You are on page 1of 58

Nonwoven Fabric

A non-woven cloth Nonwoven Fabric is a fabric like material made from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. Nonwoven materials typically lack strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, nonwovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam.

Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn. Typically, a certain percentage of recycled fabrics and oil-based materials are used in nonwoven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics vary based upon the strengh of material needed for the specific use. Nonwoven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties, and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods. Non-woven materials are used in numerous applications, including:

• • • • •

baby diapers feminine hygiene adult incontinence products wipes bandages and wound dressings

• • • • •

isolation gowns surgical gowns surgical drapes and covers surgical scrub suits caps

• • • • •

gasoline, oil and air - including HEPA filtration water, coffee, tea bags liquid cartridge and bag filters vacuum bags allergen membranes or laminates with non woven layers

• • • • • • • • • •

soil stabilizers and roadway underlayment foundation stabilizers erosion control canals construction drainage systems geomeambranes protection frost protection agriculture mulch pond and canal water barriers sand infiltration barrier for drainage tile

• •

• • • • • • • • •

carpet backing, primary and secondary composites o marine sail laminates o tablecover laminates o chopped strand mat backing/stabilizer for machine embroidery packaging - to sterilize medical products insulation (fiberglass batting) pillows, cushions, and upholstery padding batting in quilts or comforters consumer and medical face masks mailing envelopes tarps, tenting and transportation (lumber, steel) wrapping disposable clothing (foot coverings, coveralls)

Manufacturing processes
Nonwovens are typically manufactured by putting small fibers together in the form of a sheet or web (similar to paper on a paper machine), and then binding them either mechanically (as in the case of felt, by interlocking them with serrated needles such that the inter-fiber friction results in a stronger fabric), with an adhesive, or thermally (by applying binder (in the form of powder, paste, or polymer melt) and melting the binder onto the web by increasing temperature).

Staple nonwovens
Staple nonwovens are made in 2 steps. Fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. These bales are then dispersed on a conveyor belt, and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid process or by carding. Wetlaid operations typically use 1/4" to 3/4" long fibers, but sometimes longer if the fiber is stiff or thick. Carding operations typically use ~1.5" long fibers. Rayon used to be a common fiber in nonwovens, now greatly replaced by PET and PP. Fiberglass is wetlaid into mats for use in roofing and shingles. Synthetic fiber blends are wetlaid along with cellulose for single-use fabrics. Staple nonwovens are bonded by using either resin or thermally. Bonding can be throughout the web by resin saturation or overall thermal bonding or in a distinct pattern via resin printing or thermal spot bonding. Conforming with staple fibers usually refers to a combination with meltblown, often used in high-end textile insulations. Melt Blown non wovens are produced by extruding melted polymer fibers through a spin net or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch to form long thin fibers which are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibers as they fall from the die.The resultant web is collected into rolls and subsequently converted to finished products.The extremely fine fibers typically polypropylene differ from other extrusions particularly spun bond in that they have low intrinsic strength but much smaller size offering key properties.Often melt blown is added to spun bond to form SM or SMS webs, which are strong and offer the intrinsic benefits of fine fibers such as fine filtration, low pressure drop as used in face masks or filters and physical benefits such as acoustic insulation as used in dishwashers. One of the largest users of SM and SMS materials is the disposable diaper and feminine care industry[1]

Spunlaid nonwovens
Spunlaid nonwovens are made in one continuous process. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or can be directed with air streams. This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs. Several variants of this concept are available, but the leading technology is the REICOFIL machinery[2]. PP spunbonds run faster and at lower temperatures than PET spunbonds, mostly due to the difference in melting points. Spunbond has been combined with meltblown nonwovens, conforming them into a layered product called SMS (spun-melt-spun). Meltblown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. SMS fabrics, made completely from PP are water-repellent and fine enough to serve as disposable fabrics. Meltblown is often used as filter media, being able to capture very fine particles. Spunlaid is bonded by either resin or thermally. Regarding the bonding of Spunlaid, Rieter [3] has launched a new generation of nonwovens called Spunjet. In fact, Spunjet is the bonding of the Spunlaid filaments thanks to the hydroentanglement


Nonwovens can also start with films and fibrillate, serrate or vacuum-form them with patterned holes. Fiberglass nonwovens are of two basic types. Wet laid mat or "glass tissue" use wet-chopped, heavy denier fibers in the 6 to 20 micrometre diameter range. Flame attenuated mats or "batts" use discontinuous fine denier fibers in the 0.1 to 6 range. The latter is similar, though run at much higher temperatures, to meltblown thermoplastic nonwovens. Wet laid mat is almost always wet resin bonded with a curtain coater, while batts are usually spray bonded with wet or dry resin. An unusual process produces polyethylene fibrils in a Freon-like fluid, forming them into a paper-like product and then calendering them to create Tyvek.

Both staple and spunlaid nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance, perse, without the bonding step. Several methods can be used:

• • • •

• •

thermal bonding o using a large oven for curing o calendering through heated rollers (called spunbond when combined with spunlaid), calenders can be smooth faced for an overall bond or patterned for a softer, more tear resistant bond hydro-entanglement: mechanical intertwining of fibers by water jets (called spunlace) ultrasonic pattern bonding, often used in high-loft or fabric insulation/quilts/bedding needlefelt: mechanical intertwining of fibers by needles chemical bonding (wetlaid process): use of binders (such as latex emulsion or solution polymers) to chemically join the fibers. A more expensive route uses binder fibers or powders that soften and melt to hold other non-melting fibers together one type of cotton staple nonwoven is treated with sodium hydroxide to shrink bond the mat, the caustic causes the cellulose-based fibers to curl and shrink around one another as the bonding technique meltblown is very weakly bonded from the air attenuated fibers intertangling with themselves during web formation as well as the temporary tackiness when they are forming one unusual polyamide spunbond (Cerex) is self-bonded with gas-phase acid


Coir (From Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fiber extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut.


Coir fibers are found between the husk and the outer shell of a coconut. The individual fiber cells are narrow and hollow, with thick walls made of cellulose. They are pale when immature but later become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin is deposited on their walls. There are two varieties of coir. Brown coir is harvested from fully ripened coconuts. It is thick, strong and has high abrasion resistance. It is typically used in mats, brushes and sacking. Mature brown coir fibers contain more lignin and less cellulose than fibers such as flax and cotton and so are stronger but less flexible. They are made up of small threads, each about 1 mm long and 10 to 20 micrometres in diameter. White coir fibers are harvested from the coconuts before they are ripe. These fibers are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker. They are generally spun to make yarn that is used in mats or rope. The coir fiber is relatively water-proof and is one of the few natural fibers resistant to damage by salt water. Fresh water is used to process brown coir, while sea water and fresh water are both used in the production of white coir.


Segregation of Coir fibre Coconuts are the seed of the palm trees. These palms flower on a monthly basis and the fruit takes 1 year to ripen. A typical palm tree has fruit in every stage of maturity. A mature tree can produce 50– 100 coconuts per year. Coconuts can be harvested from the ground once they have ripened and fallen or they can be harvested while still on the tree. A human climber can harvest approximately 25 trees in a day, while a knife attached to a pole can up the number to 250 trees harvested in a day. Monkeys can also be trained to harvest the coconuts, but this practice is less efficient than other methods. Green coconuts, harvested after about six to twelve months on the plant, contain pliable white fibres. Brown fibre is obtained by harvesting fully mature coconuts when the nutritious layer surrounding the seed is ready to be processed into copra and desiccated coconut. The fibrous layer of the fruit is then separated from the hard shell (manually) by driving the fruit down onto a spike to split it (De-husking). A well seasoned husker can manually separate 2,000 coconuts per day.

Twisting is done by simply making a rope of the hank of fibre and twisting it using a machine or by hand. made by needle-felting (a machine technique that mats the fibres together) are shaped and cut to fill mattresses and for use in erosion control on river banks and hillsides. In horticulture.000 coconuts per hour. It may then be cleaned and 'hackled' by steel combs to straighten the fibres and remove any shorter fibre pieces. a process known as wet-milling. During this time micro-organisms break down the plant tissues surrounding the fibres to loosen them — a process known as retting. Over 50% of the coir fibre produced annually throughout the world is consumed in the . Brown fibre The fibrous husks are soaked in pits or in nets in a slow moving body of water to swell and soften the fibres.Machines are now available which crush the whole fruit to give the loose fibres. The coir fibre is elastic enough to twist without breaking and it holds a curl as though permanently waved. Sri Lanka produces 36% of the total world brown fibre output. mainly the coastal region of Kerala State. White coir also used to make fishing nets due to its strong resilience to salt water. The longer bristle fibre is washed in clean water and then dried before being tied into bundles or hunks. brushes. mattresses. Uses Brown coir is used in floor mats and doormats. The long bristle fibres are separated from the shorter mattress fibres underneath the skin of the nut. floor tiles and sacking. [2] Major producers Total world coir fibre production is 250. produces 60% of the total world supply of white coir fibre. The material is also used for insulation and packaging. Some mattress fibre is allowed to retain more moisture so that it retains its elasticity for 'twisted' fibre production. A small amount is also made into twine. A major proportion of brown coir pads are sprayed with rubber latex which bonds the fibres together (rubberised coir) to be used as upholstery padding for the automobile industry in Europe. Coconut coir from Mexico has been found to contain large numbers of colonies of the beneficial fungus Aspergillus terreus which acts as a biological control against plant pathogenic fungi. coir is recommended as substitute for sphagnum moss because it is free of bacteria and fungal spores. The coir fibre industry is particularly important in some areas of the developing world. Pads of curled brown coir fibre. The mattress fibres are sifted to remove dirt and other rubbish. Segments of the husk are then beaten by hand to separate out the long fibres which are subsequently dried and cleaned. The major use of white coir is in rope manufacture. These machines can do up to 2. India. Coir bristle fibre can also be bleached and dyed to obtain hanks of different colours. Cleaned fibre is ready for spinning into yarn using a simple one-handed system or a spinning wheel. dried in the sun and packed into bales.000 tonnes. White fibre The immature husks are suspended in a river or water-filled pit for up to ten months. Mats of woven coir fibre are made from the finer grades of bristle and white fibre using hand or mechanical looms. and is sustainably produced without the environmental damage caused by peat mining.

Waste / By-products Coir fibres make up about 1/3 of the coconut pulp. countries such as Mexico. Once considered as waste material . soil treatment and a hydroponic growth medium. it is biodegradable but takes 20 years to decompose. The other 2/3 is called the pith or dust. Vietnam and certain Caribbean countries have started to supply to the global market in large scale. Together India and Sri Lanka produce 90% of the 250. coir is now being used as mulch. ********************************************************************** . Indonesia.000 metric tons of coir produced every year.countries of origin. In the recent past. mainly India.

Bananas are grown in at least 107 countries. with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a hand). The banana fruit grow in hanging clusters.Banana Banana 'Cavendish' bananas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Family: Musaceae Genus: Musa Banana is the common name for a type of fruit and also the herbaceous plants of the genus Musa which produce this commonly eaten fruit. vitamin C. Western cultures generally eat the inside raw and throw away the skin while some Asian cultures generally eat both the skin and inside cooked. Each pseudostem can produce a bunch of green bananas which when ripened often turn yellow or sometimes red. or commercially as a "banana stem". and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants. they are cultivated throughout the tropics.[1] Today. Bananas are a valuable source of vitamin B6. Bananas may also be cut and dried and eaten as a type of chip.[3] In popular culture and commerce. The fruit averages 125 g. Typically. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit. Each individual fruit (known as a banana or 'finger') has a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with a fleshy edible inner portion. of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter content. sweet "dessert" bananas. and can weigh from 30–50 kg. A variety was even recently discovered in a rainforest in Asia that turns purple. As the banana plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy they are often mistaken for trees. starchier fruit are called plantains. . and potassium. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. They are native to the tropical region of Southeast Asia.[2] Banana plants are of the family Musaceae. This then dies and is replaced by another pseudostem. but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudostem. with leaves of up to 3. "banana" usually refers to soft. the fruit has numerous strings (called 'phloem bundles') which run between the skin and inner part. and 3–20 tiers to a bunch. Dried bananas are also ground into banana flour. Bananas are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch. For some species this pseudostem can reach a height of up to 2–8 m. The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer.5 m in length.

in salads.[11] The word banana itself comes from the Arabic word banan. simply adapted an Arabic word for banana. while others are cultivated as ornamentals.[8] The female flowers are produced further up the stem and produce the actual fruit without requiring fertilization. male banana flower. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types. however.[12] Properties Banana. The banana plant is a pseudostem that grows to 6 to 7.5 oz) Energy 90 kcal 370 kJ Carbohydrates . which means "finger". but are easily torn by the wind. only about 10–15% of all production is for export. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. hard seeds.[11] The genus contains numerous species. The banana plant is the largest of all herbaceous flowering plants. sterile.[10] Others say that Linnaeus.6 metres (20–25 feet) tall. their remnants are tiny black specks in the interior of the fruit. A single. also known as the banana heart is normally produced by each stem (though on rare occasions more can be produced—a single plant in the Philippines has five[7]).23 g 22. not hanging down. The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". The large leaves grow whole. raw. Bananas displayed in a Singapore supermarket.7 metres (9 ft) long and 60 cm (2 ft) wide. Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow 2. Banana hearts are used as a vegetable in Southeast Asia.84 g . physician to the Emperor Augustus.Sugars 12. bananas grow sticking up. Some sources assert that the genus of the banana. several produce edible fruit. because of their stiff stems and the positioning of the ovary and flower. resulting in the familiar frond look. virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits.Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large. mauz. growing from a corm. is named for Antonio Musa. or eaten raw. the seeds have degenerated nearly to non-existence. edible parts Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Musa. The ovary is inferior to the flower.[9] In cultivated varieties. steamed. Botany This section requires expansion. who gave the genus its name in 1750. with the United States and European Union being the dominant buyers.

as ripe dessert bananas are easily damaged while being transported to market.15 mg One banana is 100–150 g. being a non-seasonal crop. B3) 0. Banana sap is extremely sticky and can be used as a practical adhesive. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0. or from the fruit flesh. and red. Sap can be obtained from the pseudostem. They are popular in part because. including yellow. Depending upon cultivar and ripeness. they are available fresh yearround.367 mg Folate (Vit. B2) 0. The Cavendish gained . Unripe or green bananas and plantains are used for cooking various dishes such as banana pudding and are the staple starch of many tropical populations.33 g 1.6 g Fat Protein Vitamin A equiv. by far the most important of these banana cultivars is 'Cavendish'. Bananas can be eaten raw though some varieties are generally cooked first.Dietary fiber 2.[citation needed] The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in temperate countries (species Musa acuminata or the hybrid Musa × paradisiaca. Even when transported only within their country of origin. ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.7 mg Calcium 5 mg Iron 0.665 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. a cultigen) are imported in large quantities from the tropics. B9) 20 μg Vitamin C 8. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.26 mg Magnesium 27 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 358 mg Zinc 0.334 mg Vitamin B6 0. from the fruit peelings. B1) 0. which accounts for the vast bulk of bananas exported from the tropics. the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet. and texture from firm to mushy.073 mg 5% Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe.031 mg Niacin (Vit. Most production for local sale is of green cooking bananas and plantains.. In global commerce. purple.09 g 0% 2% 4% 7% 28% 5% 15% 1% 2% 7% 3% 8% 1% Riboflavin (Vit. 3 μg Thiamine (Vit.

and then usually ripened in ripening rooms when they arrive in their country of destination. a coarser and starchier variant not to be confused with Musa acuminata or the Cavendish variety. Export bananas are picked green. became commercially unviable due to Panama disease. Bananas can be ordered by the retailer "ungassed". Singapore. the flavor will be notably richer[citation needed]. Thus. baked in their skin in a split bamboo. Bengali and Kerala cooking. The most important properties making 'Cavendish' the main export banana are related to transport and shelf life rather than taste. The tender core of the banana plant's trunk is also used in Telugu. These are special rooms made air-tight and filled with ethylene gas to induce ripening.popularity in the 1950s after the previously mass produced cultivar. Banana fritters can be served with ice cream as well. and the banana peel can be allowed to reach a yellow/brown speckled phase. and the bananas will eventually turn gray as cell walls break down. and Indonesia. For most people the only practical means of obtaining such fruit is growing it themselves. Gros Michel. Bananas fried with batter is a popular dessert in Malaysia. and Kerala (India) cuisine. It should be noted that Musa × paradisiaca is also the generic name for the common plantain. shelf life is somewhat extended. and yet retain a firm flesh inside. The flavor and texture of bananas are also affected by the temperature at which they ripen. or steamed in glutinous rice wrapped in a banana leaf in Burma where bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray form an important part of traditional offerings to the Buddha . once natural ripening has commenced the shelf life is typically only 7– 10 days. Cavendish bananas that have been allowed to ripen naturally on the plant have a greenish-yellow appearance which changes to a brownish-yellow as they ripen further. The skins of ripe bananas will quickly turn black in the 4°C environment of a domestic refrigerator. a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant. At lower temperatures. Bananas are refrigerated to between 13. M. making commercial distribution impractical. While these bananas will ripen more slowly. the flower of the banana plant (also known as banana blossom or banana heart) is used in Southeast Asian. and notably in the Burmese dish mohinga. Although both the flavor and texture of "tree ripened" bananas is generally regarded as superior to any type green-picked fruit. Bananas are also eaten deep fried. either served raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups and curries. The vivid yellow color normally associated with supermarket bananas is in fact a side-effect of the artificial ripening process. and may show up at the supermarket still fully green. partially opened.5 and 15 °C (57 and 59 °F) during transportation. Telugu. the ripening of bananas permanently stalls.Tamil. acuminata x balbisiana inflorescence. Bengali. although the fruit inside remains unaffected. In addition to the fruit. as the bananas all tend to ripen at once and have very poor keeping properties. Banana flowers are somewhat similar in taste to artichokes and can be eaten in much the same way where one scrapes off the fleshy part of the petals and eats the whole of the heart. major commercial cultivars rarely have a superior flavor[citation needed] compared to the less widespread cultivars. however this is also somewhat problematic. however.

sometimes with the addition of honey. Banana leaves are also used to serve food in India and other Asian countries. which have a dark brown color and an intense banana taste. In India. The chlorophyll breakdown product is stabilized by a propionate ester group. Ripened bananas (left. flexible. Unlike other fruits. Banana-tree leaves also fluoresce in the same way. under sunlight) fluoresce in blue when exposed to UV light. The leaves of the banana plant are large.and the Nats. Please help improve the article by updating it. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. The study suggested that this allows animals which are capable of seeing in the ultraviolet spectrum to detect ripened bananas. This property is attributed to the degradation of chlorophyll giving rise to the accumulation of a fluorescent product in the skin of the fruit. it is difficult to extract juice from bananas because when compressed a banana simply turns to pulp. (June 2009) Top banana producing nations .77 8. the forerunner of the common domesticated banana. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Seeded bananas (Musa balbisiana). and waterproof. juice is extracted from the corm and used as a home remedy for the treatment of jaundice. They are used many ways. including as umbrellas and to wrap food for cooking or storage. There may be additional information on the talk page. The juice extract prepared from the tender core is used to treat kidney stones and Blood pressure. Banana chips are a snack produced from dehydrated or fried banana or plantain slices. and for kidney stones.2007 (in million metric tons) India China 21. Green bananas do not show any sign of fluorescence.[16] Banana output in 2005 This section needs additional citations for verification.04 . Bananas have also been used in the making of jam. (June 2009) This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. are sold in markets in Indonesia. A 2008 study reported that ripe bananas exhibit a blue fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light.

48 7.36 1.Philippines Brazil Ecuador Indonesia Tanzania Costa Rica Thailand Mexico Burundi Guatemala Vietnam Kenya Bangladesh Honduras Egypt 7.46 3.50 2.91 0.60 1.00 0.87 .19 1.88 Papua New Guinea 0.10 6.08 2.57 1.00 1.00 5.96 1.

In most tropical countries. Costa Rica. boiled. The vast majority of producers are small-scale farmers growing the crop either for home consumption or for local markets. Banana plantations are capital intensive and demand high expertise. Women in Belize sorting bananas and cutting them from bunches. and Honduras. green (unripe) bananas used for cooking represent the main cultivars. most of which was for domestic consumption. The four leading banana exporting countries were Ecuador. India led the world in banana production. It is for these reasons that bananas and plantains are of major importance to food security. according to FAO statistics.5 Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations[3] Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. Chiquita. so the majority of independent growers are large and wealthy landowners of these countries. representing approximately 23% of the worldwide crop. Both can be fried. and Fyffes grow their own bananas in Ecuador.86 0. Dole. Guatemala. Because bananas and plantains will produce fruit year-round. One green cooking banana has about the same calorie content as one potato. Del Monte. Ecuador alone provided more than 30% of global banana exports. Most banana farmers receive a low unit price for their produce as supermarkets buy enormous quantities and receive a discount for that business. Colombia. This has led to bananas being available as a "fair trade" or Rainforest Alliance certified item in some countries. Competition amongst supermarkets has led to reduced margins in recent years which in turn has led to lower prices for growers. they provide an extremely valuable source of food during the hunger season (that period of time when all the food from the previous harvest has been consumed. . and the next harvest is still some time away). the Philippines. or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served. Costa Rica. Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world.62 72. Cooking bananas are very similar to potatoes in how they are used. each exporting more than 1 million tons.Cameroon Uganda World total 0. which together accounted for about two-thirds of the world's exports. and Colombia. In 2003. baked.

In fact. and the Philippines. Southeast Asia is the region of primary diversity of the banana. Honduras. As late as 1960. For much of the 20th century. in which American companies have an economic interest. By the tenth century the banana appears in texts from Palestine and Egypt. and possibly to 8000 BCE. Recent archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence at Kuk Swamp in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea suggests that banana cultivation there goes back to at least 5000 BCE. In the 1930s. The term "banana republic" has been broadly applied to most countries in Central America. bananas from Granada were considered amongst the best in the Arab world. There are numerous references to it in Islamic texts (such as poems and hadiths) beginning in the ninth century. This would make the New Guinean highlands the place where bananas were first domesticated. Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa. . bananas and coffee dominated the export economies of Central America. Islamic conquerors brought the banana to Palestine. these arrangements were in the process of being withdrawn under pressure from other major trading powers. the two crops accounted for 67% of the exports from the region. principally the United States. It is likely that other species of wild bananas were later also domesticated elsewhere in southeastern Asia. Many species of wild bananas still exist in New Guinea. The banana may have been present in isolated locations of the Middle East on the eve of the rise of Islam. they tended not to be distributed together. The United States has minimal banana production. 14. In 650. paying guaranteed prices above global market rates. The countries of the European Union have traditionally imported many of their bananas from the former European island colonies of the Caribbean. Malaysia. but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica. From there it diffused into north Africa and Muslim Iberia. Though the two were grown in similar regions. The withdrawal of these indirect subsidies to Caribbean producers is expected to favour the banana producers of Central America. The spread of Islam was followed by the far reaching diffusion of bananas. In this view. Bananas have also been grown in Florida and southern California. Actual and probable diffusion of bananas during Islamic times (700–1500 AD) Some recent discoveries of banana phytoliths in Cameroon dating to the first millennium BCE have triggered an as yet unresolved debate about the antiquity of banana cultivation in Africa. countries with economies dominated by the banana trade. History Early cultivation The domestication of bananas took place in southeastern Asia. bananas were introduced to the east coast of Africa by Muslim Arabs.000 tons of bananas were grown in Hawaii in 2001. As of 2005. and Panama were actual "banana republics".The banana has an extensive trade history beginning with the founding of the United Fruit Company (now Chiquita) at the end of the nineteenth century. bananas and coffee made up as much as 75% of the region's exports. as the coffee trade proved too difficult for it to control. The earliest evidence of banana cultivation in Africa before these recent discoveries dates to no earlier than late 6th century AD. Indonesia. There is linguistic evidence that bananas were already known in Madagascar around that time. indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the region. during the medieval ages. The United Fruit Company based its business almost entirely on the banana trade. There is some textual evidence that the prophet Muhammad was familiar with it.

Bananas were introduced to the Americas by Portuguese sailors who brought the fruits from West Africa in the 1500s. Cultivation This section does not cite any references or sources. and western Africa. These were usually extremely commercially exploitative. hard seeds. and the term "Banana republic" was coined for states like Honduras and Guatemala. (October 2008) Fruits of wild-type bananas have numerous large. although they were available via merchant trade. which created immense banana plantations especially in Central and South America. Banana corms. The life of a banana plantation is 25 years or longer. While the original bananas contained rather large seeds. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The word banana is of West African origin. The plant is allowed to produce 2 shoots at a time. from the Wolof language. which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds. Plantation cultivation In the 15th and 16th century. This normally involves removing . a larger one for fruiting immediately and a smaller "sucker" or "follower" that will produce fruit in 6–8 months time. Cultivated bananas are parthenocarpic. exemplarized by the United Fruit Company. used in the propagation of domesticated bananas. triploid (and thus seedless) cultivars have been selected for human consumption. Brazil. In the early 20th century. for example in the USA. during which time the individual stools or planting sites may move slightly from their original positions as lateral rhizome formation dictates. bananas were not widely known in Europe. another form of propagation is required. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Jules Verne references bananas with detailed descriptions so as not to confuse readers in his book Around the World in Eighty Days (1872). Lacking seeds. Portuguese colonists started banana plantations in the Atlantic Islands. As late as the Victorian Era. These are propagated asexually from offshoots of the plant. and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese. representing the fact that "servile dictatorships" were created and abetted by these companies and their political backers. bananas began forming the basis of large commercial empires.

it lacks genetic diversity. has already suffered this fate. This method is preferred since it ensures disease-free planting material. there is a risk of transmitting diseases (especially the devastating Panama disease). The bags may be coated with pesticides. severed suckers with no root material attached can be successfully propagated in damp sand. representing not yet elongated suckers. the most common edible banana cultivar 'Cavendish' (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10–20 years. When using vegetative parts such as suckers for propagation. In some countries. small sympodial corms. bananas are also commercially propagated by means of tissue culture. it is not actually necessary to include any of the corm or root structure to propagate bananas. discovered in the 1820s.and transplanting part of the underground stem (called a corm). and natural disasters Main article: List of banana and plantain diseases Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. which threaten both commercial cultivation and the small-scale subsistence farming. Pests. Usually this is done by carefully removing a sucker (a vertical shoot that develops from the base of the banana pseudostem) with some roots intact. they require minimal care and can be boxed together for shipment. although this takes somewhat longer. Its predecessor 'Gros Michel'. Contrary to what is widely believed. Like almost all bananas. Inspecting bananas for fruit flies While in no danger of outright extinction. are easier to transplant and can be left out of the ground for up to 2 weeks. diseases. Some . However. which makes it vulnerable to diseases.

producing gels and gums. It has yet to reach the Americas. exposing the rest of the plant to lethal amounts of sunlight. This is a virulent form of fusarium wilt that has wiped out 'Cavendish' in several southeast Asian countries. All are genetically identical. researchers are experimenting with hundreds of feral varieties to find out which one(s) are resistant. Being starved for energy. which was highly susceptible to fusarium wilt and collapse. However. a deadly form of Panama disease is infecting the world's Cavendish banana plants. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Black Sigatoka: a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in Fiji in 1963 or 1964. soil fungi can easily be carried on boots. Unfortunately. with the current expense for treating 1 hectare exceeding $1000 per year. and eventually killing the entire leaf. making them unsuitable for export. impeding photosynthesis by turning parts of their leaves black. however. but none has yet received wide scale commercial acceptance due to taste and texture issues. In addition to the financial expense there is the question of how long such intensive spraying can be justified environmentally.[27] Major diseases This section does not cite any references or sources. clothing. These mild strains are often mistaken for malnourishment. fruit production falls by 50% or more. It causes stunting of the leaves resulting in a "bunched" appearance. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance. Cavendish is almost certain to be eliminated from commercial production by this disease. These plug and cut off the flow of water and nutrients. Prior to 1960 almost all commercial banana production centered on the cultivar 'Gros Michel'. (October 2008) Major afflictions of bananas include: • Panama Disease (Race 1): fusarium wilt (a soil fungus). The fungus enters the plants through the roots and moves up with water into the trunk and leaves. Several resistant cultivars of banana have been developed.[30] • • • Tropical Race 4: a reinvigorated strain of Panama disease first discovered in 1993. This is how Tropical Race 4 moves from one plantation to another and is its most likely route into Latin America. The Cavendish cultivar is highly susceptible to TR4.commentators have further remarked that those variants which could replace what much of the world considers a "typical banana" are so different that most people would not consider them the same fruit. Generally. and its quality compared to 'Gros Michel' is debated. more care is required for shipping the 'Cavendish' banana. However. Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV): this virus is spread from plant to plant by aphids. causing the plant to wilt. However.[30] The cultivar 'Cavendish' was chosen as a replacement for 'Gros Michel' because out of the resistant cultivars it was viewed as producing the highest quality fruit. and blame the decline of the banana on monogenetic cultivation driven by short-term commercial exploitation motives. Black Sigatoka (also known as Black Leaf Streak) has spread to banana plantations throughout the tropics due to infected banana leaves being used as packing material. The fungus has shown ever increasing resistance to fungicidal treatment. a banana plant infected with the virus will not set fruit. according to current references. and the bananas that do grow suffer premature ripening. and over time. which causes problems when it comes to disease resistance. or tools. although mild strains exist in many areas which do allow for some fruit production. . It affects all of the main cultivars of bananas and plantains.

these new cultivars have substantially increased yields in the areas where they have been tried. bananas became relatively expensive. Uganda produced 15 to 20 tonnes of bananas per hectare. There is no cure for BBTV. and immediately removing and destroying any plant from the field that shows signs of the disease. production has fallen to only 6 tonnes per hectare. In Australia Banana plants destroyed after Cyclone Larry in 2006 Australia is relatively free of plant diseases and therefore prohibits imports. Prices have since fallen as production has reverted back to a steady rate. however its effect can be minimised by planting only tissue cultured plants (In-vitro propagation). Even though it is no longer viable for large scale cultivation. bananas. . especially cooking bananas. represent a major source of food. banana production in eastern Africa has fallen by over 40%. However with the arrival of the Black sigatoka fungus. the highest in the world. Ugandans use the same word "matooke" to describe both banana and food. In the past. For example. during the 1970s. due to both low supply domestically and the existence of laws prohibiting banana imports. Burundi. The situation has started to improve as new disease resistant cultivars have been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and NARO such as the FHIA-17 (known in Uganda as the Kabana 3). 'Gros Michel' is not extinct and is still grown in areas where Panama disease is not found. These new cultivars taste different from the traditionally grown banana which has slowed their acceptance by local farmers. "Cavendish" is in no danger of extinction. controlling the aphids. Likewise. When Cyclone Larry wiped out Australia's domestic banana crop in 2006. In countries such as Uganda. mass-market banana. In East Africa Most bananas grown worldwide are used for local consumption. and Rwanda per capita consumption has been estimated at 450 kg per year. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace 'Cavendish' on a scale needed to fill current demand. However.or a disease other than BBTV. Today. but it may leave the shelves of the supermarkets for good if diseases make it impossible to supply the global market. so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are working on creating a disease-resistant. as well as a major source of income for smallholder farmers. In the tropics. by adding mulch and animal manure to the soil around the base of the banana plant. It is in the East African highlands that bananas reach their greatest importance as a staple food crop. the banana was a highly sustainable crop with a long plantation life and stable yields year round.

Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. In a 2001 study <Hamilton & Jensen> it was established that all bananas contain the same number of calories.[31][32] By a high potassium to sodium content. It is developing cultivars specifically for smallholder or subsistence farmers. Fruit consumption in general decreases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Pectin content. In contrast.[31] Allergic reactions There are two forms of banana allergy. resulting in e. a hydrocolloid.[33] .g.[31] Carotenoid content has antioxidant effects. in effect preventing bone breakdown. bananas may prevent high blood pressure and its complications. and protects against vitamin A deficiency. funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and CGIAR have started trials for genetically modified banana plants that are resistant to both Black sigatoka and banana weevils. Moderate consumption decreases risk of kidney cancer. it contributes with electrolyte replacement. can ease constipation by normalizing movement through the intestine. nourishing the intestinal flora to produce beneficial vitamins and enzymes. High fructooligosaccharide content may work as a prebiotic. In diarrhea. One is oral allergy syndrome which causes itching and swelling in the mouth or throat within one hour after ingestion and is related to birch tree and other pollen allergies. High potassium may also prevent renal calcium loss. The other is related to latex allergies and causes urticaria and potentially serious upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Bananas also have some antacid effect. (June 2009) Potential health benefits of banana consumption. possibly due to antioxidant phenolic compounds. large consumption of highly processed fruit juice increases the risk of kidney cancer. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Health benefits The neutrality of this article is disputed. night blindness. High fiber content may also contribute to this effect. as well as increased absorption of nutrients. protecting from peptic ulcers. The study determined that the calorific density varied depending on the size of banana to keep the calorific value at a constant 163 Kcal.The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and NARO. The low glycemic index in unripe bananas is of particular benefit to people with diabetes.

After that. In the Japanese system. These banana fibre rugs are woven by the traditional Nepalese hand-knotted methods. and are suitable for tablecloths. After a few days. bunches are harvested before the fruit is fully mature. the fibres are sent to the Kathmandu Valley for the making of high end rugs with a textural quality similar to silk. Storage and transport Banana storage room. . This traditional Japanese banana cloth making process requires many steps. bananas are grown in the tropics. In Japan. In another system employed in Nepal. the fruit has begun to ripen and it is distributed for . cooled. The basis of this procedure is to prevent the bananas producing ethylene which is the natural ripening agent of the fruit. from the stem and the non usable fruits. This paper can be either hand-made or made by industrialized machine. the bananas are held at about 17 degrees Celsius and treated with a low concentration of ethylene. On arrival at the destination. The fruit therefore has to be transported over long distances and storage is necessary. all performed by hand. transported quickly to the seaboard.Fibre Textiles The banana plant has long been a source of fibre for high quality textiles. and shipped under sophisticated refrigeration. or paper made from banana fiber. and drying. mainly used for artistic purposes. Paper Main article: Banana paper Banana fibre is also used in the production of banana paper. yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. These banana shoots produce fibres of varying degrees of softness. 1913 In the current world marketing system. whereas the softest innermost fibres are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. the trunk of the banana plant is harvested instead. The fruit is carefully handled. mechanical extraction of the fibres. Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. the outermost fibres of the shoots are the coarsest. This sophisticated technology allows storage and transport for 3–4 weeks at 13 degrees Celsius. To gain maximum life. bleaching. The harvested shoots must first be boiled in lye to prepare the fibres for the making of the yarn. For example. small pieces of which are subjected to a softening process. the cultivation of banana for clothing and household use dates back to at least the 13th century. and are sold RugMark certified. leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness. obtained from an industrialized process.

. Usage in culture Peels The depiction of a person slipping on a banana peel has been a staple of physical comedy for generations. on an inert carrier. The "bashō" planted in his garden by a grateful student became a source of inspiration to his poetry." Arts • • • The poet Bashō is named after the Japanese word for a banana plant. They can be stored indefinitely frozen.. An 1898 comedy recording features a popular character of the time. This is typified by the artwork of the debut album of The Velvet Underground. The bag is then sealed with a band or string. and I don't think much of the banana peel that throws a man on the sidewalk neither . It is important to note that unripe bananas can not be held in the home refrigerator as they suffer from the cold. he says. The Japanese novelist Banana Yoshimoto (real name: Mihoko Yoshimoto) changed her name because she liked banana flowers. claiming to describe his own such incident. Gallery . Recent studies have suggested that the presence of carbon dioxide (which is produced by the fruit) extends the life and the addition of an ethylene absorbent further extends the life even at high temperatures. and I come down ker-plunk.. After ripening some bananas can be held for a few days at home. it was the best-selling sheet music in history. then eaten like an ice pop or cooked as a banana mush. "Cal Stewart". phallic structure on the inside. Since then the song has been rerecorded several times and has been particularly popular during banana shortages. "Oh mister. the design allowed the listener to 'peel' this banana to find a pink. my foot hit the bananer peelin' and I went up in the air. potassium permanganate. as well as a symbol of his life and home. saying:[38] Now I don't think much of the man that throws a banana peelin' on the sidewalk. Symbols Bananas are also humorously used as a phallic symbol due to similarities in size and shape. yet on the original LP version. won't you please do that agin? My little brother didn't see you do it. This treatment has been shown to more than double the life of the bananas at a range of temperatures and can give a life of up to 3–4 weeks without the need for refrigeration. which features a banana on the front cover. for many decades.. jist as I was pickin' myself up a little boy come runnin' across the street .retail sale. This effect can be exploited by packing the fruit in a polyethylene bag and including an ethylene absorbent.[39] The song Yes! We Have No Bananas was written by Frank Silver and Irving Cohn and originally released in 1923.

such as with the Malaysian dish 'nasi lemak'. Luxor. Fiberglass Bundle of fiberglass . as shown above. Banana plant. Banana leaves can be used for packaging food.Bananas are continually cropped. banana fruit. Egypt . From the left: bananas as commonly eaten by peeling the skin in thick strips. banana cross section. inflorescence being taken before the lower part opens. Bananas are often sold in Banana pudding. bunches. fruits from higher in the Banana tree.Certain banana Traditional offerings of cultivars turn red or bananas and coconut at apurplish instead of yellow as they ripen. Nat spirit shrine in Myanmar.

713 °C (3.[4] In the polymer. was invented in 1938 by Russell Games Slayter of Owens-Corning as a material to be used as insulation. but als A-glass (alkali-lime glass with little or no boron oxide). It has no true melting point but softens at 2. (also called fibreglass and glass fibre). it forms SiO4 groups which are configured as a tetrahedron with the silicon atom at the center and four oxygen atoms at the corners. D-glass (borosilicate glass with high dielectric constant). C-glass (alkali-lime glass with high boron oxide content. the use of these fibers for textile applications is more recent.Fiberglass. At 1. is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk fibers. It is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products. When the two companies joined to produce and promote fiberglass. What is commonly known as "fiberglass" today.e. has high acid resistance)..[1] The first commercial production of fiberglass was in 1936. is called "fiberglass" in popular usage.000 °C (3. which has become a genericized trademark. but more expensive technology used for applications requiring very high strength and low weight is the use of carbon fiber. properly known as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) or glass-reinforced plastic (GRP). Owens-Corning is still the major fiberglass producer in the market today.115 °F). Until this time all fiberglass had been manufactured as staple. they will be unable to form an ordered structure. mainly used for glass-reinforced plastics). These atoms then form a network bonded at the corners by sharing the oxygen atoms. the resulting composite material. In 1893. for glass staple fibers). It is marketed under the trade name Fiberglas. If the glass is then cooled quickly.[3] Chemistry The basis of textile-grade glass fibers is silica. R-glass (alumino silicate glass without MgO and CaO with high mechanical requirements). Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers. where it starts to degrade. however.630 °F). (SiO2)n. The technique of heating and drawing glass into fine fibers has been known for millennia. also implying that the glassy form is extremely stable. but mass manufacture of fiberglass was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. E-CR-glass (alumino-lime silicate with less than 1 wt% alkali oxides. The vitreous and crystalline states of silica (glass and quartz) have similar energy levels on a molecular basis. they introduced continuous filament glass fibers.[2] The types of fiberglass most commonly used are mainly E-glass (alumino-borosilicate glass with less than 1 wt% alkali oxides. In order to induce . In 1938 OwensIllinois Glass Company and Corning Glass Works joined to form the Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation. A somewhat similar. used.g. most of the molecules can move about freely. SiO2. Formation Glass fiber is formed when thin strands of silica-based or other formulation glass is extruded into many fibers with small diameters suitable for textile processing. In its pure form it exists as a polymer. and S-glass (alumino silicate glass without CaO but with high MgO content with high tensile strength). This was first worn by the popular stage actress of the time Georgia Cayvan. however.

The strength of glass is usually tested and reported for "virgin" or pristine fibers—those which have just been manufactured. The letter E is used because it was originally for electrical applications. However. E-glass was formed that is alkali free (< 2%) and is an alumino-borosilicate glass. E-glass still makes up most of the fiberglass production in the world. Molecular Structure of Glass Although pure silica is a perfectly viable glass and glass fiber. often bottles. which is the temperature where the internal stresses are reduced to an acceptable commercial limit in 15 minutes. blocks of glass fiber make good thermal insulation. the softening point is defined as "the temperature at which a 0. The freshest. and lessen tenacity. made into fiber.[4] Humidity is an important factor in the tensile strength. These materials also impart various other properties to the glass which may be beneficial in different applications. with a thermal conductivity of the order of 0. Chloride ions will also attack and dissolve E-glass surfaces.77 mm diameter fiber 235 mm long. and can worsen microscopic cracks and surface defects. A-glass is an industry term for cullet glass. A new type. Moisture is easily adsorbed. Its particular components may differ slightly in percentage. it must be heated to temperatures above 1. The strain point is reached when the glass has a viscosity of 1014. is marked by a viscosity of 1013 poise. mostly acids which destroy E-glass. Most glass fibers have limited solubility in water but are very dependent on pH. By trapping air within them.crystallization. The first type of glass used for fiber was soda lime glass or A glass. which is a drawback unless its specific chemical properties are needed. elongates under its own weight at 1 mm/min when suspended vertically and heated at the rate of 5°C per minute".5 poise. Because glass has an amorphous structure.05 W/(m·K).[5] This was the first glass formulation used for continuous filament formation.[5] T-glass is a North American variant of Cglass. AR-glass is alkaliresistant glass. Properties Glass fibers are useful because of their high ratio of surface area to weight. . it must be worked with at very high temperatures. Since E-glass does not really melt.55–0. The more the surface is scratched. The annealing point. thinnest fibers are the strongest because the thinner fibers are more ductile. S-glass is a high-strength formulation for use when tensile strength is the most important property. the less the resulting tenacity.200 °C (2. but soften. its properties are the same along the fiber and across the fiber.190 °F) for long periods of time. the increased surface area makes them much more susceptible to chemical attack. It is usual to introduce impurities into the glass in the form of other materials to lower its working temperature. but must fall within a specific range. C-glass was developed to resist attack from chemicals. It was not very resistant to alkali.

If it is too high. Whereas the plastic resins are strong in compressive loading and relatively weak in tensile strength.and corrosion-resistant fabrics. thermal insulation. Traditionally. styrene monomer was used as a reactive diluent in the resin formulation giving the resin a characteristic odor. electrical insulation. each overcoming the deficits of the other. The viscosity of the molten glass is very important for manufacturing success. reinforcement of various materials. translucent roofing panels. . More recently alternatives have been developed. sound absorption. GRP becomes a material that resists both compressive and tensile forces well. During drawing (pulling of the glass to reduce fiber circumference). There is a correlation between bending diameter of the filament and the filament diameter. By combining the two materials. Uses Uses for regular fiberglass include mats. As with many other composite materials (such as reinforced concrete). The two materials may be used uniformly or the glass may be specifically placed in those portions of the structure that will experience tensile loads. the fiber will break during drawing. high-strength fabrics.In contrast to carbon fiber. Thermosetting plastics are normally used for GRP production—most often unsaturated polyester (using 2-butanone peroxide aka MEK peroxide as a catalyst). bows and crossbows. the viscosity should be relatively low. if it is too low. heat. Fiberglass is extensively used for making FRP tanks and vessels. However. the two materials act together. arrows. the glass fibers are very strong in tension but have no strength against compression. but vinylester or epoxy are also used. The glass can be in the form of a chopped strand mat (CSM) or a woven fabric. pole vault poles. the glass will form droplets rather than drawing out into fiber. glass can undergo more elongation before it breaks. It has been used for medical purposes in casts. tent poles. Like graphite-reinforced plastic. the composite material is commonly referred to by the name of its reinforcing fibers (fiberglass). automobile bodies and boat hulls. Glass-reinforced plastic Main article: Glass-reinforced plastic Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) is a composite material or fiber-reinforced plastic made of a plastic reinforced by fine glass fibers.

family Tiliaceae. The fibres are off-white to brown.Jute This article is about vegetable fibre. ramie. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant) along with kenaf. It is thus a ligno-cellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus. For the Germanic people. industrial hemp. Bundles of jute. see Jutes. and 1–4 meters (3– 12 feet) long. showing the fibres of Corchorus olitorius (tossa jute fibre) and Corchorus capsularis (white jute fibre) Jute is a long. flax (linen). soft. Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. etc. shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse. The industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components wood fibre). strong threads. .

It is quite popular for its leaves that are used as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called molokhiya (‫ ملوخية‬a word of uncertain . Jute requries 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. White jute (Corchorus capsularis) Several historical documents (especially. especially Bengalis. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet climate) is offered by the monsoon climate during the monsoon season. Temperatures ranging 20˚ C to 40˚ C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation. The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in North America. who used to spin cotton yarns as well. Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) during the era of Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. Simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels were used by the weavers. History also states that Indians. Cultivation Main article: Jute cultivation Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water.Jute plants (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis) Jute fibre is often called hessian. jute fabrics are also called hessian cloth and jute sacks are called gunny bags in some European countries. used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is an Afro-Arabian variety.

but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the appearance of synthetic fibres. Recently (2004–2009). The Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible mentions this vegetable potherb as Jew's mallow. Among these industries are paper. Currently. and Bangladesh) is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Tossa jute fibre is softer. During some years in the 1980s. India. non-woven textiles. In December 2006 the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres. and fund cutting. In the 19th and early 20th centuries. now Bangladesh. Description . and stronger than white jute. popular in certain Arab countries. the jute market began to recover and the price of raw jute increased more than 200%. is still running but was nationalized by the government from prominent businessman. History For centuries. Latif Bawany Jute Mills. which is shared by both Bangladesh and West Bengal of India. a jute mill landowner in Dundee in the 1800s. Farmers in Bangladesh have not completely ceased growing jute. In the 1950s and 1960s. Pakistan. the Bengal region (West Bengal. However. tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century.etymology). where it was then processed in mills concentrated in Dundee ("jute weaver" was a recognised trade occupation in the 1901 UK census). the second largest. as the use of polythene and other synthetic materials as a substitute for jute increasingly captured the market. however. mainly due to demand in the internal market. Yahya Bawany. was earning exchange from jute grown in East Pakistan. It was called the "Golden Fibre of Bangladesh. Many exporters that were dealing with jute found other commodities in which to deal. silkier." and it used to bring the major portion of foreign currency reserve for the country. jute has been an integral part of Bengali culture. farmers in Bangladesh burnt their jute crops when an adequate price could not be obtained. Along with white jute. and geotextiles. set up the first jute mills in India. the jute industry in general experienced a decline. then the world leader in jute products. where natural fibres are gradually becoming better substitutes. when nylon and polythene were rarely used. so as to raise the profile of jute and other natural fibres. This variety astonishingly showed good sustainability in the climate of the Ganges Delta. Jute has entered many diverse sectors of industry. much of the raw jute fibre of Bengal was exported to the United Kingdom. change. celluloid products (films). The long decline in demand forced the largest jute mill in the world (Adamjee Jute Mills) to close. Jute-related organisations and government bodies also experienced closures. Margaret Donnelly. composites (pseudo-wood).

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Uses Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton. Production Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. not only for cultivation. some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature. A = Aggregate(may include official. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. For this purpose. The fibres are also woven into curtains. After the retting process. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low. stripping begins. then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from within the jute stem. The fibres are first extracted by retting. carpets. and to make sacks and coarse cloth. hessian cloth. a natural and biodegradable fibre is essential. chair coverings. running water. semi-official or estimates). Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton. and backing for linoleum. The production is concentrated in India and Bangladesh. Examples of such uses include . non-fibrous matter is scraped off. In the stripping process. The jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses. where synthetics would be unsuitable. Bangladesh with ~25% lies at second position followed way behind by China with ~3%. F = FAO estimate.[1] India with overall of ~66% of worlds production tops the production of jute. but also for various uses. area rugs. Top Ten Jute Producers — 11 June 2008 Country India Bangladesh People's Republic of China Côte d'Ivoire Thailand Myanmar Brazil Uzbekistan Nepal Vietnam World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 2140000 800000 99000 40000 31000 30000 26711 20000 16775 11000 3225551 F A F F F F F F No symbol = official figure. Women and children usually do this job.Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established.

But. wrappers. The eco-friendly nature of jute make its ideal for corporate gifting. Herringbone. Panama. linoleum substrate. the major breakthrough came when the automobile. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings. Hessian. in large volume from Kerala. the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. jute has changed its textile fibre outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity. Jute Bags Jute bags are used for making fashion bags & promotional bags. Boucle. home textiles. fabrics made of jute fibres are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. etc. and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper. and more. very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. pulp and paper. composites. and construction fabric manufacturing industry. Jute butts. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay. and composites. Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. sacking. wood fibre. Jute has many advantages as a home textile. has its use in the name. are used to make inexpensive cloth. jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress. CBC made of jute comes in two types. scrim.containers for planting young trees which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots. but as a wood fibre jute has many promising features. i. durable. Also. Sacking.[2] Jute can be used to create a number of fabrics such as Hessian cloth. Geotextiles. is used for bags. As a textile fibre. and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibres with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens. sound and heat insulation. The fibres are used alone or blended with other types of fibres to make twine and rope. Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. . and canvas. a fabric made of heavy jute fibres. while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. color and light-fast fibre. The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. and more. It is a strong. and in different weaves like. high performance technical textiles.e. Jute Mats and mattings with 5 / 6 mts width and of continuous length are easilly being woven in Southern parts of India. floor coverings. As jute fibres are also being used to make pulp and paper. Therefore. carpet backing cloth (CBC). low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. Its UV protection. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles [1]. wrapping fabrics (cotton bale). Conversely. in solid and fancy shades. Among these are espadrilles. wall-coverings. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute. Primary CBC provides a tufting surface. Jute Mats & Rugs are made both through Powerloom & Handloom. and home furnishings. Traditionally jute was used in traditional textile machineries as textile fibres having cellulose (vegetable fibre content) and lignin (wood fibre content). lighter than sacking. and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. upholstery. either replacing cotton or blending with it. technical textiles. the coarse ends of the plants. India. carpets.

but have commercial value for the paper. It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem. It is also a popular dish in the northern provinces of the Philippines. calcium. and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. and Vitamin C. The Yoruba of Nigeria call it "ewedu" and the Songhay of Mali call it "fakohoy. where it is known as saluyot. and other products. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibres that is used for soil erosion control. iron. carded yarn. The plant has an antioxidant activity with a significant α-tocopherol equivalent Vitamin E. Features Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fibre. seed protection. Thus. and other fibre processing industries. which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality. as the expired fibres can be recycled more than once. medicine. paints. The Geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute Geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile. Other Diversified byproducts which can be cultivated from jute include uses in cosmetics. The lower part is hard fibre. jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging. weed control. Therefore. Another diversified jute product is Geotextiles. and ensures better breathability of fabrics. It has high tensile strength. It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fibre. Jute fibres are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh. . which is also a staple for most communities in Kenya. jute is the most environment-friendly fibre starting from the seed to expired fibre. low extensibility. The leaves are rich in betacarotene. • • • • • Jute fibre is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. in terms of usage. as well as in Egypt. where it is called mulukhiyya and is often considered the national dish. Food Jute leaves are consumed in various parts of the world. global consumption. Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation. which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. where it is commonly known as 'mrenda' or 'murere'. and availability." It is made into a common mucilaginous (somewhat "slimy") soup or sauce in some West African cooking traditions. It is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton.Moreover. It is a popular vegetable in West Africa. Jute is also used in the making of ghillie suits which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush. jute can be grown in 4–6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem) that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. production. Methods such as this could be used to transfer the fertility of the Ganges Delta to the deserts of Sahara or Australia[citation needed] . It is eaten with 'ugali'. Jute leaves are also consumed among the Luyhia people of Western Kenya.

basic. as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. and yellowing in sunlight. as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. most of which is occupied by Bangladesh. Jute can also be blended with wool. in order to modernize processing. net. To meet this demand. and pigment dyes. increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. reactive. By treating jute with caustic soda. it has been suggested that the natural fibre industry adopt the Rieter's Elitex system. Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties. softness. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend. as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents. • • ***************************************************************************** . pliability. the demand for jute and other natural fibres that can be blended with cotton will increase. and agricultural sectors. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value-added diversified products made from jute.• • • • It helps to make best quality industrial yarn. Jute can be processed with an enzyme in order to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. and appearance is improved. sulfur. Jute has a decreased strength when wet. construction. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract. jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes. textiles. As the demand for natural comfort fibres increases. The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta. fibre shedding. vat. jute is not a form of cannabis. and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural. aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Once treated with an enzyme. bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate. brittleness. both synthetic and natural. crimp. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations. Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance. preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss. and sacks. fabric. and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibres. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute. However. nontextile. which can be made from marigold flower extract. Unlike the hemp fiber. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been used in raw materials for packaging.

More recently stainless steel has become a base as well. Lucca. can melt the fibers. Many of these elegant textiles can be found in museums around the world. aluminum was usually the base in a metallic fiber. aluminum yarns. plastic-coated metal. or a core completely covered by metal[1]. aluminized plastic yarns. Gold and silver have been used since ancient times as yarns for fabric decoration. Cyprus. if there is no care label. . Metallic filaments can be coated with transparent films to minimize tarnishing. They have been woven on Byzantine looms from the 7th to 9th Centuries.[3] In the past. A common film is Lurex polyester. leaders. It is more difficult to work with but provides properties to the yarn that allows it to be used in more high tech[clarification needed] applications .[6] The Dobeckmum Company produced the first modern metallic fiber in 1946. [3] Fiber properties Coated metallic filaments help to minimize tarnishing.Metallic fiber Metallic fibers are manufactured fibers composed of metal.[4] Ancient textiles and clothing woven from wholly or partly gold threads is sometimes referred to as Cloth of Gold. and aluminized nylon yarns have replaced gold and silver.[3] Historically. the metallic thread was constructed by wrapping a metal strip around a fiber core (cotton or silk). metal-coated plastic. and after that in Sicily.[5] Weaving also flourished in the 12th Century during the legacy of Genghis Khan when art and trade flourished under Mongol rule in China and some Middle Eastern areas. especially at high tempatures. they are not affected by salt water. nobility and people of status. often in such a way as to reveal the color of the fiber core to enhance visual quality of the decoration. More recently.[2] History Gold and silver have been used since ancient times as decoration in the clothing and textiles of kings. Ironing can be problematic because the heat from the iron.[7] If possible anything made with metallic fibers should be dry-cleaned. chlorinated water in swimming pools or climatic conditions. and Venice. When suitable adhesives and films are used.

and knit into many fashionable fabrics and trims. a mineral-based oil. and cut resistant gloves for butchers and other people working near bladed or dangerous machinery. These types of carpets are often used in computer-use areas where the chance of producing static is much greater.] Trademarks The Lurex Company has manufactured metallic fibers in Europe for over fifty years. Other uses include tire cord. trimmings. This process involves heating the metal until it vaporizes then depositing it at a high pressure onto the polyester film . producing a wide range of looks. and synthetic blends to produce yarns which add novelty effects to the end cloth or trim. missile nose cones. work clothing such as protective suits. Metallic yarns are woven. or the film can be colored before laminating. ropes. anything from party and evening wear to club clothing.W. The most commonly used nylon is either 15 denier or 20 denier. that stocks a wide variety of laminated and non-laminated metallic yarns. They are dispersed throughout the carpet with other fibers so they are not detected. and lace surface decoration. . cords. There are many different variations of color and effect that can be made in metallic fibers. The presence of the fibers helps to conduct electricity so that the static shock is reduced. more flexible. Many people also use metallic fibers in weaving and needlepoint. Uses The most common uses for metallic fibers is upholstery fabric and textiles such as lamé and brocade. Increasingly common today are metaillic fibers in clothing. which seals a layer of aluminum between two layers of acetate or polyester film. braided. For additional variety. Stainless steel fibers are also used in carpets. metallic yarns are twisted with other fibers such as wool. They produce a wide variety of metallic fiber products including fibers used in apparel fabric. braids.Production method There are two basic processes that are used in manufacturing metallic fibers. but heavier deniers are used for special purposes. which helps[clarification needed] provide ease of use. One end of nylon is wrapped clockwise and the other end is wrapped counterclockwise around the metallic yarn. This process produces thinner. Metlon Corporation is a trademark of Metallic Yarns in the United States and has been producing metallic yarns for over over sixty years. embroidery. and more comfortable fibers. and everyday wear. The most common is the laminating process. space suits. These fibers are then cut into lengthwise strips for yarns and wound onto bobbins. military regalia. The fibers are also treated with a lubricant called P. Metlon produces their metallic yarn by wrapping single slit yarns with two ends of nylon. cotton. knitting. cold weather and survival clothing. Stainless steel and other metal fibers are used in communication lines such as phone lines and cable television lines. Metallic fibers can also be made by using the metalizing process.. The metal can be colored and sealed in a clear film. nylon. Producers Currently metallic fibers are manufactured primarily in Europe with only three manufacturers still producing metallic yarn in the United States.S. more durable. the adhesive can be colored. The majority of Lurex fibers have a polyamdie film covering the metal strand but polyester and viscose are also used. Metlon Corporation is one of the remaining manufacturers in the U.

Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications. including sensors and fiber lasers. and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications.******************************************************************************* Optical fiber A bundle of optical fibers A TOSLINK fiber optic audio cable being illuminated on one end An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss. . Fibers are also used for illumination.

Jun-ichi Nishizawa. Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter. a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London a dozen years later. Special connectors are used to make removable connections.. the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular. Wilbur Peters. If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees.. where the glass fiber is coated with a transparent cladding to offer a more suitable refractive index. researchers at the University of Michigan. In 1952. in 1884. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multimode fibers (MMF). and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc.. Guiding of light by refraction. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. though used extensively in the modern world. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved. Modern optical fibers. while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF).. When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular. the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be totally reflected at the surface.. such as close internal illumination during dentistry.. In the process of developing the gastroscope.[4] Nishizawa invented other technologies that contributed to the development of optical fiber communications as well. and are used for shortdistance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. History Fiber optics. • Daniel Colladon first described this "light fountain" or "light pipe" in an 1842 article entitled On the reflections of a ray of light inside a parabolic liquid stream. For water this angle is 48°27'. This particular illustration comes from a later article by Colladon. C.Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection.[6] .[1] Tyndall also wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870: "When the light passes from air into water.[5] Nishizawa invented the graded-index optical fiber in 1964 as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers over long distances with low loss. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed. was the first to propose the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963.. is a fairly simple and old technology. physicist Narinder Singh Kapany conducted experiments that led to the invention of optical fiber. Curtiss produced the first glassclad fibers. appeared early in the twentieth century. the principle that makes fiber optics possible. appeared later in the decade. Singlemode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 550 metres (1.[1] Development then focused on fiber bundles for image transmission. The first fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz. while for diamond it is 23°42'. Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. Curtiss. for flint glass it is 38°41'. in 1956. and Lawrence E. was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. previous optical fibers had relied on air or impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material.800 ft). The angle which marks the limit where total reflexion begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. The principle was first used for internal medical examinations by Heinrich Lamm in the following decade."[2][3] Practical applications.

by researchers Robert D. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. General Electric produced fused quartz ingots that could be drawn into fiber optic strands 25 miles (40 km) long. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity. allowing fibers to be a practical medium for communication. the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber can be modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second. rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering.[7] They proposed that the attenuation in fibers available at the time was caused by impurities. The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead. They demonstrated a fiber with 17 dB/km attenuation by doping silica glass with titanium. such as networking within a building. A few years later they produced a fiber with only 4 dB/km attenuation using germanium dioxide as the core dopant. now Corning Incorporated. which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment located in high voltage environments such as power generation facilities.[9] In 1991. They can . there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables and no pickup of environmental noise. which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing or even in many cases eliminating the need for optical-electrical-optical repeaters. The more robust optical fiber commonly used today utilizes glass for both core and sheath and is therefore less prone to aging processes.In 1965. and Frank Zimar working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works. Kao and George A. because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. Payne of the University of Southampton. Schultz.[citation needed] Each fiber can carry many independent channels. was co-developed by teams led by David N. rather than total internal reflection.[vague] Fiber is also immune to electrical interference. Over short distances. Donald Keck.[8] Attenuations in modern optical cables are far less than those in electrical copper cables. Such low attenuations ushered in optical fiber telecommunications and enabled the Internet. Additionally. Applications Optical fiber communication Main article: Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially available in 2000. each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). Charles K. Maurer. leading to long-haul fiber connections with repeater distances of 70–150 kilometres (43–93 mi). multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). In 1981. fiber saves space in cable ducts because a single fiber can carry much more data than a single electrical cable. the emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development of photonic-crystal fiber[10] which guides light by means of diffraction from a periodic structure. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km). The erbiumdoped fiber amplifier.[12] although 10 or 40 Gb/s is typical in deployed systems. It was invented by Gerhard Bernsee in 1973 of Schott Glass in Germany. Peter C. and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell Laboratories in 1986. which could be removed. and their wavelength dependent properties can be manipulated to improve their performance in certain applications. or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes.[11] Photonic crystal fibers can be designed to carry higher power than conventional fiber. The crucial attenuation level of 20 dB/km was first achieved in 1970.

also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present. receivers. where the extreme electromagnetic fields present make other measurement techniques impossible. Synchronous optical networking. without danger of ignition. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can. Extrinsic sensors are used to measure vibration. the fibers used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass. because of the lower optical attenuation. and single-mode fiber used for longer distance links. if required. Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable. In other cases. Other uses of optical fibers . Depending on the application. velocity. Because of the tighter tolerances required to couple light into and between single-mode fibers (core diameter about 10 micrometers). A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is their ability to reach places which are otherwise inaccessible. provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter. temperature. or a combination of the two. In some applications. normally a multi-mode one. fiber may be used because of its small size. rotation. fiber is used to connect a non-fiberoptic sensor to a measurement system. or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter. acceleration. glass. to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor. polarization. with multi-mode fiber used mostly for short distances. the sensor is itself an optical fiber. and twisting. Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer. or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor. since only a simple source and detector are required. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest. An example is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a radiation pyrometer located outside the engine. up to 550 m (600 yards).[jargon] Fiber optic sensors Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. amplifiers and other components are generally more expensive than multi-mode components. and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. wavelength or transit time of light in the fiber. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain. or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location. Both multi-mode and single-mode fibers are used in communications. single-mode transmitters. torque. pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the quantity to be measured modulates the intensity. phase. Examples of applications are TOSLINK. Although fibers can be made out of transparent plastic. or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor. Extrinsic sensors can also be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature of electrical transformers. Wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections. displacement. Fiber distributed data interface.

A frisbee illuminated by fiber optics Fibers are widely used in illumination applications. which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in addition to the signal wave. A spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off of and through them. or reactions which occur in pressure vessels. Swarovski boutiques use optical fibers to illuminate their crystal showcases from many different angles while only employing one light source.[13][14][15] An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as erbium can be used as the gain medium of a laser or optical amplifier. To confine the optical signal in the core. or gradual. optical fibers are used to route sunlight from the roof to other parts of the building (see non-imaging optics). In spectroscopy. A coherent bundle of fibers is used. Principle of operation An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide that transmits light along its axis. or gasses. They are used as light guides in medical and other applications where bright light needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-of-sight path. LiTraCon. Index of refraction Main article: Refractive index . Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical procedures (endoscopy). Examples of this are electronics in high-powered antenna elements and measurement devices used in high voltage transmission equipment. Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to collect scintillation light in physics experiments. The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission. in step-index fiber. In some buildings. By using fibers. sometimes along with lenses. Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber. Optical fiber illumination is also used for decorative applications. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product. including signs. a spectrometer can be used to study objects that are too large to fit inside. in order to analyze its composition. Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. for a long. by the process of total internal reflection. in graded-index fiber. Optical fiber can be used to supply a low level of power (around one watt) to electronics situated in a difficult electrical environment. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt. optical fiber bundles are used to transmit light from a spectrometer to a substance which cannot be placed inside the spectrometer itself. which is used to view objects through a small hole. Rare-earth doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular (undoped) optical fiber line. and artificial Christmas trees. Industrial endoscopes (see fiberscope or borescope) are used for inspecting anything hard to reach. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer. art. thin imaging device called an endoscope. such as jet engine interiors. the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding.

This range of angles is called the acceptance cone of the fiber. Index of refraction is calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum by the speed of light in some other medium. there is a maximum angle from the fiber axis at which light may enter the fiber so that it will propagate. means that there is an absolute minimum delay of 60 milliseconds (or around 1/16th of a second) between when one caller speaks to when the other hears. . (Of course the fiber in this case will probably travel a longer route. The core value is typically 1. Or to put it another way. The larger the index of refraction. In simpler terms.48. Because the light must strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. Light travels along the fiber bouncing back and forth off of the boundary. Light travels fastest in a vacuum.The index of refraction is a way of measuring the speed of light in a material. the signal will take 5 milliseconds to propagate. in the core of the fiber. Thus a phone call carried by fiber between Sydney and New York. Multi-mode fiber The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical fiber. Total internal reflection Main article: Total internal reflection When light traveling in a dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary). such as outer space. Single-mode fiber has a small NA. This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core.46. The size of this acceptance cone is a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core and cladding. by definition. the slower light travels in that medium. and there will be additional delays due to communication equipment switching and the process of encoding and decoding the voice onto the fiber). the light will be completely reflected. a good rule of thumb is that signal using optical fiber for communication will travel at around 200 million meters per second. The index of refraction of a vacuum is therefore 1. From this information. to travel 1000 kilometres in fiber. or travel. The typical value for the cladding of an optical fiber is 1. only light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel down the fiber without leaking out. The actual speed of light in a vacuum is about 300 million meters (186 thousand miles) per second. a 12000 kilometre distance. Fiber with a larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA.

are completely reflected. rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. However.A laser bouncing down an acrylic rod. from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles. greater than the critical angle for this boundary. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber. rather than the high-index center. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core. A low numerical aperture may therefore be desirable. In graded-index fiber. and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. rather than reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis and the cladding. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding. Main article: Multi-mode optical fiber Fiber with large core diameter (greater than 10 micrometers) may be analyzed by geometric optics. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary). In a step-index multi-mode fiber. illustrating the total internal reflection of light in a multimode optical fiber. . This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber. The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal reflection) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and cladding materials. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis. this high numerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber. often reported as a numerical aperture. Optical fiber types.

The results of such modeling of multi-mode fiber approximately agree with the predictions of geometric optics. Photonic crystal fiber is made with a regular pattern of index variation (often in the form of cylindrical holes that run along the length of the fiber). Instead. The waveguide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is not completely confined in the core. if the fiber core is large enough to support more than a few modes. Cladding: 125 µm dia. These include polarization-maintaining fiber and fiber designed to suppress whispering gallery mode propagation. Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber. Instead. it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8–10 micrometers and is designed for use in the near infrared. Main article: Single-mode optical fiber Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics. to confine light to the fiber's core. so that this fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes at visible wavelengths.Single-mode fiber The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. As an optical waveguide. the fiber supports one or more confined transverse modes by which light can propagate along the fiber. 4. Special-purpose fiber Some special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical core and/or cladding layer. 3. which shows that such fiber supports more than one mode of propagation (hence the name). The normalized frequency V for this fiber should be less than the first zero of the Bessel function J0 (approximately 2. The properties of the fiber can be tailored to a wide variety of applications. especially in single-mode fibers. usually with an elliptical or rectangular cross-section. by comparison. a significant fraction of the energy in the bound mode travels in the cladding as an evanescent wave. Such fiber uses diffraction effects instead of or in addition to total internal reflection. by solution of Maxwell's equations as reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation. Buffer: 250 µm dia. The behavior of larger-core multi-mode fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation.405). . The mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used. Jacket: 400 µm dia. The electromagnetic analysis may also be required to understand behaviors such as speckle that occur when coherent light propagates in multi-mode fiber. Multi-mode fiber. 1. is manufactured with core diameters as small as 50 micrometers and as large as hundreds of micrometres. Core: 8 µm diameter 2.

This is called diffuse reflection or scattering. can cause light rays to be reflected in random directions. . Thus. Rough and irregular surfaces. and it is typically characterized by wide variety of reflection angles. even at the molecular level.Mechanisms of attenuation Light attenuation by ZBLAN and silica fibers Main article: Transparent materials Attenuation in fiber optics. is the reduction in intensity of the light beam (or signal) with respect to distance travelled through a transmission medium. Light scattering Specular reflection Diffuse reflection The propagation of light through the core an optical fiber is based on total internal reflection of the lightwave. Attenuation coefficients in fiber optics usually use units of dB/km through the medium due to the relatively high quality of transparency of modern optical transmission media. also known as transmission loss. Attenuation is an important factor limiting the transmission of a digital signal across large distances. Empirical research has shown that attenuation in optical fiber is caused primarily by both scattering and absorption. The medium is typically usually a fiber of silica glass that confines the incident light beam to the inside. much research has gone into both limiting the attenuation and maximizing the amplification of the optical signal.

UV-Vis-IR absorption In addition to light scattering. all materials are bounded by limiting regions of absorption caused by atomic and molecular vibrations (bond-stretching)in the far-infrared (>10 µm). This phenomenon has given rise to the production of transparent ceramic materials. how close-packed its atoms or molecules are. which is typically in the form of some specific microstructural feature. as well as glasses and ceramics. the scattering no longer occurs to any significant extent. They are the result of the interactive coupling between the motions of thermally induced vibrations of the constituent atoms and molecules of the solid lattice and the incident light wave radiation. Hence. attenuation results from the incoherent scattering of light at internal surfaces and interfaces. This same phenomenon is seen as one of the limiting factors in the transparency of IR missile domes. most of the internal surfaces or interfaces are in the form of grain boundaries that separate tiny regions of crystalline order. Within this framework. Thus. Normal modes of vibration in a crystalline solid. depending on the frequency of the incident lightwave and the physical dimension (or spatial scale) of the scattering center. In (poly)crystalline materials such as metals and ceramics. Thus. attenuation or signal loss can also occur due to selective absorption of specific wavelengths. it depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds. far IR. limits to spatial scales of visibility arise. it depends on whether the electron orbitals are spaced (or "quantized") such that they can absorb a quantum of light (or photon) of a specific wavelength or frequency in the ultraviolet (UV) or visible ranges. This is what gives rise to color. in addition to pores. and whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit long-range order. These factors will determine the capacity of the material transmitting longer wavelengths in the infrared (IR). Since visible light has a wavelength of the order of one micron (one millionth of a meter) scattering centers will have dimensions on a similar spatial scale. It has recently been shown that when the size of the scattering center (or grain boundary) is reduced below the size of the wavelength of the light being scattered. 2) At the atomic or molecular level. Distributed both between and within these domains are micro-structural defects which will provide the most ideal locations for the occurrence of light scattering. in a manner similar to that responsible for the appearance of color. one emerging school of thought is that a glass is simply the limiting case of a polycrystalline solid. the scattering of light in optical quality glass fiber is caused by molecular level irregularities (compositional fluctuations) in the glass structure. radio and microwave ranges. The design of any optically transparent device requires the selection of materials based upon knowledge of its properties and limitations. Indeed. Similarly. The lattice absorption characteristics observed at the lower frequency regions (mid IR to far-infrared wavelength range) define the long-wavelength transparency limit of the material. "domains" exhibiting various degrees of short-range order become the building blocks of both metals and alloys.Light scattering depends on the wavelength of the light being scattered. scattering can also be caused by nonlinear optical processes in the fiber. Primary material considerations include both electrons and molecules as follows: 1) At the electronic level. At high optical powers. .

reaching a maximum coupling with the radiation when the frequency is equal to the fundamental vibrational mode of the molecular dipole (e. Silica Tetrahedral structural unit of silica (SiO2). Si-O bond) in the far-infrared. Typically the difference between core and cladding is less than one percent. the energy is either reflected or transmitted. Reflection and transmission of light waves occur because the frequencies of the light waves do not match the natural resonant frequencies of vibration of the objects. they will selectively absorb different frequencies (or portions of the spectrum) of infrared (IR) light. fluoroaluminate. When IR light of these frequencies strike an object. are used for longer-wavelength infrared applications. Like other glasses. POF typically have higher attenuation co-efficients than glass fibers. but some other materials.g. such as fluorozirconate. Manufacturing Materials Glass optical fibers are almost always made from silica. These dipoles can absorb energy from the incident radiation.Thus. . and this high attenuation limits the range of POF-based systems. Since different atoms and molecules have different natural frequencies of vibration. multi-phonon absorption occurs when two or more phonons simultaneously interact to produce electric dipole moments with which the incident radiation may couple. and chalcogenide glasses.5. Plastic optical fibers (POF) are commonly step-index multi-mode fibers with a core diameter of 0. these glasses have a refractive index of about 1. or one of its harmonics.5 millimeters or larger. The selective absorption of infrared (IR) light by a particular material occurs because the selected frequency of the light wave matches the frequency (or an integral multiple of the frequency) at which the particles of that material vibrate. 1 dB/m or higher.

One other advantage is that fusion splicing and cleaving of silica fibers is relatively effective. This can lead to quenching effects due to clustering of dopant ions. an aluminosilicate. The large efforts which have been put forth in the development . fiber lasers. particularly around 1. so that the entire assembly (core and cladding) is effectively the same compound (e. for example. Silica fiber also has high mechanical strength against both pulling and even bending.2 dB/km. fiber amplifiers. Silica is also relatively chemically inert. In the nearinfrared (near IR) portion of the spectrum. germanosilicate. Aluminosilicates are much more effective in this respect.g. rare earth-doped fibers) in order to obtain active fibers to be used.g.4-μm region is achieved by maintaining a low concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH). in fiber amplifiers or laser applications. it is not hygroscopic (does not absorb water). and has a fairly broad glass transformation range. Doping is also possible with laser-active ions (for example.5 μm. Silica glass can be doped with various materials. Silica can be drawn into fibers at reasonably high temperatures.g. provided that the fiber is not too thick and that the surfaces have been well prepared during processing. Alternatively. with Germanium dioxide (GeO2) or Aluminium oxide (Al2O3)) or to lower it (e. In particular. One purpose of doping is to raise the refractive index (e. silica can have extremely low absorption and scattering losses of the order of 0. No long-range order is present. and fiber-optic sensors. however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of oxygen (O) atoms around the silicon (Si) atoms. because it exhibits a low solubility for rare earth ions. This is important for fiber amplifiers when utilized for the amplification of short pulses. This property ensures a low tendency for laser-induced breakdown. with fluorine or Boron trioxide (B2O3)). phosphosilicate or borosilicate glass). Both the fiber core and cladding are typically doped. Silica fiber also exhibits a high threshold for optical damage. Because of these properties silica fibers are the material of choice in many optical applications. Particularly for active fibers.The amorphous structure of glassy silica (SiO2). such as communications (except for very short distances with plastic optical fiber). A high transparency in the 1. Silica exhibits fairly good optical transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. pure silica is usually not a very suitable host glass. Even simple cleaving (breaking) of the ends of the fiber can provide nicely flat surfaces with acceptable optical quality. a high OH concentration is better for transmission in the ultraviolet (UV) region.

such low losses were never realized in practice. the building block for this glass former is Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). They are advantageous especially in the midinfrared (2000–5000 nm) range. as required for medical applications (e. These include mid-IR spectroscopy. Their best attribute is that they lack the absorption band associated with the hydroxyl (OH) group (3200–3600 cm−1). the utility of fluoride fibers for various other applications was discovered. The most familiar polymorph (see figure) comprises molecules of P4O10. thermometry. because the intrinsic losses of a mid-IR fiber could in principle be lower than those of silica fibers. lanthanum. it is very difficult to completely avoid crystallization while processing it through the glass transition (or drawing the fiber from the melt). Also.of various types of silica fibers have further increased the performance of such fibers over other materials. and the fragility and high cost of fluoride fibers made them less than ideal as primary candidates. aluminum. Phosphate glass constitutes a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals. but are quite fragile. . which is present in nearly all oxide-based glasses. although heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) exhibit very low optical attenuation. An example of a heavy metal fluoride glass is the ZBLAN glass group. Instead of the SiO4 tetrahedra observed in silicate glasses. and have poor resistance to moisture and other environmental attacks. composed of zirconium. Their main technological application is as optical waveguides in both planar and fiber form. they are not only difficult to manufacture. However. Due to their low viscosity. fluoride fibers can be used to for guided lightwave transmission in media such as YAG (yttria-alumina garnet) lasers at 2. HMFG's were initially slated for optical fiber applications. Thus.g. ophthalmology and dentistry). which crystallizes in at least four different forms. fiber-optic sensors. Later. [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] Fluorides : Fluoride glass is a class of non-oxide optical quality glasses composed of fluorides of various metals. which are transparent only up to about 2  μm. and sodium fluorides. barium. and imaging.9 μm. Phosphates : The P4O10 cagelike structure—the basic building block for phosphate glass.

thin optical fiber. These are extremly versatile compounds. The deposition is due to the large difference in temperature between the gas core and the wall causing the gas to push the particles outwards (this is known as .[32] With inside vapor deposition. such as silver. bringing the temperature of the gas up to 1900 K (1600 °C. and conductors of ions or electrons. with a carefully controlled refractive index profile. When the reaction conditions are chosen to allow this reaction to occur in the gas phase throughout the tube volume. in that they can be crystalline or amorphous. in contrast to earlier techniques where the reaction occurred only on the glass surface. Process: Illustration of the modified chemical vapor deposition (inside) process Standard optical fibers are made by first constructing a large-diameter preform. which subsequently deposit on the walls of the tube as soot. and then pulling the preform to form the long.Phosphate glasses can be advantageous over silica glasses for optical fibers with a high concentration of doping rare earth ions. and vapor axial deposition. The oxide particles then agglomerate to form large particle chains. The gases are then heated by means of an external hydrogen burner. 3000 °F). [30] [31] Chalcogenides : The chalcogens—the elements in group 16 of the periodic table—particularly sulphur (S). selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te)—react with more electropositive elements. metallic or semiconducting. the preform starts as a hollow glass tube approximately 40 centimetres (16 in) long. which is placed horizontally and rotated slowly on a lathe. where the tetrachlorides react with oxygen to produce silica or germania (germanium dioxide) particles. to form chalcogenides. Gases such as silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4) are injected with oxygen in the end of the tube. this technique is called modified chemical vapor deposition. outside vapor deposition. A mix of fluoride glass and phosphate glass is fluorophosphate glass. The preform is commonly made by three chemical vapor deposition methods: inside vapor deposition.

[36] Bendable fiber may also be resistant to fiber hacking. "Bendable fibers". In vapor axial deposition. lashing to aerial telephone poles. and insertion in paved streets.[35][not in citation given] installation in conduit. however constructed. the tension on the fiber can be controlled to maintain the fiber thickness. high voltage isolation. where the preform tip is heated and the optic fiber is pulled out as a string. 2800 °F). dual use as power lines. In outside vapor deposition or vapor axial deposition. and a porous preform. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers. The porous preform is consolidated into a transparent. which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer. Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers. designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches. The torch is then traversed up and down the length of the tube to deposit the material evenly. whose length is not limited by the size of the source rod. the glass is formed by flame hydrolysis. but traditional fiber's loss increases greatly if the fiber is bent with a radius smaller than around 30 mm. Practical issues Optical fiber cables An optical fiber cable Main article: Optical fiber cable In practical fibers. it is then brought back to the beginning of the tube and the deposited particles are then melted to form a solid layer.5 mm without adverse impact. a short seed rod is used. The preform. By measuring the resultant fiber width. is then placed in a device known as a drawing tower. solid preform by heating to about 1800 K (1500 °C. In outside vapor deposition the glass is deposited onto a solid rod. the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer. is built up on its end. This creates a problem when the cable is bent around corners or wound around a spool. have been standardized as ITU-T G. targeted towards easier installation in home environments. Fiber cable can be very flexible. a reaction in which silicon tetrachloride and germanium tetrachloride are oxidized by reaction with water (H2O) in an oxyhydrogen flame. usually plastic. in which the signal in a fiber is surreptitiously monitored by bending the fiber and detecting the leakage. submarine installation. For each layer the composition can be modified by varying the gas composition. The cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high Japanese and South Korean demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations. This type of fiber can be bent with a radius as low as 7. After the torch has reached the end of the tube. Even more bendable fibers have been developed. This process is repeated until a sufficient amount of material has been deposited.thermophoresis). making FTTX installations more complicated. or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. resulting in precise control of the finished fiber's optical properties. . to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another.657. which is removed before further processing.

ST. "turn and latch" ("bayonet"). The mating mechanism can be "push and click".1 dB is typical. The complexity of this process makes fiber splicing much more difficult than splicing copper wire. fusing the ends together permanently. These connectors are usually of a standard type such as FC. the fiber's end is polished to a mirror finish. and a strain relief is secured to the rear. LC. A fiber-optic connector is basically a rigid cylindrical barrel surrounded by a sleeve that holds the barrel in its mating socket. The ends are cleaved (cut) with a precision cleaver to make them perpendicular. All splicing techniques involve the use of an enclosure into which the splice is placed for protection afterward. Once the adhesive has set. that is. Fusion splicing is done with a specialized instrument that typically operates as follows: The two cable ends are fastened inside a splice enclosure that will protect the splices. which melts the fiber ends together with an electric arc. Then the splicer generates a larger spark that raises the temperature above the melting point of the glass. The fiber ends are aligned and held together by a precision-made sleeve. if present). Optical fibers are connected to terminal equipment by optical fiber connectors. This is known as a "physical contact" (PC) polish. Mechanical fiber splices are designed to be quicker and easier to install. joining two fibers together to form a continuous optical waveguide. and this minimizes optical loss. A splice loss under 0. A splice loss estimate is measured by the splicer. For quicker fastening jobs. often using a clear index-matching gel that enhances the transmission of light across the joint. SC. The splice is usually inspected via a magnified viewing screen to check the cleaves before and after the splice. the fiber ends are typically polished with a slight curvature. Such joints typically have higher optical loss and are less robust than fusion splices.Termination and splicing ST connectors on multi-mode fiber. The splicer uses small motors to align the end faces together. Various polish profiles are used. The location and energy of the spark is carefully controlled so that the molten core and cladding don't mix. careful cleaning and precision cleaving. such that when the connectors are mated the fibers touch only at their cores. depending on the type of fiber and the application. Optical fibers may be connected to each other by connectors or by splicing. to make . and the fiber ends are stripped of their protective polymer coating (as well as the more sturdy outer jacket. or screw-in (threaded). The generally accepted splicing method is arc fusion splicing. Quick-set adhesive is usually used so the fiber is held securely. A typical connector is installed by preparing the fiber end and inserting it into the rear of the connector body. Fibers are terminated in connectors so that the fiber end is held at the end face precisely and securely. and are placed into special holders in the splicer. For single-mode fiber. or MTRJ. especially if the gel is used. but there is still the need for stripping. and emits a small spark between electrodes at the gap to burn off dust and moisture. The curved surface may be polished at an angle. a "mechanical splice" is used. by directing light through the cladding on one side and measuring the light leaking from the cladding on the other side.

the resulting loss in signal strength is known as gap loss. Polipropene 25 [USAN]. Polypropene. In "angled physical contact" (APC) connection. can also effectively halt propagation of the fiber fuse. Free-space coupling It often becomes necessary to align an optical fiber with another optical fiber or an optical device such as a light-emitting diode. The reflection from the damage vaporizes the fiber immediately before the break. Propylene polymers. above 2 megawatts per square centimeter. which ensures laser eye safety in the event of a broken fiber. A precision translation stage (micro-positioning table) is used to move the lens. 1-Propene Identifiers . Fiber fuse At high optical intensities. This can involve either carefully aligning the fiber and placing it in contact with the device to which it is to couple. the fiber end is usually aligned to the device or other fiber with a fiber launch system that uses a microscope objective lens to focus the light down to a fine point. a fiber fuse can occur. where high power levels might be used without the need for open fiber control. or an optoelectronic device such as a modulator. In a laboratory environment. or can use a lens to allow coupling over an air gap. when a fiber is subjected to a shock or is otherwise suddenly damaged. In some cases the end of the fiber is polished into a curved form that is designed to allow it to act as a lens. 2–8 mph). ******************************************************************************* Polypropylene Polypropylene IUPAC name Other names [show] Polypropylene. but greatly reduced back reflection. or device to allow the coupling efficiency to be optimized. The open fiber control system. APC fiber ends have low back reflection even when disconnected. fiber. because light that reflects from the angled surface leaks out of the fiber core. a laser diode. and this new defect remains reflective so that the damage propagates back toward the transmitter at 1–3 meters per second (4−11 km/h. a "fiber fuse" protection device at the transmitter can break the circuit to prevent any damage. Such connections have higher loss than PC connections. such as undersea cables.Propene polymers.

amorphous Density 0. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene. laboratory equipment. stationery. It is often opaque and/or coloured using pigments. 100 kPa) Infobox references Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer.g. Higher MFR PPs fill the plastic mold more easily during the injection or blow molding production process. textiles (e. as determined by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This helps to determine how easily the melted raw material will flow during processing.4 billion €). Polypropylene has a melting point of ~160°C (320°F). some physical properties. and polymer banknotes.CAS number 9003-07-0 Properties Molecular formula (C3H6)x 0. Polypropylene is reasonably economical. crystalline Melting point ~ 160 °C Except where noted otherwise. plastic parts and reusable containers of various types. Polypropylene has good resistance to fatigue. made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications. will decrease. data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C. • Chemical and physical properties Micrograph of polypropylene Most commercial polypropylene is isotactic and has an intermediate level of crystallinity between that of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). like impact strength. Randomly polymerized ethylene monomer added to PP homopolymer decreases the polymer crystallinity and makes the polymer more transparent. ropes. thermal underwear and carpets). There are three general types of PP: homopolymer. The MFR (Melt Flow Rate) or MFI (Melt Flow Index) is a measure of PP's molecular weight. Degradation . The comonomer used is typically ethylene. This allows polypropylene to be used as an engineering plastic. Ethylene-propylene rubber or EPDM added to PP homopolymer increases its low temperature impact strength. and can be made translucent when uncolored but is not as readily made transparent as polystyrene. In 2007. especially when copolymerised with ethylene. the global market for polypropylene had a volume of 45. PP is normally tough and flexible. random copolymer and block copolymer. loudspeakers.855 g/cm3.946 g/cm3. As the melt flow increases. it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents. acrylic or certain other plastics.1 million tons which led to a turnover of about 65 billion US $ (47. bases and acids. competing with materials such as ABS. however. its Young's modulus is also intermediate. including packaging. automotive components.

At first it was thought that it would be cheaper than polyethylene Synthesis Short segments of polypropylene. a common problem during moulding operations. For external applications. The polymer can also be oxidized at high temperatures. showing examples of isotactic (above) and syndiotactic (below) tacticity. only adding them to the polymer chain if they face the right direction. these helices then line up next to one another to form the crystals that give commercial polypropylene many of its desirable properties. . Like most other vinyl polymers.Polypropylene is liable to chain degradation from exposure to UV radiation such as that present in sunlight. because each methyl group takes up space and constrains backbone bending. UV-absorbing additives must be used. such molecules tend to coil into a helical shape. The relative orientation of each methyl group (CH3 in the figure at left) relative to the methyl groups on neighboring monomers has a strong effect on the finished polymer's ability to form crystals. The lack of long-range order prevents any crystallinity in such a material. which produce mostly isotactic polypropylene (the upper chain in the figure above). useful polypropylene cannot be made by radical polymerization due to the higher reactivity of the allylic hydrogen (leading to dimerization) during polymerization. With the methyl group consistently on one side. Most commercially available polypropylene is made with such Ziegler-Natta catalysts. the material that would result from such a process would have methyl groups arranged randomly. An important concept in understanding the link between the structure of polypropylene and its properties is tacticity. A Ziegler-Natta catalyst is able to limit incoming monomers to a specific orientation.[1] serving as a preliminary work for large scale synthesis from 1957 onwards. Carbon black also provides some protection from UV attack. History Polypropylene was first polymerized by Karl Rehn and Giulio Natta in March 1954. Moreover. giving an amorphous material with very little strength and only specialized qualities suitable for niche end uses. Anti-oxidants are normally added to prevent polymer degradation. so called atactic PP.

Active research is still being conducted on metallocene catalyst. The methyl group on the catalyst then migrates to the propene. The MAO then removes another Cl from the catalyst. these catalysts use organic groups to control the monomers being added. This starts the polymerization. They also produce narrower molecular weight distributions than traditional Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Different catalyst can lead to polymers with different molecular weights and properties. the crystalline regions serve the same purpose as vulcanization. amorphous bulk. and remove the selectivity of the catalyst so that the remaining length of the chain is atactic.[6][7] Manufacturing .A ball-and-stick model of syndiotactic polypropylene. light of the proper frequency is used to break this weak bond. To produce a rubbery polypropylene. Based on metallocene molecules. due to their high cost. If MAO is the co catalyst. (Some metallocene catalysts are used for industrial process. Other co catalysts include. After the catalyst has produced a short length of polymer which is capable of crystallization. which can further improve properties. or even a combination of these.) One of the simplest is Cp2MCl2 (M = Zr. More precisely engineered Kaminsky catalysts have been made. The methyl group on is replaced by the Cl from the catalyst. The result is a mostly amorphous material with small crystals embedded in it. the double bond on the propene coordinates with the metal of the catalyst. The process of coordination and migration continues and a polymer chain is grown off of the metallocene catalyst. so that a proper choice of catalyst can produce isotactic. but with the organic groups that influence tacticity held in place by a relatively weak bond. Mechanism of metallocene catalysts The reaction of many metallocene catalysts requires a co catalyst for activation. which offer a much greater level of control. and the double bond is broken. with a much greater ratio of the desired tacticity than previous Ziegler-Natta techniques. Once the methyl migrates the positively charged catalyst is reformed and another propene can coordinate to the metal. a catalyst can be made which yields isotactic polypropylene. the first step is to replace one of the Cl atoms on the catalyst with a methyl group from the MAO. they allow better quantitative control. Aside from this qualitative control. Since each chain has one end in a crystal but most of its length in the soft. Hf). This makes the catalyst positively charged and susceptible to attack from propyleneOnce the catalyst is activated. or atactic polypropylene. In the mechanism the metallocene catalyst first reacts with the co catalyst. syndiotactic. One of the most common co catalysts for this purpose is Methylaluminoxane (MAO). Al(C2H5)3There are numerous metallocene catalysts that can be used for propylene polymerization. The second propene coordinates and the carbon chain that was formed migrates to the propene. while others are not.

the tubs are often given lids made of a less heat-resistant material. For example.Melt processing of polypropylene can be achieved via extrusion and molding. which is used for parts such as cups. such as machining. The large number of end use applications for PP are often possible because of the ability to tailor grades with specific molecular properties and additives during its manufacture. For this reason. cooler containers. powdered or similar consumer products. hydronic heating and cooling. Many physical finishing techniques can also be used on PP. After the product has cooled. most plastic living hinges. more rigid piping systems. including impact and freezing. Food containers made from it will not melt in the dishwasher. Rugged. Uses Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box. Very thin sheets of polypropylene are used as a dielectric within certain high performance pulse and low loss RF capacitors. cutlery. nappies and wipes. The most common shaping technique is injection molding. and reclaimed water applications. High-purity piping systems are built using polypropylene.[8] This material is often chosen for its resistance to corrosion and chemical leaching. caps. housewares and automotive parts such as batteries. are made from this material. which involve both extrusion and molding. . since the rubbery (softer. its resillience against to most forms of physical damage. although HDPE and polyethylene terephthalate are commonly also used to make bottles. filters. Stronger. [2][citation needed] Many plastic items for medical or laboratory use can be made from polypropylene because it can withstand the heat in an autoclave. reusable plastic containers made in a wide variety of shapes and sizes for consumers from various companies such as Rubbermaid and Sterilite are commonly made of polypropylene. and do not melt during industrial hot filling processes. are also manufactured using polypropylene. Its heat resistance also enables it to be used as the manufacturing material of consumer-grade kettles. The related techniques of blow molding and injection-stretch blow molding are also used. intended for use in potable plumbing. wastebaskets. containers. Surface treatments can be applied to PP parts in order to promote adhesion of printing ink and paints. car batteries. with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Since polypropylene is resistant to fatigue. dishes and pitchers are often made of polypropylene or HDPE. vials. most plastic tubs for dairy products are polypropylene sealed with aluminium foil (both heat-resistant materials). Common extrusion methods include production of melt blown and spun bond fibers to form long rolls for future conversion into a wide range of useful products such as face masks. However. antistatic additives can be added to help PP surfaces resist dust and dirt. although the lids are often made of somewhat more flexible LDPE so they can snap on to the container to close it. more flexible) feeling of LDPE with respect to PP of the same thickness is readily apparent. such as LDPE or polystyrene. Plastic pails. it is important to ensure that chain molecules are oriented across the hinge to maximise strength. translucent. and its ability to be joined by heat fusion rather than gluing. Such containers provide a good hands-on example of the difference in modulus. Polypropylene can also be made into disposable bottles to contain liquid. such as those on flip-top bottles.

When polypropylene is biaxially oriented. such as in the ECWCS [10]). Recently it has been produced in sheet form and this has been widely used for the production of stationary folders. feel. which can easily transport sweat away from the skin. manufactured by Ethicon Inc. The light weight. Polypropylene is most commonly used for plastic moldings where it is injected into a mold while molten. Polypropylene is a major polymer used in nonwovens. These BOPP sheets are used to make a wide variety of materials including clear bags. These polypropylene clothes are not easily flammable. and elsewhere. Polypropylene is also used in warm-weather gear such as some Under Armour clothing. durable and colourful plastic makes an ideal medium for the creation of light shades and a number of designs have been developed using interlocking sections to create elaborate designs. Polypropylene. it becomes crystal clear and serves as an excellent packaging material for artistic and retail products.Such applications could be seen in the house as water filters or air conditioning type filters. or 'polypro' (New Zealand 'polyprops'). Polypropylene is also used in particular roofing membranes as the waterproofing top layer of single ply systems as opposed to modified bit systems. Other interesting non woven uses include filters for air. nonabsorbable suture Prolene. polypropylene. distinctive because they are light enough to float in water. gas and liquids where the fibers can be formed into sheets or webs that can be pleated to form cartridges or layers that filter in various efficiencies in the 0. is widely used in manufacturing rugs and mats to be used at home. has been used for the fabrication of cold-weather base layers. and properties at ambient temperature. however.[11] Polypropylene is widely used in ropes.[12] Polypropylene is also used as an alternative to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as insulation for electrical cables for LSZH cable in low-ventilation environments.both of which commonly have rather similar appearance.5 to 30 micron range. with over 50% used[citation needed] for diapers or sanitary products where it is treated to absorb water (hydrophillic) rather than naturally repelling water (hydrophobic). polyester replace polypropylene in these applications in the U. primarily tunnels. The wide colour range. bottles and fittings. highly colorfast. they can melt. Its most common medical use is in the synthetic. In New Zealand. such as long-sleeve shirts or long underwear (More recently. which may result in severe burns if the service member is involved in an explosion or fire of any kind. packaging and storage boxes. in the US military. It is used in Rubik's cube stickers because of these characteristics.S. forming complex shapes at relatively low cost and high volume. examples include bottle tops. durability and resistance to dirt make it ideal as a protective cover for papers and other materials. military. which may lead to production of acid in high temperature conditions. The availability of sheet polypropylene has provided an opportunity for the use of the material by designers. . The high surface area and naturally hydrophobic polypropylene nonwovens are ideal absorbers of oil spills with the familiar floating barriers near oil spills on rivers. A common application for polypropylene is as Biaxially Oriented polypropylene (BOPP). This is because it emits less smoke and no toxic halogens.

. below the skin.[14] Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) is a foam form of polypropylene. This is mainly due to its ability to absorb impacts. the problem is being studied. and is painless and is rarely.[13] Since polypropylene is used in a wide number of food containers such as those for yogurt. A small patch of the material is placed over the spot of the hernia. Recycling Polypropylene is commonly recycled. affecting experimental results. Researchers in Canada recently asserted that quaternary ammonium biocides and oleamide were leaking out of polypropylene labware. if ever. The material has recently been introduced into the fashion industry through the work of designers such as Anoush Waddington who have developed specialized techniques to create jewelry and wearable items from polypropylene.Polypropylene sheets are a popular choice for trading card collectors. EPP is extensively used in model aircraft and other radio controlled vehicles by hobbyists. making this an ideal material for RC aircraft for beginners and amateurs. and has the number "5" as its resin identification code: . rejected by the body. Polypropylene has been used in hernia repair operations to protect the body from new hernias in the same location. EPP has very good impact characteristics due to its low stiffness. this allows EPP to resume its shape after impacts. these come with pockets (nine for standard size cards) for the cards to be inserted and are used to protect their condition and are meant to be stored in a binder.