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Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Name: Index NO:

H.K.C.O.Dayarathne 090081D

Department: EE Date: 30/09/2011

e. Dehumidification of air: Low humidity is essential for the production of pure oxygen. Separation of gases: Eg: Separation of air into its constituents by fractional distillation. fluid mechanics. refrigeration maintains 5 to 100C . Air is liquefied at -1910C.In the manufacture of alcohol in a brewery. In the manufacture of Cellulose acetate. Solidification of a solute: De-waxing of oil in the petroleum industry is at about -250C.7 bars (gauge). Process cooling: Variety of processes fall under this category i. Low humidity is essential in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.Refrigeration has a diverse nature and covers a large number of processers ranging from cooling to air conditioning and from food refrigeration to human comfort. Refrigeration as a whole therefore appears complicated due to the fact that thermodynamics. . Removal of Heat of Reaction: Many chemical reactions are exothermic (as mentioned below) but these must take place at temperatures below atmospheric temperature. In the manufacture of synthetic rubber Recovery of solvents: Numerous solvents can be recovered for reuse by refrigeration. and heat transfer are always encountered in every refrigeration process or application. to cool wax to -250C to harden it on paper. in t5he manufacture of penicillin Cooling for preservation: Following will live longer if stored between 5 to 150C Eg: natural rubber. Low Pressure Storage in Liquid Form Storing of gases in liquid form permits many times storage than in the gaseous state i. a soap. CS2 in rubber manufacture Control of Fermentation: Heat is generated during fermentation and must be removed otherwise temperature will rise beyond control i. drugs. explosives Preservation of Dairy Products: Refrigeration can maintain quality and taste. Condensation of gases: Synthetic ammonia plants condense ammonia gas with temperatures between -200C to +100C before storage or before shipment. detergents and cosmetics.e. In the manufacture of viscous rayon. Natural gas is cooled to -1600C at 0. acetone in film manufacture. Liquefaction temperature of Nitrogen is -1860C And that of oxygen is -1960C. Some of the applications are discussed as below. Therefore refrigeration is required to remove the heat of reaction. Ccl4 in textile manufacture.e.

It all started in Ancient Rome where families of wealth have afforded the application of aqueduct water that circulated through the walls of their houses for cooling. libraries. Applications of Air-Conditioning Air conditioning commonly refers to the process of cooling or dehumidifying the air for comfort. A space-qualified thermo acoustic refrigerator was flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-42) in January. night . This 'natural' phasing allows the entire refrigerator to operate with only one moving part (the loudspeaker diaphragm). Blood plasma and antibiotics are manufactured using a method called freeze drying. restaurants. Deliveries taking place in airconditioned rooms. Hoop shrinking at low temperatures Medical applications: Eg: Localized refrigeration as surgical anesthesia to provide shock less surgery. cooling of a magnetic mater helium and n several the welled by Adiabatic demagnetization. hotels. Construction work: Eg: Cooling of concrete by refrigeration prevents cracking especially in the constriction of dams. Comfort air conditioning: Domestic. During the past few years magnetic systems have been proposed for several applications ranging between productions of super fluid comfort air conditioning. offices.. 1992. Such is the early purpose served by air conditioners.. The refrigerator is based on known magneto caloric effect i. hospitals. Dead bodies are preserved at -700C for few days. Bone marrow preservation Thermo acoustic refrigerator for space applications A new spacecraft cry cooler which uses resonant high-amplitude sound waves in inert gases to pump heat is described. Miscellaneous applications: Eg: Birth of a child taking place in Air Conditioned rooms.Cold treatment of metals: Eg: The cutting tool can be increased many folds by refrigerating the tool for 15 minutes at -1000C. The phasing of the thermo acoustic cycle is provided by thermal conduction. The medieval Persians also employed the same concept of air conditioning in providing cooling comfort in buildings with the use of cisterns and wind towers. required no lubrication. to provide coziness especially during hot or warm seasons. had no sliding seals. Magnetic strength and stability of magnets can be improved by low temperature treatment at -800C for 8 hours. and contained no expensive components. It was entirely autonomous. computer centers. According to the application. The design and performance of the Space Thermo/Acoustic Refrigerator (STAR) is described. Dead bodies are stored for few days when their family members cannot be present in time. Magnetic refrigeration Magnetic refrigeration has been the key tool in achieving temperatures below1 Kelvin. shops cinema halls . Refrigeration cools soil to facilitate excavation. Thermo acoustics is shown to be a competitive candidate for food refrigerator/freezers and commercial/residential air conditioners. Air-Conditioning can mainly be divided into 2 categories. It uses paramagnetic substances for applications below 20 K and ferromagnetic materials near their respective Curie temperatures at higher temperatures.e. Blood preservation. used mostly low-tolerance machined parts. and are under active development laboratories around the world.

radio and TV stations. telephone exchanges. (h)Farm animals: air conditioning of farm houses improves the quality and quantity of milk . transportation. malls.clubs.e. (d)Textile manufacturing greatly depends on moisture control (e)Dry air is required in steel manufacture as it improves the quality of steel and reduces the coal requirements per ton of steel produced (f)Pharmaceutical industry needs refrigeration to reduce air borne bacteria and dirt to preserve products i. museums. ships Industrial air conditioning: (a)Laboratories: to make precise measurements (b)To study the effect of temperature and moisture on living beings (c)Control of humidity in multi-color printing i. auditoriums. Gelatin capsules requires very dry air. and pills and tablets require air-conditioning to maintain their quality. (g)Photographic products deteriorate rapidly at high temperatures and high humidity. Therefore their control is essential. beauty salons. if the humidity is not constant paper shrinks and causes poor registration of colors.e.

despite its maturity and ubiquity.Latest technology used in Refrigeration PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) has developed a proprietary thermoacoustic refrigeration technology that can achieve double the efficiency of the best current residential and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration systems. consuming over 7 quadrillion BTUs of energy and generating nearly 600 million metric tons of CO2 emissions annually. Wide adoption of PARC’s technology could lead to dramatic energy savings and greatly reduced CO2 emissions. can reach efficiencies of only 12% of the theoretical maximum. Achieving significant energy savings and CO emission reductions requires a fundamentally different approach to cooling. . the vapor-compression cycle. The predominant technology for air conditioning. Cooling applications represent 25% of all electricity use in the United States. PARC has developed a technique to enable thermoacoustic cooling technology for air conditioning applications.

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