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From Rice to Riches – The Philippines In the wake of the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98, rice producers in the

Philippines have weathered extremely tough times. As a result, they have explored diverse ways of finding new markets for their produce. An increasingly common way to do this is by using rice by-products to make products such as rice paper, rice coffee and rice wine. Combining relatively simple methods with entrepreneurial flare, these ventures create much needed extra wealth for poor producers. Rice Facts More than 90 per cent of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia, where people regularly eat rice at least three times a day. Nearly 500 million tonnes of rice is consumed in Asia every year, costing over half of a household’s income. In 1999, the Philippines produced over 11 million tonnes of rice from a yield of 2.9 tonnes per hectare. Rice is harvested from the field in the form of paddy, which is the complete rice seed. Each grain of paddy contains one rice kernel, and many other layers. The outer layer of rice is known as the husk, which consists of two interlocking covers each protecting a half of the paddy. The husk consists mostly of silica and cellulose. The next layer is a very thin film of bran. This consists of fibre, vitamin B, protein and fat,

wall decorations and stationery. At the base of each grain is the embryo. Frialde started the Los Baños Handmade Paper Enterprises. consisting mainly of two types of starch (amylose and amylopactin). The innermost part is the rice kernel. Pakistan.000 (Philippine Pesos) and a loan of P22. The products were later spotted by foreign customers at the Centre for International Trade. Japonica (round grain) and Javanica (medium grain). Expositions and Missions (CITEM). invitations. making paper from rice straw.Prosperity Through Rice Prosperity Through Rice is a joint venture between the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB).000 from the Government Insurance System in 1986. Fe Frialde. Thailand. Having been trained in indigenous fibre papermaking by the FPRDI. The Philippines produces mainly Indica rice. Frialde does not have to be confined to using rice straw. Frialde’s products include multi-coloured wedding gifts. which is the part that will grow into a new plant. folders.and is the most nutritious part of the rice. producing a range of rice paper products. as it grows best in the warm climate belt running through Indochina. India. With initial capital reserves of © Steve Kramer There are three main varieties of rice in the world: Indica (long grain). http://www. This mixture of the two types determines the cooking texture of the rice. personnel officer for the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) in Los Baños. Brail and the southern parts of the USA. . gift wrappers. boxes. which explores profitable and sustainable uses for rice by-products. was able to benefit from the initiative by establishing a small-scale cottage industry.

A picture frame. starch. a vat or basin. depending on the availability of resources and the maker’s capability to discover cost-saving and easyto-adopt innovation to create the desired effects on paper. One kilogram of rice straw is able to make six sheets of writing paper. According to Frialde. there is great money-earning potential in papermaking from rice straw. it is a culture and a livelihood from which Frialde has substantially benefited. a mould and deckle (a pair of movable rectangular frames with a detachable screen). water.‘There are no standard methods for handmade papermaking. Rice Coffee In the face of global coffee giants such as Starbucks. Producing paper from agricultural residues has now become so popular that it has penetrated foreign markets in Australia. and a drying board. September to December are dominated by the local market. April to June are the main exporting months. sells at US$1. meanwhile. Letty was so . Europe. a rolling pin.67.92 on the international market. and dyes. okra juice. The tools needed for production include a wooden mortal and pestle. This expansive market that Frialde has established means that she now owns premises in Los Baños.’ (FPRDI) The process of papermaking involves pulping. Japan and the USA. cheesecloth. solid resin. caustic soda. Clearly. because of the Christmas season. The materials required for making the paper include rice straw. covered with kakawate leaves. entrepreneur Letty Basubas is producing a local drink from the country’s rice granary in Nueva Ecija. the more saleable it will be. sodium hydrochlorite (bleach). preparation of ‘stock’ (liquid starch). The techniques and tools used in each step vary. alum (tawas). products such as a 150mm hexagonal box. will fetch US$2. Papermaking from rice straw is more than a surviving art. and employs a dozen staff. The more unique the paper. and sheet formatting.

and caramelised carabao milk. Letty believes that the reason behind her success is the quality of her coffee: ‘Unlike the coarse traditional rice coffee. Letty’s market niche grew and she now caters for .’ With the assistance of the provincial government of Nueva Ecija. Letty is probably the only rice coffee producer in the country. She regarded it as a sign of things to come and established a niche market for her rice coffee products during trade fairs and exhibits. Letty’s rice coffee products come in three flavours: peanut.000 (US$125). However.dedicated to planting and harvesting rice that she decided to improve the traditional rice coffee. in a ten-day province-wide exhibit she made P7. three-in-one (coffee with sugar and milk). ‘Because rice coffee is somewhat belittled by some coffee aficionados due to its not-so-good quality. I experimented in making the rice coffee an equal of imported coffee. my product has a powdery quality.000 (US$626) in a three-week exhibition in Manila. from which she made a profit of P600 (US$10. since there are no records in the Department of Trade and Industry or the Bureau of Internal Revenue that show other individuals or groups engaged in the same business. and she also made a profit of P35. which her grandmother had served her every morning when she was young.000 (roughly US$447). Letty first explored the market for her rice coffee at the anniversary celebration of PhilRice (Philippine Rice Research Institute).’ Letty Basubas According to the Agriculture Secretary. Luis Lorenzo. the Department of Trade and Industry.71). and PhilRice. These products have earned Letty an average monthly income of P25.

more acidic. and consumers. To establish the functional properties. This research revealed that samples stored in a refrigerator were significantly lighter in colour. and more acceptable than samples kept at room temperature. The project has also studied the shelf-life of Tapuy (the local name for rice wine) and the effect that rice variety and storage conditions have on the end product. Rice Wine At PhilRice. and identify processing applications of Philippine rice varieties.the coffee needs of thousands of consumers at 30 outlets in the province. 3. and have taken traditional practices of rice fermentation and adapted them to the modern market for wine. they are keen to encourage new ways of making a living from rice. beer and thermally processed rice-based products. and to prepare these technologies for dissemination. To enhance the adoption of developed products and technologies by expanding and sustaining strong linkages among processors. The survey of the . The institute has successfully transferred standardised ricebased production technology through an on-going training and skills programme. 2. Modify and standardise processing methods of rice wine. research and development organisations. The project has accomplished a series of ventures that aim towards these objectives. The Rice and Rice-Based Products Programme run by the Rice Chemistry and Food Science Division of PhilRice develop and pilot the production of rice-based products. The project has three objectives: 1. manufacturers.

2. Press out the alcoholic juice through a cheesecloth and discard the residue. cool place to prevent discolouration. 11. 5. 10. Siphon the clear wine. Transfer to a fermentation jar with a water seal to allow the rice to ferment for two weeks. Bottle the wine and pasteurise at 65-70 . Weigh 1 kg of glutinous rice and wash through with water three times. Spread the cooked rice on a tray and inoculate with powdered bubod (rice yeast) at 1g per 100g of raw rice. © Courtesy of IRRI Fermentation of Rice Wine Ingredients required: glutinous rice. and having boxes for safer transport. add one spoon of activated carbon or bentonite for every litre of wine. changing the bottles. Suggestions included having more blends. 9. 8. bubod.5 litres of water. 7. If the wine is not yet clear. 4. Mix well and filter. Allow it to stand for one to three months in a dark. or until the bubbling stops. Cook in a rice cooker until well done. Let it cool. 3. 1. water. activated carbon or for Tapuy was carried out during the Asian Ethnic Food Fest (AEFF). different flavours. Drain and add 1. Cover the tray with a piece of paper or cloth and incubate at room temperature for two days. 6. Pasteurise the freshly harvested wine at 65-70 o C for 30 minutes.

By diversifying into the industry of value-added rice products. (US$688. A return on investment for rice wine can reach 88 per cent. They also have a significant role to play in lifting the income of struggling rice farmers.99) and an average wine production estimated at 1500 350ml bottles (fetching P82.553.74). Portland. Approximately 1 litre. meaning that investment can be recouped in seven or eight months. the products can contribute to the improvement of the rice market in general. or 3 bottles at 350ml.o C for 20 minutes. Acknowledgements ITDG would like to thank the Philippines Rice Research Institute for providing information and helping in this case study. 6611 SW Parkhill Dr.71). Oregon 97239-2657 USA . The case study draws on articles written by the Philippine Rice Research Institute. The Value of Rice Value-added rice products enhance the profitability derived from rice farming. people are able to supplement their existing income and even sustain their lives fully on the generated income.500 / US$1473.. Further Information Business in Asia: The Philippines Runckel & Associates. with a total monthly production expense of P44.000 (US$785. producers can expect a net income of P38. Upon establishing a nice market.92. According to PhilRice. can be harvested from 1 kg of rice.

irri. Metro Manila. Philippines Tel: +63 (2) 580-5600 Fax: +63 (2) 580-5699 Email: Metro Manila. Philippines .Tel: 503-244-4551 Website: Knowledgebank Email: Website: Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Los Baños. London SW1E 5HE Tel: 020 7023 0000 Fax: 020 7023 0019 Email: IRRI Library DAPO Box Website: http://www. Philippines Mail: DAPO Box Website: Laguna.html Department for International Development 1 Palace Street.azucena@cgiar.

Using good seed leads to lower seeding Website: www. viable (more than 80% germination with good seedling vigor).irri. seed-borne ITDG Publishing Schumacher Centre for Technology Development Bourton Hall Bourton On Dunsmore Warwickshire CV23 9QZ Tel: +44 . Vigorous growth in early stages reduces weed problems and increases crop resistance to insect pests and diseases. or other matter. and free of weed seeds. LINK: Introduction to seed management . Good seed is pure (of the chosen variety). higher crop emergence (more than 70%).org Website: http://ricelib. and more vigorous early crop growth.01926 634502 Email: marketing@itpubs.Tel: (63-2) 580-5600 Fax: (63-2) 580-5699 Email: ariel-irri@cgiar. reduced replanting. harvested and processed correctly to maximize its viability and subsequent crop productivity. Seed selection Seed is a living product that must be grown. good quality seed must be sown. For the yield potential of any rice variety to be realized.01926 634501 Fax: +44 . full and uniform in PhilRice: Philippine Rice Research Institut RELATED: Visit the Rice Knowledge Bank for more in depth information on the good agricultural practices for irrigated rice and rainfed rice environments.itdgpublishing. pathogens. insects. more uniform plant stands.

Draft animals. or farm machinery. The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotovator instead of a plow. harrowing. and leveling the field to make it suitable for crop establishment. This method also serves as a means of weed control.VIDEO: Seed sorting by flotation Land preparation The land to be planted is prepared to place the soil in the best physical condition for crop growth and to ensure that the soil surface is level. dry seed or pre-germinated seeds and seedlings are broadcast by hand or planted by machine. This is done using manual labor. Land preparation typically involves plowing. 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used as power sources in land preparation. LINK: Introduction to plant establishment VIDEO: Establishing a modified mat nursery for rice Water management . with the use of animals of burden. On the other hand. In direct seeding. LINK: What you need to know about land preparation Crop establishment The two main practices in establishing the rice plant is through direct seeding and transplanting. transplanting—transferring pre-germinated seedlings from seedbed to field—requires less seed but much more labor. This is usually done in rainfed and deepwater ecosystems. such as buffalo and oxen.

LINK: Site-specific nutrient management VIDEO: Tales of Ryza the Rice Plant: Proper nutrition makes healthy rice plants Pest management The rice plant has a wide array of ‘enemies’ in the field. To ensure sufficient water. natural enemies. most rice farmers aim to maintain flooded conditions in their field. This is because each growth stage of the rice plant has specific nutrient needs. It is for this fact that rice is extremely sensitive for water shortage. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) provides scientific principles for optimally supplying rice with essential nutrients. It enables rice farmers to tailor nutrient management to the specific conditions of their field. etc. Each of these pests and diseases are controlled using specific strategies. A rice field can be compared with a bath tub: The material of a bath tub is impregnable and it holds water well.Cultivated rice has a semi-aquatic ancestry. Rice fields with only a few rat holes or leaky spots will rapidly loose water by seepage and percolation. The efficacy of puddling in reducing percolation depends greatly on soil properties. LINK: Water management in lowland irrigated rice VIDEO: Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)--using less water to grow rice Nutrient management Ensuring that the rice plant gets the exact nutrients it needs to grow is of great importance. High water loss during land preparation is caused by water flowing through cracks in the soil. host plants. However. water management practices will vary depending on the environment. and it provides a framework for nutrient best management practices for rice. Naturally. harmful insects. Understanding the interactions among pests. Understanding the ecological factors that allow pests to adapt and thrive in a . viruses. other organisms and the environment improves pest management decisions. Seepage and percolation flows from rice fields are major pathways of water loss. This is especially true for lowland rice. such as with removing the plug of a bath tub. Thorough puddling results in a good compacted plow pan that reduces percolation rates throughout the crop growing period. These include rodents. Land preparation for flooded soils consumes more than a third of the total water required for growing rice in an irrigated production system. water can run out immediately from even one hole.

handling. birds. cleaning.The purpose of any grain storage facility is to prevent grain loss from weather. Drying is the most critical operation after harvesting a rice crop. white rice kernel that is sufficiently milled and free of impurities. drying. and hauling. rodents. a rice crop usually reaches maturity at around 115-120 days after crop establishment. and rice milling VIDEO: Mechanization and postharvest issues in east and southern Africa . and processing. Delays in drying. the rice should have a minimum of broken kernels. Drying is the process that reduces grain moisture content to a safe level for storage. a number of guidelines should be followed to ensure that good grain quality is preserved during harvest operations and harvest losses are kept to minimum. the rice grain undergoes a number of processes depending on how it will be used. LINKS: Introductions to paddy drying. It is important to apply good harvesting methods to be able to maximize grain yield. The harvesting activity includes cutting. moisture. and minimize grain damage and deterioration. Regardless of the method. insects and micro-organisms. LINK: Introduction to harvesting VIDEO: Cambodia: Machines of Progress Postharvest After harvest. storing. stacking. milling. The basic objective of a rice milling system is to remove the husk and the bran layers. threshing. storage. Depending on the requirements of the customer. and produce an edible. or mechanically with the use of threshers or combine harvesters.particular ecosystem will help to identify weak links in the pests' life cycle and factors that can be manipulated to manage them. Harvesting can be done manually using sickles and knives. Such methods include. incomplete drying or ineffective drying will reduce grain quality and result in losses. LINK: Crop Health: Application of ecology to pest management Harvesting Depending on the variety. Milling is a crucial step in post-production of rice.

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