IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 45, NO.

4, AUGUST 1998

625

Fuzzy-Logic-Based Torque Control Strategy for Parallel-Type Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Hyeoun-Dong Lee, Student Member, IEEE, and Seung-Ki Sul, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—In a parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the torque assisting and battery recharging control using the electric machine is the key point for efficient driving. In this paper, by adopting the decision-making property of fuzzy logic, the driving map for an HEV is made according to driving conditions. In this fuzzy logic controller, the induction machine torque command is generated from the acceleration pedal stroke and its rotational speed. To construct a proper rule base of fuzzy logic, the dynamo test and road tests for a hybrid powertrain are carried out, where the torque and the nitrogen oxides (NOx ) emission characteristic of the diesel engine and the driver’s driving patterns are acquired, respectively. An HEV, a city bus for shuttle service, with the proposed fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy was built and tested at a real service route. It reveals that the improved NOx emission and better charge balance without an extra battery charger over the conventional deterministic-table-based strategy. Index Terms—Fuzzy logic control, hybrid electric vehicle.

I. INTRODUCTION ONCERNS OVER urban air contamination, especially that caused by black smoke, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NO of diesel engine buses and trucks, have increased. Therefore, low-emission vehicles have drawn much public attention. Above all, electric vehicles have stood in the spotlight all over the world in recent years. However, as pure electric vehicles have demerits, such as a short driving distance, long recharging time, and high cost, these are not thought to be a realistic solution for urban air pollution at the present time. Thus, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s), which have a longer driving distance and higher transportation capability than pure electric vehicles, can be offered as a candidate for a solution to low-emission vehicles [1]–[5]. In HEV’s, the chronic problems of batteries in pure electric vehicles can be solved to some extent, because the electrical energy can be converted into mechanical energy freely, and vice versa. Especially in the parallel type of HEV’s, the size and weight of electrical components, such as the inverter and batteries, can be reduced considerably, because the electric machine is used as a subsidiary power source. In parallel-type HEV’s, for extended battery life and easy maintenance, a driving strategy that can balance the battery charge for one turn of a service route is required. If the HEV is operated with a strategy that results in excessive discharge of battery, the battery should be recharged with
Manuscript received June 26, 1997; revised January 26, 1998. Abstract published on the Internet May 1, 1998. The authors are with the School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 Korea. Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(98)05685-8.

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external equipment at service station, which is time consuming and troublesome. Conversely, in the case of overcharge of the battery, the fuel economy and emission characteristics of the HEV could be deteriorated. In the series-type HEV for large-sized vehicle applications [2], a considerable burden in electric machine size and weight is imposed on the vehicle to satisfy the maximum power rating of the drivetrain compared to the parallel-type HEV. Excessive discharge of the battery could happen, which would be harmful to battery maintenance. For large-sized parallel-type HEV’s [3], [4], only the torque assistance of the electric machine was executed according to the acceleration pedal stroke. The battery was recharged by regenerated power at braking and also recharged at idling condition with a diesel engine. When the battery is charged by mechanical energy in the braking stage, dc-bus voltage instantaneously rises and battery voltage seems to recover its normal state, but it does not mean that the battery regains sufficient power capability to cope with the next discharging action. Moreover, to protect power switching devices and the dc-link capacitor from overvoltage, it is necessary to limit dc-link current by controlling negative torque of the induction machine and to convert excessive energy into the heat of the dynamic braking resistor. Where the battery is charged by diesel engine torque at the idling condition of the HEV, overall NO emission is increased because the diesel engine has a property producing a lot of NO emission in the low-speed region and the battery charging action acts as a load to the diesel engine. Moreover, charging efficiency is much lower than motoring efficiency, because diesel engine efficiency is very low at idling speed and, thus, charging time is relatively long. Hence, battery charging by regenerative power and diesel engine at idling condition could not be sufficient and desirable to the operation of the HEV. The additional battery charging process should be essential with external equipment. In the construction of a driving strategy, it is very difficult to determine the exact changeover point where the torque assistance (motoring) action is taken over by the battery charging (generating) action. Using a driving strategy constructed in a deterministic way [5], the balance of battery charge is highly sensitive to the driver’s driving pattern, service route state, and load conditions. Many trial-and-error-based tests modifying the driving strategy should be required to get the effective one. This paper proposes that the battery charging control in the driving stage, as well as the torque assistant control, should be taken into account in the construction of the driving strategy. By the battery charging control in the driving stage with diesel

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2 shows the powertrain configuration of the parallel-type HEV. 1. System configuration. and its specifications are presented in Table I. In the proposed driving strategy. a battery package. the dynamo test of the hybrid powertrain was carried out. The robust property of fuzzy logic enables the HEV to be operated with the improved battery charge balance. is applied to the battery charge balance control of the parallel-type HEV. and battery usage. load conditions. the diesel engine can provide torque to both battery charging and vehicle propulsion. the induction machine has the shape of a pancake. the torque and NO emitting characteristic of the hybrid powertrain according to engine speed and acceleration pedal stroke are clarified. 1. In the dynamo test. fuzzy logic. The battery is of the sealed lead-acid type and the battery pack consists of 25 modules connected in series. 45. is shown in Fig. where each torque . producing satisfactory NO emission for all possible operations. the induction machine is controlled with the rotor-flux-oriented control scheme and space-vector pulsewidth modulation (PWM). the dynamo test was carried out.626 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Its rotor substitutes for the conventional flywheel and the rotor shaft is directly coupled to the diesel engine shaft. This HEV is a 45-seat heavy-sized transit bus. an inverter. II. The more detailed specifications of the electrical components are listed in Table II. VOL. the usefulness of which for decision making for an uncertain and imprecise plant has already been introduced in many industrial fields [6]. The driving patterns in the service route are investigated with the consideration of several drivers’ driving patterns. On the basis of the dynamo test results and investigations of driving patterns. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Fig. the rule base in the proposed fuzzy logic An exterior view of the HEV. regardless of various disturbances. AUGUST 1998 TABLE I SPECIFICATIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS OF TABLE II ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS Fig. engine torque. and so on. 4. the charge balance control can be achieved for the next powering of the electric machine. So. It consists of a diesel engine. was constructed. an induction machine. Through the road test of the HEV with the proposed fuzzy logic. the membership functions and rule base have been slightly modified for better performance. and its gross weight is about 13 t. 2. To guarantee immunity to various disturbances. Fig. To construct the proper rule base of the proposed fuzzy logic. the stator of the induction machine is located in the flywheel housing. III. Exterior appearance of parallel-type HEV. For the precise torque control. [7]. Due to the spatial restriction of engine room. CONTROL STRATEGY A. Dynamo Test For the purpose of data acquisition for the system design of the HEV. The maximum power of the diesel engine used as the main power source of the hybrid powertrain is 230 hp. NO. The proposed driving strategy can be easily implemented compared to the deterministically constructed one because it does not need to fix the precise critical points on the speed and acceleration pedal stroke. which is in service as a shuttle.

Curve (c) shows test results for the torque characteristic of the hybrid powertrain in which the induction machine has the powering action with its rated torque at each speed. this hybrid powertrain can produce the driving torque between curves (c) and (d) with the limitation of rated current. NO emission of the diesel engine itself was measured when it supplies driving power with the full acceleration stroke. The diesel engine produced maximum torque at each speed and. on the condition of supplying the same power to the load as the former. and curve (d) is the torque capability curve when it generates electric power and recharges the batteries with its rated torque. the diesel engine has relatively high torque and a small amount of pollutant emission characteristics. Thus. as shown in curve (a) of Fig. As shown in Fig. Fig. 4. After starting of the diesel engine. the conventional starting motor can be removed. the torque produced by the induction machine is gradually reduced as its speed increases. B. Dynamo setup for hybrid powertrain. When starting the diesel engine. C. Starting Torque Generation A dc motor is used to start the engine in the conventional vehicle. 5. (b) diesel engine. the NO emission of the hybrid powertrain fully assisted by the induction machine were measured. the induction machine is operated with a reduced field over the whole speed range. machine is located in the flywheel housing and the rotor is taking the place of the conventional flywheel. Thus. 3. Hence. By tuning the diesel engine and the assistant driving torque from the induction machine. the induction machine just played the role of inertia. the producing torque is commanded to gradually reduce according to the speed of the diesel engine approaching its idling speed. it represents the maximum diesel engine torque. Because the base speed of the induction machine used in this research is 800 r/min and the idle speed of the diesel engine is about 700 r/min. the hybrid powertrain can supply sufficient . because both produce the same power. conversely. the induction machine is commanded to produce rated torque until diesel engine speed reaches the ignition point. It is evident that improvement in NO emission can be seen. Since NO draws increasing interest among the pollutant materials of vehicle emission gases. it is possible to start the engine with smaller vehicle vibration and a shorter time duration than those of the conventional one. Fig. the diesel engine produces relatively low torque with a large amount of pollutant emission when its rotational speed is low. and the rotor is directly coupled to the diesel engine shaft. Torque capability curves for (a) induction machine. The diesel engine torque at each speed is plotted in curve (b).LEE AND SUL: FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL-TYPE HEV 627 Fig. because the stator of the induction Fig. and (c) and (d) hybrid powertrain. Then. 4. In Fig. so. Torque Assistance and Battery Recharging Control Strategy As the dynamo test results show. also. Improvement of NOx emission in HEV. 5 shows the relative differences of NO emission on each rotational speed between the sole engine driving mode and the hybrid mode. it is important to reduce NO emission. which is measured in full acceleration stroke. When the speed is high. the torque capability curves through the dynamo test for the powertrain of the HEV are shown. 4. 3. Therefore. of the powertrain and NO emission are measured. In this HEV. the stator of the induction machine is equipped in the flywheel housing.

However. respectively. So. MAX-MIN composition and the center of gravity method are used in the inference engine and defuzzification of this fuzzy logic. the battery recharging time is considerably long. Because these linguistic inference results cannot be used in the actuator directly. it results in excessive and frequent usage of batteries. the ratio of the power capability of the diesel engine to that of the induction machine increases. torque assistance of the induction motor should be achieved to satisfy the driver’s acceleration intention if the driver presses the acceleration pedal above some extent. in this operating condition. If battery charging is executed only by regenerating power at braking of the vehicle. rather than at medium speed. Then. 45. 6. in order to supply more power to the batteries than that of the midspeed range. increasing the assistant torque of the induction machine is necessary. the diesel engine torque is Fig. Thus. if is induction machine is operated as a generator. VOL. AUGUST 1998 power to the vehicle with emission characteristic which meets the vehicle emission regulations over the whole speed range. Thus. 4. D. On the other hand. it confirms that any subsidiary charger is not necessary and the charging time of the battery could be transparent to the driver of the HEV. inference engine. the motoring action of the induction machine is made to begin from that point. the generating torque decreases as diesel engine speed increases. The rule base collects the control rules which describe experts’ knowledge and experience in the fuzzy set. With this strategy. it is required to recharge the batteries periodically. input membership functions and output membership function of fuzzy logic. and defuzzification. Thus. Once determined. in the sense of efficient driving. So. IMPLEMENTATION OF FUZZY LOGIC A fuzzy logic controller used in this research consists of the rule base. the on-going battery recharging control using surplus power of the diesel engine is required when it operates at high efficiency. linguistic control values are generated in the inference engine. the torque assistance control is performed as that of the midspeed range. the torque command can be made as follows: torque command rated torque at a rotational speed Some basic principles of generating the torque command from the acceleration pedal stroke and diesel engine rotational speed in this HEV can be described as follows. which is expressed as follows: acceleration pedal stroke • When the diesel engine rotational speed is medium. because the diesel engine is relatively unsettled and has low torque production characteristic. NO. they should be converted into numerical output again in the defuzzification process. it is difficult to maintain the batteries at a normal condition and to supply sufficient power to the HEV. IV. the powering source. A. Because. it generates a lot of pollutant emissions with low efficiency. battery recharging control is performed instead of torque assistance control when acceleration pedal stroke is below some extent. . it is beneficial to recharge the battery at high speed. it is necessary to describe the required torque as a to the rated torque at a rotational speed. However. however. • When the diesel engine rotational speed is high. the diesel engine can supply somewhat sufficient torque to the hybrid powertrain. the numerical inputs are converted into linguistic fuzzy values. because induction machine rated power is kept constant and the diesel engine can produce more power than in the should be made to be negatively midspeed range. Block diagram of the proposed fuzzy logic. generally. so. Torque Command Generation for Hybrid Powertrain Because the induction machine is in the field-weakening region in most of the diesel engine operating speed range. Thus. greater. as shown in Fig. Input/Output Membership Functions for Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic used in this research consists of two inputs and one output. As speed increases. In order to restrict pollutant emission within regulations while supplying sufficient torque to the powertrain. respectively. which does harm to the battery life and performance. In the fuzzification process. fuzzification. from the fuzzy values and the already established rule base. speed to the maximum speed of the diesel engine. Assistant torque is commanded to increase in proportion to the acceleration pedal stroke as in the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Each input is the acceleration pedal stroke and the induction machine rotational speed which is is identical to the rotational speed of the diesel engine.628 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. set at zero when the driver does not press the acceleration pedal at all and is set at 100 when the driver fully presses the can vary from the diesel engine idling acceleration pedal. In the battery recharging control. recharging energy is much smaller than powering energy and. In the case where the batteries are recharged only by an external charger at a stop. the torque assistant control by the induction machine should be performed. 6. subject to be saturated above about 80% of the acceleration pedal stroke. 7. ratio defined as means that the induction machine acts as a The positive is negative. • When the diesel engine rotational speed is low. The output is the normalized ratio of torque command to rated torque at These inputs and output should be normalized a speed and are the into zero to one. As shown in Fig.

the fuzzy set for output using the union operation: (3) can be calculated B. negative medium. In Fig.LEE AND SUL: FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL-TYPE HEV 629 Singletons are fuzzy sets which have a membership value of 1 for the given inputs and 0 for all other values: if if if if (1) and are normalized operating points for where and respectively. L L L M M M H H H HH HH HH and and and and and and and and and and and and L M H L M H L M H L M H THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN THEN PS NM NL PM NS NM PL PS NS PL PL PL (4) Inference results are transformed into a crisp value through the center of gravity method as the defuzzification process in this research. 9. can be to each rule. with 600 to 2600. diesel engine and induction machine rotational speed. In Fig. positive small. and engine According to the acceleration pedal stroke the torque command factor was rotational speed. generated by the proposed fuzzy logic. The test course is about 4-km long and mostly consists of uphill and downhill roads. The uphill driving and downhill driving test results are illustrated in Figs. Characteristic of Proposed Driving Strategy The proposed fuzzy logic is implemented with a 32-b floating-point digital signal processor TMS320C31 and test results are taken through RS232C serial communication. Procedures and Results of Fuzzy Logic In fuzzification process. Rule Base for Fuzzy Logic In the fuzzy logic rule base. 10. respectively. 9 and 10. medium. acceleration pedal stroke. respectively. where Finally. It is used as a driving map for the HEV. 8. linguistic states of the plant are converted into linguistic control values. positive large. . higher. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A. Powering of the induction machine results in increasing of integration of currents from the batteries and instantaneous dropping of battery voltage. normalized crisp inputs for and for are transformed to fuzzy values in singletons. The truth values for the th input and the th input membership membership function for can be acquired as (2): function for where and (2) and th output membership function according Using fuzzy output value. (6) and varying from 0 to 100 and As a result. low. 7. Input and output membership functions of the proposed fuzzy logic. calculated as (3): Fig. the induction PL PM PS NL NM NS HH H M L C. which is expressed as (5): (5) varies from 0 to 1. negative large. In order to use it in the generating should be changed into using (6): torque command. the rule base for the torque control and battery recharging control in this HEV is presented as follows: IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF where ratio of the torque command to the rated torque at a speed. final fuzzy logic controller output is plotted in Fig. It can be shown that fuzzy logic also commands to charge the batteries when braking the vehicle and gear shifting. high. positive medium. On the basis of control strategies as expressed in Section III-D. V. it is obvious that the torque assisting control is mainly performed during uphill driving. negative small.

8. Fig. In the view of balancing the charge. (d) Integration of battery current with respect to time [A1s]. and C. Compared to the supplied currents from the battery when motoring the vehicle in Fig. (a) Fuzzy logic controller output and (b) its contour. of battery current with respect to time and corresponds to the battery charge. is negative and its absolute value The final value of was also large as the results of tests A and B. In both tests A and B. the final value of is integration a criterion of battery charge balance. if the is positive (negative). it means that the final value of induction machine mainly acts as a subsidiary power source (battery charger). VOL. B. it is important to keep this value within boundaries where HEV performance is guaranteed. (g) Vehicle speed [km/h]. 11 and is considered as 12. the battery charge cannot be effectively balanced. (c) Acceleration pedal stroke Acc [%]. Three different driving strategies using the deterministic method are shown in Table III. In this case. NO. (b) Engine rotational speed ! ) [r/min]. In test A. The battery charge balance could be acquired . 9. In these tests. the battery can be recharged and it can also enhance the braking ability of the vehicle. overall NO emission is increased and the driving performance of the HEV is degraded because the charging process acts as a load to the diesel engine. 9. the considerable battery discharge occurs due to the excessive torque assistance of the induction machine for vehicle propulsion. (f) Battery voltage [V]. In test C. 11 shows experimental results for each driving strategy. the HEV driving performance and NO emission characteristic are satisfactory to some degree. B. However. Road test results on uphill road. 45. the battery charge cannot be balanced in tests A. (a) Torque command factor K . Thus. (e) Ouptut power [kW]. K with respect to Acc and !rpm Fig. the driving strategy is alternatively revised so that the charging action is dominant. In test B. 4. it is possible to balance the charge of the battery for one turn of the service route. rpm machine mainly plays the role of battery charger during downhill road driving. Using the excess power of the diesel engine and inertial energy stored in the vehicle. AUGUST 1998 (a) (b) (c) (a) (d) (e) (f) (g) (b) Fig. The respective test results are shown in Figs. Comparison and Discussion The real road tests are performed to compare the deterministic driving strategy and the proposed one on the same test route. the currents flowing to the battery at recharging are the same amount. Because it is very difficult to fix the changeover points in constructing the deterministic driving strategy.630 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. the driving strategy is modified so as to achieve more charging control and less torque assistant control. but degraded battery characteristic was introduced. After a turn of the service route.

Test result using three different driving strategies constructed in the deterministic way. In spite of different test route states and load conditions in tests D and E. 10. 12. 11. (a) Torque command factor K . (d) Integration of battery current with respect to time [A1s]. (e) Ouptut power [kW]. Road test results on downhill road. Tests D and E were carried out with same fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy. case by case. rpm Fig. 12. (f) Battery voltage [V]. With the help of inherent battery charging control . (b) Engine rotational speed ! ) [r/min]. through repeated road tests with revised driving strategies. Moreover. (e) (f) (g) Fig. Test result using the proposed fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy. Road test results using the proposed fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy on the same test route are shown in Fig. the final values of are nearly the same as the initial values compared to former test results.LEE AND SUL: FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL-TYPE HEV 631 TABLE III THREE DIFFERENT DRIVING STRATEGIES CONSTRUCTED IN THE DETERMINISTIC WAY (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. (g) Vehicle speed [km/h]. undesirable results of the battery charge balance might be brought out when another driver operates the HEV with different load and driving conditions. (c) Acceleration pedal stroke Acc [%].

AUGUST 1998 TABLE IV COMPARISON OF TEST RESULTS more kinds of information can be performed for efficient driving of the HEV. and A. no. A comparison of the above test results is summarized in Table IV. 4. 46. University of Wisconsin.. 12th Int. VOL. where he is currently working towards the Ph. Sousa and B. The dynamo test of the hybrid powertrain was carried out for a proper rule base of the proposed fuzzy logic. Seoul. service route state. 45. vol. 1994. Seoul National University. he was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. A. 8. 663–666. He was then a Principal Research Engineer with Gold-Star Industrial Systems Company from 1988 to 1990. Endo. and S. on driving and robustness of the proposed fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy. Salasoo. due to the robust characteristic of fuzzy logic.. 34–44. 12th Int. neurofuzzy algorithms or fuzzy logic with Hyeoun-Dong Lee (S’97) was born in Pusan. 169–178. “A fuzzy set theory based control of a phase-controlled converter DC machine drive. and M. Applicat. the usefulness and superiority of the proposed fuzzy-logic-based strategy has been confirmed. Because the proposed driving strategy contains the battery charging control at the driving stage inherently. L. 1995. pp. His research interests are power electronic control of electric machines. E. Schneider. I.D. vol. Workshop on Power Electronics in Transportation. 1994.S. As further research. 71–76. he has been a Member of the Faculty of the School of Electrical Engineering.” IEEE Trans. Gunn. [5] J. Contr.. electric vehicle drives. Koo.” in Proc. and A. K.” in Proc.. Mar. Hayashi. Kim. Korea. On the basis of the dynamo test results. D. the fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy can be realized to balance the battery charge and to keep NO emission of the parallel-type HEV below its regulations. Electric Vehicle Symp. He received the B. Haefner. REFERENCES [1] K. “Development of a 225 kW hybrid drive system for a low-floor.632 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.S. K. 1994. Dote. Jeffers. 179–188.. T. “Propulsion control system for a 22 foot electric/hybrid shuttle bus. the battery charge balancing is achieved well in both tests D and E. Hunter. and load conditions. pp. Korea. 30. the fuzzy-logic-based driving strategy for parallel-type HEV’s has been proposed.. Y. NO. His research interests are electric machine drives and electric propulsion systems. In the dynamo test. Sul. Syst. CONCLUSION In this study. E. Seoul. Ha. K. IPEC-Yokohama. In addition. the induction machine.” IEEE Trans. the battery charge balance of the parallel-type HEV can be achieved without any additional battery charging. S. as an Associate Researcher. Through the real road test results of the HEV and the comparison between the deterministic driving strategies and the proposed strategy. pp. 1991.S. 1995. Aug. D. “Advanced control strategy of parallel hybrid low emission electric bus. such as the driver’s driving pattern. Lee. 3. [3] A. vol. Madison.D. King. K. Technol. C. where he is currently an Associate Professor. He received the B. Obata et al. pp. A. 1983 and 1986.” in Proc. J. pp. degree in 1995. H. Tajima. and R. Korea. and Ph./Feb. Hirako.” Toshiba Rev. both in electrical engineering. the proposed driving strategy has an insensitive property to various disturbances. low-emissions transit bus. D. Obata. About 20% of NO emission can be reduced when this hybrid powertrain is fully assisted by the induction machine compared to only a diesel engine supplying driving power to the drivetrain. Nakajima. Jan. degree. B. H. “Neuro fuzzy transmission control for automobile with variable loads. Bose. [7] G. VI. “Development of diesel-electric hybrid engine for large vehicles. Shimizu. pp. . J. and power converter circuits. degree in 1993 and the M. Electric Vehicle Symp. Y. in 1980. degrees in electrical engineering from Seoul National University. M.. [4] K. pp. “Drive system for hybrid low emission vehicle. in 1969. 99–104. the NO characteristic of the diesel engine was clarified and torque characteristics for the diesel engine. Ind.. 1996. Since 1991. from Seoul National University. Rajashekara. and the hybrid powertrain were measured for each rotational speed in full-load condition. [6] K. Takayama. respectively.” in Proc. [2] R.S. S. 49–53. From 1986 to 1988. Seung-Ki Sul (S’78–M’87–SM’98) was born in Korea in 1958.