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In general terms, a standard radiator contains a vertical or horizontal finned tubing section connected between two tanks.

It is designed to hold an abundant amount of water and ethylene glycol, or antifreeze, and circulates through the car's grille in discreet passages that contact with the atmosphere to cool the liquid. Because of this process, heat is conducted away from the engine parts allowing smooth performance of the engine. The outside air that passes through the radiator grille helps to cool the liquid, which then circulates back to the engine by means of another hose. The radiator reduces the temperature of the coolant, which has absorbed the heat from the engine, keeping it within a normal operating temperature. It is vitally important that you check your radiator regularly. Overheating an engine can cause permanent damage. A leaking radiator will cause your engine to run at a higher than normal temperature and may cost you huge dollars in engine repair costs. A radiator should always be completely filled with water, antifreeze/coolant or a mixture thereof. Allowing the presence of air pockets in the radiator will produce more internal pressure than liquid coolant because gases expand under heat tremendously more than liquids, and high pressure also results in higher operating temperatures. The radiator can also accumulate internal residue and/or corrode over time. The cooling efficiency can be dramatically reduced as a result. If you find your vehicle is running at higher than normal temperatures, it may be time to install a new replacement or high performance radiator. 1. Water Pump A water pump is the central reason your vehicle runs at a normal operating temperature. An overheating car is not something that anyone ever wants to deal with. Your water pump is of primary importance to your vehicle’s coolant circulation throughout your vehicle's cooling system. If your water pump isn't operating, the engine coolant just sits in the block and heads. It doesn’t circulate or flow to the radiator to displace its heat. No coolant heat displacement from the radiator means your vehicle will quickly overheat. This will lead to costly damage such as blown head gaskets or even irreversible damage such as warped heads and perhaps a blown engine. Even a reduction in pressure delivered by the water pump can lead to costly damage to your vehicle. Constricted or blocked flow leads to higher engine operating temperatures. Overheating can damage the components of your cooling system as well such as the thermostat, radiator, hoses etc. If you are replacing your water pump, it is wise to do a complete cooling system tune-up. Don’t forget the other vital parts like hoses, thermostats, radiator caps and fan belts. Also remember that not all water pumps are the same. The water pump is unique to your model of vehicle and has been designed strictly for your engine cooling efficiency. High performance and custom water pumps go above and beyond to deliver the optimum cooling performance. 2. Thermostat The thermostat in a vehicle regulates the flow of coolant throughout the system. This is important for two reasons. First, it controls the amount of coolant moving through the cooling system to help keep the vehicle’s engine from overheating. And second, it controls the flow in such a way that the operating temperature is kept within a narrow margin. Your vehicle’s engine operates at peak efficiency within this narrow band of temperature regulation. In other words, you don’t want your engine running too hot or too cold. 3. Heater Core A Heater Core provides the hot air that comes out of heater vents in your vehicle. You may wonder what this has to do with cooling systems. Heating and cooling are really very closely related. After all, cooling is simply the transference or separation of the heat energy from the object in which you are trying to cool off. Temperature is really a measurement of how fast molecules vibrate, or how much energy they have. Trying to slow the vibration is less efficient than separating the energy from the quickly vibrating molecules from the slower ones. The heater core is more or less a small radiator usually located under the dashboard. Coolant fluid is circulated from the main engine radiator to the heater core, but only when you turn the vehicle’s heater on. The internal heater control unit opens or closes a valve that meters the flow of coolant fluid

The heater core is a significant component of the unrestricted air/heat/cooling system circulation assembly that provides heat and cooling. the coolant must be pumped along its path. absorbing much of the excess heat along the way. A sweet. Another indicator is that the inside of your windows fog up when the heat is turned on. It circulates throughout the engine and surrounding components. reduces or even eliminates the heat transfer efficiency to the flow of air and your vehicles’ heater doesn’t work very well. The hot fluid transfers its heat to the air through the fins and into the interior of your vehicle. the water that has gone all the way to the front of the engine has to be driven back in an efficient but still quick manner. it cannot operate the water pump. #1 – Water Pump The “secret” behind your cooling system’s effectiveness is the coolant. the flow of hot liquid slows or stops. This is due to condensation built up from the blockage or the heater core. 2008 • Related Guides: Radiator So what drives the coolant within the automotive cooling system? It is something called as a water pump which forms the heart of the water cooled engine's cooling system. It’s powered by your car’s timing belt. If the timing belt breaks. That allows heat to radiate from the heater core. In order to circulate. This is why your vehicle runs cooler when you have the heater on. Then. To do this. Automotive Basics: Parts of Water Cooling System . The fin-like configuration of the heater core permits hot air passage into the vehicle. This is the job of the water pump. burning smell inside your vehicle when the heater fan is operating is a telltale sign of heater core problems. but replacement is usually a better option. The water pump does the trick. When the heater core channels become restricted or plugged.The Water Pump Written by: Ashwin Satyanarayana • Edited by: Laurie Patsalides Published Sep 17. it travels into the radiator which is cooled by constant airflow. . there ought to be a mechanism to bring all that coolant back to the engine so that this cooling system works continuously and for as long as possible. Flushing the radiator and heater core can sometimes improve the flow of liquid to the heater core. So what is the pump made of? How does it work? How does it manage to drive all the water-coolant mixture back to work? Read on: For the liquid coolant that had picked all the heat away from the cylinder out to the radiator. though older models might have a flat belt that powers the pump. This. in turn. which will ultimately prevent the coolant from circulating and absorbing the heat.

The coolant from the radiator enters the pump through the inlet. . that houses all the parts of the pump. This water leaving the periphery of the impeller with tremendous kineticenergy enters a smoothly curved passage which has an expanded mouth at one end causing this liquid to flow outwards with a force. which helps prevent any leakage of coolant around the shaft and beyond. click to enlarge Typically.aspx#ixzz1b6XAf9Lc Fluid . Ads by Google The main components of a pump are a casing. a seal. thus forcing the cooled coolant at the periphery. which has wanes on it to drive the coolant with water pump. Read more: http://www. with a force depending upon the speed of rotation of the pump spindle. which itself is proportional to the engine speed. as the name suggests. The flow of the coolant is proportional to the pump speed which is determined by the speed of the engine. Now. a shaft-mounted impeller. when the impeller rotates. the coolant between the wanes is thrown outward due to the centrifugal force. a centrifugal type of a pump is used for these purposes. has just one job to do and that is to keep the water moving within the cooling system so as to collect the heat generated at the engine cylinders and lose it all at the radiator and then back again. This is rather desirable because we would need more cooling when the engine is working at higher speeds since a lot of heat is generated.brighthub. It is mounted at the front end of the engine and is driven from the crankshaft by means of the fan belt.

Water Pump The water pump is a simple centrifugal pump driven by a belt connected to the crankshaft of the engine. a high boiling point. Just as the boiling temperature of water is higher in a pressure cooker. So whatever fluid is used to cool the engine has to have a very low freezing point. The pump circulates fluid whenever the engine is running. The fluid that most cars use is a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (C2H6O2). from well below freezing to well over 100 F (38 C). Antifreeze with out water will also boil before the engine reaches opperaing temperature so water must be mixed in. and it has to have the capacity to hold a lot of heat. these temperatures would boil the coolant. . Water boils at 120 degrees so water alone will not work under extreme heat either. The normal mixture is a 50/50 blend. Antifreeze also contains additives to resist corrosion and provides lubricant for the water pump bearings. the boiling and freezing points are improved significantly. Even with ethylene glycol added. also known as antifreeze. By adding ethylene glycol to water. Most cars have a pressure limit of 14 to 15 pounds per square inch (psi). so something additional must be done to raise its boiling point. which raises the boiling point another 45 F (25 C) so the coolant can withstand the high temperatures. Pure Water Freezing Point Boiling Point 0 C / 32 F 50/50 70/30 C2H6O2/Water C2H6O2/Water -37 C / -35 F -55 C / -67 F 113 C / 235 F 100 C / 212 F 106 C / 223 F The temperature of the coolant can sometimes reach 250 to 275 F (121 to 135 C). but water freezes at too high a temperature to be used in car engines. the boiling temperature of coolant is higher if you pressurize the system.Cars operate in a wide variety of temperatures. Water is one of the most effective fluids for holding heat. The cooling system uses pressure to further raise the boiling point of the coolant.

The fluid leaving the pump flows first through the engine block and cylinder head. The amount of heat transferred to the tubes from the fluid running through them depends on the difference in temperature between the tube and the fluid touching it. which increases the turbulence of the fluid flowing through the tubes. . So if the fluid that is in contact with the tube cools down quickly. If the fluid flowed very smoothly through the tubes. less heat will be transferred. Radiator The tubes sometimes have a type of fin inserted into them called a turbulator. keeping the temperature of the fluid touching the tubes up so that more heat can be extracted. The inlet to the pump is located near the center so that fluid returning from the radiator hits the pump vanes. By creating turbulence inside the tube. then into the radiator and finally back to the pump. only the fluid actually touching the tubes would be cooled directly. and all of the fluid inside the tube is used effectively.The water pump uses centrifugal force to move fluid to the outside while it spins. causing fluid to be drawn from the center continuously. where it can enter the engine. all of the fluid mixes together. The pump vanes fling the fluid to the outside of the pump.

the oil exchanges heat with the coolant in the radiator. convection and radiation. In the picture above. except instead of exchanging heat with the air.conduction. The transmission cooler is like a radiator within a radiator. .Picture of radiator showing side tank with cooler Radiators usually have a tank on each side. Heat can be transferred in three ways . Heat transfer Summary The internal combustion engine works by changing heat energy into kinetic energy. and inside the tank is a transmission cooler. you can see the inlet and outlet where the oil from the transmission enters the cooler.

The internal combustion engine works by changing heat energy into kinetic energy. The amount of heat generated by an engine is the equivalent of that required to heat a large house in winter in very cold climates. and this can have sufficient force to crack the engine block or radiator.       Coolant prevents an engine from overheating in use and from freezing when idle. some better than others. The rest tries to spread round the engine. or 70 degrees below freezing – and raise the boiling point to 108°C – 226°F. have a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. it is necessary to understand how heat is transferred. usually made of Ethylene Glycol together with some protective additives. as well as. Some energy is always lost. Through liquids and gases. it moves by radiation. and be as chemically stable as possible. which can be a problem. This will lower the freezing point of the fluid to minus 39°C – minus 38°F. and above 65% Glycol the mixture has inadequate heat absorption. Propylene Glycol. As engines and vehicles become smaller and more powerful they generate even more heat in a confined space.       The way it moves through solids is called conduction. be compatible with hard water. the more toxic Ethylene Glycol. Through space. resist sedimentation. A common Glycol to water ratio used is 50:50. A concentrate. Heat travels in just three ways. and aerodynamically efficient body designs tend to direct air away from. Heat always moves from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature. An effective coolant must therefore contain good heat transfer properties. This is controlled by inhibitors. but when added to water it has the ability to lower the fluid’s freezing point as well as raise its boiling point. Manufacturers can recommend other specific mixture ratios. There are many ways to do this. Glycol does not absorb heat as effectively as water. but it can allow corrosion and damaging electrolysis. When an engine stands idle in cold weather. wasted. be compatible with cooling system component materials. water in the cooling system will expand as it freezes. This is certainly true in internal combustion engines where only about a third of the heat generated is transformed into the mechanical energy that moves the piston and turns the crankshaft. it is called convection. the heat energy generated never completely changes into kinetic energy. but below 33% Glycol the coolant will give inadequate freeze protection. is sometimes used in the mixture. prevent corrosion and erosion. resist foaming. is mixed with water to produce coolant. Another third goes out the exhaust. which is non-toxic. the engine bay. . It follows paths called convection currents. But no matter how efficiently it is done. and no matter the size of the engine. rather than into. or even instead of. To control this movement. Vehicle coolant Summary Water can absorb more heat per volume than most other liquids.

pH buffers for the acid to alkali balance. where it provides a coolant supply. or hardened plastic.      There are three types of additives used in coolants: conventional. cooling the liquid before it returns to absorb more heat from the engine. heat is removed from the coolant by conduction. Radiator Summary Many radiators are mounted at the front of the vehicle in the path of greatest airflow. scale inhibitors. Liquid emerges cooler at the bottom of the radiator. thin. A crossflow radiator fits more easily under a steeply sloped bonnet. anti foaming agents. then through the engine again. The core consists of a number of tubes that carry coolant between the 2 tanks. The radiator has 2 tanks and a core. Air rushing by carries the heat away. Coolant should be changed at recommended intervals. combined with a copper core. It is belt-driven from a pulley. or a horizontal crossflow pattern. and a hybrid mix of the two. reducing the effectiveness of the coolant. . or inorganic additives. so mixing different types of coolant is not recommended. and reserve alkalinity additives. Water pump Summary The water pump pumps coolant through the engine and radiator. organic additives. Where a radiator is mounted also depends on space . Modern vehicles often use plastic tanks combined with an aluminium core. In the core. It can be made of sheet metal. It travels through the lower radiator hose to the water pump inlet.             Many radiators are mounted at the front of the vehicle in the path of greatest airflow. This saves weight but still provides good heat transfer. The air carries heat away. The shape of the fins increases the surface area exposed to the air. then by radiation and convection at the surface of the fins. A fully formulated coolant is comprised of a careful balance of ethylene or propylene glycol with rust inhibitors. stored above the engine. because some of the additives will age and deteriorate over time. Brass and copper are often used for tanks. While some coolants are compatible with others. The materials used in the radiator must be good heat conductors like brass or copper. The tubes can be in a vertical downflow pattern. corrosion the engine is mounted. The air carries heat away. and where the tubes touch the fins. small. Where coolant touches tube walls. A header tank can be mounted away from the radiator. cooling fins are in contact with the tubes. cooling the liquid before it returns to absorb more heat from the engine. changing the chemical balance in the cooling system can affect coolant performance. A hose connects it to the bottom of the radiator.

More and more modern vehicles now use an electric fan. Airconditioned cars often have extra fans. Electric fans can be behind the radiator. on the front of the crankshaft. A hose connects it to the bottom of the radiator where the cooler liquid emerges. Fans can be driven in different ways. Coolant enters the center of the pump. Some use a hydraulic link from the power steering system. Coolant can be also directed to hot spots such as the exhaust ports in the cylinder head. but at low speed or when the engine is idling. This arrangement would be difficult with a beltdriven fan. extra airflow comes from a fan. in front. The rotor spins. . valves and ports. It is driven through the outlet into the cooling passages called waterjackets. to stop local overheating. and centrifugal force moves the liquid outward. Cooling fans Summary A fan helps generate airflow through a radiator. Waterjackets are passages in the engine block and cylinder head that surround the cylinders. The drive belt then turns the water pump and fan. It has fan-like blades on a rotor or impeller. or both. It can be driven either by a belt off the crankshaft. It can be controlled according to temperature. its fan is usually mounted on the water pump shaft. When an engine is mounted longitudinally.     In a vehicle moving at high speed. or electrically. belt-driven from a pulley. Some fans can be driven from the crankshaft.        The water pump is usually in front of the cylinder block. airflow through the radiator cools the coolant.

and turn the fan on and off according to coolant temperature. Rigid blades tend to be noisy and use more energy. it grips more and more. . through the radiator core. Some vehicles use a shroud to direct all of the air that the fan moves. plenty of air is already flowing through the radiator. At high speeds. What’s needed is some way to control the fan. Another way to alter the speed of the fan is with a viscous hub. This noise can be reduced by using irregular spacing of the fan blades.   Fan blades can be rigid or flexible. but as the engine heats up. A heat-sensitive switch in contact with the coolant can work like a thermostat. it’s a waste of fuel too. And since the engine drives the fan. This type of fan slips when it is cold. it’s a waste of energy. If the fan is always working at full speed.



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