects by holdfasts and absorb nutrients directly from the water. The algae are polyphyletic because of the separate prokaryotic (blue-green algae and prochlorophytes) and eukaryotic (all other algae) lines of evolution. multicellular forms of algae living in fresh and salt water. and vascular systems of higher plants. The three main phyla. it must be recognized that they are polyphyletic. Within the eukaryotic algae there may also be many lines of evolution. That is. the red algae. Seaweed. saltwater dwelling. such as the kelps. such as Irish moss. Many are in fact eaten and considered to be a great delicacy. leaves. the red algae probably do not share a common eukaryotic ancestor with any of the other algae. roots. and courses dealing with algae are usually offered as "botany" courses. or divisions. Although algae may be treated as though they belonged to a single related group in spite of their differences. all of which are commonly seen at low tide along rocky shores of northern seas. there are many lines of evolution leading up to those organisms that are today called "algae" and studied by phycologists. That is why it has been suggested that they should have their own kingdom. The pigments of red and brown algae mask the predominant green . brown (2000 species) or green (1200 species) kinds shown on this page. manufacturing their food by photosynthesis. For example. and simple organisms that fall into the rather outdated general category of "plants. and the green algae. Thus we see that the algae are a diverse assemblage of unrelated organisms that are characterized by: *Simple construction *Naked reproductive structures *Photoautotrophic nutrition *Chlorophyll-A Seaweeds Seaweeds are marine algae. These plant-like organisms are found throughout the world’s oceans and seas and none is known to be poisonous. Instead. such as the sea lettuces." Most of them are red (6000 species). any of the larger. are the brown algae. Seaweeds differ from plants in that they lack the true stems. especially along marine coastlines.

especially in lagoons and around coral reefs. enables them to carry on photosynthesis at deeper levels than is possible for ordinary green algae. Organic derivatives of alginates are used as food gums in making ice cream. and they cover rocks high into the intertidal zone. and gulfweed the genus Sargassum. and green algae the phylum Chlorophyta. has wide industrial uses. Red algae are abundant in clear tropical waters. other than for their limited protein. Among the red algae are several species of Irish moss. Red algae are probably of little nutritive value to humans. which is commonly seen along northern Atlantic coasts as a matted carpet in the sublittoral zone. The brown algae. and linoleum. they are able to withstand several hours of exposure to the sun. gels. and probably aid in photosynthetic metabolism by absorbing and transferring light energy to the chlorophyll. In the Tropics. puddings. Rockweed makes up the genus Fucus. and processed cheeses. especially in Japan. which floats in great masses in the Gulf Stream and the Sargasso Sea. and as a colloid in cosmetics. is consumed as a delicacy in Asia and is used as a laboratory medium for culturing microorganisms. Other brown algae are the common rockweed and the gulfweed. Agar. rubber. Alginic acid. Seaweeds abound in shallow waters from the midtide line down to depths of 50 m (165 ft). insoluble in water. Large Pacific brown algae include those species classified in the genera Macrocystis and Nereocystis. Scientific classification: Brown algae make up the phylum Phaeophyta. comprise the largest seaweeds. Brown algae are used as fertilizer and as an ingredient for livestock meal. Along damp cold-water shores. that is used to make films. It can be made into a silk-like thread or a plastic material. commonly called kelp. Seaweed is a commercially important food. extensively cultivated on bamboo screens submerged in estuaries. and paints.photosynthetic pigment. The species most commonly cultivated for food in Japan is Porphyra tenera. and mineral (especially iodine) content. seaweeds are confined to the zone between the low-tide line and a depth of about 200 m (about 660 ft). Dulse . vitamin. Irish moss makes up the genus Chondrus. phycoerythrin. found in kelp. as well as large air-filled bladders and strong holdfasts that anchor them against heavy surf. however. where it is called nori and is harvested mainly from red algae. red algae predominate. where their red pigment. red algae the phylum Rhodophyta. also derived from red algae. Pacific species can reach 65 m (213 ft) in length and have structures that superficially resemble leaves and stems. car polishes. chlorophyll.

Iridaea edulis. pasta. sandwiches. chowders. etc. It has a relatively strong distinctive taste and its soft. has a succulent. Use to add flavor and nutritional content to your food. masks the green color of the chlorophyll in the algal cells. eaten in southwestern England and Scotland. A handful gives a whole day's supply of iron. brown-colored algae. dulse sandwiches. and dulse salads are also possible. almonds. It can be used as a "salt-substitute" and "flavor-enhancer" all in one. which along with other xanthophyll pigments. chewy texture makes it a favorite snack food to eat right out of the bag. which is eaten in the British Isles and in other northern countries. Brown Algae About 1500 species of almost exclusively marine. dulse chips. sometimes called laver. Rhodymenia palmata. etc. Dulse is very popular in its natural original leaf form. P. instead of salt. It is used widely as a food or condiment. dull-purple frond. and do not "disappear" into the food as much. Relatively low in sodium and high in potassium. in soups. in some species. known as seaweeds. Mineral and vitamin content is the same. a gelatinous pectic compound called algin covers the outsides of the walls. laciniata is grown in large quantities in Japan. The same handful will provide more than 100% of the RDA for Vitamin B6 and 66% of the RDA for Vitamin B12. the diploid phase (two sets of genes in a cell) is microscopic and brief. however. are the most widely used for this purpose. These structures. Kids love Dulse! It can be cooked quickly and easily in a variety of ways. Brown algae are the largest of the algae. Can be sprinkled on salads. or whole sesame seeds. The brown algae are multicellular and have differentiated structures that.Dulse. leathery frond. Dulse is rich in protein and iron and has 22% more protein than chickpeas. Dulse chowder. has a purple. well-known forms include the giant kelp and the free-floating sargassum weed. The plants undergo an alternation of generations. are quite different internally. Purple seaweeds of the genus Porphyra. and there are unlimited ways you can add it to your diet for flavor as well as minerals and vitamin content. is a common name for several edible red algae that grow on rocky marine coasts. and the haploid phase (one set of genes in a cell) is macroscopic and comparatively long-lived. The cell walls of the algae are made of cellulose similar to that found in red algae. that make up the brown algae phylum in the protist kingdom. stalks. stews. Brown algae such as kelp are harvested for use as . but some exist in the deep ocean. They are found mainly in the tidal zones of temperate to polar seas. and leaves of true plants. bare a superficial resemblance to the roots. Their brown color is derived from the presence of the pigment fucoxanthin. Flakes are a little coarser than granules and powder.

). It can be pre-soaked before cooking or added "dry" to foods. 1 hr. Giant kelps. which is instrumental in blood sugar regulation. which contain liquid (soups. an ingredient of ice cream. Red Algae Members of the phylum Rhodophyta. The bodies of some are . The red algae are characterized by reddish phycobilin pigments--phycoerythrin and phycocyanin--that mask the color of the chlorophylls. Scientific classification: Kelp belongs to the order Laminariales. slender stalk. The giant kelps grow as long as 65 m (213 ft). Kelp Kelp. Sargassum weed is classified in the genus Sargassum. Uncooked kelp is chewy until soaked or marinated. To fully tenderize. soak for approx. add a bit more water to allow for absorption by the kelp (kelp absorbs up to five times its weight). and long. classified in the genus Nereocystis. and the giant kelps and bladder kelps. especially in the diets of the Japanese. potassium. kelp is now used to manufacture algin. The principal genera of kelp are the true kelps. particularly calcium. a substance used to make tires and to prevent ice cream from crystallizing. Scientific classification: Brown algae make up the phylum Phaeophyta in the kingdom Protista. The kelp plant has a rootlike holdfast that fixes to rocky surfaces. a large group of aquatic algae with approximately 6000 species. Kelp is rich in vitamins and minerals and is a staple. common name for large. Most red algae are small to medium-sized multicellular organisms. both of which are restricted to the northern Pacific. leafy brown algae. and iron. magnesium. Also rich in important trace minerals such as manganese. Once a major source of iodine and soda. leaflike blades that manufacture food by photosynthesis. classified in the genus Macrocystis. Kelp are classified in the order Laminariales. copper. which is essential to the thyroid gland. high in iodine. Most species grow near tropical and subtropical shores below the low-tide mark. sauces. A few are found in fresh water.an emulsion stabilizer. as a vitamincontaining food source. a long. When adding the kelp to rice without rehydrating it. like ferns. belong to the family Lessoniaceae. and zinc. It is a good source of chromium. and for iodine. etc. found in most cool seas. and bladder kelps. Kelps. Kelp is also a source of chlorophyll. reproduce by alternation of generations. or stipe. The true kelps belong to the family Laminariaceae and are classified in the genus Laminaria. that grow along colder coastlines. as a fertilizer. Kelp is exceptionally high in all major minerals. known as seaweed.

The resulting zygote may divide directly but more commonly gives rise to numerous filaments. soups. coralline. Laver leaf is the original form of nori. (Many are familiar with nori sheets used in sushi. numbering some 6000 to 7000 species. Some red algae are of economic importance. soaked laver is mixed with fat and rolled oats and fried into a breakfast bread. and Vitamin E. Some species reproduce by vegetative fragmentation or spore formation. is used as a substitute for gelatin. and featherlike forms are known. enjoyed in the British Isles for centuries. or sporophyte. leathery. which is imparted by two chlorophylls. obtained from Irish moss (Chondrus crispus). Green Algae Members of the largest phylum of the algae. You can crumble dry roasted laver leaf over popcorn. which is used as a nutrient medium for growing bacteria and fungi and also in the food and drug industries. wild North Atlantic cousin to nori. is obtained mostly from Gelidium and Gracilaria species. but most undergo a complex life cycle involving alternation of generations. B12. before it is processed into nori sheets. or fanlike growths resembling true coral--and contribute much of the lime in coral reef deposits. Red algae are unique among the algae in that no flagellated cells are formed during the life cycle. Carrageenin. Coralline species accumulate lime as they grow--appearing as flat pink coverings on stones. Agar. Sexual structures and reproductive cells are highly specialized.) The leaf is the original form of nori.relatively complex. Fossils of red algae have been found in rocks 500 million years old. They produce spores that develop into an asexual plantlike growth. B3. crust-like. Dry roasting brings out a nutty salty flavor. a and b. C. and grains. before it is processed into nori sheets. Red algae vary greatly in shape. Laver Nori You may be familiar with nori sheets used in making sushi. Laver leaf is a purple/black. They are very high in Vitamins B1. B6. Among the oldest of all organisms--the first green algae appeared more than . In Scotland and Wales. plate-like. It is also a good source of zinc. They are commonly known as green or grass-green algae because of their bright green color. Sexual plants (gametophytes) produce either male sex organs (antheridia or spermatangia) or female sex organs (carpogonia). The spores then develop into gametophytes. The small male sex cells are carried by water currents to the elongated tip (the trichogyne) of a carpogonium. Laver (Porphyra) is used as a food in Japan and the Philippines. resembling those of kelp. where fertilization occurs.

malodorous scum and drastically decreasing the oxygen supply available to other life forms. however. by the fusion of pairs of sex cells (gametes). unlike seed plants. Alaria is our preferred sea vegetable for miso soup. In such instances. or any dish that is . The oldest green algae are classified in the genus Gunflintia. Even the nonmotile species may produce motile reproductive cells (zoospores). Some terrestrial species combine with fungi in symbiotic associations called lichens. attached to land plants (a few are parasitic). Green algae are also found on damp soil. The unicellular forms assume a virtually endless variety of shapes. in colonies (more often nonmotile). Alaria Alaria is almost identical to Japanese wakame biologically and nutritionally. asexually. Some filamentous types bear a superficial resemblance to higher plants. Green algae reproduce vegetatively. with a black or dark-green color. algal populations sometimes increase suddenly in an "algal bloom." forming a dense. Keep in mind that the soak water contains many nutrients and vitamins and can be used for your water to cook with (strain for shells). yet it grows in the wild and has a more delicate taste than cultivated wakame. Green algae are extremely important as a source of food for other aquatic organisms and also make a major contribution to the world's oxygen supply. by means of spores and zoospores that develop directly into new plants. Many species exhibit alternation of generations. The marine forms are often visible on coastal rocks exposed at low tide. a stew. Most have cell walls made up of two layers: an inner cellulose layer. The motile unicellular organisms are freeswimming. as when large populations produce an unpleasant taste and odor in drinking water or clog filtration equipment. by fragmentation and by cell division. and even in snow and ice. Soaking prior to cooking shortens cooking time. moving by means of whip-like flagella (usually two in number). Scientific classification: Green algae make up the phylum Chlorophyta. the gametophyte generation is usually dominant. have negative effects. and as multicellular filaments (nonmotile). and sexually. and an outer layer of pectin. It also needs to cook a little longer than its cultivated Japanese counterpart. In freshwater lakes and ponds polluted by nitrates and phosphates. Green algae may occur as single cells (which may be either motile or nonmotile). colonial forms may be loose aggregates of single cells or may have these cells arranged in a characteristic pattern.2 billion years ago in the fossil record--they are believed to be the most immediate relatives of the green land plants. Alaria makes a perfect calcium-rich vegetable soup and also goes well in a pot of grain. in which the sporophyte phase predominates. They can.

Scientific Classification: Gulfweeds belong to the family Fucaceae of the brown algae division. a large area of the Atlantic Ocean between the West Indies and the Azores. because it is not dissolved by salts or consumed by most microorganisms. Agar Gel-forming material of widespread commercial use. B3. It has been shown to activate your limited number of macrophages that scavenge and digest cancer cells. gives off a flavor somewhat like chicken. especially Oriental members of the genus Gelidium. Chlorella Chlorella is a special algae called Pyrenoidosa that grows in fresh water and has the highest content of chlorophyll (28.5 billion years ago. and in the Sargasso Sea. airfilled sacs that keep the gulfweed afloat. Gulfweed Any of several tropical marine seaweeds that drift in large. Originally called agar-agar. as a clarifying agent in winemaking and brewing. One of the most widely recognized species is the common gulfweed. floating masses.9g/kg) of any known plant on earth. vitamins and minerals. Agar is extracted from seaweed by boiling. and is cooled and dried and sold as flakes or cakes. When cooked with rice. and as a sizing material in fabrics. This life form emerged over 2. creams and lotions. B6. Gulfweed consists of branches with leaflike blades and numerous small. strong in B vitamins (B1. and canned fish and meat. or sargassum weed. including the full vitamin-B Complex. It is used as a solidifying agent in the preparation of candies. and was the first . foreign proteins and chemicals. a kind of brown algae. spinach or turnip greens). it was produced in the Far East but is now made in other Pacific coastal regions such as California and Australia. Comparable to whole sesame seeds in calcium content. found in the cell wall of several species of red algae. Phaeophyta. The word alaria is Latin for "wings" since the sporebearing leaves at the base of mature alaria plants look somewhat like wings. It is extremely high in enzymes. The sargassum weed is classified as Sargassum natans. a Malay word for a local seaweed. alaria should be presoaked or marinated in vinegar or lemon juice. It is an excellent laboratory medium for growing bacteria.juicy and needs to cook for more than 20 minutes. as a texturizer or emulsifier in ice cream and frozen desserts. The weed drifts in large masses in the Gulf Stream. which flows northeast from the Gulf of Mexico. B12). B2. very high Vitamin A content (comparable to parsley. To be eaten uncooked in salads.

infections. aides digestion. There are also vitamins found in Chlorella pyrenoidosa including: Vitamin C. deriving its name from the Greek. memory loss. as well as other Chlorella species. pro-vitamin A (B-carotene). . obesity. For: fatigue. There are fossils from the preCambrian period that clearly indicate the presence of Chlorella. toxemia. injuries. when either given orally or injected. cleansing the blood stream. pure water and clean air. aged skin. and overall health. digestive problems. chlorella multiplies at an incredible rate. growth-ripening-maturity-division. sleep disorders. high or low blood pressure. promote growth and healing. stimulates tissue repair. Chlorella belongs to the eucaryotic cell category of algae and lives in fresh water as a single celled plant. helps raise the pH of your body to a more alkaline state. and bowel. poor circulation.form of plant with a well-defined nucleus. it was not discovered until the later 19th century. and helps promote the production of friendly flora in your gastrointestinal tract. stimulates production of red blood cells. Because Chlorella is a microscopic organism. These preparations stimulate the immune system in such a way that the host is protected from infection and cancer. This species' proteins contain all the amino acids known to be essential for the nutrition of animals and human beings. Chlorella can be used by everyone. high cholesterol. allergies. joint stiffness and pain. helps keep the heart functioning normally. Broken cell wall preparations and extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. All of the following have been associated with the consumption of Chlorella: increased production of interferon. kidneys. a unicellular green alga. strong sunlight. increases oxygen to your body's cells and brain. The process of reproduction can generally be divided into several steps. promotes proper growth in children. cardiovascular problems. headaches. meaning small. liver. chloros meaning green and ella. Its size is about that of a human erythrocyte (between 2-8 microns in diameter). Under favorable growth conditions.

With the Dyno-Mill technique. lipoic acid. The final results are solid tablets of pure Chlorella pyrenoidosa. A maintenance dosage of Chlorella tablets and Chlorella liquid extract for those in good health is 15 tablets (3g) and 30 ml. the algae are harvested and the tough cell walls of the Chlorella must then be broken down to increase the algae's digestibility. choline. sugars and nucleic acids. producing a powder and molded into tablets using a direct press machine. and copper. and inositol. and nucleic acids believed to be derived from the nuclei of the algae. magnesium. The Dyno-Mill physically disintegrates the cell wall by using only natural. therefore eliminating full health benefits of Chlorella. mechanical means and therefore there is no need for chemicals.thiamine (B1). calcium. iron. Vitamin B12. Chlorella is spray-dried. Chlorella pyrenoidosa destined for human consumption is generally cultivated in large. Vitamin K. while assuring optimum assimilation and digestion. The growing process must be carefully inspected and sanitary conditions are meticulously maintained to ensure there is no contamination of the Chlorella with other microorganisms. Chlorella has a strong cell wall that prevents its native form from being adequately broken down and absorbed by the human digestive system and so special processing is required to break its cell wall. proteins. fresh mineral water pools under direct sunlight. compromise Chlorella's digestibility. vitamins. folic acid. Minerals in Chlorella pyrenoidosa include: phosphorus. zinc. All of the other methods. which include heating or treatment with enzymes. biotin. iodine. Although the algae grow naturally in fresh water. Hideo Nakayama of the Sun Chlorella Corporation. chloroplasts and mitochondria surrounded by a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose. niacin. proteins. Under normal conditions. Chlorella divides into four daughter cells in less than 24 hours. composed of amino acids. pantothenic acid. Those with severe medical conditions may increase the daily . Chlorella is more than 85% digestible. Once the cell wall has been broken. Once the fresh-water pools have enough Chlorella cells in them. enzymes or heating that can compromise its nutritional value. Chlorella pyrenoidosa contains a water-soluble substance known as Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF). Approximately 5% of raw Chlorella pyrenoidosa is CGF. The length of Chlorella's life cycle depends on the strength of the sunlight. pyridoxine (B6). Each Chlorella pyrenoidosa microorganism is composed of a nucleus. temperature and availability of nutrients. starch grains. In addition to amino acids. This is accomplished with the patented process utilizing the Dyno-Mill unique method developed under the guidance of Mr. peptides. riboflavin (B2).

The sulfur amino acids Methionine. or some yet unknown other mechanism leads to the mobilization of mercury from within the cell. performed at 3-4 month intervals. while returning values to normal by around eight months. Numerous research projects in the USA and Europe have indicated that Chlorella can also aid the body in the breakdown of persistent hydrocarbon and metallic toxins such as DDT. Either the specific combination of amino acids. all showed Chlorella supplementation enhanced the body's immune abilities and slowed the development of tumors. part of Chlorella pyrenoidosa's anti-cancer effect in part may be mediated through the actions of this cytokine. Chlorella can have a strengthening effect on body cells by supporting the functioning of our metabolic pathways. eliminating mercury from your blood. Chlorella has been shown to effectively sweep mercury out of the bowel and from the cells. mercury. there is always competition between them for cell sites. and therefore. It can cross the blood brain barrier and can remove mercury. Chlorella pyrenoidosa affects the immune system by stimulating an increase in the number and activities of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Cysteine and Cystine are critical for the detoxification of heavy metals and xenobiotics. however. The algal cell wall of Chlorella pyreneidosa absorbs rather large amounts of toxic metals (similar to an ion exchange resin). Chlorella plays a key role in helping patients remove dangerous mercury overloads in their bodies. PCB. All amino acids can cross the blood brain barrier. cadmium and lead as well as strengthening the immune system response. It definitely appears to mobilize some mercury inside the brain. Since chlorella is such a broadspectrum product. it can help to support and repair organs and tissues that have been injured by a variety of causes. cadmium and other toxic metals from the brain. The key substance for nutritional support in mercury detoxification is Chlorella. were performed on blood samples. the Chlorella derived growth factor. and in vitro lymphocyte activation assays to assess level of immunosuppression. as well as imaging studies of the brain and blood tests. cytometric determinations of natural killer (NK) cells and T-cell subsets. differentials. An acidic polysaccharide purified from the hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa possessed anti-tumor activity against five transplantable murine tumors in vivo.dosage as much as three times. An acidic polysaccharide prepared from Chlorella cell wall has also been shown to induce the production of interferon in vitro and in mice. L-Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that inhibits the formation of free radicals. depending on their specific needs. . reduce cholesterol and increase hemoglobin levels. Chlorella is also shown to act as an ion exchange resin in your gut. Chlorella can promote cell reproduction. Complete blood counts.

As a perfect food. it has a highly unusual nutritional profile. Chlorella has no peers. With the many positive findings of scientific researchers around the world. More countries are planning production as they realize it is a valuable strategic resource. when chlorella is taken by mouth. It is a planktonic blue-green algae found in warm water alkaline volcanic lakes. has been shown to be removed. Chlorella walls absorb and hang onto lead. (rhymes with 'ballerina').The fibrous materials in Chlorella will also improve digestion and promote the growth of beneficial aerobic bacteria in the gut. Chlorella binds strongly to cadmium and will not give it up to the body. reduce high blood pressure and lower serum cholesterol levels. . Spirulina has a soft cell wall made of complex sugars and protein. This ability to detoxify chemicals is also one of the important differences between chlorella and other "green" products. Spirulina has a 62% amino acid content. Millions of people worldwide eat Spirulina cultivated in scientifically designed algaefarms. Wild Spirulina sustains huge flocks of flamingos in the alkaline East African Rift Valley Lakes . this food should become an indispensable part of our daily diet so that we can enjoy the many health benefits that it has to offer. is a traditional food of some Mexican and African peoples. Chlorella has been used to detoxify people suffering from P. decreasing the half-life of the toxin from 40 days to 19 days. Blood levels of cadmium were determined and demonstrated that the cadmium that was bound to the Chlorella was not absorbed into the body. and is different from most other algae in that it is easily digested.C. Spirulina Plankton Spirulina. Chlorella given to rats speeded up the detoxification of this toxin. India and China . more than twice as fast from the body. As might be expected.B. Summing up. it could be said that there is no other green plant under the Sun that is more beneficial to the human body than Chlorella. Other research programs have indicated that regular use of chlorella can help to guard against heart disease. (polychlorobiphenyl) exposure. The United States leads world production followed by Thailand . Cell components extracted from chlorella even bind uranium. Chlordecone (kepone) another very harmful chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. is the world's richest natural source of Vitamin B12 and contains a whole spectrum of natural mixed carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments. It possesses an amazing ability to thrive in conditions much too harsh for other algae. Current world production of Spirulina for human consumption is more than one thousand metric tons annually. Chlorella's ability to detoxify the body is very significant because of the large amount of chemicals we are exposed to in today's modern world.

. Important parts of the immune system. Scientists also observe Spirulina causing macrophages to increase in number. Chlorella.Differences between spirulina. In scientific studies of mice. While the scientific literature is full of information concerning the toxicity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and its dangers to humans and animals. if any. T-cells and Natural Killer cells. the Bone Marrow Stem Cells. In vitro studies suggest the unique polysaccharides of Spirulina enhance cell nucleus enzyme activity and DNA repair synthesis. the scientific literature is full of information concerning the benefits and safety of humans and animals eating Chlorella and Spirulina. Macrophages. it actually enhances the body's ability to generate new blood cells. anti-cancer and immune stimulating properties of Spirulina. exhibit enhanced activity. causing uncontrolled cell growth. There are serious concerns about the safety of eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. chickens. Cellular biologists have defined a system of special enzymes called Endonuclease which repair damaged DNA to keep cells alive and healthy. Spirulina consistently improves immune system function. become "activated" and more effective at killing germs. In contrast. Some common forms of cancer are thought to be a result of damaged cell DNA running amok. When these enzymes are deactivated by radiation or toxins. peer reviewed scholarly scientific papers regarding therapeutic benefit. because it can sometimes contain potent nerve toxins. This may be why several scientific studies. It is not the same as Spirulina. chlorella and 'wild' blue green algae. errors in DNA go unrepaired and. The Chlorella cell wall is made of indigestible cellulose. while the cell wall of Spirulina is made of complexed proteins and sugars. Spirulina is not Chlorella or the blue-green algae harvested from Klamath Lake Oregon. hamsters. cats and fish. Strengthens Immune System Spirulina is a powerful tonic for the immune system. Anti-Cancer Effects Several studies show Spirulina or its extracts can prevent or inhibit cancers in humans and animals. there are few. a green micro-algae. The Spleen and Thymus glands show enhanced function. report high levels of suppression of several important types of cancer. The subjects were fed either whole Spirulina or treated with its water extracts. cancer may develop. The Klamath Lake blue-green algae has the scientific name Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. observing human tobacco users and experimental cancers in animals. is a nutritious food but does not have the same anti-viral. Medical scientists find Spirulina not only stimulates the immune system. turkeys. just like green grass.

Chinese scientists document Phycocyanin stimulating hematopoiesis. because it is rich in a brilliant blue polypeptide called Phycocyanin. Spirulina Phycocyanin Builds Blood Spirulina has a dark blue-green color. Chinese scientists claim Phycocyanin also regulates production of white blood cells. Spirulina is the only green food rich in GLA essential fatty acid. rich in chlorophyll. The children are anemic and suffer from terrible allergic reactions. Spirulina acts as a functional food. B-cells and the anti-cancer Natural Killer cells. (EPO). (antibodies and cytokines). Spirulina is approved in Russia as a "medicine food" for treating radiation sickness. The Children of Chernobyl suffer radiation poisoning from eating food grown on radioactive soil. thymus. Macrophages. tonsils and bone marrow. Studies show that Phycocyanin affects the stem cells found in bone marrow. Children fed just five grams of Spirulina in tablets each day make dramatic recoveries within six weeks. (the creation of blood). beneficial intestinal flora increase. Children not given Spirulina remain ill. It contains all the essential amino acids. Studies show when Spirulina is added to the diet. EPO is produced by healthy kidneys and regulates bone marrow stem cell production of red blood cells. GLA also acts as an anti-inflammatory. GLA stimulates growth in some animals and makes skin and hair shiny and soft yet more durable. These cells circulate in the blood and are especially rich in body organs like the liver. Spirulina up-regulates these key cells and organs. Based on this effect. Maintaining a healthy population of these bacteria in the intestine reduces potential problems from opportunistic pathogens like E. Other Potential Health Benefits Spirulina is one of the most concentrated natural sources of nutrition known. . allowing it to better protect against invading germs. adenoids.Feeding studies show that even small amounts of Spirulina build up both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. coli and Candida albicans. improving their ability to function in spite of stresses from environmental toxins and infectious agents. even when bone marrow stem cells are damaged by toxic chemicals or radiation. spleen. lymph nodes. Their bone marrow is damaged. Spirulina accelerates production of the humoral system. feeding beneficial intestinal flora. Radiation damaged bone marrow cannot produce normal red or white blood cells. Stem cells are "Grandmother" to both the white blood cells that make up the cellular immune system and red blood cells that oxygenate the body. emulating the affect of the hormone erythropoetin. especially Lactobacillus and Bifidus. The cellular immune system includes Tcells. beta-carotene and its co-factors. sometimes alleviating symptoms of arthritic conditions. rendering them immunodeficient. and other natural phytochemicals.

Russia . _ Ho me Site Map Natural Healing Products Search this site Free Contac Diction About Catalog t Us Us ary Natural Healing Links .Conclusion Based on this preliminary research. Japan . poisoning and immunodeficiency may be alleviated. scientists hope the use of Spirulina and its extracts may reduce or prevent cancers and viral diseases. it is already clear this safe and natural food provides concentrated nutritional support for optimum health and wellness. However. China . Bacterial or parasitic infections may be prevented or respond better to treatment and wound healing may improve. Symptoms of anemia. More research is needed to determine its usefulness against AIDS and other killer diseases. India and other countries are studying this remarkable food to unlock its potential. Scientists in the USA .

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