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SIN

Submitted by: Rhenea Joy R. Tiongson


Bsn 1 Block 1

Submitted to:

Ms. Naoeme Credo


Christian Ethics Professor

Definition:
A sin, also called peccancy, is an act that violates a known moral rule. The term sin may also refer to the state of having committed such a violation. Sin may also refer to refraining from action or simply desiring to act in violation of a moral norm. Fundamentally, sin is rebellion against, or resistance to,

the direction of supreme authority, and enmity toward, avoidance of, or hatred of the good. "Sin" is often used to mean an action that is prohibited or considered wrong. In some religions (notably in Christianity), sin can refer not only to physical actions taken, but also to thoughts and internalized motivations and feelings. Colloquially, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, selfish, shameful, harmful, or alienating might be termed "sinful". Sin is breaking Gods law. For such a small word, a lot is packed into the meaning of sin. The Bible describes sin as the breaking, or transgression, of God's law (1 John 3:4). It is also defined as disobedience or rebellion against God (Deuteronomy 9:7), as well as independence from God. The original translation means "to miss the mark" of God's holy standard of righteousness.

Sin originated in the darkening of the human mind and heart as man turned from the truth about God to embrace a lie about him and consequently a whole universe of lies about his creation.

Different Views of Religions on Sin


Bah' Faith

Humans are considered to be naturally good (perfect), fundamentally spiritual beings. Human beings were created because of God's immeasurable love for us. However, the Bah' teachings compare the human heart to a mirror, which, if turned away from the light of the sun (i.e. God), is incapable of receiving God's love. Buddhism

The concept of Buddhist ethics is consequentiality in nature and is not based upon duty towards any deities. It is founded upon compassion for all sentient beings and upon a principle not to induce unhappiness or suffering. The well-being of all sentient beings is seen as a positive approach to interrelationships with mankind and not as a means towards any transcendent end. While there is no Buddhist equivalent of the Abrahamic concept of sin, sin itself, or wrongdoing, is recognized in Buddhism. Also refer to Buddhism recognizes a natural principle of Karma whereby widespread suffering is the inevitable consequence of greed, hatred and delusion. Buddhism claims to offer a

path to enlightenment, or to a philosophical destination where the truth about reality is finally realized. Christianity

A. In Western Christianity, "sin is lawlessness" (1John 3:4) and so salvation tends to be understood in legal terms, similar to Jewish law. Sin alienates the sinner from God. It has damaged, and completely severed, the relationship of humanity to God. That relationship can only be restored through repentance unto Christ and acceptance of Jesus Christ and his death on the cross as a sacrifice for mankind's sin. Jesus Christ states in Matthew 22:35-40 what Christian Law is. B. In Eastern Christianity, sin is viewed in terms of its effects on relationships, both among people and between people and God. Sin is seen as the refusal to follow God's plan, and the desire to be "like God" (Genesis 3:5) and thus in direct opposition to God's desires. To sin is to want control of one's destiny in opposition to the will of God, to do some rigid beliefs. C. In the Russian variant of Eastern Christianity, sin sometimes is regarded as any mistake made by people in their life. From this point of view every person is sinful because every person makes mistakes during their life. When a person accuses others of sins they always must remember that they are also sinners and so they must have mercy for others remembering that God is also merciful to them and to all of humanity.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that sin is inherited, like a disease, and has been passed on from generation to generation of humans, beginning with Adam and Eve, whom Witnesses believe are real historical characters. They believe that it began with Humans wanting to decide for themselves what was Good and Bad. They believe that at that very moment they lost perfection and began to die. Jehovah's Witnesses consider human beings to be souls, and so when a human dies due to sin they believe that their soul dies as well. They believe that Jesus is the only human ever to have lived and died sinless. Catholicism

Deals with a distinction between destructive (deadly) sins (mortal sin) and the merely dishonorable (harmful) sins of careless human living (venial sin)

frequently tolerated by societies as a whole, or even encouraged by various cultures. In that context, mortal sins (sacrilege, murder, mortal violence,

devastating calumny, hatred) are said to have the dire consequence of mortal penalty, while sins of careless living (gluttony, casual or informal sexuality,

constant play, inebriation, gambling) have been philosophically regarded by some as essential spice for "transcendent" living, even though these may be destructive in the context of human living (obesity, drunkenness, vagrancy, infidelity, child

abandonment, criminal negligence). Islam

Islam sees

sin

("khati'a")

as

anything

that

goes

against

the

will

of Allah (God). Islam teaches that sin is an act and not a state of being. The Qur'an teaches that "the (human) soul is certainly prone toevil, unless the Lord does bestow His Mercy" and that even the prophets do not absolve themselves of the blame (Qur'an). Judaism

Judaism regards the breaking of any of the divine commandments to be a sin. Judaism teaches that sin is an act, and not a state of being. Sin is any thought, word, or deed that breaks God's law by omission or commission.

Shinto

Within Shinto there is no doctrine of sin, rather good and evil are conceived of in "aesthetic terms, likening them to straight and curved lines". Matagatsubi, the curved spirit, causes "evil deeds and any misfortune or disasters" by creating imbalance, distorting the "straight and clear". Evil deeds fall into two categories in Shinto: amatsu tsumi, "the most pernicious crimes of all", and kunitsu tsumi, "or more commonly called misdemeanors". Atheism

Atheism often draws a distinction between sin and an unethical code of conduct. As the term is most often associated with theological belief, atheists do not use the word in the association of an immoral/unethical act.

What is Original Sin?


Original sin is, according to a theological doctrine, humanity's state

of sin resulting from the Fall of Man. This condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature", to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt by all humans through collective guilt. The doctrine is not found in Judaism, and its scriptural foundation is in the New Testament teaching of Paul the Apostle. (Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22) It began to be developed by the 2nd-century Bishop of Lyon Irenaeus in his controversy with the dualist Gnostics. In the theology of the Catholic Church, original sin is regarded as the general condition of sinfulness, that is (the absence of holiness and perfect charity) into which humans are born, distinct from the actual that a person commits. This teaching explicitly states that "original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam's descendants". In other words, human beings do not bear any "original guilt" from Adam and Eve's particular sin. The prevailing view, also held in Eastern Orthodoxy, is that human beings bear no guilt for the sin of Adam and Eve. Orthodoxy prefers using the term "ancestral sin", which indicates that "original sin is hereditary. It did not remain only Adam and Eve's. As life passes from them to all of their descendants, so does original sin " In this quotation, "original sin" is

used not of the personal sin of Adam, which is his alone and is not transmitted, but in reference to the "distortion of the nature of man", which is inherited. An important exposition of the belief of Eastern Christians identifies original sin as physical and spiritual death, the spiritual death being the loss of "the grace of God, which quickened (the soul) with the higher and spiritual life". Others see original sin also as the cause of actual sins: "a bad tree bears bad fruit" (Matthew 7:17, NIV), although, in this view, original and actual sin may be difficult to distinguish. While the term "original sin" is not expressly stated in the Bible, the Christian doctrine of original sin is based on verses that include Psalm 51:5, Romans 5:1221 and 1 Corinthians 15:22. As a result of Adam's fall, sin entered the world. Adam, the head or root of the human race, caused every man after him to be born into a sinful state or fallen condition. Original sin, then, is the root of sin that taints the life of man. All humans have adopted this sin nature through Adam's original act of disobedience. Original sin is often referred to as "inherited sin."

Mortal Sin and Venial Sin


A. Mortal sin is called mortal because it is the "spiritual" death of the soul (separation from God). If we are in the state of grace it loses this supernatural life for us. If we die without repenting we will lose Him for eternity. However, by turning our hearts back to Him and receiving the Sacrament of Penance we are restored to His friendship. Catholics are not allowed to receive Communion if they have unconfessed mortal sins.

B. Venial sins are slight sins. They do not break our friendship with God, although they injure it. They involve disobedience of the law of God in slight (venial) matters. If we gossip and destroy a person's reputation it would be a mortal sin. However, normally gossip is about trivial matters and only venially sinful. Additionally, something that is otherwise a mortal sin (e.g. slander) may be in a particular case only a venial sin. The person may have acted without reflection or under force of habit. Thus, not fully intending the action their guilt before God is reduced. It is always good to remember, especially those who are trying to be faithful but sometimes fall, that for mortal sin it must not only be 1) serious matter, but 2) the person must know it is serious and then 3) freely commit it.

The Seven Capital Sins


The Seven Deadly Sins are really attitudes that underlie sins, whether mortal or venial. These never occur as a list in the bible, but occur many times individually.

Lust - or lechery is usually thought of as excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature. Aristotle's criterion was excessive love of others, which therefore rendered love and devotion to God as secondary. In Dante's Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. In Dante's "Inferno", unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about

in restless hurricane-like winds symbolic of their own lack of self control to their lustful passions in earthly life.

Gluttony - Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food or its withholding from the needy. Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might be something to take pride in. But in an area where food is routinely plentiful, it may be considered a sign of self-control to resist the temptation to over-indulge. Medieval church leaders took a more expansive view of gluttony, arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods. Thomas Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, including: Praepropere - eating too soon; Laute - eating too expensively; Nimis - eating too much; Ardenter - eating too eagerly (burningly); Studiose - eating too daintily (keenly); and Forente - eating wildly (boringly).

Greed - also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. "Avarice" is more of a

blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason, especially for personal gain, for example through bribery. Scavenging and hoarding of especially by means materials or objects,

theft and robbery,

of violence, trickery,

or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church. As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one need, especially with respect to material wealth.

Sloth - Over time, the "acedia" in Pope Gregory's order has come to be closer in meaning to sloth. The focus came to be on the consequences of acedia rather than the cause, and so, by the 17th century, the exact deadly sin referred to was believed to be the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts. Even in Dante's time there were signs of this change; in his Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed. The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter. Since this contrast with a more willful failure to, for example, love God and his works, sloth is often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission.

Wrath - also known as "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with selfdestructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous

wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism. Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted

to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of anger also encompassed anger pointed internally rather than externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of hatred directed inwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts.

Envy - Like greed, Envy may be characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons:

1.

First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally.

2.

Second, those who commit the sin of envy resent that another person has something they perceive themselves as lacking, and wish the other person to be deprived of it.

Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs." Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour". In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".

Pride also known as hubris, is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour." In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle

play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. In Dante's Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to induce feelings of humility.

CONCLUSION Sin is mentioned tons of times in the Bible, talked about hundreds of times in daily lives, and is a word very common in our vocabulary. Sin is more than a simple disobedience of human relationships. It affects our relationship with God, with our fellowman and even with our own self. Sin is doing or not doing actions in which one falls short of the goal planned by God. It is the instance that we commit things which displease God and we fail to do things we know we must do. It is the time that we are acting without faith. Everyone has sinned. I know that even one sin makes one guilty. God wanted us to recognize our sins. Even those who have not murdered or committed

adultery will find themselves convicted of lying, or of worshipping false idols like wealth or power ahead of God. Our sins result to our separation from God and our spiritual death which is the eternal separation from God. But we must know that there are still ways to be free from our sins. For our guilt, we need to ask forgiveness from God. For being a slave of sin, we must ask for freedom from Him. We should believe that to every problem related to sin, God provides the solution. We must resist the temptation to act as if we are righteous, especially by leaning on our good works. The good news in all of this is that, once we recognize ourselves as sinners, we need only to repent and embrace Jesus to be forgiven. Jesus can forgive us because he died and rose again three days later in victory over sin and death. We must also remember that if sinning doesnt hurt the sinner itself, it is bound to hurt somebody else.

SOURCES
www.wikipedia.com www.allaboutgod.com www.newadvent.org www.deadlysins.com www.allaboutcreation.org