Functions of a bill of lading

in the U.S. as the Carriage of Goods at Sea Act (COGSA) in 1936 Scope of COGSA from ports of the United States in foreign trade‖ □ Private carriage: ―The provisions of this chapter shall not be applicable to charter parties; but if bills of lading are issued in the case of a ship under a charter party, they shall comply with the terms of this chapter.‖ (COGSA § 5) ▫ Even if a bill of lading is not issued, COGSA can be extended to charter parties by agreement Extension of COGSA by agreement

working on behalf of the carrier -based transport Hague/COGSA: Duties of the carrier

(1) The carrier shall be bound … to exercise due diligence to— (a) Make the ship seaworthy; (b) Properly man, equip, & supply the ship; (c) Make the holds, refrigerating & cooling chambers, & all other parts of the ship … fit & safe .... (2) The carrier shall properly & carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for, & discharge the goods carried Hague/COGSA: Voiding of contractual limitations of liability

Harm resulting from fault of the shipper in packaging or labeling the goodsHague/COGSA: Statutory liability limits larger ceiling can be agreed) □ Brussels Convention: £100 per ―package‖ or ―unit‖ □ COGSA: $500 per ―package‖ or. riot. war.*** (8) Limitation of liability for negligence Any clause.. or acts of ―public enemies‖ 3. if not packaged. quarantine. or lessening such liability otherwise than as provided in this chapter.. shall be null and void and of no effect .Hague/COGSA: Defences 1. Harms arising from independent causes. such as perils of the sea. or failure in the duties and obligations provided in this section.. fault. per ―customary freight unit‖ [§4(5)]Hague / Visby Rules opted in the United States Hamburg Rules United Nations favorable to shippers ceiling on liability . strike. Fault of the carrier in the navigation or management of the vessel 2. Acts of God. arising from negligence. or agreement in a contract of carriage relieving the carrier or the ship from liability for loss or damage to or in connection with the goods. covenant. Harm resulting from an inherent ―vice‖ in the goods 4.

or otherwise prove one of the 17 Hague Defenses.112)COGSA’s burden shifting 1. If shipper proves that carrier’s negligence contributed.Several countries have signed it (including the U. (Bill of lading is key. 112)Marine insurance cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses (Institute of London Underwriters‖) in this area Institute Cargo Clause ―C‖ ison Institute Cargo Clause ―A‖ vice of the subject matter . If carrier does so. the burden shifts back to carrier to apportion between the causes. Hypos -7 (p. 3. the burden shifts back to shipper to show that – even if a defense applies in part – carrier’s negligence contributed to the loss.) 2.S. but only Spain has ratified it so far Steel Coils v.). 107) -8 (p. 4. M/V Lake Marion (p. A clean bill shifts the burden to carrier to show due diligence. Shipper must establish a prima facie case by showing the cargo was loaded w/o damage and discharged w/ damage.

Mirasco (p. v.125) .l Fire Ins.

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