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Algebra

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Ships use the speed of sound in water to help find the water’s depth. A sonar pulse from a ship is sent to the bottom of the ocean floor. The time taken for the pulse to hit the ocean floor and return to the ship is used to calculate the distance. If the sonar pulse returns in 1.5 seconds, what is the ocean depth? Assume that the speed of sound in water is 1470 metres per second. How could you set up a procedure to quickly calculate the ocean depth for any time measurement? This chapter looks at using pronumerals to represent quantities in different situations. You will learn how to form and use algebraic expressions and how to express them in simpler forms.

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Using pronumerals
The basic purpose of algebra is to solve mathematical problems involving an unknown. Equations where an unknown quantity is replaced with a letter, for example x, can be used to solve problems like: At what speed should I ride my bicycle to arrive at school on time? How do I convert a recipe for different numbers of guests? What volume of cement is needed to build a path?

A pronumeral is a letter that is used in place of a number. In Year 7 we saw that pronumerals could be used to make expressions and equations. Often a pronumeral is used to represent one particular number. For example, in the equation x+1=7 the pronumeral x has the value 6. Pronumerals can also be used to show a relationship between two or more numbers, for example a + b = 10 Can you find some different pairs of values for a and b which fit this rule?

Algebra allows us to show complex rules in a more simple way, and to solve problems involving unknown numbers.

Chapter 4 Algebra

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The worked example below shows some of the ways pronumerals can be used.

WORKED Example 1
Suppose we use b to represent the number of ants in a nest. a Write an expression for the number of ants in the nest if 25 ants died. b Write an expression for the number of ants in the nest if the original ant population doubled. c Write an expression for the number of ants in the nest if the original population increased by 50. d What would it mean if we said that a nearby nest contained b + 100 ants? e What would it mean if we said that another nest contained b − 1000 ants? f Another nest in very poor soil contains b -- ants. How much smaller than the 2 original is this nest? THINK a The original number of ants (b) must be reduced by 25. b The original number of ants (b) must be multiplied by 2. It is not necessary to show the × sign. c 50 must be added to the original number of ants (b). d This expression tells us that the nearby nest has 100 more ants. e This nest has 1000 fewer ants. b f The expression -- means b ÷ 2, so this 2 nest is half the size of the original nest. WRITE a b − 25 b 2b

c b + 50 d The nearby nest has 100 more ants. e This nest has 1000 fewer ants. f This nest is half the size of the original nest.

remember remember
1. A pronumeral is a letter that is used in place of a number. 2. Pronumerals may represent a single number, or they may be used to show a relationship between two or more numbers.

45 am 12. write an expression for the number of people at the ground.00 pm 5. Write an expression for the number of people at the ground after they have left.15 am 10. Write an expression for the number of forks now. a Write an expression for the total number of knives and forks you have. write expressions for the following numbers. b Write an expression for the total number of items in the drawer c You put 4 more forks in the drawer.30 pm Number of vanilla slices m m–1 m – 12 m – 12 m – 30 m – 30 3 Imagine that your cutlery drawer contains a knives. a If a further y people arrive during the first quarter. b forks and c spoons.30 pm 1. 5 Using a and b to represent numbers. 2 The canteen manager at Browning Industries orders m vanilla slices each day. a A number 7 more than y b A number 8 less than y c A number which is equal to five times y d The number formed when y is subtracted from 14 e The number formed when y is divided by 3. 4 If y represents a certain number. d Write an expression for the number of knives in the drawer after 6 knives are removed.00 am 9. write expressions for: a the sum of a and b b the difference between a and b c three times a subtracted from two times b d the product of a and b e twice the product of a and b f the sum of 3a and 7b g a multiplied by itself. . Write a paragraph which could explain the table below: Time 9.120 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria 4A WORKED Using pronumerals Example 1 1 Suppose x people are in attendance at the start of a football match. b At half-time 170 people leave.

a Write an expression for her age in 2 years’ time.33 pm Number of coins p 2p 2p + 12 4p + 12 4p + 7 p p+1 p−8 p − 12 a Write a paragraph explaining what happened.27 pm 7.24 pm 7. How old is he? 8 Charles places p coins into a poker machine. Time 7. how much did Charles win or lose.21 pm 7.13 pm 7. b When did Charles start to lose money? c If he used $1 coins.19 pm 7.16 pm 7.Chapter 4 Algebra 121 6 If tickets to a Brisbane Bullets/Melbourne Tigers basketball match cost $27 for adults and $14 for children. He plays the machine and counts his coins every 3 minutes.30 pm 7. c How old was Naomi 5 years ago? d Naomi’s father is twice her age. overall? . if he is g years older than Naomi. b Write an expression for Steve’s age. 7 If Naomi is now t years old. write an expression for the cost of: a y adult tickets b d child tickets c r adult and h child tickets. The table below shows how many coins he has.10 pm 7.

b What might be causing the number of bacteria to increase in this way? c What is different about the last bacteria count? d What may have happened to cause this? 10 If n represents an even number: a is the number n + 1 odd or even? b is 3n odd or even? c Write expressions for: i the next three even numbers which are greater than n ii the even number which is 2 less than n.00. How much did the roll cost her? 2 Find at least two 2-digit numbers that are 5 equal to 7 times the sum of their digits.00 am Number of bacteria m 2m 4m 8m 16m 32m – 1240 a Explain what happens to the number of bacteria in the first 5 intervals. M AT H GE S QUEST 1 Licia has bought her lunch from the school canteen for $3. It consisted of a roll.20 pm 9. She counts the number of bacteria at approximately 3 hour intervals. If I multiply it by 5 and subtract 4.00 am 12.05 pm 12.00 pm 3.122 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria 9 A microbiologist places m bacteria onto an agar plate. The results are shown in the table below: Time 9.18 pm 6. 3 Find 5 consecutive numbers that add to 120. how many when I multiply it by 4 and cubes will it take to make 10 layers? add 2. She paid 60 cents more for the milk than the fruit and 30 cents more for the roll than the milk. 4 I’m thinking of a number. I get the same number as If this pattern continues. a carton of milk and a piece of fruit. What is the number? CH AL L EN .

replace the multiplication signs. Find the value of the following expressions if a = 3 and b = 15. Do the division. the expression x + y can be evaluated as shown: x+y=2+3 =5 When writing expressions with pronumerals: 1. 2 3 4 5 The same methods are used when substituting into a formula or rule. For example: 8n means 8 × n and 12ab means 12 × a × b. if we know that x = 2 and y = 3. . Do the next multiplication.. We leave out the multiplication sign. 2b a 6a b 7a – ----3 THINK a 1 WORKED Example 2 WRITE a 6a =6×3 = 18 2b b 7a – ----3 2 × 15 = 7 × 3 – -------------3 2 × 15 = 21 – -------------3 30 = 21 – ----3 = 21 − 10 = 11 2 Substitute the pronumeral (a) with its correct value and replace the multiplication sign. For example. it is possible to evaluate (work out the value of) an expression.Chapter 4 Algebra 123 Substitution When a pronumeral is replaced by a number. Do the first multiplication. y For example. y ÷ 6 is shown as -. The division sign is rarely used. Multiply. we say that the number is substituted for the pronumeral. as shown in the worked example below. 2. Do the subtraction. 6 When substituting pronumerals. If the value of the pronumeral (or pronumerals) is known. b 1 Substitute each pronumeral with its correct value and replace the multiplication signs.

1 WORKED Example 1 Find the value of the following expressions. x y 24 9 . Α = 270 × 32 A = 8640 m2 3 remember remember 1. Use this formula to find the area of the rectangle at right.+ 4 + y f 3x − y g 2.a 6x + 2y b -.124 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria WORKED Example 3 The formula for finding the area (A) of a rectangle of length l and width w is A = l × w..– -.3 3 x y 12 7x e ----. a 3a e a+7 b i 5 + -5 25 m ----b q 6b − 4a b 7a f j b−4 3a + 9 c 6b 2 g a+b k 2a + 3b Mat d hca Substitution EXCEL Spreadshe Substitution EXCEL Spreadshe Substitution game n ab o 2ab p 7b − 30 ab r ----5 2 Substitute x = 6 and y = 3 into the following expressions and evaluate. if a = 2 and b = 5.5x h ----x 2 4xy 13y i 3. (b) The division sign is rarely used.7y j 11y − 2x k -------. THINK 1 2 270 m 32 m WRITE A=l×w Write down the formula.2x + 1. y For example. 6 4B SkillS HEET Substitution a d -2 h b−a 8 l -a 4. For example: 8n means 8 × n and 12ab means 12 × a × b. 2.+ -c 3xy d ----. Substitute each pronumeral with its correct value. When writing expressions with pronumerals: (a) We leave out the multiplication signs. Replacing a pronumeral with a number is called substituting. y ÷ 6 is shown as -. Multiply to find A and state the correct units.– 2x l -------15 3 et et .

Find the cost of renting a car for one day if the distance travelled is 220 kilometres. b Convert 28° Celsius to Fahrenheit.– m d m 25m − 2d WORKED Example 4 The formula for finding the perimeter (P) of a rectangle 3 of length l and width w is P = 2l + 2w. c Water freezes at 0° Celsius. time .Chapter 4 Algebra 125 3 Evaluate the following expressions. a d+m b m+d c m−d e 2m i −3d f j n md −2m 7d ----15 g 5dm k 6m + 5d o 4dm − 21 d d−m md h ------10 3md l ---------2 15 p ----. where a is the number of kilometres travelled on that day. Find the area of the rectangles below: Algebra a length 12 cm. width 104 cm. Use this formula to find the perimeter of a square of length 2. Use this rule to convert the following distances to miles: a 100 kilometres b 248 kilometres c 12.6T can be used to convert distances in kilometres (T) to the approximate equivalent in miles (D). a Find F when c = 100. 7 The formula C = 0.5 cm.1a + 42 is used to calculate the cost in dollars (C) of renting a car for one day from Poole’s Car Hire Ltd.3 m. 8 Distances in the USA and Canada are often expressed in both miles and kilometres. Use this formula to find the perimeter of the rectangular swimming pool at right. 9 The area (A) of a rectangle of length l and width w can be found using the formula GAME A = lw.5 kilometres. if d = 5 and m = 2. The formula D = 0. What is the freezing temperature of water in Fahrenheit? 6 The formula for the perimeter (P) of a square of side length l is P = 4l. width 4 cm — 001 b length 200 m. 25 m 50 m 5 The formula F = 2c + 30 is used to convert temperatures measured in degrees Celsius to an approximate Fahrenheit value. F represents the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and c the temperature in degrees Celsius. width 42 m c length 4.

Do the subtraction inside the brackets.126 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria Working with brackets Brackets are ‘grouping’ symbols. For example. When substituting into an expression with brackets. For example. remember to place a multiplication (×) sign next to the brackets. 2. 3(t + 2) means 3 × (t + 2) 6(h − 4) means 6 × (h − 4) g(2 + 3k) means g × (2 + 3k) (3 + 2k) 4 means (3 + 2k) × 4 (x + y) (6 − 2p) means (x + y) × (6 − 2p). remember to place a multiplication (×) sign next to the brackets. Brackets are ‘grouping’ symbols. We evaluate expressions inside a bracket first. the expression 3(a + 5) can be thought of as ‘three groups of (a + 5)’. 3. Work out the bracket first. Put the multiplication signs back into the expression. Substitute the pronumerals with their correct values. a Substitute r = 4 and s = 5 into the expression 5(s + r) and evaluate. x = 3 and y = 5 into the expression 2x(3t − y) and evaluate. or (a + 5) + (a + 5) + (a + 5). b Substitute t = 4. b 1 2 3 4 5 remember remember 1. Do the final multiplication. THINK a 1 2 3 4 WORKED Example 4 WRITE a 5(s + r) = 5 × (s + r) = 5 × (5 + 4) =5×9 = 45 b 2x(3t − y) = 2 × x × (3 × t − y) = 2 × 3 × (3 × 4 − 5) = 2 × 3 × (12 − 5) =2×3×7 = 42 Put the multiplication sign back into the expression. . Work out the brackets first. Complete the multiplication. Substitute the pronumerals with their correct values. Do the multiplication inside the brackets. then multiply by the value outside the bracket. When substituting into an expression with brackets.

Use the rule to find the sum of the interior angles for the following figures: a a hexagon (6 sides) b a pentagon c a triangle d a quadrilateral (4 sides) e a 20-sided figure.4 cm 27. ----. 3  10 zy(17 − xy)  7 – 12 4y ---- x 2x(xyz − 105) 4. w = 21.+ x – 2 .5 cm 4 A rule for finding the sum of the interior angles in a many-sided figure such as a pentagon is S = 180(n − 2) where S represents the sum of the angles inside the figure and n represents the number of sides. a xy(z − 3) d (x + y) (z − y) y g -. if x = 3. a 3(r + s) b 2(s − r) c 7(r + s) d 9(s − r) 4 e s(r + 3) f s(2r − 5) g 3r(r + 1) h rs(3 + s) i 11r(s − 6) j 2r(s − r) k s(4 + 3r) l 7s(r − 2) m s(3rs + 7) n 5r(24 − 2s) o 5sr(sr + 3s) p 8r(12 − s) 2 Evaluate each of the expressions below.Chapter 4 Algebra 127 4C WORKED Working with brackets HEET Example 1 Substitute r = 5 and s = 7 into the following expressions and evaluate.4 cm .( xz + y – 3 ) x 12 b ----.2 SkillS Math cad Substitution (brackets) m 12(y − 1) (z + 3) 3 The formula for the perimeter (P) of a rectangle of length l and width w is P = 2l + 2w. This rule can also be written as P = 2(l + w).( z – y ) x e (z − 3)4x h (8 − y) (z + x) z k ( y + 2 ) -x 27 n ( 3x – 7 )  ----. Use the rule to find the perimeter of rectangular comic covers with the following measurements. w = 11 cm b l = 27.5 cm. y = 5 and z = 9.( 7 – x + 3 ) 5 j 6 -. a l = 20 cm.+ 7 x  c f i l z 2y -. The diagram at right shows the interior angles in a pentagon. 21.

Start Start 8y —— b –a= 80 + x + c = 7(a + 4b) = 12x + y + b = c + 2b + 3a = Stop Start 7x + b = 7bc = 3x + 5 = xy – a = 6y + b = 2(y + b) = Stop Start 11(x + c) ———— b 40b + 2b = 6(x + c) = y–x–a= Stop Start Stop Start = 11(a + b + c) = 4b + 2c = 20c + y – a = 6x – 4b = 4y – x – b = 2x – 3b = Stop Start xy – c = bcb = b+c= 4(c + y) = 4(x + b) = 8b = x(y + a + c) = 7x + c = 20b + c = 8x + 7c = Stop Start 8(c + x) = 9y – 2x + a = 7y + 8b = 12c + 3y = Stop Start y2 = 7x = 5(x + y) = b+c+x= y–a+b= Stop = 13x = bc = 9y – x = 9x + a = 8y – c = cxy + 4c ———— = c 5y + b + c = ———— x bcx + b = 10y – x = 8x + b – a = 4x + 2c = Stop 12x – 3c = 10x + 8c = 3cx + b = Stop ax = Stop Stop . x = 5 and y = 10. c = 3. b = 2.128 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria Join the dots next to the values of the expressions in the orders given below using: a = 1. Start I’m now in Australia! 51 64 52 41 32 28 16 74 5 12 86 47 81 29 90 20 85 57 33 66 70 19 8 48 4 96 27 37 34 39 95 6 84 68 35 60 49 7 42 22 45 13 9 1 75 25 53 62 65 30 100 80 99 2 40 36 91 11 23 69 10 72 24 56 44 15 31 54 88 14 63 50 3 18 77 21 61 55 38 43 46 26 2y – c = 6(x + a) = y+x–b= 3c = Start Stop Start 4cy —— x 17 Start Start a+b= cx = y — x = 12x – c = 2bx = x(2y – c) = 11c = 3cy = cy – a = 10(x + b) – 4 = 6(b + c) = y–c= 12(x + c) = 9c = 20x = 10c = 27 —— = c 30 + 2b = b(y + c) = cy – b = Stop Start black Coloring guide: Orange 2bx – a = c+x= 7y – cx – b = a + 9y = a2 = a+b= 4by = 7(a + b) = 11x = c+8= x(b + c) = y(c + x) = xy —– b 6c + xy = 7(c + x) = 11y – 4c + a = = bcy = 8x = 7c + 2x = 3bc = x–b= xy = 2y + c = x(y – 1) = y – bc = x(y + b) = Stop Start Join these points with thick lines.

For multiplication and division. Substitute the pronumerals with their correct values. +7 × +3 = +21 and −7 × −3 = +21 Different signs negative for example. simply remember the following rules for directed numbers: 1. b 1 2 3 4 c 1 2 Substitute the pronumerals with their correct values. Same signs positive for example. Do the division. Replace the multiplication signs. Do the multiplication.Chapter 4 Algebra 129 Substituting positive and negative numbers If the pronumeral you are substituting has a negative value. signs that occur together can be combined. 3 4 5 . Do the multiplications. Same signs positive for example. 7 + +3 = 7 + 3 and 7 − −3 = 7 + 3 Different signs negative for example.and evaluate. For addition and subtraction. b Substitute m = −2 and n = −1 into the expression 2n − m and evaluate. 12 c Substitute a = 4 and b = −3 into the expression 5ab − ----. Combine the two negative signs and add. Replace the multiplication sign. b THINK a 1 2 WORKED Example 5 WRITE a m−n = 5 − −3 =5+3 =8 b 2n − m =2×n−m = 2 × −1 − −2 = −2 − −2 = −2 + 2 =0 12 c 5ab − ----b 12 = 5 × a × b − ----b 12 = 5 × 4 × −3 − ----–3 12 = −60 − ----–3 = −60 − −4 = −60 + 4 = −56 Replace the pronumerals with their correct value. 7 − +3 = 7 − 3 and 7 + −3 = 7 − 3 2. Combine the two negative signs and add. Combine the two negative signs and add. +7 × −3 = −21 and −7 × +3 = −21 a Substitute m = 5 and n = −3 into the expression m − n and evaluate.

( 6 – x ) y l y 3 ( x – 1 )  -. a m+n b m−n c n−m d n+m 5a e 3n f −2m g 2n − m h n+5 m i 2m + n − 4 j 11n + 20 k −5n − m l --2 mn m -----9 9 m .+ 1. signs that occur together can be combined. For addition and subtraction.+ 2 3  WORKED Example 3 Substitute a = −4 and b = −5 into the following expressions and evaluate. For multiplication and division.+ --n 2 n r 4m ----------n–5 6mn − 1 4m o -----n s 3n – ----.3 WORKED Example 1 Substitute m = 6 and n = −3 into the following expressions and evaluate.5 2 12 p ----2n t mn 14 – -----9 Mat d hca Substitution (positive/ negative) Work ET SHE 4.+ ----2 5 s (9 − a)(b − 3) p 2. simply remember the rules for directed numbers: 1. 7 − +3 = 7 − 3 and 7 + −3 = 7 − 3 2.130 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria remember remember When substituting.5b + 2a . if the pronumeral you are replacing has a negative value.q -. Same signs positive for example. 7 + +3 = 7 + 3 and 7 − −3 = 7 + 3 Different signs negative for example. Same signs positive for example.– 1  2y + 4 ----4   6  k 9 -.5b t 1. +7 × +3 = +21 and −7 × −3 = +21 Different signs negative for example.1 WORKED Example 2 Substitute x = 8 and y = −3 into the following expressions and evaluate. +7 × −3 = −21 and −7 × +3 = −21 4D SkillS HEET Substituting positive and negative numbers 4. a 3(x − 2) b x(7 + y) c 5y(x − 7) 5b d 2(3 − y) e (y + 5)x f xy(7 − x) x g (3 + x) (5 + y) h 5(7 − xy) i -. a a+b b a−b c b − 2a d 2ab 5c e 12 − ab f −2(b − a) g a−b−4 h 3a(b + 4) 4 6b 8 16 i -j – -k – ----l ----b 5 a 4a m 45 + 4ab q 11a + 6b n 8ab − 3b r (a − 5)(8 − b) a 3b o -.( 5 – y ) 2 j x  -.

5 cm. 12 3 True or false? If y = 4 and z = 1 then ----. 3 How would you go about verifying the accuracy of these ‘rules of thumb’? 4 If the accurate expression for converting temperature in degrees Celsius (C) to 9 degrees Fahrenheit (F) is F = -.( rs + 4 – s ) if r = 4 and s = 6. what is the value of q.14 and r = radius of the circle. Find the area of the circle when r = 0. c To convert temperature in degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. x .9 From the list −2. They obtain this rule by observing a pattern. the value is: 4 A 21 B 22 C 22. 3. Explain what each pronumeral represents in your expressions. 4 choose the value of a and b when -.= 0 . 1. b To estimate the number of kilometres you are from a thunderstorm. count the number of seconds between the lightning and the thunder and divide by 3.Chapter 4 Algebra 131 ‘Rules of thumb’ A ‘rule of thumb’ is a rule or pattern which people use to estimate things. s 7 multiple choice n When m = 7 and n = 4 are substituted into the expression 3m + -. 1 Write an algebraic expression for each of the following ‘rules of thumb’. write an expression for the number formed when d is divided by 5. 5 If p = 1. 2 If d represents a certain number. what is the cost of p kg of oranges and q kg of carrots.89 and a kilogram of carrots cost $0.C + 32. 2 4 12 10 Substitute x = −3 and y = −5 into the expression – ----. when pq(5p − 2) = 9? 12 6 Evaluate ----. p  a b . y 4 The area of a circle is p × r 2 where p = 3..+ 3y and evaluate. investigate at which temperatures the 5 ‘rule of thumb’ expression gives the best results.+ 3z = 4 . 1 1 If a kilogram of oranges cost $0.+ -.– 1 ( pq + 3 ) . 2 Write a question that could be solved for each of the algebraic expressions found and clearly show how you would solve it. double it and add 30.25 D 25 E 28 14 8 Substitute p = 7 and q = −2 into  ----.99. a Your adult height will be twice your height when you were 2.

Notice that the expression was simplified (put into a more simple form) even though we did not know the value of the pronumeral (x). Add the 2 terms. the expression 3x + 4x can be written more simply as 7x. Rearrange the terms so that the like terms are together. Like terms are terms that contain the same pronumeral parts. 8a and 3a2 are not like terms. a 3a + 5a b 7ab − 3a − 4ab c 2c − 6 + 4c + 15 THINK a 1 WRITE a 3a + 5a Write down the expression and check that the pronumeral parts of the 2 terms are the same. For example: 3x and 4x are like terms. Simplify by collecting the like terms. 2bc and 4cb are like terms. 2 = 8a b 7ab − 3a − 4ab = 7ab − 4ab − 3a b 1 2 3 = 3ab − 3a c 1 2 c 2c − 6 + 4c + 15 = 2c + 4c − 6 + 15 3 = 6c + 9 . Write down the expression. 3g2 and 45g2 are like terms. we can collect (add or subtract) only like terms. Remember to keep the correct sign in front of each term. For example. When simplifying expressions.132 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria Simplifying expressions Expressions can often be written in a more simple form. 7ab and 8a are not like terms. Rearrange the terms so that the like terms are together. WORKED Example 6 Simplify the following expressions. They are. Write down the expression. 3x and 3y are not like terms. 3ab and 7ab are like terms. Simplify by subtracting the like terms. Remember to keep the correct sign in front of each term.

a 4c + 2c b 2c − 5c 6a d 6q − 5q e −h − 2h g 3a − 7a − 2a h −3f + 7f j −3h + 4h k 11b + 2b + 5b m 9m + 5m − m n x − 2x p 5p + 3p + 2p q 9g + 12g − 4g s 13t − 4t + 5t t −11j + 4j v 13m − 2m − 4m + m w m + 3m − 4m b d f h j l n p r t v WORKED Example 5 Simplify the following expressions. When simplifying expressions. 2. 4E Simplifying expressions Math cad 1 multiple choice Simplifying 3a + 9a gives: A 12 B 12a C 6a 2 multiple choice Simplifying 6x − 2x gives: A 4 B 4x2 C 4x 3 multiple choice Simplifying 6a + 6b gives: A 12ab B 6ab C 36ab WORKED D 12a2 E The expression cannot be simplified. D 12a E The expression cannot be simplified. a 3x + 7x − 2y 6b. we can collect (add or subtract) only like terms. Like terms are terms that contain the same pronumeral parts.Chapter 4 Algebra 133 remember remember 1. Simplifying expressions D 2x E The expression cannot be simplified. c f i l o r u x 3a + 5a − 4a 7x − 5x 4p − 7p 7t − 8t + 4t 7z + 13z 18b − 4b − 11b −12l + 2l − 5l t + 2t − t + 8t Example 4 Simplify the following expressions. c c 11 + 5f − 7f e 2m + 3p + 5m g 11a − 5b + 6a i 12 − 3g + 5 k 5k − 5 + 2k − 7 m 2b − 6 − 4b + 18 o 12y − 3y – 7g + 5g − 6 q 11s − 6t + 4t − 7s s 3h + 4k − 16h − k + 7 u 2g + 5 + 5g − 7 3x + 4x − 12 3u − 4u + 6 −3h + 4r − 2h 9t − 7 + 5 6m + 4m − 3n + n 3n − 4 + n − 5 11 − 12h + 9 8h − 6 + 3h − 2 2m + 13l − 7m + l 13 + 5t − 9t − 8 17f − 3k + 2f − 7k .

For example: 2 × b2 × a × c = 2ab2c WORKED Example 7 Simplify: a 5 × 4g b −3d × 6ab × 7. The order is not important. Remove the multiplication signs. 2. Multiply the numbers. For example. Write down the expression and replace the hidden multiplication signs. Multiply the numbers. Put the numbers at the front of the expression and leave out the × sign.134 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria 6 Simplify the following. For example: 3×6=6×3 6×w=w×6 a×b=b×a Also keep in mind that the ‘×’ sign is usually left out: 3 × g × h = 3gh 2 × x2 × y = 2x2y Although order is not important. a x2 + 2x2 d d 2 + 6d 2 g 2b2 + 5b2 j a2 + 4 + 3a2 + 5 m 3a2 + 2a + 5a2 + 3a p 11g3 + 17 − 3g3 + 5 − g2 s 4fg + 2s − fg + s b e h k n q t 3y2 + 2y2 7g2 − 8g2 4a2 − 3a2 11x2 − 6 + 12x2 + 6 11b − 3b2 + 4b2 + 12b 12ab + 3 + 6ab 11ab + ab − 5 c f i l o r a3 + 3a3 3y3 + 7y3 g2 − 2g2 12s2 − 3 + 7 − s2 6t2 − 6g − 5t2 + 2g − 7 14xy + 3xy − xy − 5xy Multiplying pronumerals When multiplying pronumerals. d × e = e × d. remember that order is not important. THINK a 1 WRITE a 5 × 4g =5×4×g = 20 × g = 20g b −3d × 6ab × 7 = −3 × d × 6 × a × b × 7 = −3 × 6 × 7 × d × a × b = −126 × d × a × b = −126abd 2 3 Write down the expression and replace the hidden multiplication signs. Put the numbers at the front. b 1 2 3 4 remember remember When multiplying pronumerals: 1. the pronumerals in each term are usually written in alphabetical order. . Remove the multiplication sign.

2 How far does the sonar pulse travel in: a 1 second? b 2 seconds? c 1.5y s 2ab × 3c × 5 −6 × −2d −9t × −3g 6 × −3st −4a × −3b × 2c × e 3as × −3b × −2x 4 × −3w × −2 × 6p 17ab × −3gh 5h × 8j × −k 12rt × −3z × 4p −4w × 34x × 3 Sonar measurements At the start of the chapter.5t × 5b s 2ab × 3c v 11ab × 3d × 7 y 11q × 4s × 3 2 Simplify the following.5x × 3y Example 1 Simplify the following.5 4a × 3b × 2c b d f h j l n p r t c f i l o r u x 4d × 6 5t × 7 7gy × 3 10a × 7h 9g × 2x 6a × 12d 2 × 8w × 3x 3. .Chapter 4 Algebra 135 4F WORKED Multiplying pronumerals b e h k n q t w z 7 × 3h 6 × 5r 7 × 6p 4x × 6g 3c × 5h 13m × 12n 4f × 3gh 16xy × 1.5 seconds to return. 5 Use the rule found in part 4 to calculate the ocean depth for the following pulse-return time measurements. a 4 × 3g 7 d 3z × 5 g 4 × 3u j 2 × 11ht m 9m × 4d p 2. 1 Draw a diagram to show this situation. Write a rule to represent this situation.5 s to travel from the ship to the ocean floor and back again. calculate the distance to the cliff face.8 seconds b 4. (The speed of sound in water is assumed to be 1470 m/s. we introduced the situation where a sonar pulse took 1.5g × 2h × 7 q 75x × 1. a 1. Explain what each pronumeral represents. If the pulse takes 3 seconds to travel to the cliff face and return.5 seconds? 3 Calculate the ocean depth when the pulse took 1. a 3 × −5f c 11a × −3g e −5t × −4dh g −3 × −2w × 7d i 11ab × −3f k −5h × −5t × −3q m −7a × 3b × g o −3. 4 Write a rule to find the ocean depth for any time measurement.64 seconds 6 The speed of sound in water is about 5 times the speed of sound in air.) Let us look at this problem again. A person standing on the deck of the ship sends a sonar pulse through the air to a nearby cliff face.22 seconds c 0.

What practical problems did most of the solutions deal with? Research How was Egyptian multiplication done with only addition and subtraction? . They didn’t like fractions which had numerators other than one (except the fraction two-thirds for reasons still unknown). The Bronze Age began. . A. . The Sumerians built the first cities. A scribe named Ahmes is believed to have copied it in around 1650 BC from a document originally written about 200 years before that. since the numerator would always be one: for example 1 -2 × 1 -3 -= 1. This papyrus shows a method for multiplying numbers using only addition and subtraction. were easy to multiply. The ancient Egyptians differed from the ancient Greeks in that Egyptians thought about mathematics in a practical rather than an abstract way. Also known as the aha papyrus: aha meaning unknown quantity to be determined. Solutions to many Egyptian problems concerned with beer and bread were recorded on papyri.136 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria History of mathematics T H E R H I N D PA P Y R U S ( c . an early pronumeral. The most famous of these is the Rhind papyrus. Which numerator did the Egyptians use in their calculations with fractions? 2. it is now in the British Museum in London. Papyrus reeds were used to make boats. Which fraction was an exception to this rule? 3. invented writing and made wheels from date palm trunks. which contains 84 problems and their solutions including the calculation of the ancient Egyptian value for pi (π) of 3. who bought the 6 m scroll in 1858. 1 8 5 0 BC) During this time . baskets and paper.1605. A part of the papyrus is shown in the photograph above. The Rhind papyrus was named after the Scottish Egyptologist. Henry Rhind. 6 The Egyptians developed ingenious methods to avoid using any fraction other than those with a numerator of one. unit fractions. They found that fractions with numerators of one. Questions 1.

2 Simplify the fraction by cancelling 12 with 27 (divide both by 3) and y with y. . No need to write the denominator since we are dividing by 1. No need to write the denominator since we are dividing by 1. Remember that when the same pronumeral appears on both the top and bottom lines of the fraction. Follow the worked examples given below. 3 Simplify −12xy ÷ 27y. rewrite the expression as a fraction and simplify by cancelling. 4 b Simplify 15n ÷ 3n. Write down the expression and then rewrite it as a fraction. THINK 1 WORKED Example 9 WRITE −12xy ÷ 27y 12xy = – ----------27y 4x = – ----9 Write down the expression and then rewrite it as a fraction. WORKED Example 8 16 f a Simplify --------. THINK a 1 WRITE 16 f a -------4 4f = ----1 = 4f Write down the expression.Chapter 4 Algebra 137 Dividing pronumerals When dividing pronumerals.. Simplify the fraction by cancelling 16 with 4 (divide both by 4). 2 3 b 1 b 15n ÷ 3n 15n = -------3n 5 = -1 =5 2 Simplify the fraction by cancelling 15 with 3 and n with n. it may be cancelled.

4G SkillS HEET Dividing pronumerals 6h b ----3 e 10r ÷ 5 16m h --------8m 12h k -------14h n 35x ÷ 70x q 27h ÷ 3h 15x -------3 4x ÷ 2x 14q ÷ 21q 50g ÷ 75g 4.2 3 Simplify the following. it may be cancelled. When dividing pronumerals.4 WORKED Example 1 Simplify the following. 15 fg a ----------b 3 11xy e ----------f 11x 5 jk i -------j kj m 13xy ÷ x 132mnp q ------------------60np n r c f i l o 24m ÷ 36m r 20d -------48d 12cd ÷ 4 9 pq --------18q 55rt ÷ 77t 16cd ----------40cd 11ad -----------66ad 8xy -------12 21ab g ----------28b 10mxy k --------------35mx c o 14abc ÷ 7bc s 18adg ÷ 45ag d 24cg ÷ 24 h l 9dg -------12g 36bc ÷ 27c p 3gh ÷ 6h t bh ----7h WORKED Example Work ET SHE 4. When the same pronumeral appears on both the top and bottom lines of the fraction. 2. 8f 8 a ----2 d 9g ÷ 3 g 8r ÷ 4r j 3x ----6x 8f m -------24 f p y ÷ 34y 2 Simplify the following.138 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria remember remember 1. – 4a – 11ab 9 a -------b --------------8 33b – 32g e ----------f −12xy ÷ 48y 40gl – rt i −4xyz ÷ 6yz j ------6rt – ab m 34ab ÷ −17ab n -------– 3a c 60jk ÷ −5k d −3h ÷ −6dh h l 6 fgh ------------30ghj −14st ÷ −28 12ab g --------------– 14ab k −5mn ÷ 20n – 7dg o -----------35gh p −60mn ÷ 55mnp . rewrite the expression as a fraction and simplify it by cancelling.

7 True or false? −6p × −4q × r × 2t = 48pqrt 30ab 8 Simplify -------------. – 36 pq Expanding brackets We have seen that the expression 3(a + 5) means 3 × (a + 5) or (a + 5) + (a + 5) + (a + 5). how old was Betty 6 years ago? 2 Find the area of a rectangle with length of 225 cm and width of 1..3 m. −4. 3 × (2 + 1) 3×2+3×1 =3×3 =6+3 =9 =9 2.if p = 4. Simplifying this expression further gives us the expression 3a + 15: (a + 5) + (a + 5) + (a + 5) = a + a + a + 5 + 5 + 5 = 3a + 15 Look at the pattern below: With brackets Expanded form 1.Chapter 4 Algebra 139 2 1 If Betty is now x years old. 4 × (3 + 2) 4×3+4×2 =4×5 = 12 + 8 = 20 = 20 Removing brackets from an expression is called expanding the expression. q 4 multiple choice m 6n If m = −6 and n = −3 are substituted into the expression --. 6 Simplify 10z2 − 5y − 3z2 + 4y + 4. q = 2 and r = 7.. The rule that we have used to expand the expressions above is called the Distributive Law.+ ----. it would have 2 9 a value of: A −2 B −3 C −4 D −5 E −6 5 Simplify 11x − 8y − 9x + 4y − 3. r –9 p 10 Simplify --------------. −48pq to replace ∇ in 4q ----.. p 3 Evaluate ( r + 10 ) -.. 18abc 9 Find the ∇ --------------.= – 12 pr missing term from the list −2. 12pq. .

Simplify by multiplying. 4. a 3(3x − 2) b 3x(x − 6y) c 5y(3x − 9y) d 50(2y − 5) e −3(c + 3) f −5(3x + 4) g −5x(x + 6) h −2y(6 + y) i −6(t − 3) j −4f(5 − 2f) k 9x(3y − 2) l −3h(2b − 6h) m 4a(5b + 3c) n −3a(2g − 7a) o 5a(3b + 6c) p −2w(9w − 5z) q 12m(4m + 10) r −3k(−2k + 5) et . put the × sign before the bracket. Brackets are grouping symbols Removing brackets from an expression is called expanding the expression.5(t + 6) m 11(t − 2) n 3(2t − 6) o t(t + 3) p x(x + 4) q g(g + 7) r 2g(g + 5) s 3f(g + 3) t 6m(n − 2m) 2 Expand the following. a 3(a + 2) b x(x − 5) THINK a 1 WRITE a 3(a + 2) = 3 × (a + 2) =3×a+3×2 = 3a + 6 b x(x − 5) = x × (x − 5) = x × x + x × −5 = x2 − 5x Write down the expression and replace the hidden multiplication sign. a 3(d + 4) b 2(a + 5) c 4(x + 2) 10 d 5(r + 7) e 6(g + 6) f 2(t + 3) g 7(d + 8) h 9(2x + 6) i 12(4 + c) j 7(6 + 3x) k 45(2g + 3) l 1. 2 3 b Repeat the steps in part a. remember remember 1. 2.140 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria WORKED Example 10 Use the Distributive Law to expand the following expressions. 3. 4H WORKED Expanding brackets Example Mat d hca Expanding brackets EXCEL Spreadshe Expanding brackets GC p am rogr Expanding brackets 1 Use the Distributive Law to expand the following expressions. The rule that is used to expand brackets is called the Distributive Law. Use the Distributive Law to expand the brackets. When expanding brackets.

Later he held positions as a professor at the ANU and two institutes in France. After further studies in Paris. a world-renowned Australian mathematician. He still works at Cambridge in arithmetical algebraic geometry and his research interests include elliptic curves. Inventiones Mathematicae. his work includes the algebraic approximation of functions. . He taught mathematics at Harvard and Stanford. he is also praised for being a great teacher who has inspired many students to pursue careers in mathematical research. was born in 1945. During his international career he has also received numerous awards. Fermat’s Last Theorem and explicit reciprocity laws! As well as this. Ecological awareness grows. What three career areas does John Coates work in? 4. both very prestigious universities in the United States. What country did John Coates grow up in? 2. he completed a PhD at the University of Cambridge in England. Reciprocity is about expressions involve reciprocals. where he later lectured. He is also known for his valuable contributions as an editor of one of the best known journals in research mathematics. The Cold War ends. the Iwasawa theory. What mathematical prize did John Coates win? Research What was Fermat’s Last Theorem? . including election as a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1985 and the Senior Whitehead Prize from the London Mathematical Society in 1997. Space travel — men walk on the moon. . John Coates.Chapter 4 Algebra 141 History of mathematics J O H N C OAT E S ( 1 9 4 5 – ) During his time . Miniaturisation of computers. What are reciprocals? 3. Questions 1. Coates is not just a brilliant mathematician and outstanding researcher. In 1986 he returned to Cambridge as Sadleirian Professor and was appointed Head of Department. He attended Taree High School and studied for his Bachelor of Science at the Australian National University (ANU).

Expand the brackets. collect any like terms. WORKED Example 11 Expand the expressions below and then simplify by collecting any like terms. Expand the brackets. Expand the brackets. Write the expression. 3 b 1 2 3 4 c 1 2 3 4 d 1 2 3 remember remember After expanding brackets. (Optional) Simplify by collecting the like terms. Collect the like terms (−15 and 4). (Optional) Collect the like terms. Expand the brackets. a 3(x − 5) + 4 b 4(3x + 4) + 7x + 12 c 2x(3y + 3) + 3x(y + 1) THINK a 1 2 d 4x(2x − 1) − 3(2x − 1) WRITE a 3(x − 5) + 4 = 3 × (x − 5) + 4 = 3x − 15 + 4 = 3x − 11 b 4(3x + 4) + 7x + 12 = 12x + 16 + 7x + 12 = 12x + 7x + 16 + 12 = 19x + 28 c 2x(3y + 3) + 3x(y + 1) = 2x × 3y + 2x × 3 + 3x × y + 3x × 1 = 6xy + 6x + 3xy + 3x = 6xy + 3xy + 6x + 3x = 9xy + 9x d 4x(2x − 1) − 3(2x − 1) = 4x × 2x + 4x × −1 − 3 × 2x − 3 × −1 = 8x2 − 4x − 6x + 3 = 8x2 − 10x + 3 Write the expression. . Write the expression. Take care with negative terms. Simplify by collecting the like terms. Rearrange so that the like terms are together. Rearrange so that the like terms are together.142 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria Expanding and collecting like terms Some expressions can be simplified further by collecting like terms after any brackets have been expanded. Write the expression.

The highest common factor of 12 and 18 is 6.Chapter 4 Algebra 143 4I WORKED Expanding and collecting like terms GC pro gram Example 1 Expand the expressions below and then simplify by collecting any like terms. It is the largest factor common to a given set of numbers or terms. a 3h(2k + 7) + 4k(h + 5) b 6n(3y + 7) − 3n(8y + 9) c 4g(5m + 6) − 6(2gm + 3) d 11b(3a + 5) + 3b(4 − 5a) ET SHE 4. because 6 = 3 × 2 2. .3 e 5a(2a − 7) − 5(a2 + 7) f 7c(2f − 3) + 3c(8 − f) g 7x(4 − y) + 2xy − 29 h 11v(2w + 5) − 3(8 − 5vw) i 3x(3 − 2y) + 6x(2y − 9) j 8m(7n − 2) + 3n(4 + 7m) Work Factorising Factorising is the opposite process to expanding. 5 and 10 are factors of 20. The numbers 14 and 21 have the common factor 7. Factorising a number or expression involves breaking it down into smaller factors. Highest common factor The highest common factor (HCF) of 4 and 8 is 4 (not 2). 2 and 4. 4. because: 20 = 4 × 5 and 20 = 2 × 10. The highest common factor of 8 and 20 is 4. The numbers 4 and 8 have two common factors. for example. Common factors Two numbers may have common factors. 5 is a factor of both 15 and 20. a 3(x + 2) + 2(x + 1) b 5(x + 3) + 4(x + 2) c 2(y + 1) + 4(y + 6) d 4(d + 7) − 3(d + 2) e 6(2h + 1) + 2(h − 3) f 3(3m + 2) + 2(6m − 5) g 9(4f + 3) − 4(2f + 7) h 2a(a + 2) − 5(a2 + 7) 2 i 3(2 − t ) + 2t(t + 1) j m(n + 4) − mn + 3m Expanding GAME time Algebra 3 Simplify the following expressions by removing the brackets and then collecting like — 002 terms. a 7(5x + 4) + 21 b 3(c − 2) + 2 11 c 2c(5 − c) + 12c d 6(v + 4) + 6 e 3d(d − 4) + 2d2 f 3y + 4(2y + 3) g 24r + r(2 + r) h 5 − 3g + 6(2g − 7) i 4(2f − 3g) + 3f − 7 j 3(3x − 4) + 12 k −2(k + 5) − 3k l 3x(3 + 4r) + 9x − 6xr m 12 + 5(r − 5) + 3r n 12gh + 3g(2h − 9) + 3g o 3(2t + 8) + 5t − 23 p 24 + 3r(2 − 3r) − 2r2 + 5r 2 Expand the following and then simplify by collecting like terms. The numbers 9 and 12 have the common factor 3. 3 and 2 are factors of 6.

THINK 1 WRITE 2 Find the highest common factor of the number parts. Find the highest common factor of the pronumeral parts. Both contain a factor of g. . Find the highest common factor of the number parts. For example. Break 21 down into factors. Break gh down into factors. Break 6 down into factors. WORKED Example 12 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 6x and 10. The expression. Break 14 down into factors. 6m. because only the first term has a pronumeral part! 6=3×2 10 = 5 × 2 HCF = 2 The HCF of 6x and 10 is 2. of algebraic terms follow these steps. WORKED Example 13 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 14fg and 21gh. Find the highest common factor of the pronumeral parts. Multiply these together. The highest common factor is 7. 14 = 7 × 2 21 = 7 × 3 HCF = 7 fg = f × g gh = g × h HCF = g The HCF of 14fg and 21gh is 7g. Break fg down into factors. 3. 2.144 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria Algebraic terms can also be broken down into factors. Break 10 down into factors. There isn’t one. HCF. THINK 1 WRITE 2 3 Find the highest common factor of the number parts. 1. The highest common factor is 2. the factors of 3x are 3 and x. can be broken down into factors as shown below: 6m = 6 × m =3×2×m Here are some other examples: 8x = 8 × x =4×2×x =2×2×2×x 3ab = 3 × a × b 6a2b = 6 × a × a × b =3×2×a×a×b To find the highest common factor. Multiply these together. Find the highest common factor of the pronumeral parts.

Write the highest common factor outside the brackets. To find the highest common factor. Factorise the expression 2x + 6. Remove the multiplication sign. Write the common factor outside the brackets and the other factors inside the brackets. Write the other factors inside the brackets. (b) Find the highest common factor of the pronumeral parts.Chapter 4 Algebra 145 To factorise an expression we place the highest common factor of the terms outside the brackets. 2 3 = 4g(3h − 2) remember remember 1. To factorise an expression we place the highest common factor of the terms outside the brackets. 3. THINK 1 WORKED Example 14 WRITE 2x + 6 =2×x+2×3 = 2 × (x + 3) Break down each term into factors. Factorising a number or expression involves breaking it down into smaller factors. and the remaining factors for each term inside the brackets. Remove the multiplication signs. (a) Find the highest common factor of the number parts. and the remaining factors for each term inside the brackets. follow these steps. of algebraic terms. THINK 1 WORKED Example 15 WRITE 12gh − 8g =4×3×g×h−4×2×g = 4 × g × (3 × h − 2) Break down each term into its factors. Factorising is the opposite process to expanding. HCF. . 2. 4. 2 3 = 2(x + 3) Factorise 12gh − 8g. (c) Multiply these together.

146 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria 4J Mat Factorising d hca Factorising 1 multiple choice a The highest common factor (HCF) of 12 and 16 is: A 12 B 4 C 8 D 2 b The highest common factor (HCF) of 10 and 18 is: A 4 B 10 C 2 D 9 E 3 E 180 E 8 E 8 E 2f d 13 and 26 h 12a and 16 EXCEL Spreadshe c The highest common factor (HCF) of 4 and 16 is: A 4 B 16 C 2 D 20 Finding the HCF et WORKED d The highest common factor (HCF) of 2x and 8xy is: A 2 B x C 2x D 16x2y e The highest common factor (HCF) of 4f and 12fg is: A 2 B fg C 48f 2g D 4f Example 2 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of the following. a 3gh + 12 15 c 12pq + 4p e 16jk − 2k g 12k + 16 i 14ab + 7b k 8r + 14rt m 4b − 6ab o ab − 2bc q 11jk + 3k s 12ac − 4c + 3dc u 28s + 14st WORKED Example 2xy + 6y 14g − 7gh 12eg + 2g 7mn + 6m 5a − 15abc 24mab + 12ab 12fg − 16gh 14x − 21xy 3p + 27pq 4g + 8gh − 16 15uv + 27vw . a 4 and 6 b 6 and 9 c 12 and 18 12 e 14 and 21 f 2x and 4 g 3x and 9 c f i l c f i l o r b d f h j l n p r t v 3 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of the following. WORKED a 2gh and 6g b 3mn and 6mp Example d 4ma and 6m e 12ab and 14ac 13 g 20dg and 18ghq h 11gl and 33lp j 28bc and 12c k 4c and 12cd WORKED 11a and 22b 24fg and 36gh 16mnp and 20mn x and 3xz 5g + 10 12c + 20 12g − 18 8x − 20 16a + 64 12 − 12d Example 4 Factorise the following expressions. a 3x + 6 b 2y + 4 14 d 8x + 12 e 6f + 9 g 2d + 8 h 2x − 4 j 11h + 121 k 4s − 16 m 12g − 24 n 14 − 4b p 48 − 12q q 16 + 8f 5 Factorise the following.

gives code.Chapter 4 Algebra 147 Doctor I’ve swallowed the film out of I’ swallow my camera! 8y(x – 9) –(2x – 1) 6(3 – 7x) –y(x – 1) x(y – 2) –5(4x + 5) 2(4 – x) –7(7 + 4x) 4(3x + 5) –2(x + 1) 2y(3x – 5) 2y(x – 4) –(x – 2) 3(x – 4) –3(4x + 7) 2(3x – 7) 5(3x + 2) y(3x – 2) 3(2x – 1) –8(x + 3) 7(8x – 5) 3x(2y + 1) y(2x – 3) The factorised form of the expressions and factorised expressions the letter beside each gives the puzzle code. D = 6x – 3 = E = 8 – 2x = G = 15x + 10 = H = –2x + 1 = I = 12x + 20 = L = 2xy – 3y = E = 6xy + 3x = H = –20x – 25 = L = 8xy – 72y = N = –x + 2 = E = 6x – 14 = O = –xy + y = N = 18 – 42x = O = –2x – 2 = P = 2xy – 8y = S = –12x – 21 = T = xy – 2x = V = 56x – 35 = P = 3x – 12 = E = –8x – 24 = S = 3xy – 2y = T = 6xy – 10y = O = –49 – 28x = .

the Normally we rewrite the expression as a cancelling. sign (÷) is rarely used. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or expression from the word list that follows. Brackets are or 3 × x + 3 × 4. The term ‘3y’ means . Factorising an expression means breaking it down into smaller . . 1 2 3 A is a letter that is used in place of a number. The brackets. or putting brackets back into the expression. Expanding an expression involves 3(x + 2) = 3x + 6. For example. terms may be collected only if they are . 4 5 6 7 8 9 When multiplying pronumerals. and simplify it by Replacing a pronumeral with a number is called When dividing pronumerals.148 Maths Quest 8 for Victoria summary Copy the sentences below. leave out the ‘×’ sign. 3(x + 4) means 3 × (x + 4) When simplifying an expression. For example Law gives the rule for expanding expressions. symbols. WORD substitution Distributive 3×y LIST factors pronumeral removing grouping division like terms fraction .

Chapter 4 Algebra 149 CHAPTER review 1 Using x and y to represent numbers. write an expression for the cost of: a x adult tickets b y child tickets c k adult tickets and m child tickets. 4A 3 Find the value of the following expressions. Find the cost of travelling 4.2k + 4 can be used to calculate the cost in dollars. of travelling by taxi for a distance of k kilometres. a 2a b 6a a c 5b d -2 e a+8 f b−2 g a+b h b−a b i 5 + -j 3a + 7 2 k 2a + 3b l 20 ----a 4B 4 The formula C = 2. if a = 2 and b = 6. C. 4B . 4A 2 If tickets to the school play cost $15 for adults and $9 for children. write expressions for: a the sum of x and y b the difference between y and x c five times y subtracted from three times x d the product of 5 and x e twice the product of x and y f the sum of 6x and 7y g y multiplied by itself.5 km by taxi.

a a+b b b+a ab c ab d ----5 e 2ab f 5−a g 12 − ab h a2 − 2 i 3(a + 2) j b(a − 4) k 12 − a(b − 3) l 5a + 6b 7 Simplify the following by collecting like terms. a 4d + 3d c 3d + 5a − 4a e 4x + 11 − 2x g 2xy + 7xy 8 Simplify the following. a 3g + 12 c 5n − 20 e 12g − 6gh b xy + 5y d 12mn + 4pn f 12xy − 36yz 4 . a 2(r + s) b 2(s − r) c 5(r + s) d 8(s − r) e s(r + 4) f s(2r − 3) g 2r(r + 1) h rs(7 + s) 6 Find the value of the following expressions. 2a a ----8 c 6rt ÷ −2t 32t e -----------40stv 12ab g --------------– 14ab b d f h 3c − 5c 6g − 4g 2g + 5 − g − 6 12t 2 + 3t + 3t 2 − t 4D 4E 4F 4G b 6 × 3y d −3z × 8 11b b -------44b d −3gh ÷ −6g f h −36xy ÷ −12y 5egh ------------30ghj 4H 4I 4J test yourself CHAPTER 10 Use the Distributive Law to expand the following expressions. if a = 2 and b = −5.150 4C Maths Quest 8 for Victoria 5 Substitute r = 3 and s = 5 into the following expressions and evaluate. a 3 × 7g c 7d × 6 9 Simplify the following. a 2(x + 3) b 5(2x − 1) c −2(f + 7) d 3m(b − m) e −3y(7 − y) f 9b(c − 2) 11 Expand the following and then simplify by collecting like terms. a 3(4v + 5) − 15 b 6t + 5(2t − 7) c 23 + 5(3p − 4) + 2p d 2(x + 5) + 5(x + 1) e 2g(g − 6) + 3g(g − 7) f 3(3t − 4) − 6(2t − 9) 12 Factorise the following expressions.